Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 10

UNIT 9 IMPORT EXPORT

INTERNATIONAL TRADE IS THE EXCHANGE OF GOODS AND SERVICES BETWEEN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES. TO EXPORT MEANS TO SEND GOODS TO ANOTHER COUNTRY AND TO IMPORT MEANS TO BRING IN GOODS FROM ANOTHER COUNTRY. GOVERNMENTS CONTROL INTERNATIONAL TRADE BY TARRIFS (DUTIES) AND QUOTAS. A TARRIF IS A TAX ON IMPORTED GOODS, AND A QUOTA IS THE MAXIMUM QUANTITY OF A PRODUCT ALLOWED INTO A COUNTRY. TARIFFS AND QUOTAS RAISE THE PRICE OF IMPORTED GOODS TO PROTECT DOMESTIC GOODS. WTO (WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION) AND EFTA ( EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION) REGULATE TARRIFS.

THE HISTORY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (EU) IN 1957 THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (EEC) WAS FOUNDED TO CREATE A COMMON EUROPEAN MARKET. FIRST SIX MEMBERS WERE: BELGIOUM, FRANCE, ITALY, LUXEMBOURG, THE NETHERLANDS, WEST GERMANY. IN 1973 DENMARK, IRELAND AND THE UK JOINED IN 1981 GREECE, PORTUGAL AND SPAIN JOINED IN 1993 EEC BECAME THE EUROPEAN UNION (EU) IN 1995 15 COUNTRIES WERE MEMBERS IN 1999 THE EURO WAS INTRODUCED

COMPANIES CAN WORK WITH EXPERTS WHO SELL THEIR PRODUCTS IN THE FOREIGN MARKETS. A COMPANY CAN OPEN A LOCAL BRANCH OR SALES OFFICE IN ANOTHER COUNTRY. IT CAN SELL PATENTS AND LICENCES FOR ITS PRODUCTS. IT CAN OPEN A LOCAL SUBSIDIARY IN THE EXPORT MARKET AND MANUFACTURE ITS GOODS THERE.

BARCO OF BELGIUM JOOST VERBRUGGE IS THE HEAD OF BARCO'S ACTIVITIES IN ASIA. HE THINKS THAT INDIA IS THE MOST EXCITING MARKET IN THE WORLD. BARCO PRODUCES DIGITAL PROJECTORS FOR COMPANIES. IT SELLS A LOT TO INDIA SO IT OPENED ITS OWN SALES AND SERVICES OFFICE IN NEW DELHI. IT EMPLOYS 150 PEOPLE THERE AND HAS A PLANT THERE. THE NEGATIVE SIDE OF INDIAN MARKET ARE HIGH IMPORT DUTIES AND SLOW BUREAUCRACY. IT IS A SOCIETY WITH BIG DIFFERENCES BETWEEN STATES AND RELIGIONS.

LEKCIJA 9 UVOZ IZVOZ

MEUNARODNA TRGOVINA JE RAZMJENA DOBARA I USLUGA IZMEU RAZLIITIH ZEMALJA. IZVOZITI ZNAI SLATI DOBRA U DRUGU ZEMLJU, A UVOZITI ZNAI DOBIVATI DOBRA IZ DRUGE ZEMLJE. VLADE KONTROLIRAJU MEUNARODNU TRGOVINU PUTEM CARINA I KVOTA. CARINA JE POREZ NA UVEZENA DOBRA, A KVOTA JE MAKSIMALNA KOLIINA PROIZVODA DOPUTENIH U ZEMLJU. CARINE I KVOTE PODIU CIJENU UVEZENIH DOBARA DA BI SE ZATITILI DOMADI PROIZVODI. WTO (SVJETSKA TRGOVINSKA ORGANIZACIJA) I EFTA (EUROPSKI SAVEZ ZA SLOBODNU TRGOVINU) REGULIRAJU CARINE.

POVIJEST EUROPSKE UNIJE (EU) 1857. EUROPSKA EKONOMSKA ZAJEDNICA (EEC) JE OSNOVANA DA BI SE STVORILO ZAJEDNIKO TRITE. PRVIH 6 ZEMALJA BILI SU: BELGIJA, FRANCUSKA, ITALIJA, LUKSEMBURG, NIZOZEMSKA, ZAPADNA NJEMAKA. 1973. DANSKA, IRSKA I UJEDINJENO KRALJEVSTVO SU SE PRIDRUILI 1981. GRKA, PORTUGAL I PANJOLSKA SU SE PRIDRUILI 1993. EEC JE POSTALA EUROPSKA UNIJA (EU) 1995. 15 ZEMALJA SU LANICE 1999. EURO JE UVEDEN

TVRTKE MOGU SURAIVATI SA STRUNJACIMA KOJI PRODAJU NJIHOVE PROIZVODE NA STRANIM TRITIMA. TVRTKA MOE OTVORITI LOKALNI OGRANAK ILI PRODAJNI URED. ONA MOE PRODAVATI PATENTE I DOZVOLE ZA SVOJE PROIZVODE. ONA MOE OTVORITI LOKALNI OGRANAK NA IZVOZNOM TRITU I PROIZVODITI SVOJE PROIZVODE TAMO.

BARCO IZ BELGIJE JOOST VERBRUGGE JE DIREKTOR BARCOVIH AKTIVNOSTI U AZIJI. ON SMATRA DA JE INDIJA NAJUZBUDLJIVIJE TRITE NA SVIJETU. BARCO PROIZVODI DIGITALNE PROJEKTORE ZA TVRTKE. PRODAJE PUNO INDIJI PA JE OTVORIO SVOJ VLASTITI URED ZA PRODAJU I USLUGE U NEW DELHIJU. ZAPOLJAVA 150 LJUDI I TAMO IMA SVOJU TVORNICU. NEGATIVNE STRANE INDIJSKOG TRITA SU VISOKE CARINE ZA UVOZ I SPORA BIROKRACIJA. TO JE DRUTVO SA VELIKIM RAZLIKAMA IZMEU DRAVA I VJERA.

UNIT 10 COMPANY PERFORMANCE

COMPANIES NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THEIR PERFORMANCE. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTS TELL THEM ABOUT THEIR OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY, AND FINANCIAL ACCOUNTS GIVE INFORMATION ABOUT FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE. THEY TELL THE COMPANY HOW MUCH IT IS SELLING (REVENUE) AND WHAT ITS COSTS ARE. A COMPANY THEN KNOWS HOW MUCH MANY IT HAS MADE PROFITS, AND HOW MUCH MONEY IT HAS LOST LOSSES. COMPANIES LISTED ON THE STOCK MARKET PRESENT THEIR ACCOUNTS IN AN ANNUAL REPORT. ALL ANNUAL REPORTS HAVE NECCESSARY ELEMENTS, REQUIRED BY THE STOCK EXCHANGE. THESE ELEMENTS ARE: 1. AUDITOR'S REPORT SHOWS IF THE REPORT IS COMPLETE 2. REPORT OF MANAGEMENT SHOWS IF THE REPORT IS CORRECT 3. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND NOTES: STATEMENT OF EARNING SHOWS THE REVENUE AND THE COSTS AND EXPENSES. STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS SHOWS THE FLOW OF CASH IN AND OUT OF THE COMPANY STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION SHOWS THE FINANCIAL STATUS OF A COMPANY. IT SHOWS WHAT THE COMPANY OWNS (ASSETS), WHAT IT OWES (LIABILITIES) AND WHAT BELONGS TO THE OWNERS (STOCKHOLDER'S EQUITY) 4. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA SHOWS THE PERFORMANCE OVER 5 YEARS 5. MANAGEMENT DISCUSSION SHOWS DETAILED REPORTS WITH RESULTS

LEKCIJA 10 REZULTATI TVRTKE

TVRTKE MORAJU ZNATI KAKVA IM JE IZVEDBA (REZULTATI). IZVJEDA MENADMENTA GOVORE IM O NJIHOVOJ OPERATIVNOJ UINKOVITOSTI, A FINANCIJSKA IZVJEDA IM DAJU INFORMACIJE O FINANCIJSKOJ IZVEDBI. TA IZVJEDA POKAZUJU TVRTKI KOLIKO PRODAJE (PRIHOD) I KOLIKI SU JOJ TROKOVI. TVRTKA ONDA ZNA KOLIKO JE ZARADILA - PROFIT, I KOLIKO NOVACA JE IZGUBILA GUBICI. TVTKE PRIJAVLJENE NA TRITU DIONICA PREDSTAVLJAJU SVOJA IZVJEDA U GODINJEM IZVJETAJU.

SVI GODINJI IZVJETAJI SADRE OSNOVNE ELEMENTE KOJE ZAHTJEVA TRITE DIONICAMA. TI ELEMENTI SU: 1. IZVJEDE REVIZORA POKAZUJE DALI JE IZVJEDE POTPUNO 2. IZVJEDE MENADMENTA POKAZUJE DALI JE IZVJEDE TONO 3. FINANCIJSKA IZVJEDA I BILJEKE: - IZVJEDE O ZARADI POKAZUJE PRIHODE I TROKOVE - IZVJEDE O TOKU NOVCA POKAZUJE TOK NOVCA UNUTAR I VAN IZ TVRTKE - IZVJEDE O FINANCIJSKOM POLOAJU POKAZUJE FINANCIJSKI STATUS TVRTKE. POKAZUJE TO TVRTKA POSJEDUJE (IMOVINA), TO DUGUJE (POTRAIVANJA) I TO PRIPADA VLASNICIMA (VRIJEDNOST DIONICA) 4. ODABRANI FINANCIJSKI PODACI POKAZUJU REZULTATE TIJEKOM 5 GODINA 5. RASPRAVA MENADMENTA POKAZUJE DETALJNE IZVJETAJE S REZULTATIMA POSLOVANJA

UNIT 11 SETTING UP A BUSINESS

PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANIES (PLC) ARE COMPANIES WHOSE SHARES PEOPLE CAN BUY OR SELL ON THE STOCK EXCHANGE. THE MINIMUM SHARE CAPITAL IS 50,000 POUNDS. TYPES OF BUSINESSE ARE: SOLE TRADER OR SOLE PROPRIETOR WHEN YOU ARE SELF-EMPLOYED PARTNERSHIP WHEN TWO OR MORE PEOPLE START A BUSINESS TOGETHER. THEY SHARE PROFITS AND LOSSES PRIVATE LIMITED COMPANY MINIMUM OF TWO PEOPLE BECOME SHAREHOLDERS. THEY HAVE LIMITED RESPONSIBILITY ACCORDING TO THE CONTRIBUTED AMOUNT THEY HAVE LIMITED LIABILITY (LTD) IN THE US BUSINESSES TAKE THE SAME FORMS: THEY HAVE TO BE REGISTERED OR INCORPORATED ( INC, CORP)

THE IDEA MAN THE BRITISH ENTERPRENEUR ROGER FOSTER FOUNDED ACT IN 1965. ACT DESIGNED SOFTWARE SYSTEMS AND OFFERED COMPUTER PROGRAMMING. IT WAS A BIG SUCCESS, SO IT MANUFACTURED ITS OWN COMPUTER APRICOT. IT LOST A LOT OF MONEY IN 1982 BECAUSE THEY DIDN'T HAVE IBMCOMPATIBLE OPERATING SYSTEM. ACT HAD TO SELL APRICOT, AND IT WAS BOUGHT BY A UK SOFTWARE HOUSE IN 1995. ROGER FOSTER LATER FOUNDED FINANCIAL OBJECTS, A LIBRARY OF SOFTWARE COMPONENTS. THE COMPANY BECAME SECOND LARGEST IN THE UK.

ANDREW KLEIN FOUNDED SPRING STREE BREWING COMPANY IN 1993 AND HE WANTED TO BRING BELGIAN BEER TO THE USA MARKET. HE WAS ORIGINAL BECAUSE HE FOUND HIS CLIENTS AND INVESTORS BY USING HIS INTERNET SITE. TODAY HIS BEER CAN BE FOUND IN MANY AMERICAN CITIES.

IF YOU WANT TO OPEN YOUR OWN BUSINESS, YOU NEED CAREFUL PREPARATION, PLANNING AND RISK-TAKING. YOU MUST DEFINE A BUSINESS PLAN, SHOWING HOW YOU WILL ORGANISE YOUR BUSINESS, HOW MUCH YOU EXPECT TO SELL, WHERE WILL THE CAPITAL COME FROM.

LEKCIJA 11 POKRETANJE BIZNISA

DIONIKA DRUTVA (PLC=D.D.) SU TVRTKE IJE DIONICE LJUDI MOGU KUPOVATI ILI PRODAVATI NA TRITU DIONICAMA. MINIMALNI UDIO U DIONICAMA JE 50.000 FUNTI. TIPOVI TVRTKI SU: SAMOSTALNI TRGOVAC ILI SAMOSTALNI VLASNIK TVRTKE KADA SAMI SEBE ZAPOLJAVATE PARTNERSTVO KADA DVOJE ILI VIE LJUDI POKREDU POSAO ZAJEDNO. ONI DIJELE ZARADU I GUBITKE PRIVATNO DRUTVO S OGRANIENIM JAMSTVOM MINIMALNO DVOJE LJUDI POSTAJU DIONIARI. IMAJU OGRANIENU ODGOVORNOST SUKLADNO KOLIINI NOVCA KOJU SU ULOILI ONI IMAJU OGRANIENU ODGOVORNOST (LTD= D.O.O) U SAD-U TVRTKE IMAJU ISTE OBLIKE: MORAJU BITI REGISTRIRANE ILI OSNOVANE (KRATICE INC, CORP)

OVJEK SA IDEJAMA BRITANSKI PODUZETNIK ROGER FOSTER OSNOVAO JE ACT 1965. ACT JE DIZAJNIRAO SOFTVERSKE SISTEME I NUDIO RAUNALNO PROGRAMIRANJE. BIO JE TO VELIKI USPJEH, PA JE PROIZVEO VLASTITI KOMPJUTER APRICOT (U PRIJEVODU MARELICA). IZGUBILI SU DOSTA NOVCA 1982. JER NISU IMALI OPERATIVNI SISTEM KOMPATIBILAN SA IBM-OM. ACT JE MORAO PRODATI APRICOT, I TVRTKU JE KUPILA BRITANSKA SOFTVERSKA KUDA 1995. ROGER FOSTER JE KASNIJE OSNOVAO FINANCIAL OBJECTS, KNJINICU SOFTVERSKIH DIJELOVA. TVRTKA JE POSTALA DRUGA PO VELIINI U BRITANIJI.

ANDREW KLEIN JE OSNOVAO SPRING STREET BREWING COMPANY 1993. I HTIO JE IZVOZITI BELGIJSKO PIVO NA AMERIKO TRITE. BIO JE ORIGINALAN JER JE PRONALAZIO SVOJE KLIJENTE I INVESTITORE KORISTEDI SE SVOJOM INTERNETSKOM STRANICOM. DANAS SE NJEGOVO PIVO MOE NADI U MNOGIM AMERIKIM GRADOVIMA.

AKO ELITE OSNOVATI SVOJ VLASTITI POSAO, TREBATE PALJIVU PRIPREMU, PLANIRANJE I RISKIRANJE. MORATE DEFINIRATI POSLOVNI PLAN, KOJI DE POKAZATI KAKO DETE ORGANIZIRATI SVOJ POSAO, KOLIKO OEKUJETE DA DETE PRODATI, OTKUDA DETE UZETI KAPITAL.

UNIT 12 CORPORATE ALLIANCES AND ACQUSITIONS

MORE AND MORE COMPANIES HAVE TO STRENGHTEN THEIR OPERATIONS TO REMAIN PROFITABLE. THEY CAN DO THIS IN THE FOLLOWING WAYS: JOINT VENTURES WHEN TWO OR MORE COMPANIES JOINTLY INVEST IN A SEPARATE BUSINESS PROJECT MERGER WHEN TWO COMPANIES COME TOGETHER TO FORM ONE COMPANY. THEY DO IT TO INCREASE MARKET SHARE AND CUT COSTS ACQUISITION OR TAKEOVER WHEN ONE COMPANY GETS ENOUGH SHARES FROM ANOTHER COMPANY TO TAKE OVER CONTROL.

WHEN EGOS COLLIDE THE BEHAVIOUR OF CORPORATE EXECUTIVES AND OF GREAT APES IS VERY SIMILAR. THEIR BIG EGOS OFTEN CAUSE DEAL-BREAKING IN BIG COMPANIES. THAT IS HOW THE ALLIANCE BETWENN GLAXOWELCOME AND SMITH KLINE BEACHAM FELL APART. THE UNION OF THESE TWO PHARMACEUTICAL GIANTS WAS LOGICAL. THE BUDGET FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT WOULD BE TWICE AS BIG, AND COST-CUTTING WOULD SAVE A LOT OF MONEY. BUT, THEY DIDN'T UNITE BECAUSE THEIR CEOS COULDN'T AGREE ON ANYTHING. A SIMILAR THING HAPPENED WHEN VOLVO AND RENAULT WANTED TO UNITE. THE DEAL WAS OFF BECAUSE VOLVO WAS CONCERNED THAT IT WOULD BE IN A WORSE POSITION AND THAT IT WOULD LOSE. SWISS GIANTS CIBA AND SANDOZ FORMED NOVATRIS SUCESSFULLY BECAUSE KEY STAFF WERE OLD AND READY FOR RETIREMENT. WITH MERGERS OF POWERFUL CORPORATIONS, COMPROMISE IS VERY IMPORTANT.

UNIT 13 MARKETING

MARKETING ARE DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES INTENDED TO MAKE AND ATTRACT A PROFITABLE DEMAND FOR A PRODUCT. THE ACTIVITIES IN MARKETING ARE: IDENTIFYING CONSUMER NEEDS AND WANTS IN ORDER TO DEVELOP THE PRODUCT SETTING THE PRICE DECIDING ON THE BEST PLACE TO SELL THE PRODUCT DECIDING ON HOW TO PROMOTE THE PRODUCT.

THESE FACTORS ARE THE FOUR Ps OR THE MARKETING MIX.

SHELL OIL WANTED TO LAUNCH A NEW MARKETING CAMPAIGN. THEIR MARKETING TEAM DECIDE TO DIFFERENTIATE THE SHELL BRAND FROM OTHER BRANDS ON THE MARKET. THEY CARRIED OUT A DETAILED STUDY OF THE MARKET OVER 18 MONTHS. THEY INTERVIEWED 55,000 PEOPLE ABOUT THEIR ATTITUDE TO DRIVING AND CARS IN GENERAL. EVERYONE WANTED THREE THINGS: COMPETITIVE PRICE, NEARBY LOCATION AND GOOD QUALITY FUEL. A FOCUS GROUP WAS SET UP AND PEOPLE'S HABITS WERE ANALYSED. THREE GROUPS WERE CHOSEN AS THE TARGET MARKETS. THEY ALL WANTED A FASTER AND EASIER SERVICE. SO, SHELL LAUNCHED A NEW ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN BASED ON THESE RESULTS.

DIRECT MAIL MARKETING IS SENDING PUBLICITY MATERIAL TO PEOPLE DIRECTLY BY MAIL. IT IS SUCCESSFUL WHEN SELLING MAGAZINE SUBSCRIPTIONS, INSURANCE. THE LETTER IS VERY PERSONALISED AND USES DIRECT LANGUAGE AND CLEAR SALE MESSAGES.

UNIT 14 PRODUCT AND CORPORATE ADVERTISING

THE AIM OF PRODUCT ADVERTISING IS TO INCREASE SALES OF A PRODUCT. A COMPANY CAN ADVERTISE IN MANY WAYS, THROUGH MEDIA, TELEVISION, RADIO, NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES, THE INTERNET AND DIRECT MAIL. ADVERTISING AGENCY DESIGNS AND ORGANISES THE ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN. CORPORATE ADVERTISING DEALS WITH THE BRAND IMAGE. PUBLIC RELATIONS (PR) EXPERTS ORGANISE EVENTS AND ACTIVITIES TO CREATE POSITIVE PUBLICITY FOR COMPANIES.

SACRILEGE VOLKSWAGEN RAN A VERY PROVOCATIVE CAMPAIGN IN FRANCE. ON THEIR POSTERS, JESUS WAS RECOMMENDING THE CAR TO HIS DISCIPLES AT THE LAST SUPPER. THE CAMPAIGN GOT SERIOUS COMPLAINTS FROM THE CATHOLIC CHURCH. AFTER THE CHURCH WANTED TO SUE VOLKSWAGEN, THEY AGREED TO REMOVE THE ADS. WITH A GROWING NUMBER OF ADS THESE DAYS, ADS WHICH SHOCK HAVE BECOME MORE POPULAR. THEY FORCE THE PUBLIC TO HEAR THEIR MESSAGE. A GOOD EXAMPLE OF THIS IS BENETTON WHOSE ADS ARE SHOCKING BUT POPULAR. YOUNGER GENERATIONS LIKE PROVOCATIVE ADS BECAUSE THEY OFFEND THEIR PARENTS.

COCA-COLA AND ITS ADVERTISING JOHN PEMBERTON INVENTED COCA-COLA IN 1886. COCA-COLA BECAME AN INTERNATIONAL PRODUCT WHEN IT EXPORTED TO THE OLYMPIC GAMES IN AMSTERDAM IN 1928. IN THEIR ADS MANY CELEBRITIES AND STARS APPEARED, RAY CHARLES, WHITNEY HOUSTON. TODAY, PEOPLE IN MORE THAN 160 COUNTRIES DRINK COCA-COLA.

A TV COMMERCIAL IS A SHORT FILM BERWEEN 30 AND 60 SECONDS WITH A SOUNDTRACK WHICH IS A MIXTURE OF LIVE RECORDINGS, VOICE-OVERS, MUSIC AND SOUND EFFECTS. THE IDEAS OF A COMMERCIAL ARE DEVELOPED FROM A SCENARIO. THEN A STORYBOARD IS PRODUCED, A SERIES OF PICTURES SHOWING HOW THE COMMERCIAL WILL LOOK LIKE.

UNIT 15 THE BUSINESS MEDIA

THE BUSINESS COMMUNITY CAN PROVIDE NEWS, INFORMATION AND DATA IN VARIOUS WAYS. IT CAN DO THIS THROUGH THE PRESS (NEWSPAPERS, BOOKS AND MAGAZINES). IT CAN DO IT THROUGH BROADCASTS OR RADIO AND TELEVISION CHANNELS, OR THROUGH MULTIMEDIA, A MEDIA SERVICE CONTAINING SOUND, PICTURE AND TEXT ON THE INTERNET.

A MAN AND HIS INFORMATION MACHINE MICHAEL BLOOMBERG IS THE FOUNDER OF BLOOMBERG, A MULTIMEDIA EMPIRE THAT PROVIDES FINANCIAL INFORMATION AND DELIVERS STOCK AND BOND INFORMATION. IT IS A DATABASE OF HISTORIES AND ANALYSIS OF CORPORATIONS. BLOOMBERG OWNS A NEWS SERVICE, A SATELITE TELEVISION NETWORK, A FINANCIAL MAGAZINE AND A WEB SITE WITH 45 000 VISITORS A DAY. NO ONE IN HIS COMPANY, NOT EVEN HIM, HAS A PRIVATE OFFICE.

10