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First Edition June 2009, Mumbai Third Revised Edition: February 2010, Mumbai

For Private circulation only.

All material in this booklet can be shared, discussed and circulated. However please note that the material in this booklet is not for Commercial sale.

Booklet Prepared by : URBAN LEAVES, An initiative of Vidya Varidhi Trust Email: urbanleaves@gmail.com ww w. n at u ec oc i t yf ar m i ng . bl o gs p o t.c om www.urbanleavesinindia.blogspot.com

Cover illustration & Booklet Design by : Nurturing Grounds, Mumbai tejal@nurturinggrounds.com, 9833707598

Photos by : Preeti Patil Dipak Suchade

Let each one on ones own strive to experiment with zest, to innovate and propagate various new ventures in every nook and corner of our planet.

Excerpt from Plenty for All by Professor S.A.Dabholkar

This handbook has been made with the contributions and involvement of all my dear friends and supporters. Officials and staff of Mumbai Port Trust without whose participation the city farm would not have come up. Special thanks to Shri K. A. Kondar for leading our team at Mumbai Port Trust. Dr R.T.Doshi for the initial training and inspiration. Shri Dipak Suchade for providing constant guidance and training in Natueco Techniques. Shri Uday Acharya for the support and encouragement in pursuing my dream of green roofs in Mumbai. Sreedevi Laxmi Kutty for organising & setting up of Urban Leaves. Neesha Noronha for editing contents in the handbook. Tejal Vishweshwar for the formatting and graphic design. Suresh Paranjpe, Jyoti Bhave, for helping with arrangements for workshops. Shri Avinash Kubal and staff at Maharashtra Nature Park for the support at workshop venue. Visitors to the MbPT terrace farm who inspired our efforts. National Society of Friends of Trees whose awards encouraged us to do better each year. Last but not the least my parents and my family (especially my husband for his patience, my daughter Prajakta and my niece Nupur) for their love and support, my son for his co-operation

Preeti Patil, Honorary Technical Advisor URBAN LEAVES, an Initiative of Vidya Varidhi Trust

INTRODUCTION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 An Invitation to City Farm Natueco City Farming Benefits of Natueco Process Top 5 Reasons to City Farm Focus Area of the Guide

STARTING YOUR NATUECO CITY FARM 1. Choosing Your City Farm Site and Style ------------------------------------------------ 3 2. Material Required --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 3. Selecting Containers -------------------------------------------------------------------------5

4. Building Amrut Mitti Unique Natueco soil -------------------------------------------- -5 > Collect Green and Dry Biomass > Collect Top Soil > Prepare Amrut Jal > Prepare Heaps > Keep for Composting > Green the Heap > Check your Amrut Mitti 5. Planting --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - 9 > Choosing Saplings and Seeds > Inter Cropping & Companion Planting > Planting Saplings, Sowing Seeds 6. Maintaining Soil Quality and Recycling Kitchen Waste ---------------------------- 10 > Mulching > Adding Kitchen Waste > Adding Wood Ash > Maintaining Moisture Content > Monsoon Care 7. Understanding Common Modifications and their Drawbacks --------------------- 12 > Shortcuts > Using the EM Technology instead of Amrut Jal/Amrut Mitti

> Using Chemicals with your soil > Tilling and burning

APPENDIX ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 14 A. Determining the needs of a plant --------------------------------------------------------- 14 B. Why is a mixture of leaves necessary to build soil? ------------------------------- 15 C. Factors Affecting Growth of Plants ------------------------------------------------------ 15 > Soil has to be Live > Aeration > Moisture > Temperature > Structure > pH Level > Sufficient organic matter with appropriate C:N Ratio D. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) --------------------------------------------------- 18 E. Cropping Pattern and Companion Planting ------------------------------------------- 19

REFERENCES ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ - 25

CONTACTS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 25

An Invitation to City Farm
Welcome everyone! To the magic of city farming. More than an introduction, we extend this invitation to you, to share in and grow our experiences with city farming. We hope that it transforms your life in marvelous ways, as it has for so many of us. There is enough and more for everyone! It was only eight years ago at Mumbai Port Trust (MbPT) that we first began to recognise abundance in our lives. Ironically, only when we acknowledged the enormity of our waste and the cost involved in getting rid of it, did change occur. Dr Doshi inspired us through his (terrace) city farm to take the first step, of changing our perception, from waste into resource. From then on, with the guidance of Shri Dipak Suchade, we and our city farm have kept growing. Now, with our 3000 square foot Natueco terrace farm, we feel blessed by both 'successes' and 'failures'. We are grateful, every time we are forced to share our produce with people (not to mention insects and birds), every time we must sweep up the untidy carpet of leaves, every time we go home smelling of Amrut Jal. We have benefited greatly from the wisdom of Prof. Sripad A Dabholkar and feel lucky to share our own struggles in farming with the Prayog Pariwar and others. We are humbled by the creative solutions offered, by common people, found in their everyday lives and are awed by the millions of mysteries that keep confronting us. We don't believe we have all the answers. But we hope that, if we are able to make any aspect of city farming easier or more delightful, we will come one step closer to our dream. IMAGINE all the grey (terraces and balconies) we can see from the 21st floor of Phoenix tower turned green. Wouldn't it be wonderful? Won't you join us?

Natueco City Farming

City farming refers to the creation of farms in the city itself, through natural or innovative techniques in open spaces, terraces, etc. Dr. R.T. Doshi, a PhD in Economics and a recipient of Padmashree Award is considered the pioneer of city farming in Mumbai. Dr. Doshi acknowledges the inspiration of Prof. Sripad A Dabholkar in his pursuit of organic farming. Prof. Dabholkar, a post graduate in science and a mathematics lecturer for eleven years, felt compelled to take voluntary retirement and pursue his calling of a teacher, experimental farmer and researcher inspired by Annasaheb Sahasrabudhe, a coworker of Gandhi at Wardha. Prof. Dabholkar combined the words 'nature' and ecology in the term Natueco to describe a farming technique he introduced in the early 1980s. With this technique not only did Prof Dabholkar revolutionize grapes, banana, sugarcane, maize, bamboo, root crops vegetable culture in Maharashtra but also changed the lives of the small farmers who started earning high incomes in national and international markets! The wonder of the Natueco technique is that it allows us to harvest assured calculated record yields! Paradoxically this calculation is not aimed at a commercial exploitation of land and produce but rather at assuring a yield that is Plenty for All * (*a book written by Prof. Dabholkar about Natueco published in 1998.) Natueco directly affects the environment and the farmer in a very positive manner as there is enrichment and enhancement of neighbourhood resources and a reduction in global warming. Food crops grown in the neighbourhood help to eradicate malnourishment and m ake farmers self-reliant. This technique encourages farmers to experiment and look around their environment for resources and find their own solutions to problems. It aims at liberating the farmer from his dependence on external commercial inputs. In addition, Natueco farmers interact using a unique methodology called Prayog Pariwar. Prayog means experiment and Pariwar is a networking family. People come together by sharing of the results of their experiments so as to solve their farming problems. Natueco believes that the latest scientific knowledge can be made available to each person by 'demystifying' science. (Please visit our e-group www.cityfarmers@yahoogroups.com and blog created for networking, sharing experiences, knowledge and skills.) Natueco is more than a scientific technique. It is a culture wherein one lives in harmony with ones environment with 5 Ls life, livelihood, laughter, learning and love. 1

Benefits of the Natueco Process

zzNatueco works on the premise that there is plenty for all if one follows the processes of nature. This inculcates a non violent, patient, loving approach to farming. Natueco farmers find this approach transcending their farm boundaries to become a part of their lifestyle. The nutrient value and the structure of the soil is one of the best in the world. Plants grown in this soil have higher vitality and nutritional content than conventional plants or even other organic plants Amrut Mitti has a high content of a variety of microbial life which makes it self sustaining. These microbes help provide the best nutrition to the plant, as in natural forests The soil needs to be produced only once in the life of the farm, and over the years it increases in nutritional value and most important, in microbial variety. The high organic carbon content of Amrut Mitti reduces the need of water. It has the capacity to harvest and hold dew and fulfill the needs of moisture.

Top 5 Reasons to City Farm

> Produce better tasting, more nutritious food without the harmful effects of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Urban agriculture supports more sustainable production of food by trying to eliminate the use of harmful pesticides and fertilisers. It also eliminates the need for preservatives, as products do not need to travel long distances. City farming allows fresh vegetables and fruits to be made available to urban consumers. And last but not least, food produced in these ways, especially organic food is a lot tastier and richer in nutrients. > Turn waste into resource and save the city from turning into a garbage-dump. Mumbai city generates about 500 gms of garbage per person per day. Thus, the BMC has to handle 6000 tons of garbage per day including collection, transportation and final disposal. Most of this garbage goes to dumping grounds. City farming enables recycling of a large percentage of this biodegradable garbage at the source itself. > Save on cost of transportation of food. Great quantities of food arrive in the city from far off places, incurring huge energy (and money) costs for their transportation. The energy used to transport food would be greatly reduced if urban agriculture could provide the cities with locally grown food reducing carbon footprint. > Encourage joy, connectedness, creativity and learning. We see our urban lives becoming increasingly disconnected- from ourselves, our communities and from nature. Urban farming creates a space to rebuild these connections. Body, mind and spirit may be simultaneously employed in meaningful, joyful and healthy activities. In addition, communities may be brought closer, sensitizing members to the need to conserve and care (for self and other people, plants and animals). > Provide employment. We see large scale unemployment in cities. Urban agricultural projects are beginning to open a new labour market in areas that have been affected by outsourcing of jobs. The activity of creating city farms has the potential to generate employment in areas such as gardening, nurseries, consultancy, contract for waste recycling (housing societies, corporate, institutions etc), marketing and selling of organic produce.

Focus Area of the Guide

For us, the idea behind city farming is to be able to grow what we need by using natural resources available around us. So check out the available space, the sunlight and biomass available and begin experimenting! Begin at home, in your housing societies or even on office premises. You will be surprised to find more and more possibilities once you know the trick of utilizing the same! Discover the joy of community farming, of sharing and laughing with your neighbour, and literally enjoying the fruits of your efforts. In this guide we will describe the first steps to creating your city farm. Our main focus will be the process of creating your own nutrient rich soil - Amrut Mitti. Choosing your city farm site and style

Building Amrut Mitti Planting Maintaining soil quality and recycling kitchen waste Understanding common modifications and their drawbacks

In the next guide, we will cover subsequent methods of maintaining your city farm, that is (1) canopy management or pruning and (2) root management. PLEASE NOTE: You might need various steps (and ingredients) repeatedly. Some of the steps might also overlap with others. Try to read through the whole guide once before beginning. Finally, remember that this is YOUR experiment so feel free to try things out (and do share with us the successes and the MISTAKES!


1. Choosing Your City Farm Site and Style
The criteria for selection of site are:

> Easy accessibility: Ease of access is important for the long term success of your farm . Ideally
balconies, terraces, or space in your own societies are good for individual initiatives. Parks situated in your neighbourhood, school and colleges, and organisations are good for community projects.

> Availability of sunlight: Ideally plants need eight hours of sunlight. Therefore balconies and
terraces generally make good locations for city farms. Some varieties like banana, papaya can also be grown in filtered sunlight. In case of heavily shaded areas pineapple, mint, coriander, lemon grass and other (strong smelling herbs) can be planted. Place the delicate varieties under a shade net to protect from the scorching heat in summer. In winter mulch heavily (6 8 inches) to protect from severe cold.

> Ventilation: Adequate ventilation is needed for good plant growth. However, protect your plants
from strong winds. Place a windbreaker (either constructed) or natural like bamboo & G lyricidia, for large plants and Vitivar grass for smaller shrubs. In coastal areas plants on the terrace or balcony need to be protected from strong winds during the monsoon by providing external support. This is because when not planted into the ground, the anchoring roots of tall trees do not have the necessary depth to support themselves.

> Efficient Drainage: Saplings should be planted in such a way that water does not stagnate
around the containers or planted areas. It should flow easily into the rain water drains. Ensure too that drains are kept clear and not clogged with runaway soil and leaf litter.

> Worthiness of building structure: Ensure that there are no existing seepage problems (or
cracks) on your terrace and balconies before beginning your city farm. It is advisable to get the slab tested from an authorised person in case of old buildings (for cracks which are not visible). Despite what is frequently believed, a terrace farm does not contribute to seepage where none exists and will not worsen the problem where it does. In fact, in a newly constructed site it can help prevent such problems. This is because the green cover creates an even temperature which prevents expansion and contraction in the concrete. Thus cracks and subsequent seepage problems are prevented. You may face a few other fears when you decide to city farm. For example, the roots of plants will grow into the concrete. At MbPT, inspite of planting directly on beds, till date (in the past eight years) we have had no incidence of this. Similarly, you may fear that the weight of the plants and soil will be too much. This is not so. The initial weight of soil and containers is very low as a lot of biomass or bagasse is used. Over a period of time say 4 to 5 years the weight increases due to decomposition and compaction of composted material. However, it will still be lighter in weight compared to ready made soil from the nursery. Finally, if you fear that your building is not structurally sound you could simply avoid planting large trees on it or just plant small or short life plants. In this way by the end of four or five years when the soil weight has increased, it will be time to remove the plant and redistribute the soil and replant something new. .

2. Materials Required
Please use the following table as a guide to acquiring the required ingredients.


Any aerated container bamboo/plastic baskets, recycled drums, bricks laid out on slab or ground, HTP bags etc. for plantation

HTP bags are available at grocery shops. Bricks, Baskets of plastic or bamboo, are available in market. Drums can be recycled. Surrounding plants

Use easily available materials. Be creative! Plastic laundry baskets cost approx. Rs.120 each. Bricks are available at Rs. 60 per dozen.

Aerated containers


Mixture of tender, mature & dry leaves and other parts of plants Fresh cow dung and not dried Chemical-free black jaggery


Cow dung & cow urine

Cattle sheds and near temples Grocery stores

Rs. 5 per liter for both cow dung and cow urine. Approx. Rs. 40 per kg. Alternatives are any locally available overripe sweet fruit such as banana or jackfruit or sugarcane juice Recycling of kitchen waste


Kitchen waste River sand

Household wet kitchen waste, e.g. Peels of vegetables, fruits, etc. Black colored sand


Construction sites, river beds

Sea sand can be washed properly and used when river sand is not available. Clayey soil can be added Vegetable seeds are approx. Rs. 10 per packet. Sapling price varies with type. Generally free!

River silt Seeds and saplings Sugarcane bagasse

Black coloured silt

River beds

Seeds and saplings of your choice

Nursery, friends, farms

Fibre which remains after extracting the sugarcane juice Soil found in the upper 1 inch of land

Juice vendors

Top soil

Found below big trees or under bushes, in nooks and corners of the path of flowing water. Look in your gardens or building societies. Bakery that uses a furnace for baking. This is an environmentally better option than burning of wood.

If unavailable use red earth from nurseries. Approx. Rs 10- 15 /kg

(Wood) Ash

Ash that remains after burning wood

On a larger farm one may have to burn dried wood, twigs available on site. Free again!

3. Select Containers:
The choice of container depends on available area and ease of sourcing. Any container used should be well aerated. This is necessary as composting generates a lot of heat which needs to be dissipated. The simplest way is to recycle containers/bottles/buckets.HTP bags can be used by cutting the bottom to facilitate aeration and then folding the bags in the shape of a ring. For some, these may lack aesthetic value. However, you could always use your creativity to change this! Using baskets with green matting or old fabric (e.g. sarees, dupattas) stitched around aids aeration and prevents the loss of compost when it gets formed from the decomposing biomass in the container. The net also prevents loss of moisture due to evaporation and thereby reduces water requirements. Planting directly on the slabs has been most successful at MbPT. The roots get adequate space to grow and one can keep adding Amrut Mitti as the canopy spreads. After harvesting, it is easier to clear and plant the next crop. Recycled drums (200 litres) are also helpful. Trees like banana, mango, guava etc. grow well in them. However metal drums have to be replaced every 4 or 5 years due to rust. If by that time the trees have grown well, they become difficult to transplant. Also scrap oil drums are difficult to procure and rather expensive to buy. They should be used only if they are easily available and would otherwise remain unused. For example, in MbPT these drums are used in the port operations and so easily available.

Select among those mentioned below or use your creativity!

Horizontal drum with holes


Drum with holes drilled in it

Directly planted on heaps/beds

4. Building Amrut Mitti - Unique Natueco Soil

How do you start building your own nutrient-rich soil or Amrut Mitti. You copy nature! Nature on its own takes 100 to 500 years to prepare 1 inch of fertile soil. Normally, through wind and rain, and the foraging or movement of animals, layers of varied plant material (of different species and at different growth stages) are deposited on the soil floor. The existing plant canopy and this top layer of plant material protect the soil from harsh weather. On the soil floor, animals trample and break down the plant material, contributing through their own life processes to the organic matter (excreta, urine, etc). Soil macro and micro organisms further process and decompose this organic matter, slowly converting it into fertile soil that is rich in nutrients required for plant growth. When emulating natures method of fertile soil building, rather than waiting for rainfall to irrigate the soil or winds to cover the organic matter with mud you can catalyze the process by providing the required ingredients for fertile soil building. Life is infused into the compost heap (made of layers of biomass and topsoil arranged alternately in layers) through addition of Amrut Jal. The tender leaves and the matured green leaves render the soil full of nutrition and the fibre of dried leaves and stems 5

determine the structure of the soil. In a short period of 1-4 months Amrut Mitti is available. This soil contains well-composted organic parts and mineral parts in equal volume. In addition it is well aerated. Refer to Appendix A and C for more information on the needs of a plant and factors in the soil affecting its growth.

> Collect Green and Dry Biomass

To build Amrut Mitti, your best resource is the plants that grow in the vicinity of your farm. This biomass makes up the bulk raw material for soil. You can collect biomass of diverse plants; herbs, shrubs, grasses, trees, climbers, creepers, runners, etc. so that different nutrients from various plants are obtained. Biomass may include various parts of the plants but ensure that you collect leaves in large quantity. Collect plenty of biomass as it will be often required to be used as mulch. Practically speaking, dry biomass refers to dried fallen leaves whereas green biomass refers to tender and mature leaves that need to be pruned from existing trees/plants/shrubs. Green biomass must also be dried before use. You can chop larger stems or branches and leave them to dry. This process will roughly take a week in good sunlight. When dry, the biomass should be crushed by hand, this breaks the waxy coating on the veins of the leaves so that they can easily absorb Amrut Jal when soaked in it. Mix dried green biomass and dry biomass in equal proportion. For good soil both dry and green biomass are required but if green biomass is unavailable, use only dry biomass to initiate the process. In this case the additional 100 day greening process is required to ensure complete nutrient availability, variety of microbes and good structure of soil. Please refer to the Appendix B for a detailed explanation on why a mixture of leaves is required.

> Collect top soil

Without digging, scrape the top (only 1 cm) layer of any unturned soil found under bushes and trees, in nooks and corners of the path of flowing water or any unexposed soil that lies beneath layers of fallen leaf litter. If the soil has too much clay, add 10% river sand in it to avoid hardening of compost with time. Similarly if the soil in your region has too much sand, add river silt or clay soil in it in order to create the desired soil structure.If soil is unavailable, you can use red earth bought from nurseries. This topsoil is a necessary ingredient, because it contains essential minerals along with dormant forms of microbes. By using this topsoil with the biomass (leaves and branches) you are providing an atmosphere to activate the dormant microbes. The microbes will become active when you mix the topsoil with the moist biomass.

> Prepare Amrut Jal

Ingredients: 1] Ten (10) litres water 2] One (1) liters cow urine 3] One (1) kg fresh cow dung (or dung of any herbivorous animal) 4] Fifty (50) gms black jaggery (or six (6) over ripe bananas or jackfruit or any other sweet fruit locally available or two (2) glasses of sugarcane juice) Preparation time: 5 minutes Maturation Time: three (3) days Method: Make a paste of cow dung, cow urine and jaggery Mix all the ingredients together with water and keep it for three (3) days. Stir the mixture twice or thrice a day, twelve (12) times clock wise and 6

twelve (12) times anti-clock wise each time. On the fourth (4 ) day, take one (1) liters of this concentrate mixture and mix it with ten (10) liters of water. This diluted solution is called Amrut Jal. One gram of cow dung contains crores of non aerobic microbes. Jaggery is used to aid fermentation which helps the microbes to multiply. Cow urine contains several important nutrients. Just as salt adds taste to our food, cow urine adds minerals/salts to the compost to make it more palatable for the microbes to consume. Amrut Jal acts as an accelerating agent for decomposition due to the large quantity of non aerobic th microbes. The microbial activity is highest on the 4 day, after which it starts declining. Hence, for th best results use it on the fourth (4 ) day. After that you may store it for a maximum of two or three more days. It is always a good idea to make sure that the rest of the materials you need are ready before making Amrut Jal. If not, rather than wasting the Amrut Jal use it to water any plants you have and notice the burst of life it gives! Please Note : Amrut Jal is required a number of times during the whole process of preparing Amrut Mitti, therefore read the whole procedure carefully, note when it may be required and accordingly prepare it in time.


> Prepare heaps

Soak the crushed, dried biomass in Amrut Jal for twenty four hours. In this way all the veins and branches will get saturated with Amrut Jal. After this you can begin to prepare the heaps. The first layer should consist of the soaked biomass spread thinly. The second layer is formed by sprinkling some top soil. The quantity of top soil in the layer should be such that it equals the quantity of biomass after complete decomposition. (This needs a bit of visualization and observation. One needs to imagine the decrease in volume of fresh biomass after it loses its freshness and is completely decomposed. As this differs from leaf to leaf of different varieties of plants, a specific measure cannot be given. A good estimate is to imagine adding salt to your food and sprinkle top soil accordingly for each layer or to use top soil equivalent to the volume of bio mass. Also sprinkle some Amrut Jal to moisten the top soil. Keep on alternating the layers, pressing them downwards tightly by walking or dancing on them until a height of two (2) feet is reached on a terrace slab or one (1) foot on a farm i.e., about thirty (30) to fifty (50) layers. Cover with a final layer of mulch; in this case biomass or sugar cane bagasse soaked in Amrut Jal.Jute gunny bags can also be dipped in Amrut Jal and used for mulching. Heaps may be upto three (3) feet broad to permit air to circulate freely through them but they may be of any desired length. They should also be protected from direct sunlight and rain. Heap preparation facilitates natures way of soil building through decomposition. Alternating the layers helps to increase the surface area available between top soil and Amrut Jal soaked biomass, thereby speeding up decomposition. The top layer of mulch protects the process from direct sunlight, protects the microbes and helps to retain the moisture.

Quick Tip: Ready to use Amrut Mitti should contain equal proportions of top soil and decomposed biomass.

> Keep for Composting

After the heaps are made,

Remove the mulch and turn (mix) every seven days. Mulch again after turning Sprinkle Amrut Jal till moist (not soggy) as and when required Keep for thirty to forty (30- 40) days or till composted.

> Green the heap (additional 100 day process)

Through the greening process you start your search for plant nutrients from your soil. It is optional in case you have used both dry and green biomass in your composting process (Please refer to Appendix B for additional explanation). However if you have used only dry biomass then it becomes imperative. From the growing parts of the plants you harvest plant nutrients and build up the volume of fertile soil. It is not important whether plants grow vigorously or germinate and die or are suffering in keen competition. You recycle the whole biomass to build up the nutrients and limited requirement of soil. Collect a mixture of easily available local seeds and soak in Amrut Jal for 8 hours. The selection should ideally include fruits, vegetables including leafy vegetables, herbs, grains, pulses, big trees, oil-plants, spices and species having short term, mid term and long term life span . Alternatively they could also be selected as per the different tastes such as; sweet varyali/ saunf, sour - tamarind, tomato, ambadi, pungent - chilli, astringent - gawar, salty - spinach, rajgara, bitter- karela, methi, etc. Spread on a dry cloth overnight for sprouting. If you have used organic mulch, turn the heap incorporating the mulch into the heap. Remake the heap adding a thin layer of red earth or top soil on the surface of heap. Sow the seeds in this upper layer. Again sprinkle red earth/top soil so as to cover the seeds completely with it. The ratio is 10 grams of seeds to be sprinkled per square foot area. Mulch the heap with very finely crushed leaves or leave it as it is without mulch. . Sprinkle with Amrut Jal from time to time to maintain the moisture of the heap and microbial activity. Keep for 21 days after sprouting of seeds.

After the first twenty one (21) day interval After twenty one (21) days from the date of germination of seeds, the plants would have grown to some height. Harvest (cut off) the upper twenty five percent (25 %) of the tender shoots, without disturbing the roots and lower stem so that plants grow again. The cuttings should be spread on top of the mulched heap. Here, you are harvesting the tender leaves of the plant which will provide the nutrients zinc, boron, phosphate and molybdenum. Let the cut plants grow for another twenty one (21) days. After the second twenty one (21) day interval nd By the 42 day, the plants would have grown into saplings with matured leaves. Again, Cut off twenty five percent (25 %) of the growth, which will consist of some tender and matured leaves without disturbing the roots and lower part of the stem to allow the plants to grow again. Spread these green cuttings on the mulched heap. Here you are harvesting the mature leaves of the plant 8

which will provide the nutrients nitrogen, magnesium and potash.Let the cut saplings grow for another twenty one (21) days. After the third twenty one (21) day interval On the 63rd day, some plants would have grown significantly and started flowering. Cut all the flowering plants from the bottom just keeping an inch of the stem above the ground and without disturbing the roots. Chop plant parts up in two (2) or three (3) inch pieces and spread them out on the mulched heap. Leave for three (3) to four (4) days till they dry and can be further crushed easily. Immerse dried cuttings in Amrut Jal for eight (8) hours. Mix into the heap.

Compost the heap for an additional thirty (30) days. Just as during the first composting period, turn the heap regularly, making sure it is moist and mulched always. This step is unique to Natueco and very important to develop a culture that includes a wide variety of micro organisms in your soil. Roots of plants belonging to different plant families contain certain carbonaceous materials which may be the favourite food for certain microbes. Therefore, it is the root which decides which microbes to attract. At the flowering stage the plants are full of nutrition and the microbial activity near the root zone is at its peak. This ensures conversion of nutrients from unavailable form into available form. Thus through the greening process you a re replicating natures grassland and pasture eco system evolution in a limited space. Without this you will be daily losing the opportunity to harvest sunlight. For a better understanding of the greening process please also refer to the Appendix B

> Check your Amrut Mitti

Good compost should never stink. Stink indicates that decomposition is not happening correctly and attention is required (You may check the aeration or the moisture). Amrut Mitti should have the pleasant smell of first rain. Amrut Mitti will be crumbly and have a soft texture (one should not be able to make firm balls (ladoos) out of it). If balls (ladoos) do get formed, you need to add some river sand or washed sea sand. A litre measure of good Amrut Mitti should weigh about 400 grams. A greater weight implies that the mineral content is high. If your Amrut Mitti weighs more first check the moisture content. There might simply be too much moisture. If it is not too moist then you may add some organic matter and allow it to compost further. When building Amrut Mitti, your magic touch with a heart full of gratitude will help pass on your positive energy. Visualize the abundance in nature with love and trust and observe its manifestation through your actions. This empowers you with self knowledge wherein you experience the self as not apart but one with the Universe. This experience changes your perception of the world and you learn to give love, compassion and acceptance to your self as well as all beings on earth. With experience you may explore new avenues to enhance Amrut Mitti but always remember that Mother Natures soil is the very best. So let her be your guide, and there will be abundance for sure .

5. Planting
Now that your Amrut Mitti is ready the next step is to plant saplings or to sow some seeds so start with choosing the saplings and seeds.

> Choosing saplings and seeds

It is always a good idea to involve your whole family in the city farming process so ask them what they would like to grow and try that. You can grow things that you find useful as well as those you find beautiful (most likely others will find them beautiful too and you'll have lots of butterflies and other insect visitors!) You can start with herbs such as lemon grass, tulsi, pudina, pepper mint and curry leaves. As you gain more confidence and experience move on to vegetables such as lady finger, brinjal, chilies, 9

tomatoes and even corn and haldi, and then graduate to fruit trees! Ask your sabzi walas and local farmers (including other city farmers) too what might be easily grown locally.

> Inter cropping & Companion planting

Just as we like to be with our friends, plants have their companions too. Planting particular plants together can attract good insects and drive away pests. In general, mixed crops and strong smells repel garden enemies, while flowers attract beneficial insects. Companion planting is a natural way to protect plants. Growing plants with different needs together cuts competition and helps to utilize and conserve the soil .A multi layered city farm, with plants at different heights, is a form of intercropping that makes the most of available space and sunshine. . When choosing companion plants for your farm you may consider the following aspects among others Tall plants next to small ones Deep rooted plants next to shallow rooted plants Climbing plants next to ground plants Broad leaves next to narrow leaves. Nitrogen fixing plant with plants yielding carbohydrate e.g. mung with maize

Please refer to the Appendix E for details on cropping pattern and companion planting.

> Planting Saplings, Sowing Seeds

Soak sugarcane bagasse in Amrut Jal for twenty four (24) hours. Sugarcane bagasse works well because it contains sugar which aids fermentation. It also provides aeration, absorbs and retains moisture and gives good structure to soil on decomposition. Moreover, it is easily available from the gannawala. In case sugarcane bagasse is not available any other dry fibrous organic matter e.g. rice husk or coconut fiber may be used. Fill the first forty percent (40%) of the container with the soaked sugarcane bagasse Then fill in the Amrut Mitti. Six to nine inches of Amrut Mitti is all that is needed to plant a grafting or seedling. Soak the roots of the sapling (if bought from a nursery) in Amrut Jal for a few minutes to remove the excess soil (Retain some soil near roots). Then place the sapling in the container. Spread the roots in all directions gently with your fingers. Add wood ash on the roots and in surrounding soil. Add Amrut Mitti and plant the sapling firmly in it. Mulch with dried grass, organic matter or sugarcane bagasse. Thereafter as the plant grows you can add four (4) litres of Amrut Mitti for every square foot of growth in the canopy.

If planting directly on a heap or bed on a terrace slab, the same procedure is to be followed including beginning with a bottom layer of sugarcane bagasse.

Refer to Appendix C for details on factors affecting growth of plants.

6. Maintaining soil quality and recycling kitchen waste.

The procedure of building soil must be done only once in the lifetime of the farm. Maintaining the proper balance of the elements ensures that the soil will continue to be a fertile one The compost heap is subject to both loss of volume as well as a loss of nutrients. There are several ways you can maintain the quality of the soil. Refer to Appendix C for information related to this step. 10

> Adding wood ash

You can collect dry wood from trees pruned in your own compound and burn it to obtain wood ash. In urban areas ash can be sourced from local bakeries rather than burning wood. 25 grams of ash can be given per square foot at intervals of 100 days or three months. Ash is alkaline in nature, therefore adding it to soil helps to maintain the pH level. In addition, it helps to return to the soil all the elements the plant extracted from it.

> Mulching
There is a thirty percent (30%) loss of carbon of the compost heap annually due to the conversion of carbon into carbon dioxide because of the heat. Covering the heap with grass cuttings and dry leaves or mulching helps to control the temperature of the heap and compensate for the loss of carbon. Moreover, when microbes in the soil are exposed to the sun for even a short period, they die, resulting in a waste of effort taken to build them up. Hence, it is prudent to always keep the soil mulched. Mulching also reduces loss of moisture due to evaporation. It also helps in aeration as earthworms keep coming to the surface to release its excreta and inhale oxygen in effect tilling the soil. Erosion of the Amrut Mitti heap can also be minimized by live mulching, i.e. by planting lentils, sesame, and mustard, maize and ragi etc. Choose plants which are companions to the main plants . They provide pest control, help hold nutrients in soil, provide biomass for recycling back to the heap. For example, mustard repels pests, attracts beneficial parasitoids wasps and hoverflies. (Refer to Appendix E for details on companion planting.) The volume of the Amrut Mitti heap can also be maintained by providing it with roots, leaves and branches from the plant material harvested from the same heap. For example, after harvesting bananas from the plant, the stem is cut leaving 1 foot of stem from the bottom. The whole plant is then cut, dried and added as mulch to the area where it was growing. This ensures that all nutrients taken by the plant from the soil are returned back to the soil. When green biomass decomposes methane is produced which retards the growth of the white feeder roots. Therefore, remember to place green biomass on top of dry biomass, so that it dries before the decomposition begins.

> Adding kitchen waste

Natueco is a simple method to grow your own food. Because it follows the cyclical nature of life it offers you the additional advantage of turning your kitchen waste into a resource in the most efficient way possible. You can add a fistful of organic kitchen waste into your container or heap on slab everyday. Initially you should limit the waste, adding only a little at a time or adding after a gap of a day or two. Remember plants are like your infant babies. You dont start feeding them as soon as they are born. The feeding pattern progresses with the growth of the baby. Similarly over time you will notice that the rate of decomposition increases and you will be able to increase the quantity and frequency of waste added. This indicates that your waste has begun to contribute to the fertility of the soil. As the rate of decomposition increases you will also notice a loss of volume in the container or heap. To compensate for this loss we suggest that every 15 to 20 days (depending on the rate of decomposition) you add a layer of sugarcane bagasse soaked in Amrut Jal again as mulch. For some, the addition of mulch contributes aesthetically to the process of decomposition of kitchen waste. Waste should be added over the mulch, away from the stem of a planted sapling and never in direct contact with the soil. You can finely chop or pulverise the waste to ensure faster decomposition and because pulverised waste is less likely to attract pests. If you find that the waste is attracting fruit flies you can sprinkle a little soil over it. In just a few minutes you will notice the flies disappear. Also check for too much moisture. Refer to Appendix C for information related to this step.

> Maintaining moisture content

As roots grow after sunset, the best time to water plants is at sunset. Plants take in nutrition in moonlight and moisture is required for absorption of these nutrients. Watering in the evening also reduces water loss due to evaporation. You will require approximately one litre of water per square foot for ten days depending on the humidity and surrounding micro climate of your farm. You can add this water in staggered intervals based on what is required. 11

It is best to use a garden hose pipe to water the plant. Using the drip irrigation method often results in over-watering in one place. This water-logging causes rotting of the roots and leaching of the nutrients out of the topsoil. The white feeder roots take fifty two hours to grow back. Simultaneously, the surrounding areas may have too little water, leading to microbial death. Using a hose not only makes it easy for the gardener to gauge and control the quantity of water supplied but it also gives him or her the opportunity to visit the plant frequently. A relationship between care taker and plant can only enhance production! Remember plants need moisture not water! So do not over water.

> Monsoon care

During the monsoon there may be leaching of nutrients. To minimize this you should sow seeds of different varieties around the plant. When the saplings grow their roots prevent leaching of nutrients. The bio mass of these saplings should later be cut, dried and added to the soil to maintain the nutrition levels. You should also add wood ash to Amrut Mitti every month during the monsoon as this replaces all the nutrients that may have been lost due to leaching of nutrients in heavy rains. Beginning the process of building Amrut Mitti cannot be done in an open area or field during the monsoons as excess moisture will create anaerobic conditions. However, it can be undertaken in a sheltered area. Also, acquiring dried biomass or drying biomass is difficult during monsoons. However, if you already have collected biomass or have somewhere where it may be dried before use, you may start the process during the monsoons.

7. Understanding common modifications and their drawbacks

Some common modifications to the Natueco method of soil formation and creation of city farms include the following.

> Shortcuts
A common shortcut to the Natueco technique of building soil is to use ready made garden soil and water it with Amrut Jal. Ready made garden soil does not have a high microbial count. Therefore when kitchen waste is added to it daily it does not decompose in the right manner. This may result in foul smell, fruit flies etc. Adding Amrut Jal may help to the extent of nourishing the white feeder roots. However as the garden soil in contact with the roots is of poor quality, it does not provide all the nutrients to the growing plants. The results will be evident in the poor tree canopy and consequently a lower yield.

> Using the EM Technology instead of Amrut Jal

The Effective Microorganisms or EM is a liquid culture of aerobic and anaerobic micro organisms mainly sourced from human food processing & from nature. It consists of lactobacilli, yeast, photosynthetic bacteria, ray fungi and filamentous fungi. The ingredients must be purchased, so it involves reliance on outside resources. The microbes in EM culture are not local microbes, which would not be more sustainable. Microbes in EM culture may also not be of optimum quantity and variety depending on the age of the purchased solution.

> Using chemicals with your soil

This technique is in fact retrogressive, as both fertilizers and pesticides kill beneficial microbes along with the bad ones and thus poisoning and reducing the quality of the soil.

> Using cow dung or vermicompost instead of preparing Amrut Mitti

Usually cow dung is stored in a pile, which results in anaerobic decomposition. When this is later placed on the field, it absorbs oxygen from the soil resulting in lowered oxygen supply to the plant. If it rains before complete decomposition takes place, nutrients are leached out. Often cow dung is used before it is properly decomposed. This does not provide proper nutrition to the plant. Vermicompost is usually done using either dry leaves or kitchen waste. This provides only a percentage of the nutrients compared to those in Amrut Mitti. Also composting is done away from the farm and therefore the enzymes released during decomposition, which are essential for the formation of the white feeder roots, are lost. When this vermicompost is used on the farms it is first mixed with the soil. This alters the structure as well as the microbial count. When transferring from the


vermicompost heaps/ bins to the farm the worms are unable to survive because of the higher temperatures in the field. In city farming, using vermicompost instead of Amrut Mitti to recycle waste may eventually result in excess breeding of earthworms. This makes the soil sticky and acidic a condition which becomes an obstacle to growth of new hatchings. As worm hatchings are acidic. If vermicompost is used in the farm without providing mulching or organic matter the earthworms die and do not survive over a period of time..

> Tilling and burning

Most tilled fields have a period during which they are bare and exposed to the sun. The land then becomes subject to erosion by water, wind hot surface temperatures and scaling from hammering impact of raindrops that result in water and soil runoff. It also results in a loss of organic carbon resulting in a loss of water holding capacity. Similarly, burning of crop residues is also injurious to soil biology. Many organisms are killed and the food for decomposers is eliminated. Once again the ground is left bare and exposed.


A. Determining the needs of a plant
The periodic table contains about 100 to 120 elements discovered until today. All these are needed by plants in macro or micro quantities. One can surmise the nutrients or elements taken by a plant from the soil by determining the mineral content of the plants themselves. To do this, typically, healthy plants are incinerated under controlled conditions and the mineral content in the ash analysed.

Weight of fresh biomass is called fresh weight

weight that remains constant after drying is called Dry weight

If we allow fresh biomass to dry in the sun and weigh it on alternate days, we see a loss of weight for some days till a constant weight is arrived at. The measured weight at that time is the dry weight.

Most plant parts are made of carbohydrate

Carbohydrates Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen

These come from


Thus, when dry biomass is burnt the gasses carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen (taken from soil) escape. Experimental calculation has revealed that out of 100% dry weight of plants 44% --- carbon 44% --- oxygen 6% --- hydrogen 4% --- nitrogen ------------------------------98 % Total The remaining ash when weighed is found to be equal to 2% of dry weight. Thus we conclude that the four elements from the environment constitute 98% of plant requirements while more than thirty (almost 120 as per the current periodic table and increasing as new discoveries take place) macro and micro nutrients or elements from the soil constitute only 2% of plants needs. The problems associated with commercial farming today occur because a majority of farmers concentrate on providing the 4 major elements (nutrients needs of plants) and do not give importance to the micro nutrients. However it is the presence of these micro nutrients in soil that provide vital energy to the plant. This vital energy is the energy that protects us from pests and diseases. These micro nutrients are made available to plants only in living soils .rich in microbial life. 14

B. Why is a mixture of leaves necessary to build Amrut Mitti ?

Any new growth on a plant will contain all micronutrients and phosphate contents in it because every new cell in the meri-stem needs all of these before it comes into existence. Thus the tender parts of plants if used for soil building can help to improve the mineral content of our soil. On the other hand, when new growth begins to lose its tenderness and as leaves expand, the mineral nutrients that are necessary for this stage of growth are nitrogen, potash, magnesium, sulphur, iron manganese and copper. Since these are necessary for healthy leaves of the plants, recycling these leaves will yield the same minerals back to the soil. Finally, as leaves mature with age, calcium is incorporated more and more in the cells. When these leaves age and die before falling from the plant 70% of the mobile contents of nutrients are carried back to the mother plant for further use or as a reserve for new growth, e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sulphur, zinc, copper. But 30% of the elements like iron, manganese, boron, calcium and silica are not returned to the plant as these are immobilized in the system. Therefore we can say that: Tender leaves provide Zinc, Boron, Phosphate, Molybdenum Matured leaves provide Nitrogen, Magnesium, Potash Dried leaves provide Calcium, Silica, Boron, Iron, Manganese There are some elements in the periodic table that have been discoved only recently. It does not mean that they did not exist before. When we recycle the different parts of plants at different stages of their growth we incorporate not only the known nutrients but also the unknown nutrients into our soil.

C. Factors Affecting Growth of Plants > Soil has to be LIVE

Too often we consider soil only in terms of its chemical and physical structure and texture. We ignore what makes it alive or living, what supports the life (flora and fauna) we see above its surface. In reality the soil food web or the community of organisms that live in a healthy soil include innumerable bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, soil arthropods and earthworms. And as climate, region and other factors change, we also see differences in the ratios and diversity of soil organisms. Soil micro-organisms play different roles in supporting healthy plant life

> Nutrient retention and cycling

In a healthy soil food web, bacteria and fungi store nutrients from decomposed organic matter in their own bodies, immobilizing nutrients and thereby reducing leaching. The cycling of these nutrients happens when other sets of soil organisms (primarily protozoa, bacterial and fungi feeding nematodes, micro arthropods and earthworms) are present to consume nutrient rich bacteria and fungi and release (excess) nutrients in plant available form. This process invariably involves less leaching than the application of synthetic fertilizers.

> Improved soil structure and water infiltration, absorption and holding capacity
Various processes and secretions of soil organisms help to create air and water passageways as well as contribute to the structure of soil. For example, bacteria populations secrete glue like sticky materials that bind sand, silt, clay and small soil organic matter into micro aggregates. Similarly earthworms glaze passageways with a nutrient rich and active microbial slime layer that greatly enhances water holding capacity and soil structure.

> Pest and disease suppression

Soil organisms break down toxic compounds in soil, produce plant growth promoting hormones and chemicals, out compete and suppress disease causing organisms and buffer soil pH. When there is a healthy balance of microorganisms in the food web, pests and diseases can be out competed or preyed upon. When a balance is not maintained, for example if fungal diversity and volume is reduced, micro arthropods and nematodes whose main food source is normally fungi foods may attack plant roots instead. Thus the measure of a healthy soil should include the presence of organic matter and the full range of micro and macro organisms. So many damaged agricultural lands, especially in the tropics where solar radiation is intense throughout the year, may be healed by keeping the soil covered, not tilling, 15

practicing crop rotation, maximising organic matter and reintroducing needed soil biology to bring breath and life back into the soil. To know whether your soil is alive or not you have to simply look at it and smell it. Disturb the soil, and if you see hundreds of little creatures scurrying about trying to hide from you, you know that it is alive. It does not look like nursery bought soil which is typically dry (stored in bags for days) and devoid of any signs of life. Similarly, a live soil smells like the first rains, figuratively announcing the potential for life and literally announcing the presence of actinomycetes. QUICK TIP : Remember to add Amrut Jal.

> Aeration
Although the soil surface appears solid, air moves freely in and out of it. The air in the upper eight (8) inches of a well-drained soil is completely renewed about every hour. - Soil Factoids, US National Soil Survey Centre. Plant roots need air as well as water and nutrients. Both micro and macro-organisms that help decompose organic matter and make nutrients available to plants also need air. Aeration is necessary to promote the growth of beneficial aerobic microbes During composting the absence of air results in anaerobic decomposition which results in the production of alcohols, organic acids which lower the pH and injure soil biology and make certain nutrients less available. Anaerobic conditions select for and allow the disease causing bacteria and fungi to win in the fight for plant tissues. Some plant nutrients under low oxygen conditions can be reduced (chemically changed) into forms that volatilise into the atmosphere and thus become useless to plants and soil organisms .e.g. Nitrogen contained in inorganic compounds can be changed into ammonia that evaporates into the atmosphere. If foul odours of anaerobic and putrefactive conditions exist when the heap is disturbed either by turning or by digging into it for inspection purposes, turn the heap daily until odours disappear. No matter how anaerobic a heap may become, it will recover under a schedule of daily turning that reduces moisture and provides aeration. QUICK TIP : Remember to 1. Not over water. 2. Use mixed biomass, layer the heap and turn it. 3. Not till your soil.

> Moisture
Just like people, compost organisms need water to live. If adequately aerated, composting material with moisture content between thirty to seventy percent (30%-70%) will be aerobic. In practice, however, care must be taken to avoid too much water because this displaces the air from the interstices between the particles causing anaerobic conditions. Similarly too little moisture deprives organisms of water needed for their metabolism, and inhibits their activity. Maximum moisture content for satisfactory aerobic composting varies with the materials used. If straw and strong fibrous materials like bagasse are used, the moisture content can be much greater without destroying structural qualities or causing the material to become soggy, compact and unable to contain enough air in the interstices. But if it contains lots of grass clippings, or dried green bio mass which have little structural strength when wet, less water is better. The best way to maintain perfect moisture content is to observe and feel the soil. It should be similar to a wrung out sponge, just moist but not soggy. QUICK TIP : Remember to keep moist but not too wet and always mulch .

> Temperature
In aerobic composting temperature is the most important environmental factor influencing biological processes and microbial activity. Heat is released during decomposition. Mulching helps to insulate the heap and maintain the temperature in the heap. In low temperatures the microbial activity falls. 0 0 Most soil organisms grow well in twenty five to thirty seven degrees Celsius (25 37 C). 16

QUICK TIP : Remember to mulch and protect from extreme weather.

> Structure
Addition of shredded organic material and composting it by arranging in alternate layers makes it easier to handle and keep moist and aerated. Smaller uniform particles enable the compost to heat more evenly, and to withstand excessive drying at the surface Shredding and layering exposes a greater surface area, which makes it more susceptible to bacterial invasion. Bacteria convert the thick fibrous parts of plants into humus under favourable humid conditions in the presence of oxygen, 0 0 nitrogen and temperature range of fifteen to twenty five degrees Celsius (15 to 25 C). Cellulose provides energy to the bacteria. Under these conditions micro flora thrives and on their death their dead bodies form lingo proteins. Humus and lingo proteins contribute towards stability and structure of soil. QUICK TIP : Remember to use mixed biomass, shred and layer. Add mulch and waste shredded.

> pH level
pH is the measure of acidity or alkalinity of soil, with seven (7) considered neutral and numbers below, acidic and above, alkaline. pH affects nutrient retention and availability and therefore extreme pH conditions can cause plant diseases due to unavailability of essential nutrients. A simple method to test pH of soil is with litmus paper. A small sample of soil is mixed with distilled water, into which a strip of litmus paper is inserted. If the soil is acidic the paper turns red, if alkaline, blue. If you find the soil acidic you can add wood ash (at approx. twenty five (25) gms/sq feet) to neutralise the acidity. In case the soil is alkaline you can add organic matter or compost. QUICK TIP : Remember to add wood ash every three months and every month in monsoons with Amrut Jal.

> Sufficient organic matter with appropriate C:N Ratio

Organic matter is an essential prerequisite for maximum number and activity of heterotrophic (deriving its nourishment and carbon requirements from organic substances) microorganisms. These organisms use carbon as a source of energy and nitrogen for building cell structure. They need more carbon than nitrogen. The C:N ratio of the organic material added to the soil influences the rate of decomposition of organic matter and this results in the release or immobilisation of soil nitrogen. Decomposition takes longer when the initial C: N ratio is much above 30:1. The lower the ratio the quicker the organic matter will break down and release nutrients in forms available for plant uptake. With a C:N ratio of 30:1 decomposition can be as quick as six to eight (6-8) weeks. It is important to regularly add organic matter to soil to maintain volume, structure, and nutrition, temperature and moisture in the heap. Materials high in carbon include leaves, sawdust, wood chips, and straw. High nitrogen materials include grass clippings food scraps and manure.

Organic material
Cow manure Fruits peelings waste Grass clippings Leaves Horse Manure Straw

C: N Ratio
20:1 35:1 12-25:1 30-80:1 25:1 40-100:1

QUICK TIP : Remember to 1. Mulch regularly with mixed biomass 2. Add Amrut Jal.


D. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

How do we tell if our Amrut Mitti is good or not? Refer - Check your Amrut Mitti - Page 9

Factors affecting growth of plants Refer - Page 14 to 16

When should we water? How much? Refer - Maintaining moisture content - Page11 Refer - Factors affecting growth of plants - Page14 to16

What precautions can be taken against leaching during the monsoon? Refer - Monsoon care - Page 11 to12 Refer - Ventilation - Page 3

Will my terrace/ balcony leak because of my city farm? Refer - Choosing your city farm site and style - Page 3

Will I have insects and pests in my house because of my city farm? Refer - Choosing your city farm site and style - Page 3

Where can I find cow dung and cow urine? What do I do if cow dung and cow urine are not available? Refer - Materials required - Page 4 Refer Prepare Amrut Jal - Page 6 to 7 Refer Monsoon Care - Page 11 to12 Refer - Prepare heaps Page 7

Can we start the natueco method in the monsoon?

Why is it necessary to make the heap in alternate layers of organic matter and soil?

If you still have questions, concerns or suggestions please feel free to share them on cityfarmers@yahoogroups.com or contact us.



Provided below are two tables to guide for Cropping Pattern & for Companion Planting ;


Sr No .
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12

Regional Name
Maka Bhendi Vangi Tomato Pankobi Dhbli mirchi Kakdi Doodhi Tondli Karli Kanda Batata

Common Name

Scientific Name

Sowing or Planting Month

April - July Feb - June Jan, Feb, Aug - Dec July - Nov Sept - Dec April - June Feb - May, June Feb - May, June Feb, Oct, Nov Feb, March, June July Oct - Nov

Propagation by

Life Span

Gives Yield in Days/Months

end of 3rd month 60th day onwards 60th day onwards 60th day onwards end of 3rd month 2nd months onwards 60 - 75 days 72 days onwards 3rd month onwards 45 days onwards End of 3 months end of 21/2 months

Corn Okra Brinjal Tomato Cabbage Capsicum Cucumber Bottle Gourd Little Gourd Bitter Gourd Onion Potato

Zea mays Abelmoschus esculantus Solanum melongena Solanum lycopersicum Brassica olearacea Solanaceae, capsicum Cucumis Sativus Legenaria siceraria Coccinia grandis Momordica charantia Alclium cepa Solanum tuberosum

seed seed seed seed seed seed seed seed seed seed seed seed

90 days (3 months) 180 days (6 months) 180 days - 3 years 180 days (6 months) 90 days (3 months) 180 days (6 months) 120 days (4 months) Up to 1 year 180 days (6 months) 90 days (3 months) 90 days (3 months) 75-80 days (6 months)



Sr No .
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Regional Name
Ratala Beet Gajar Mula Shengdana Peppermint Lasoon Adrak Pudina Celery Gavti Cha

Common Name

Scientific Name

Sowing or Planting Month

April, May Oct, Nov Oct - Dec Oct - Dec June anytime July May - June April - May November Anytime

Propagation by

Life Span

Gives Yield in Days/Months

end of 3months end of 3months end of 3months end of 3months end of 3months continuous End of 3 months 300 days (10 months) continuous After 3 months continuous As per growth, 3 month onwards continuous

Sweet Potato Beet Root Carrot Radish Groundnut Peppermint Garlic Ginger Mint Celery Lemon Grass

Ipomea batatas Beta vulgaris Daucus carota Raphanus sativus Apios americana Mentha piperita Alliums sativum Zinziber officinale Mentha arvensis Apium graveolens Cymbopogon citatus

cutting seed seed seed seed cutting cloves Eye of ginger rhizomes seed root

90 days (3 months) 90 days (3 months) 90 days (3 months) 90 days (3 months) 90 days (3 months) Needs to replanted 90 days (3 months) 300 days(10 months) Needs to be replanted 6-8 months 2-3 years needs to be replanted 1 year 7-10 years

24 25

Tulsi Kadipatta

Basil Cuury Leaves

Ocimum basilicum Murraya koenigii

Anytime Anytime

seed roots



Sr No .
26 27 28 29 31 32 33

Regional Name
Mohri Haldi Amba haldi Palak Methi Chawli Phoolgobi

Common Name

Scientific Name

Sowing or Planting Month

Oct - Dec May - June May June Jan-April , July -Oct Jan, Feb Feb, March, April, May Sep-Dec

Propagation by

Life Span

Gives Yield in Days/Months

90 days 10 months 300 days (10 months) 60 days onwards 7 day onwards 3 month onwards End of 3 months
rd th

Mustard Turmeric Mango Turmeric Spinach Fenugreek Cow Pea Culiflower

Brassica juncea Curcuma longa Curcuma amanda Spinacia oleracea Trigonella foenum graecum Vigna sinesis Brassica clearacea

seed Eye of haldi Eye of Amba haldi seed seed seed seed

90 days (3 months) 300 days (10 months) 300 days (10 months) 120 days (4 months) 90 days (3 months) 180days (6 months) 90 days (3 months)


Alliums (Onion, Garlic )

Fruit Trees, Nightshades (Tomato, Pepper, Potato, etc), Brassica (Cabbage, Broccoli, Kohlrabi, etc) Carrot Lettuce, Kohlrabi, Onions and Brassica Carrot

Helped By

Bean, Pea, Parsley

Alliums include Onion, Garlic, Leek, Shallot, Chive, and others. Repels Slug, Aphid, Carrot Fly, Cabbage Worm [1]


Catnip, Garlic, Mint

Runner or Pole Bean, Leek, Lettuce, Sweet Corn,

Good for adding minerals to the soil through composting leafs which have up to 25% magnesium. Runner or Pole



Name Helps Helped By


Bean and Beet stunt each other's growth.


Corn (see Three Sisters), Spinach, Lettuce, Rosemary, Summer Savory, Dill, Carrot, Brassica, Beet, Radish, Strawberry and Cucumber Tomato, Pepper, Asparagus, Petunias, Bean

Eggplant, Summer Savory

Tomatoes, Chili Pepper, Sunflower, Alliums (Onion, Garlic, etc), Kales (Cabbage, Broccoli, etc)

Hosts nitrogen-fixing bacteria, a good fertilizer for some plants, too much for others. Repels California Beetles


Is said to make Tomato taste better.


Geranium, Dill, Alliums, Rosemary

Mustard, Tomato, Pepper, Strawberry, and Pole/Runner Bean Dill, Parsnip, Radish

Rosemary repels cabbage flies, geraniums trap cabbage worms, same general companion profile as all Brassica (Cabbage, Kolhrabi, Brussels sprouts, Cauliflower, etc) Tomato grow better with Carrot, but may stunt the Carrots' growth. Bean (which are bad for Tomato) provide the nitrogen Carrot need more than some other vegetables. Aromatic companion plants repel Carrot Fly. Sage, Rosemary, and Radish are recommended by some as companion plants, but listed by others as incompatible. Alliums inter planted with Carrots confuse Onion and Carrot Flies. For the beneficial insect-attracting properties of Carrot to work, they need to be allowed to flower; Otherwise, use the wild Carrot, Queen Anne's Lace, for the same effect. Flax produces an oil that may protect root vegetables like Carrots from some pests.


Tomatoes, Alliums (Onions, Celery, Dill, Garlic)

Alliums (Leek, Shallot, etc), rosemary, Wormwood, Sage, Bean, Flax


Red Pepper, Eggplant, Basil, Carrot, Tomato, Onion, Leek




Bean, Celery, Dill

Helped By

Pea, Potato, Tomato



Spinach, Carrot, Beans, Basil, Cauliflower, Cucumber, Leek

Cosmos, Daisy,

Corn, Aster flowers, these can transmit the aster yellows disease Tomato, Celery Provides Bean with a trellis, is protected from predators and dryness by Cucurbit, in the three sisters technique

Corn / Maize


Sunflower, Legume (Bean, Pea, Soybean etc), Peanut, Curcubit (Squash, Cucumber, Melon, etc), Amaranth, White Geranium, Lamb's Quarter, Morning Glory, Parsley, and Potato Nasturtium, Radish, Marigold, Sunflower, Pea, Beet, carrot, and Dill Marigold, Tarragon, Mint


Celery, Dill, Fennel, Garlic, Onion, Sweet Corn, Beetroot, Cabbage

Tomato, Sage, Potato

Eggplant / Brinjal Garlic

Beans, Pepper

Runner Bean

Marigold will deter nematodes

Lettuce, Celery, Beetroot, Carrot, Fruit trees, Cucumber, Tomato, Capsicum Bell Pepper. Capsicum, Lettuce, Potato, tomato, Cabbage, Cabbage, Rose, Cucumber, Pea

All Bean, Pea

Repels Aphids, Ants, Rabbits, Cabbage Maggot



Repels Cabbage Flies





Helped By

Sunflower, Tomato, Cucumber

Horseradish increases the disease resistance of Potato


Lettuce, Melon, Spinach, Sweet Corn, Tomato, Carrot, Fr Bean, Cabbage Potato, Radish, Strawberry, Tomato, Cabbage, Celery, Fruit Trees Rose, Pepper, Asparagus Pea, Bean Garlic The Pea and Bean provide natural shade for the Spinach



Basil, Oregano, Parsley, Carrot, Marigold, Alliums, Celery, Geranium, Petunias, Nasturtium, Borage

Black Walnut, Corn, Fennel, Pea, Dill, Potatoes, Beetroot, Brassicas (Kohlrabi, Cabbage, etc), Rosemary

Black walnuts inhibit tomato growth, in fact they are allelopathic to all other nightshade plants (Chili Pepper, Potato, Tobacco, Petunia) as well, because it produces a chemical called juglone. Repels Asparagus Beetle

Sources: http://www.sustainable-gardening-tips.com/Vegetable-Garden-Layout.html and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_companion_plants


Book: Plenty for All - The Prayog Pariwar Methodology, a book by Prof. S.A. Dabholkar, 2001 Websites: http://whatcom.wsu.edu/ag/compost/fundamentals/needs_aeration.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_pH http://www.sustainable-gardening-tips.com/Vegetable-Garden-Layout.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_companion_plants A fresh look at life below the surface by Danny Blank. ECHO Farm Manager Contents of lectures by; Shri Dipak Suchade, Natueco Farming Expert & Trainer Shri O. P. Rupela, Principal Scientist (Rtd.) ICRISAT

For more information on Natueco techniques please contact ; Preeti Patil Honorary Technical Advisor Urban Leaves, An Initiative by Vidya Varidhi Trust Email: urbanleaves@gmail.com Mobile: +91 9819197071 www. natuecocit yf arming.blogspot.com www.urbanleavesofindia.blogspot.com

Dipak Suchade Natueco Farming Expert & Trainer CEO, Malpani Trust Email: deepaksuchde@gmail.com Mobile: +91 9329570960, 9826054388 www.natuecofarmingscience.com www.prayogpariwar.net