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Various grammar rules

Despite, in spite of
Prepositions - despite, in spite of We use despite in one half despite something of a sentence to make the despite + -ing rest of the sentence despite the fact that surprising. Despite the heavy traffic, we got there on time. Despite being much older than the others, he won the race. In spite of the heavy traffic, we got there on time. In spite of the fact that he is much older than the others, he won the race.

In spite of has the same meaning as despite.

in spite of something in spite of + -ing in spite of the fact that

We prefer despite to in spite of in written English.

As long as
As long as We use as long as to say that something I'll lend you the book, as long as you will happen only on condition that promise to give it back to me in a week. something else happens.

In case, in case of
In case We use in case to express that we are doing something in preparation for something which might happen. Take an umbrella in case it rains! I'll buy two bottles of wine in case one is not enough.

In case of We use in case of to say what we should In case of burglary, don't touch anything do if or when something happens. and call the police immediately.

Within

Within Within means: 'inside of the limit'. Within 2 hours means 'in 24 hours or may e sooner'. Within a week everything should be done. I'll be back within a hour.

Ever, never
Ever, never Ever ! 'at any time'" it is the opposite of never. It was the best wine I have ever tested. We generally use ever in #uestions. !ave you ever been to "aris# Ever goes immediately efore the main $er . Never ! 'at no time' !e has never visited me. Never goes immediately efore the main I'll never forget how kind he has been. $er . We usually use the present perfect with ever and never.

Although, even though


Conjunctions - although, even though We use although to make the main statement surprising or unlikely. Although he is much older than the others, he won the race.

Even though is the same as despite the I en$oyed the race, even though my fact that. results weren't very good.

Little, a little, fe , a fe
Little ! a little A little is more than little. little + uncounta le noun little ! nearly none% nearly nothing little time% little food% little money

a little + unounta le noun a little ! some ut not much Little is a negati$e idea. We can also use ver" little.

a little time% a little food% a little money I can't help you. I speak little %nglish. I can't help you. I speak very little %nglish. &'y English is ad - ( would like to know English etter.) little - less - the least a little - more - the most I can help you& I speak a little %nglish.

Little has irregular comparati$e and superlati$e forms. A little is a positi$e idea.

#e

! a fe

A few is more than few. fe fe A fe + plural counta le noun ! nearly none is a positi$e idea. few people, few books, few letters 'ortunately, our finances are ok. We still have a few good customers. I'm very sad. I have few good friends. I'm very sad. I have very few good friends. &( don't ha$e many good friends - ( would like to ha$e more.) fe - fewer - the fewest a fe - more - the most

#e is a negati$e idea. We can also use ver" fe .

#e has irregular comparati$e and superlati$e forms.

Al a"s, still
Al a"s, still

We use al a"s to say that something happens all the time &or $ery often). We use al a"s to say that something happens all the time &in an annoying way). We use al a"s to say that something exists for e$er. Al a"s is usually efore the main $er " after an auxiliary or modal $er " after the $er 'to e'. $till means 'continuing later than expected.' (t expresses that someting started in the past and is the same now.

I always go swimming on (onday evenings. )he has always wanted to visit 'inland. !e is always forgetting things. !e's always complaining. I'll always remember the first time I met her. I always have... I can always... !e is always... )he is still living with her parents. Why are you still talking about it# They still haven't mended my car *They haven't mended my car yet+.

I still like her. $till usually comes efore the main $er . ,oes he still live in -ambridge# $till usually comes after the main $er if !e is still here. the main $er is ' e'. I can still run .// metres in less than .2 seconds.

Alread", "et
Alread", "et We use alread" to say that something happened sooner than expected. Alread" usually comes efore the main $er or etween an auxiliary or modal $er and the main $er . We use "et in #uestions or negati$e statements to talk a out things that we expected to happen efore now. %et usually comes at the end of the sentence.

I am sorry, she has already gone home. The film has already started. )he's only four years old and she is already reading.

!ave you finished the work yet# I haven't seen the film yet. A: !ave you met him# B: 0ot yet.

We usually use the present perfect with alread" and "et.

&ust
&ust

&ust means a short time ago. &ust goes immediately efore the main $er .

I have just seen him in the corridor. I had just finished it when he came.

All, the
All

hole

All 'of( we use to express total num er or amount of something All 'of( we usually use with uncounta le nouns All of we usually use with personal pronouns it, them, etc. All is usually placed after the personal pronoun we, they, them, us

all &of) my friends% all &of) the time 1ll *of+ my friends visited me in the hospital. all &of) the money% all &of) the oil )he has spent all *of+ the money on cosmetics. all of them% all of it !ave you invited all of them# we all% they all We all en$oyed the concert.

)he

hole the whole meeting% my whole life )he lived in the same house her whole life.

We usually use )he hole &of) with singular counta le nouns. The can e replaced y a possessi$e pronoun our, my% etc.

All or the

hole all day * the whole day all morning * the whole morning

All or the hole can e used with time expressions

Each, ever"
Each, ever" Each is used if we mean an indi$idual mem er of a group. Ever" can also e used. Each of is used if we mean e$ery mem er of a group and we include a possessi$e pronoun our, their% etc. Ever" cannot e used in this case. We have send the invitation to each 2 every business partner.

We have sent the invitation to each of our business partners.

Ever" is used with a plural noun when it is followed y num er. Each cannot e used in this case.

I visit my mother every two months 2 every other day 2every second week.

$o*e, an"
$o*e $o*e: is used with the plural form of nouns% and with uncounta le nouns is used in positi$e sentences is used in offers is used in re#uests a pen, some pens some water *uncountable+ There is some milk in the fridge. I did some e3ercises. Would you like some tea# -ould you give me some tea, please#

An" An"+ is used with the plural form of nouns% and with uncounta le nouns is used in #uestions is used in negati$e sentences a pen, any pens any water *uncountable+ Is there any milk in the fridge# There isn't any milk in the fridge.

,nless
,nless 4ou won't get the $ob unless you prepare for the interview. We use unless to say that something will ! +ou will only get the ,o if you prepare happen if something else doesn't stop it well for the inter$iew. happening. -on't do it unles he tells you to. ! .nly do it if he tells you to do it.

$a", tell

$a" ! tell

We use: tell + some ody.

I told David about it. ,id you tell him# !e told me that he was ill.

We use:sa" + something. We use: sa" + something + to some ody. We use tell when we are gi$ing facts or information: tell tell tell tell some some some some ody ody ody ody &that)... something a out something who*when*where.

!e said hello. !e said he was ill. I said hello to him

)he told me *that+ she was ill. )he told me the news. Tell me about your new $ob. !e told me where it was.

$pea-, tal$pea- ! tal$pea- and tal- ha$e similar meanings. /hey suggest that someone is using his $oice% or that two or more people are ha$ing a discussion. We can say: spea- to so*e.od" tal- to so*e.od" spea- to so*e.od" a.out so*ething tal- to so*e.od" a.out so*ething !ow old were you when you learned to speak? What are you talking about# Who were you speaking to on the phone# Who were you talking to on the phone# I was speaking to (ark about cricket.

0ut we say: spea- a language 1./ talk a language tal- nonsense 1./ speak nonsense. $pea- to and tal- to are used more often than spea- ith and tal- ith.

!e speaks four languages. )top talking nonsense! I was talking to Tom yesterday.

/e used to, get used to, used to


/e used to /e used to 0 noun phrase or ver.-ing &in this pattern used is an ad,ecti$e and I am used to getting up early in the to is a preposition). morning. I don't mind it. !e didn't complain about the noise (f you are used to something% you ha$e ne3tdoor 5 he was used to it. often done or experienced it% so it's not strange% new or difficult for you. /he opposite of .e used to is .e not used to. I am not used to the new system yet.

1et used to 1et used to 0 noun phrase or ver.ing &in this pattern used is an ad,ecti$e and to is a preposition). (f you get used to something% you ecome accustomed to it. (t is the process of ecoming used to something.

I got used to getting up early in the morning. 1fter a while he didn't mind the noise in the office 5 he got used to it.

,sed to

,sed to 0 ver. refers to a state or ha it in the past. We used to live there when I was a child. (t is used only in the past simple. I used to walk to work everyday when I (f you used to do something% you did it was younger. for a period of time in the past% ut you don't do it any more. /he form of the #uestion is did'n2t( 0su.ject0use to .e. /he form of the negati$e is didn2t use to .e. Did n!t" he use to work in your office# We didn!t use to #e vegetarians.

$tructure of phrasal ver.s


$tructure of phrasal ver.s 2 phrasal $er can e made up of: a $er + ad$er a $er + preposition a $er + ad$er + preposition throw away look into put up with

3elative clauses
3elative clauses Defining relati$e clauses are used to specify which person or thing we mean. We don't put commas etween the noun and a defining relati$e clause. Who or that are used for people. Which or that are used for things. I have a friend who speaks five languages. I have a friend that speaks five languages. )he showed me the coat which she had bought. )he showed me the coat that she had bought.

Non-defining relati$e clauses &extra (r 'ry, who speaks five languages, works information clauses) are used to add as a translator for the %6. extra information which is not necessary. We put commas etween the noun and a The area, which has very high

non-defining relati$e clause. Who is used for people.

unemployment, is in the north of the country.

3elative clauses - co**on *ista-es Co**on *ista-es Correct version Wh"4 2fter a relati$e clause we do not repeat the su ,ect. hich are hat.

/he man who was sitting /he man who was sitting next to me he had a rown next to me had a rown ,acket. ,acket. /he ook what ( ought was y Edward 3ear.

/he ook that ( ought was .nly that or y Edward 3ear. possi le% not

4e lent me the ook% which 4e lent me the ook% which ( 2 relati$e clause can ha$e ( found it $ery useful. found $ery useful. only one direct o ,ect. /he winner% that was 25% will recei$e 672%888. .ur office is a out two kilometres from the centre% which ( share with my two colleagues. )hat cannot e used in a /he winner% who was 25% will non-defining &extra recei$e 672%888. information) clause. .ur office% which ( share with my two collegues% is a out two kilometres from the city centre. 2 relati$e clause follows the noun to which it refers.

5uestion tags ! tag 6uestions


)ag 6uestions 2 tag #uestion is a #uestion which we add to the end of a statement ecause we would like to get an answer to our statement. /he tag contains a su ,ect pronoun &it, he, she, etc.) which matches the su ,ect of the statement% and a $er which matches the $er in the statement. (f the statement is positive the tag is negative. (f the statement is negative the tag is positive. (t's $ery nice weather today% isn2t it4 9he can speak English% can2t she4 (t isn't a $ery nice weather today% is it4 9he can't speak English% can she4

+ou ha$e finished the work% haven2t "ou4 4e will arri$e on time% on2t he4

+ou ha$en't finished the work% have "ou4 4e won't arri$e on time% ill he4

+ou know him% don2t "ou4 4e earned a lot of money% didn2t he4 /here is enough time% isn2t there4 Less usual tag 6uestions (mperati$e 2fter let's

+ou don't know him% do "ou4 4e didn't earned much money% did he4 /here isn't enough time% is there4

0e careful%

on2t "ou4 ill "ou4 e4

-on't e late%

3et's go to the cinema% shall

3elative pronouns
3elative pronouns We use ho when we talk a out people. I don't know who told you that. It's the watch which my husband bought me for my birthday. It's the watch that my husband bought me for my birthday. It's the watch my husband bought me for my birthday. 7ohn, whose brother was also a musician, plays over .// concerts every year. (y wife and I went to the bar where we first met. It was when I was living in 8ondon.

We use hich or that when we talk a out things. Which is more formal than that. Which and that can e left out of a defining relati$e clause. We use hose to show possession.

We use here 2 hen when we talk a out place or time.

5uestions

#or*ing 6uestions
$tructures of 6uestions (f there is an auxiliary &helping) $er &be, Is any#ody in the office# have, can, will, etc.) we put it .efore the $ave you ever visited 8ondon# su.ject &he, she, I, etc.) What time Will they be here# (f there is no auxiliary &helping) $er % we put do, does or did .efore the su.ject. We put wh- words &when, where, why, who, how, etc.) at the eginning of the #uestion. Do you know my older brother# Did he come in time# !ow long have you been waiting for me# Where is their office# Which colour do you like best#

We don't use do, does or did when we use What happened to you# what, which, who or whose as the Who told you about it# su ,ect.

5uestions - co**on *ista-es Co**on *ista-es Correct version Wh"4 (f there is no auxiliary &helping) $er % we put do, does or did .efore the su.ject. We put an auxiliary $er efore the su ,ect. We don't use do, does or did when we use what, which, who or whose as the su ,ect. When there is an auxiliary $er % the main $er is in the infiniti$e form.

What meant you y saying What did you mean y that: saying that: +ou like this film: Where you are going this afternoon: +ou did read the letter: Who did gi$e you the information: -o you like this film: Where are you going this afternoon: -id you read the letter: Who ga$e you the information:

-oes he knows your sister: -oes he know your sister: Where will she studies: Where will she study:

Word order in indirect ;an you tell me where can ;an you tell me where ( can #uestion is the same as in a ( uy a good camera: uy a good camera: normal sentence: 9<0=E;/ + >E?0 +...

#or*ing indirect 6uestions

$tructures of indirect 6uestions Word order in indirect #uestion is the same as in a normal sentence: 9<0=E;/ + >E?0 + ... Direct 6uestion Where can I .u" ink for the printer: Wh" do "ou company: ant to work for our Indirect 6uestion ;an you tell me where I can .u" ink for the printer: 4e asked me why I their company. anted to work for

What is the nu*.er of the last in$oice: 4ow much did it cost: 4ow did it happen:

( am calling to ask you what the nu*.er of the last in$oice is. -o you know how much it cost: -id she tell you how it happened:

Prepositions Prepositions of place


Prepositions of place (1 inside an area or space in the city, in the sky, in bed .1 in contact with a surface on the wall, on the table 2/ close to at the table, at the bus stop

efore nouns referring to a place or position on a line at the top, at the front, at on the river, on the e9uator the end ut in the middle arri$e in a city arrive in 8ondon, in 1msterdam arri$e at a small place arrive at the station, at the meeting when expressing 'towards' point at something, smile at someone

Prepositions of ti*e
Prepositions of ti*e (1 .1 2/

years &in .::;) months &in 7anuary) seasons &in summer) parts of the day &in the afternoon% in the morning 0</ at night)

days of the week &on Thursday) dates &on > 1ugust) on (onday morning

hours of the clock &at <.=/) religious festi$als &at %aster) points in time &at the end of the week)

Prepositions of ti*e 'during% for% over% or% #y% until( We use during to talk a out something that happens within a particular period of time% to say when something takes place. We use during to talk a out something that happens within the same time as another e$ent. We use over or in to talk a out something that has een happening continuously up until the present% or will happen continuously in the future. We use for to say how long something continues. During my time in 8ondon I visited a lot of interesting places. !e came to work during the morning meeting. We've had a lot of problems over 2 in the last few months. We e3pect a rise in sales over 2 in the ne3t few months. I can only come for a few minutes. I was waiting for him for two hours.

We use ." to say that something will It has to be finished #y two o'clock. happen or e achie$ed efore a particular !e should return #y the end of (arch. time. We use until to say that something will continue up to a particular time. We have to stay here until he comes. The concert went on until eleven o'clock.

Prepositional ver.s E7a*ples of so*e prepositional ver.s


Prepositional ver.s to agree to something to accept I don't think he will ever agree to such a plan. to say you are sorry for something I apologi?e for not replying to your letter sooner.

to apologise for something

to apply for something

to formally ask someone for something such as a ,o or permission to do something Why didn't you apply for a bank loan# to say you are annoyed a out something If the service is not satisfactory, you should complain to the customer service about it. to e in accordance with something This signal system doesn't conform to the official safety standards. to mention all of the things that something contains The delegation consists of over 2// people, including interpreters and $ournalists. when someone% especially someone you know well% writes to you or telephones you When was the last time you heard from him# to say that something must happen or some ody must do something I insist on speaking to the head of the office. to talk a out some ody or something in a con$ersation% speech or a piece of writing %veryone knows who she was referring to in her speech.

to complain to some ody a out something*some ody

to conform to something

to consist of something

to hear from some ody

to insist on something

to refer to something

Prepositions after adjectives '8(


Prepositions after adjectives afraid of something afraid of doing something angry a.out something angry ith some ody concerned a.out something pleased ith someone * something )he is afraid of driving on motorways. 1re you afraid of the dark# I am really angry about what she did. Why did she do it# I am really angry with her. I'm concerned about his e3am results. I was very pleased with his performance. Was she sorry about the mistake# I'm sorry for being late. !e is good at languages.

sorry a.out something sorry for doing something good at something

Prepositions after adjectives '9(


Prepositions after adjectives &un)aware of something dependent on something famous for something impressed ."! ith something similar to something upset a.out something Is he aware of the problem# )he is still dependent on her parents. !e is famous for his sporting achievements. I was very impressed by his performance. !is interests are similar to those of his brother. I was really upset about it.

Verb structures
:er. 0 .are infinitive
:er. 0 .are infinitive )he .are infinitive &infiniti$e without 'to') is used after certain $er s which are followed y an o ,ect: let, make, see, hear, feel. (y parents didn't let me watch T@ at night. ,id you see anyone enter the building. !e made me laugh.

)he .are infinitive is used after modal !e can't sing. $er s can, should, could, might, may, etc. It might #e a good idea.

:er. 0 -ing 'gerund(


:er. 0 -ing )he gerund for* &-ing) is used after certain $er s: avoid, admit, can't stand, deny, dislike, en$oy, hate, like, love, mind, practise. )he gerund for* &-ing) is used after ver. 0 preposition: insist on, look forward to, etc. I enjoy going to the cinema. I don't like living in a city.

I'm looking forward to seeing you. !e insisted on seeing the shop manager.

:er. 0 to 0 infinitive
:er. 0 to infinitive 2)o2 infinitive is used after such $er s as: agree, arrange, decide, offer, seem, plan, want, need, promise, hope, refuse, start, stop I have decided to lend him the car. !e offered to help me. !e promised not to say anything.

2)o2 infinitive is used after certain $er s !e asked me to go there with him. which are followed y an o ,ect: ask, tell, )he told me to help her. want, need

:er. 0 o.ject 0 to-infinitive structure


:er. 0 o.ject 0 to-infinitive structure 2fter some $er s we need to include an o ,ect efore to-infinitive. 9ome of these $er s are: advise, ask, allow, e3pect, encourage, force, help, invite, order, persuade, teach, tell. They considered him to #e the best person for the position. )he asked me to give her some advice. I told my assistant to send the letter.

Modal verbs
;odal ver.s and their negatives
;odal ver.s and their negatives positi$e negati$e

*ust &used for a personal opinion) !e must be cra?y.

can2t !e can't be cra?y.

*ust ! have to ! has to &used for o ligation) 4ou must arrive by ; o'clock. 4ou have to arrive by ; o'clock. can &used for a ility) I can play the guitar. can &used for possi ility) 4ou can smoke here.

don2t have to ! needn2t ! something is not necessary 4ou don't have to arrive by ; o'clock. 4ou needn't arrive by ; o'clock. can2t ! cannot I can't play the guitar. can2t ! cannot ! *ustn2t 4ou can't smoke here. 4ou mustn't smoke here.

;odal ver.s in the past


;odal ver.s in the past present should e could e will e may e might e would e past should ha$e een could ha$e een would e may ha$e een might ha$e een would ha$e een

$hould 'to e7press o.ligation(


$hould - to e7press o.ligation

9tructure: should + infiniti$e We use should for the present and the 4ou should tell them the truth. future. 4ou shouldn!t smoke, it's bad for you. We use should to gi$e ad$ice to someone I don't think you should do it. and to say that something is a good idea. $hould is weaker than have to or *ust.

$hould have 'to e7press past o.ligation(


$hould have - to e7press unfulfilled past o.ligation 9tructure: should + ha$e + past participle We use should have for the past. We use should have to say that someone didn't do something% ut it would ha$e een etter to do it. 4ou should have told them the truth. 4ou shouldn!t have gone there 5 it was a mistake. I don't think you should have done it.

;ust ! have to
;ust ! have to present ( must go. * ( ha$e to go. &when we want to express o ligation) 4e must e here. (t must e great. &when we want to express a personal opinion) past I had to go.

!e must have been here. It must have been great.

Present pro.a.ilit" - *ust ! can2t ! *a" ! *ight ! could


;ust ! can2t - to e7press pro.a.ilit" 9tructure: modal + infiniti$e without to must e% must ha$e% can't go% etc. We use *ust to express that we feel sure They are really good, they must win. that something is true. They must be very rich. 8ook at the house. We use can2t to say we are sure that something is impossi le. )he can!t be ill. I've $ust seen her in the shop and she looked fine. It can!t be true. I don't believe it.

;a" ! *ight ! could - to e7press pro.a.ilit" 9tructure: modal + infiniti$e without to may e% might do% could go% etc.

We use *a" or could or *ight to say that it is possi le that something will happen or is happening. /he negati$e of *a" is *a" not. /he negati$e of *ight is *ight not. /hey oth mean that it is possi le that something will not happen or is not happening. We -. 1./ use could not to express pro a ility.

They may be arriving tomorrow. !e might be away on holiday. !e could be away on holiday. !e might be offered the $ob.

!e might not be offered the $ob. I may not pass the e3am. I might not go to the match tomorrow.

Past pro.a.ilit" - *ust have ! can2t have ! *ight have ! *a" have
;ust ! can2t ! couldn2t have - to e7press pro.a.ilit" in the past 9tructure: modal + ha$e + past participle must ha$e een% can't ha$e gone% etc. We use *ust have to express that we feel sure that something was true. We use can2t have * couldn2t have to say that we elie$e something was impossi le. They must have left early. !e must have already gone. !e can!t have escaped through this window. It is too small. )he can!t have said that. )he couldn!t have said that.

;a" ! *ight ! could have - to e7press pro.a.ilit" in the past 9tructure: modal + ha$e + past participle may ha$e een% could ha$e gone% might ha$e lost% etc. We use *a" ! could ! *ight have to say that it was possi le that something happened in the past & ut we are not 788@ sure). /he negati$es are *a" not have and *ight not have. !e may have missed the bus. The road might have #een blocked. !e may not have left yet. The assistant might not have received his message.