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DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IT1202 PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION TWO MARK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1. Define a !"i#$%e M&%$"a#i&n.

Amplitude Modulation is the process of changing the amplitude of a relatively high frequency carrier signal in proportion with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal. 2. Define M&%$"a#i&n in%e' an% !e()en# &%$"a#i&n f&( an AM *a+e. Modulation index is a term used to describe the amount of amplitude in an AM waveform .It is also called as coefficient of modulation. Mathematically modulation index is m = EmEc Where m = Modulation coefficient Em = ea! change in the amplitude of the output waveform voltage. Ec = ea! amplitude of the unmodulated carrier voltage. ercent modulation gives the percentage change in the amplitude of the output wave when the carrier is acted on by a modulating signal. ,. Define L&* "e+e" M&%$"a#i&n. In low level modulation" modulation ta!es place prior to the output element of the final stage of the transmitter. #or low level AM modulator class A amplifier is used. -. Define Hi./ "e+e" M&%$"a#i&n. In high level modulators" the modulation ta!es place in the final element of the final stage where the carrier signal is at its maximum amplitude. #or high level modulator class $ amplifier is used. 0. W/a# i1 #/e a%+an#a.e &f "&* "e+e" &%$"a#i&n2 An advantage of low level modulation is that less modulating signal power is required to achieve a high percentage of modulation. 3. Di1#in.$i1/ 4e#*een "&* "e+e" an% /i./ "e+e" &%$"a#i&n. In low level modulation" modulation ta!es place prior to the output element of the final stage of the transmitter.It requires less power to achieve a high percentage of modulation. In high level modulators" the modulation ta!es place in the final element of the final stage where the carrier signal is at its maximum amplitude and thus "requires a much higher amplitude modulating signal to achieve a reasonable percent modulation. 5. Define i a.e f(e6$en)7. An image frequency is any frequency other than the selected radio frequency carrier that "if allowed to enter a receiver and mix with the local oscillator "will produce a cross product frequency that is equal to the intermediate frequency. 8. Define L&)a" O1)i""a#&( #(a)9in.. %rac!ing is the ability of the local oscillator in a receiver to oscillate either above or below the selected radio frequency carrier by an amount equal to the

intermediate frequency throughout the entire radio frequency band. :. Define Hi./ 1i%e in;e)#i&n #(a)9in.. In high side in&ection trac!ing " the local oscillator should trac! above the incoming '# carrier by a fixed frequency equal to f'# (fI# . 10. Define L&* 1i%e in;e)#i&n #(a)9in.. In low side in&ection trac!ing "the local oscillator should trac! below the '# carrier by a fixed frequency equal to f'# )fI# . 11. Define #(a)9in. e((&(.H&* i# i1 (e%$)e%. %he difference between the actual local oscillator frequency and the desired frequency is called trac!ing error.It is reduced by a technique called three point trac!ing. 12. Define i a.e f(e6$en)7 (e;e)#i&n (a#i&. %he image frequency re&ection ratio is the measure of the ability of preselector to re&ect the image frequency. Mathematically "I#'' is I#'' =*+(,-r-.+/Where r= *fim/f'#.)*f'#/fim. 1,. Define He#e(&%7nin.. 0eterodyne means to mix two frequencies together in a nonlinear device or to translate one frequency to another using nonlinear mixing. 1-. W/a# a(e #/e %i1a%+an#a.e1 &f )&n+en#i&na" <&(= %&$4"e 1i%e 4an% f$"" )a((ie( 171#e 2 In conventional AM "carrier power constitutes two thirds or more of the total transmotted power.%his is a ma&or drawbac! because the carrier contains no information 1the sidebands contain the information . 2econd "conventional AM systems utili3e twice as much bandwidth as needed with single sideband systems. 10. Define Sin."e 1i%e4an% 1$!!(e11e% )a((ie( AM. AM 2ingle sideband suppressed carrier is a form of amplitude modulation in which the carrier is totally suppressed and one of the sidebands removed. 13. Define AM >e1#i.ia" 1i%e4an%. AM vestigial sideband is a form of amplitude modulation in which the carrier and one complete sideband are transmitted"but only part of the second sideband is transmitted. 15. W/a# a(e #/e a%+an#a.e1 &f 1in."e 1i%e4an% #(an1 i11i&n4 %he advantages of 2252$ are +. ower conservation6 7ormally "with single side band transmission "only one sideband is transmitted and the carrier is suppressed. 2o less power is required to produce essentially the same quality signal. -.5andwidth conservation6 2ingle sideband transmission requires half as much bandwidth as conventional AM double side band transmission. 8.7oise reduction6 5ecause a single side band system utili3es half as much bandwidth as conventional AM"the thermal noise power is reduced to half that of a double side band system. 18. W/a# a(e #/e %i1a%+an#a.e1 &f 1in."e 1i%e 4an% #(an1 i11i&n2 +. $omplex receivers6 2ingle side band systems require more complex and

expensive receivers than conventional AM transmission . -. %uning 9ifficulties6 2ingle side band receivers require more complex and precise tuning than conventional AM receivers. 1:. Define %i(e)# f(e6$en)7 &%$"a#i&n. In direct frequency modulation " frequency of a constant amplitude carrier signal is directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal at a rate equal to the frequency of the modulating signal. 20. Define in%i(e)# f(e6$en)7 M&%$"a#i&n. In indirect frequency modulation "phase of a constant amplitude carrier directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal at a rate equal to the frequency of the modulating signal. 21. Define in1#an#ane&$1 f(e6$en)7 %e+ia#i&n. %he instantaneous frequency deviation is the instantaneous change in the frequency of the carrier and is defined as the first derivative of the instantaneous phase deviation. 22. Define f(e6$en)7 %e+ia#i&n. #requency deviation is the change in frequency that occurs in the carrier when it is acted on by a modulating signal frequency.#requency deviation is typically given as a pea! frequency shift in 0ert3*9f..%he pea! to pea! frequency deviation *-9f. is sometimes called carrier swing.%he pea! frequency deviation is simply the product of the deviation sensitivity and the pea! modulating signal voltage and is expressed mathematically as 9f=:+ ;m 03 2,. S#a#e Ca(1&n ($"e. $arson rule states that the bandwidth required to transmit an angle modulated wave as twice the sum of the pea! frequency deviation and the highest modulating signal frequency. Mathematically carson<s rule is 5=-*9f (fm. 03. 2-. Define De+ia#i&n (a#i&. 9eviation ratio is the worst case modulation index and is equal to the maximum pea! frequency deviation divided by the maximum modulating signal frequency. Mathematically "the deviation ratio is 9'= 9f *max. fm*max. 20. W/a# i1 $"#i!"e'in.2 Multiplexing is the transmission of information from one or more source to one or more destination over the same transmission mediam. 23. W/a# a(e #/e a%+an#a.e1 &f %i.i#a" #(an1 i11i&n2 = %he advantage of digital transmission over analog transmission is noise immunity. 9igital pulses are less susceptible than analog signals to variations caused by noise. = 9igital signals are better suited to processing and multiplexing than analog signals. = 9igital transmission systems are more noise resistant than the analog transmission systems. = 9igital systems are better suited to evaluate error performance.

25.W/a# a(e #/e %i1a%+an#a.e1 &f %i.i#a" #(an1 i11i&n2 %he transmission of digitally encoded analog signals requires significantly more bandwidth than simply transmitting the original analog signal. Analog signal must be converted to digital codes prior to transmission and converted bac! to analog form at the receiver" thus necessitating additional encoding and decoding circuitry. 28.Define !$"1e )&%e &%$"a#i&n. In pulse code modulation" analog signal is sampled and converted to fixed length" serial binary number for transmission. %he binary number varies according to the amplitude of the analog signal. 2:.W/a# i1 #/e !$(!&1e &f #/e 1a !"e an% /&"% )i()$i#2 %he sample and hold circuit periodically samples the analog input signal and converts those samples to a multilevel AM signal. ,0.W/a# i1 #/e N76$i1# 1a !"in. (a#e2 7yquist sampling rate states that" the minimum sampling rate is equal to twice the highest audio input frequency. ,1.Define an% 1#a#e #/e )a$1e1 &f f&"% &+e( %i1#&(#i&n. %he minimum sampling rate*fs. is equal to twice the highest audio input frequency*fa..If fs is less than two times fa "distortion will result. %he distortion is $alled aliasing or fold over distortion. %he side frequencies from one harmonic fold over into the sideband of another harmonic. %he frequency that folds over is an alias of the input signal hence "the names >aliasing? or >fold over distortion? . ,2.Define &+e("&a% %i1#&(#i&n. If the magnitude of sample exceeds the highest quanti3ation interval" overload distortion occurs. ,,.Define 6$an#i?a#i&n. ,uanti3ation is a process of approximation or rounding off. Assigning $M codes to absolute magnitudes is called quanti3ing. ,-.Define %7na i) (an.e. 9ynamic range is the ratio of the largest possible magnitude to the smallest possible magnitude. Mathematically" dynamic range is 9'= ;max ;min ,0.Define !ea9 f(e6$en)7 %e+ia#i&n f&( FSK. ea! frequency deviation * f. is the difference between the carrier rest frequency and either the mar! or space frequency and either the mar! or space frequency. * f.=fm)fs ,3.Define &%$"a#i&n in%e' f&( FSK. %he modulation index in #2: is defined as h = * f.fa

where h= #M modulation index called the h factor in #2: fa = fundamental frequency of the binary modulating signal * f. = ea! frequency deviation *hert3. ,5.Define 4i# (a#e. In digital modulation" the rate of change at the input to the modulator is called the bit rate *fb. and has the unit of bits per second *bps.. 8@.9efine 5aud rate. %he rate of change at the output of the modulator is called baud. ,:.Define QAM. ,uadrature amplitude modulation is a form of digital modulation where the digital information is contained in both the amplitude and phase of the transmitted carrier. -0.W(i#e #/e (e"a#i&n1/i! 4e#*een #/e ini $ 4an%*i%#/ (e6$i(e% f&( an FSK 171#e an% #/e 4i# (a#e. %he minimum bandwidth can be approximated as 5=- f (-fb Where 5=minimum bandwidth *hert3. f=minimum pea! frequency deviation *hert3. #b=bitrate -1 . W/a# %& 7&$ $n%e(1#an% 47 na((&*4an% FM2 When the modulation index is less than +" the angle modulated systems are called low index. %he bandwidth requirement of low index systems is approximately twice of the modulating signal frequency. %herefore low index systems are called narrowband #M -2. W/7 A( 1#(&n. e#/&% &f FM i1 1$!e(i&( #& (ea)#an)e &%$"a#&(2 'eactance modulator is direct #M" where as Armstrong method is indirect #M. Armstrong method generates #M from M. 0ence crystal oscillators can be used in Armstrong method. %herefore frequency stability is better than reactance modulator. -,. Diffe(en#ia#e 4e#*een na((&* 4an% FM an% *i%e4an% FM In narrow band #M" the frequency deviation is very small. 0ence the frequency spectrum consists of two ma&or sidebands li!e AM. Ather sidebands are negligible and hence they can be neglected. %herefore the bandwidth of narrowband #M is limited only to twice of the highest modulating frequency. If the deviation in carrier frequency is large enough so that other sidebands cannot be neglected" then it is called wideband #M. %he bandwidth of wideband #M is calculated as per $arson<s rule. --. W/a# a(e #/e a%+an#a.e1 &f FM &+e( AM2 #M has following advantages over AM. i. %he amplitude of #M is constant. It is independent of depth of modulation. 0ence transmitter power remains constant in #M whereas it varies in AM. ii. 2ince amplitude of #M constant" the noise interference is minimum in #M. Any noise superimposing an amplitude can be removed with the help of amplitude limits. Whereas it is difficult to remove amplitude variations due to noise in AM. iii. %he depth of modulation have limitation in AM. 5ut in #M the depth of modulation can be increased to any value by increasing the deviation. %his does not cause any distortion in #M signal.

iv. 2ince guard bands are provided in #M" there is less possibility of ad&acent channel interference. v. 2ince space waves are used for #M" the radius of propagation is limited to line of sight. 0ence it is possible to operate several independent transmitters on same frequency with minimum interference. vi. 2ince #M uses B0# and ;0# ranges" the noise interference is minimum compared to AM which uses M# and 0# ranges. -0. S#a#e Ca(1&n@1 ($"e &f FM 4an%*i%#/. $arson<s rule of #M bandwidth is given as" 5W = -* ( fm *max.. 0ere is the maximum frequency deviation and fm *max.. is the maximum signal frequency. -3. W/a# i1 %i(e)# FM2 In this type of angle modulation" the frequency of the carrier is varied directly by the modulating signal. %his means1 an instantaneous frequency deviation is directly proportional to amplitude of the modulating signal -5. W/a# i1 in%i(e)# FM2 In this type of angle modulation" #M is obtained by phase modulation of the carrier. %his means" an instantaneous phase of the carrier directly proportional to amplitude of the modulating signal -8.W/a# i1 #/e e((&( !(&4a4i"i#7 &f a 4ina(7 FSK S71#e 2 Error probability of binary #2: is given as" e = + erfc C.DE - 7C Where E = %b is energy of one bit and 7C is the psd of white noise. -:. C& !a(e 4ina(7 PSK *i#/ QPSK. 2I.7o 5 2: , 2: +. Ane bit forms a symbol. %wo bits form a symbol. -. %wo possible symbols. #our possible symbols. 8. Minimum bandwidth is twice of fb. Minimum bandwidth is equal to fb. E. 2ymbol duration = %b. 2ymbol duration = -%b. 00. W/a# a(e #/e a%+an#a.e1 &f MAa(7 1i.na"in. 1)/e e2 +. M)ary signaling schemes transmit bits at a time. -. 5andwidth requirement of M)ary signaling schemes is reduced. 01. W/a# /a!!en1 #& #/e !(&4a4i"i#7 &f e((&( in MAa(7 FSK a1 #/e +a"$e &f Min)(ea1e2 As the value of FM< increases" the Euclidean distance between the symbols reduces. 0ence the symbols come closer to each other. %his increases the probability oferror in M)ary systems. 02. W/a# i1 ean# 47 )&((e"a#i+e )&%in.2 $orrelative coding allows the signaling rate of -5C in the channel of bandwidth 5C. %his is made physically possible by allowing I2I in the transmitted signal in

controlled manner. %his I2I is !nown to the receiver. 0ence effects of I2I are eliminatedat the receiver. $orrelative coding is implemented by duobinary signaling and modified duobinary signaling. 0,. Diffe(en#ia#e )&/e(en# an% n&n)&/e(en# e#/&%1. $oherent *synchronous. detection6 In coherent detection" the local carrier generated at the receiver is phase loc!ed with the carrier at the transmitter. %he detection is done by correlating received noisy signal and locally generated carrier. %he coherent detection is a synchronous detection. 7on coherent *envelope. detection 6 %his type of detection does not need receiver carrier to be phase loc!ed with transmitter carrier. %he advantage of such a system is that the system becomes simple" but the drawbac! is that error probability increases. %he different digital modulation techniques are used for specific application areas. %he choice is made such that the transmitted power and channel bandwidth are best exploited. 0-. W/a# a(e an#i!&%a" 1i.na"12 In 5 2:" the two symbols are transmitted with the help of following signals" 2ymbol F+< G s+ *t. = H- cos *- fC t. 2ymbol FC< G s- *t. = H- cos *- fC t ( . 0ere observe that above two signals differ only in a relative phase shift of +@CC. 2uch signals are called antipodal signals. 00. Un%e( */a# )i()$ 1#an)e1 MAa(7 1i.na"in. 1)/e e1 a(e !(efe((e% &+e( 4ina(7 1)/e e12 5inary schemes transmit only one bit at a time. M)ary schemes transmit log- M bit at a time. When available channel bandwidth is less" then M)ary schemes are used. Mary schemes require less bandwidth compared to binary schemes. #or example binary 2: requires a bandwidth of -fb. 5ut M)ary 2: requires a bandwidth of -fb. 7 0ere 7 is the number of bits transmitted simultaneously. 2ince more symbols are transmitted in same amplitude range" the error probability of M)ary schemes is more compared to binary schemes. 03. C& !a(e 4an%*i%#/ effi)ien)7 &f MAa(7 PSK 1i.na"1 an% FSK 1i.na"1. #or 7)bit symbol" M)ary 2: requires a bandwidth of" M)ary 2:" 5W = -fb 7 And M)ary #2: requires a bandwidth of" M)ary #2:" 5W = -7(+ fb 7 %hus for 7 = E" M)ary 2:6 5W = -fb = fb EM)ary #2:6 5W = -E(+ fb = @ fb 7 %hus #2: requires more bandwidth compared to 2:.

05. W/a# i1 4a1e4an% 1i.na" (e)ei+e(2 A baseband signal receiver increases the signal to noise at the instant of sampling. %his reduces the probability of error. %he baseband signal receiver is also called optimum receiver. 08. W/a# i1 a#)/e% fi"#e(2 %he matched filter is a baseband signal receiver" which wor!s in presence of white Iaussian noise. %he impulse response of the matched filter is matched to the shape of the input signal. 0:. W/a# i1 #/e i !$"1e (e1!&n1e &f a#)/e% fi"#e(2 Impulse response is given as" h *t. = -! Jx+ *% ) t.K 7C 0ere % is the period of sampling x+ *t. and x- *t. are the two signals used for transmission. 30. W/a# i1 #/e +a"$e &f a'i $ 1i.na" #& n&i1e (a#i& &f #/e a#)/e% fi"#e(2 Maximum signal to noise ratio of the matched filter is the ratio of energy of the signal to psd of white noise. i.e." max = E 7C/31. On */a# fa)#&(B #/e e((&( !(&4a4i"i#7 &f a#)/e% fi"#e( %e!en%12 Error probability of matched filter is given as" e = + erfc E - 7C %his equation shows that error probability depends only on energy of the signal. It does not depend upon shape *waveform. of the signal. 32. W/a# i1 )&((e"a#&(2 $orrelator is the coherent receiver. It correlates the received noisy signal f *t. with the locally generated replica of the !nown signal x *t.. Its output is given as" r *t. = C% f *t. x*t. dt Matched filter and correlator are functionally same. 3,. W/i)/ %i.i#a" &%$"a#i&n #e)/ni6$e .i+e1 4e##e( e((&( !(&4a4i"i#72 5inary 2: gives reduced error probability compared to A2: and #2:. It is given as" e = + erfc E - 7C 3-. W/a# a(e #/e a%+an#a.e1 &f QPSK a1 )& !a(e% #! CPSK2 +. #or the same bit error rate" the bandwidth required by , 2: Is reduced to half as compared to 5 2:. -. 5ecause of reduced bandwidth" the information transmission rate of , 2: is higher. , 2: amplitude is not much. 0ence carrier power almost remains constant. 30.W/a# a(e #/e (e6$i(e en#1 f&( a %i.i#a" &%$"a#i&n 1)/e e2 +.Maximum data rate

-.Minimum probability of symbol error 8.Minimum transmitted power E.Minimum channel bandwidth L.Maximum resistance to interfering signals D.Minimum circuit complexity 33.S#a#e N76$i1# )(i#e(i&n f&( ?e(& ISI. %he spectra of the transmitted pulse should satisfy following equation" *f ) nfb. = %b Where *f. is the spectrum of the transmitted pulse p *t. and fb = + is the rate at which pulses are transmitted. %b Above equation is called 7yquist pulse shaping criterion for 3ero I2I. 35. S#a#e Sa !"in. #/e&(e f&( 4an%!a11 1i.na"1. %he bandpass signal x *t. whose maximum bandwidth is -W can be completely represented into and recovered from its samples if it is sampled at the minimum rate of twice the bandwidth. %his means" if the maximum bandwidth is -W" the sampling rate must be EW samples/sec. D@.2tate sampling theorem for stationary message process. Met the maximum frequency content of wide sense stationary process be W 03. %hen such process can be completely represented in its samples and reconstructed bac! with 3ero mean square error if the samples are ta!en at the rate of -W or higher. 3:.W/a# i1 ISI2 %he transmitted pulse is given as" y * ti . = NAi ( N A! p O *i ) !. %b P and i = C" ( +" ( -" QQ.. %he first term NAi is due to the ith transmitted bit. %he second term represents the residual effect of all other bits transmitted before and after the sampling instant ti. 2uch presence of outputs due to other bits interfere with the output of required bit. %his effect is called Intersymbol Interference *I2I.. 50.W/a# i1 e7e !a##e(n2 When the sequence is transmitted over a baseband binary data transmission system" the output is a continuous time signal. If this signal is out at each interval *%b. and all such pieces are placed over one another" then we obtain eye pattern. It loo!s li!e eye. Eye pattern is particularly useful in studying I2I problem. 51.W/a# i1 a%a!#i+e e6$a"i?a#i&n2 In adaptive equali3ation filters adapt themselves to the dispersive effects of the channe. %hat is the coefficients of the filters are changed in such a way that the distortion in the data is reduced. 52.S#a#e 1a !"in. #/e&(e . A band limited signal of finite energy" which has no frequency components higher than FW< 03 can be completed in its samples and recovered bac! if the sampling frequency fs -W. 5,.W/a# i1 a"ia1in.2 When the signals are sampled at the rate less than nyquist *i.e. fs R -W." then aliasing ta!es place. #requencies higher than FW< ta!es of lower frequencies in sampled spectrum. %his is called aliasing. Aliasing can be reduced by sampling at a rate higher than nyquist rate.

5-. S#a#e #/e 1a !"in. #/e&(e f&( 4an% !a11 1i.na"1 %he band pass signal whose maximum bandwidth is -W can be completely represented into and recovered from its samples if it is sampled at the minimum rate of twice the bandwidth. 50.Define N76$i1# (a#e When the sampling rate becomes exactly equal to -W samples per second " for a signal bandwidth of W 0ert3 " then it is called 7yquist 'ate. 53.W/a# i1 "ine )&%in.2 %he analog waveforms are converted to digital signals by $M" 9M "A9M and 9 $M techniques.%his digital data can be representedby different formats or waveforms.%hese waveforms are commonly !nown as digital data formats or their representation is called is called as line coding. 55.W/a# i1 $ni!&"a( f&( a#2 In the unipolar format " 5inary + is represented by a high amplitude and binary C is represente by a 3ero value. 58.W/a# i1 4i!&"a( f&( a#2 In the bipolar format " 5inary + is represented by a positive voltage polarity and binary C is represented by a negative voltage polarity 5:.W/a# i1 4i!&"a( RD f&( a#2 In the bipolar format " 5inary + is represented by a positive voltage polarity and binary C is represented by a negative voltage polarity.2ince this is 'S format"the pulse is transmitted only for half duration. 58.W/a# i1 4i!&"a( NRD f&( a#2 In the bipolar format " 5inary + is represented by a positive voltage polarity and binary C is represented by a negative voltage polarity.2ince this is 7'S format"these polarities are maintained over the complete pulse duration. 5:.W/a# i1 P1e$%& #e(na(7 1i.na""in.4 In this format "successive +<s are represented by pulses with alternate polarity and C<s are represented by no pulses 80.W/a# i1 1!"i# !/a1e an)/e1#&( )&%in.2 2ymbol + is represented by a positive half interval pulse followed by a negative half interval pulse and symbol C is represented by a negative half interval pulse followed by a positive half interval pulse 81.W/a# a(e #/e !(&!e(#ie1 &f PAM 1i.na"12 +. %he AM signal should have adequate timing content"so that cloc! information can be extruded from the waveform -.%he AM signal should be immune to channel noise and interference 8.%he AM signal should allow error detection and correction 82.W/a# i1 an e6$a"i?e(2 When the signal is passed through the channel " distortion is introduced in terms of amplitude and delay.%his distortion creates the problems of I2I. %he detection of the signal also becomes difficult.%his distortion can be compensated with the help of equali3ers. 8,.W/a# i1 MAa(7 )&%in.2 In polar quaternary coding" we combine two successive bits.In M)ary coding " we

combine ! successive message bits.0ence we get M=-! symbols or levels.%herefore "this type of coding is called M)ary coding. 8-. W/a# %& 7&$ ean 47 %i(e)# 1e6$en)e 1!(ea% #e)/ni6$e2 %he data sequence directly modulates the pseudo noise sequence. Met the data signal be b *t. and pseudo)noise signal be c *t.. %hen the modulated signal is given as" m *t. = b *t. 80. W/a# a(e #/e a%+an#a.e1 &f 1!(ea% 1!e)#($ &%$"a#i&n2 pread spectrum modulation spreads the message signal over wide bandwidth with the help of special code *!ey.. It has following important advantages. i. Bnwanted interference is re&ected. ii. rotection against anti&amming signals is also provided. iii. Multipath interference re&ection. 83. Define !1e$%& n&i1e 1e6$en)e. %he pseudo noise sequence is a noise li!e high frequency signal. %his signal is binary in nature. It loo!s li!e pulses. %he sequence is not completely random" but it is generated by a well defined logic. %he same logic is used at transmitter and receiver. 0ence the sequence is rather Fpseudo< random. 0ence it is called pseudo)random *or pseudo)noise. sequence. %he pseudo noise sequence can be generated by a feedbac! shift register and the combinational logic. 85. E'!"ain */7 FH 1!(ea% 1!e)#($ i1 n&# affe)#e% 47 nea( fa( !(&4"e . In direct sequence spread spectrum there is single frequency band in which communication ta!es place. If noise or &amming signal is transmitted in this frequency band" then it is difficult to isolate noise and signal at the receiver. %his is called near far problem. In #0 spread spectrum" the transmission ta!es place in multiple interference is present in one frequency band" it does not affect signal in other frequency bands. 0ence near)far problem does not exist in #0 spread spectrum. 88. W/a# i1 ean# 47 1!e)#($ 2 %he spread spectrum modulation can be defined in two parts as follows. +. %he transmitted data sequence occupies a much more bandwidth than the minimum required bandwidth and" -. %he spectrum spreading *i.e. increase of signal bandwidth. at the transmitter and dispreading at the receiver is obtained by Fspecial code< which is independent of the data sequence *message signal.. %he first part of definition given above is satisfied by other modulation techniques li!e frequency modulation" $M etc. but they do not satisfy second part. %hat is they do not use frequency spectrum spreading and dispreading. %he bandwidth requirement of spread spectrum modulation techniques is thus very high. 2pread spectrum modulation is used for secured communication li!e military applications. 7oise interference has minimum effect on transmission. Bnwanted receivers cannot detect the message. 8:. W/a# i1 f(e6$en)7 /&! 1!(ea%in.2 In frequency hop spread spectrum" the carrier frequency randomly changes among different slots. %hese frequency slots are called hops. %he data is transmitted in these hops. :0.W/a# a(e #/e a!!"i)a#i&n1 &f S!(ea% 1!e)#($ &%$"a#i&n2 +. %he spread spectrum has the ability to resist the effect of intentional

&amming. reviously this anti&am capability was used in military applicationa.2ome commercial applications also use spread spectrum because of its anti&am capability. -.Mow probability of intercept is an application of spread spectrum in military .In this case" the signal spectral density is !ept small such that the presence of the signal is not detected easily. 8. 2pread spectrum is used in mobile communications.this is because the spread spectrum signal has tha ability to resist the effects of multipath fading.5ecause of wide spectrum only small portion of the signals is in fade. E.spread spectrum is also used in selective calling.In this" the central station communicates with the number of different receiving points. :1. Diffe(en)e 4e#*een TDM an% TDMA 5y %9M"the signals at one earth station are multiplexed into single channel.2uch multiple channels from different earth stations share a satellite transponder aith the help of %9MA. :2. Li1# #/e a%+an#a.e1 &f %i(e)# 1e6$en)e 171#e 1 +.%his system has best noise and anti&am performance -.Bnrecognised receivers find it most difficult to detect direct sequence signals 8.It has best discrimination against multipath signals :,. Li1# #/e %i1a%+an#a.e1 &f %i(e)# 1e6$en)e 171#e 1 +.It requires wideband channel with small phase distortion -.It has long acquisition time 8.%he pseudo)noise generator should generate sequence at high rates E.%his system is distance relative :-. Li1# #/e a%+an#a.e1 &f f(e6$en)7 /&!!in. 171#e 1 +.%hese systems bandwidth are very large -.%hey can be programmed to avoid some portions of the spectrum 8.%hey have relatively short acquisition time. E.%he distance effect is less :0. Li1# #/e %i1a%+an#a.e1 &f f(e6$en)7 /&!!in. 171#e 1 +.%hose systems need complex frequency synthesi3ers -.%hey are not useful for range and range Trate measurement 8.%hey need error correction :3.Define 1"&* f(e6$en)7 /&!!in. When several symbols are transmitted in one frequency hop *slot. "then it is called slow frequency hopping.%his means the symbol rate is higher than hop rate. :5.Define fa1# f(e6$en)7 /&!!in. When several frequency hops ta!e place to transmit one symbol "then it is called fast frequency hopping.%his means the symbol rate is less than hop rate. :8. W/a# i1 !(&)e11in. .ain2 rocessing gain is defined as the ratio of the bandwidth of spreaded signal to the bandwidth of the unspreaded signal ::.W/a# a(e #/e !(&!e(#ie1 &f a'i $ "en.#/ 1e6$en)e2 a. 5alance property %he number of +<s is always one more than the number of 3eros in each period of a maximum length sequence b.'un property

%he run means subsequence of identical symbols i.e. +<s or C<s within one period of the sequence.%he length of the run is equal to the length of the subsequence. c.$orrelation property %he auto correlation function of maximum length sequence is periodic and it is bivary valued. 100.W/a# i1 SSMA2 In this application" many users transmit their signals on the same channel bandwidth.each transmitter receiver pair has a distinct pseudo)noise sequence.%hus signals of a particular transmitter are received by its intended receiver only"even if many users are transmitting ath the same time.%his method is also called spread spectrum multiple access. 13 a(9 Q$e1#i&n1 1.E'!"ain in %e#ai" a4&$# 1$!e( /e#e(&%7ne (e)ei+e(. 0eterodyne means to mix two frequencies together in a nonlinear device or to translate one frequency to another using nonlinear mixing. %here are five sections to a superheterodyne receiver. %hey are '# section"the mixer/converter section"the I# section"the audio detector section" and the amplifier section. '# section6 %he '# section consists of preselector and an amplifier stage.%he primary purpose of the preselector is to provide enough initial bandlimiting to prevent a specific unwanted radio frequency"called the image frequency. An image frequency is any frequency other than the selected radio frequency carrier that "if allowed to enter a receiver and mix with the local oscillator "will produce a cross product frequency that is equal to the intermediate frequency. Mixer /converter section6 %he mixer stage is a nonlinear device and its purpose is to convert radio frequencies to intermediate frequencies. I# section6 %he I# section consists of a series of I# amplifiers and bandpass filters and is often called the I# strip. %he receiver gain and selectivity is achieved in I# section. 9etector 2ection6 %he purpose of the detector section is to convert the I# signals bac! to the original source information. Audio Amplifier section6 %he audio section comprises several cascaded audio amplifiers and one or more spea!ers. -.Explain in detail about AM modulator circuits. %he location in a transmitter where modulation occurs determines whether the circuit is a low level or a high level transmitter. In low level modulation" modulation ta!es place prior to the output element of the final stage of the transmitter. #or low level AM modulator class A amplifier is used.

In high level modulators" the modulation ta!es place in the final element of the final stage where the carrier signal is at its maximum amplitude. #or high level modulator class $ amplifier is used. An advantage of low level modulation is that less modulating signal power is required to achieve a high percentage of modulation. 2. E'!"ain in %e#ai" a4&$# FM &%$"a#&(1. #M modulators are classified into two types.%hey are +.9irect #M modulators -.Indirect #M modulators 9irect #M modulator6 In direct frequency modulation" frequency of a constant amplitude carrier signal is directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal at a rate equal to the frequency of the modulating signal. %here are three common methods for producing direct frequency modulation6 ;aractor diode modulators" #M reactance modulators" and linear integrated circuit direct #M modulators. Indirect #M modulator6 In indirect frequency modulation "phase of a constant amplitude carrier directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal at a rate equal to the frequency of the modulating signal. ,.E'!"ain in %e#ai" a4&$# FM %e &%$"a#&(1. #M demodulators are frequency dependent circuits designed to produce an output voltage that is proportional to the instantaneous frequency.2everal circuits are used for demodulating #M signals.%he most common are the slope detector" foster seeley discriminator" and ratio detector are forms of tuned circuit frequency discriminators. E. E'!"ain in %e#ai" a4&$# AM !ea9 %e#e)#&(. %he function of an AM detector is to demodulate the AM signal and recover or reproduce the original source information.%he recovered signal should contain the same frequencies as the original information signal and have the same relative amplitude characteristics. 0.W/a# a(e #/e a%+an#a.e1 &f %i.i#a" #(an1 i11i&n2 = %he advantage of digital transmission over analog transmission is noise immunity. 9igital pulses are less susceptible than analog signals to variations caused by noise. = 9igital signals are better suited to processing and multiplexing than analog signals. = 9igital transmission systems are more noise resistant than the analog transmission systems. = 9igital systems are better suited to evaluate error performance. 3.E'!"ain in %e#ai" a4&$# !$"1e )&%e &%$"a#i&n. In pulse code modulation" analog signal is sampled and converted to fixed length" serial binary number for transmission. %he binary number varies according to the amplitude of the analog signal. 5.E'!"ain in %e#ai" a4&$# CPSK. S#a#e e(i#1 an% %e e(i#1 &f CPSK. In binary phase shift !eying" two output phases are possible for a single carrier frequency. Ane output phase represents logic + and the other logic C.

5 2: transmitter6 8.E'!"ain in %e#ai" a4&$# QPSK. , 2: is an Mary encoding scheme where M=E.With , 2: four output phases are possible for a single carrier frequency. %wo bits are cloc!ed into the bit splitter. After both bits have been serially inputted" they are simultaneously parallel outputted . Ane bit is directed to the I channel and the other to the , channel .%he I bit modulates a carrier that is in phase with the reference oscillator and the , bit modulates a carrier that is UCV out of phase or in quadrature with the reference carrier. :.E'!"ain in %e#ai" a4&$# FSK. #requency shift !eying is a form of constant amplitude angle modulation similar to conventional frequency modulation except that the modulating signal is a binary signal that varies between two discrete voltage levels rather than a continuously changing analog waveform. 10.E'!"ain in %e#ai" a4&$# 8 !/a1e PSK. Eight phase 2: is an Mary encoding technique where M=@.With an @ 2: modulator "there are eight possible output phases .%o encode eight different phases "the incoming bits are considered in groups of three bits "called tribits. 11.E!"ain a4&$# !1e$%& n&i1e 1e6$en)e. %he pseudo noise sequence is a noise li!e high frequency signal. %his signal is binary in nature. It loo!s li!e pulses. %he sequence is not completely random" but it is generated by a well defined logic. %he same logic is used at transmitter and receiver. 0ence the sequence is rather Fpseudo< random. 0ence it is called pseudo)random *or pseudo)noise. sequence. %he pseudo noise sequence can be generated by a feedbac! shift register and the combinational logic