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Presented at Short Course on Geothermal Drilling, Resource Development and Power Plants, organized by !

"G#P and $aGeo, in Santa #ecla, %l Salvador, &anuary '(")), )*''+

G%,#-%R./$ #R/0!0!G PR,GR/..%

$aGeo S+/+ de C+1+

P0P0!G D%S0G!2 #-% 3 !D/.%!#/$S

&os4 $uis -enr56uez .iranda and $uis /lonso /guirre $7pez $aGeo S+/+ de C+1+ '8 /v+ Sur, Col+ tila, Santa #ecla %$ S/$1/D,R 9lhenri6uez:lageo+com+sv, aguirrel:lageo+com+sv

/;S#R/C# #he best piping con<iguration is the least e=pensive over a long term basis+ #his re6uires the consideration o< installation cost, pressure loss e<<ect on production, stress level concern, <atigue <ailure, support and anchor e<<ects, stability, easy maintenance, parallel e=pansion capacity and others+ #he e=pansion loops most commonly used in cross" country pipelines are $ bends, > bends, conventional ?*@ elbow and 1 bends+ #he principal design codes used <or piping design are the /!S0A/S.% ;B'+' CCode <or Power PipingD and /!S0A/S.% ;B'+B Ccode <or process pipingD, /S#. /8B ;, /S#. /'*( ; and /P0 8$ carbon steel pipes are the ones used <or geothermal <ields+ #he allowable stress is S%EFF .Pa <or %RG pipe and S%E'*B .Pa <or seamless pipe, S/E'88 .Pa <or operation load, HShE')I .Pa <or earth6uaHe load and )8F .Pa <or combined sustained loads and stress range+ Pipe pressure design <or the separation station and steam lines is '+8 .Pa, and <or brine line ranges <rom '+8 to I .Pa+ Pipe diameters are generally )8* to ')'? mm nominal pipe size+ #he two" phase line can be in the range 8* to '8* m, the steam lines <rom )*** to B*** m and <or the brine up to (*** m long+ #he total cost o< pipe installation can be SJ (**"',)** per meter o< pipe+ Pipe con<iguration needs to be cost consciousK the design can be under '*L o< e=cess pipe to get <rom point to point straight line distance, which is e=cellent <rom a piping material and pressure loss point o< view+

'+ 0!#R,D C#0,! #he basic concept o< a geothermal piping design is to sa<ely and economically transport steam, brine, or two" phase <low to the destination with acceptable pressure loss+ #he piping associated with geothermal power plant can be divided in piping inside the power plant and the piping in the steam <ield+ Piping in the steam <ield consists o< pipelines connecting the production wells to the separation station and those that run cross"country <rom the separation station to the power plant, and lastly to re" in9ection wells+ #he cross"country pipelines run on top o< ridges, up and down steep hill slopes, cross roads, areas threatened by earth6uaHes, wind, rain and landslides+ Geothermal piping system has to be


-enr56uez and /guirre

Piping design2 #he <undamentals

<le=ible enough to allow thermal e=pansion but also sti<< enough to withstand the seismic and operational load actions+ #he steam <ield model used is a wet <ield as the piping encountered in this model covers most, i< not all the possible types o< <luids and piping that could be e=pected in any geothermal system+ #he wet steam <ield system consists o<2 '+ )+ B+ I+ 8+ #wo"phase <low piping which collects the <luid <rom several wellhead and sends them to the separatorK #he separator vesselK #he steam pipelines which taHe the steam <rom the separator to the power plantK #he brine pipelines which taHe the separated brine <rom the vessel to a wellpad where the <luid is re" in9ected into several wellsK .iscellaneous cross"country piping includes the instrumental air lines, the water" supply line and also the condensate line+

#wo aspects o< the design process o< geothermal piping systems that must be considered are the process o< preparing the design and the deliverables+ #he scope o< this paper will be in the piping <or the steam <ield and the process o< preparing the design divided in the <ollowing main categories2 design criteria, produce process <low diagram, de<ine control philosophy, separator location, route selection, dimension design, pressure design, load design, design codes and pipe stress analysis+

)+ D%S0G! CR0#%R0/ /!D D%$01%R/;$%S #he design process consists o< the establishment o< the design criteria <or the piping system" 3or a proper piping design, it is essential that the client and the contractor agree on a design basis, process, and mechanical, civil and electrical control and instrumentation+ #able ' presents a design criteria guideline <or an e=isting or a new piping system+ #he electrical control and instrumentation criteria have been considered in this paper as part o< the power plant design+ /ppendi= ' presents the control and instrumentation philosophy <or a separation station in ;erl5n geothermal <ield+ ;e<ore proceeding with the design o< the pipelines, some restrictions or assumptions about the characteristics o< the production wells, re"in9ection wells, power plant location need to be considered+ #he output characteristics, mass <low rates, well head pressure, temperature and chemistry o< the wells enable the selection o< optimum production values, which will be considered <or the entire li<e o< the pro9ect+ #he transportation o< the steam <rom the separation station to the power plant will taHe place with some heat losses, condensation and tapping due to pressure losses and the imper<ect thermal insulation+ #o determine the size the diameter pipe and the insulation thicHness, the general worHing e6uation <or open and steady system is2


n E' s E N = mi Chi O *+81i ) O gzi D =M N iG


Piping design2 #he <undamentals

#/;$% '2 Design criteria

-enr56uez and /guirre

General Design li<e

Process Steam<ield layout

.eteorological other local data %nvironmental re6uirements

P %conomic analysis Piping criteria2 pressure drop line sizing pipe routing design pressure Draining P venting philosophy Silica deposition 0nsulation Control valve types Pressure relie< devices Pumps System isolation philosophy 0nstrument air " source P materials Sampling P testing re6uirements

.echanical Design Parameters Q Process conditions Q design $oads Design codes and procedures Piping systems design

CivilAStructural Design codes and procedures Pro9ect layout /ccess

,perating and maintenance criteria Cost minimization /voiding uphill two" phase <low

Pipes 1alves 3ittings 1essels .echanical %6uipment ,ther components Constructability and maintainability

General Civil construction #hermal Ponds Retaining walls 3oundation design Structural design loads Pipe supports P anchors Structures

Concrete design Steel design

=where M =Gs i n =mi hi 1i zi g

E Rate o< heat trans<er between the system and the surroundings CO into the systemDK E Rate o< worH trans<er CpowerD between the system and the surroundings CO out o< the systemDK E 0nde= that runs over all inlets and outlets o< the systemK E #otal number o< inlets and outletsK E .ass <low rate crossing each inlet or outletK E Speci<ic enthalpy o< the <luid at each inlet or outletK E 1elocity o< the <luid at each inlet or outletK E %levation o< each inlet or outletK and E $ocal gravitational acceleration+

/nd the conservation o< mass re6uires that2

==m i E*
i E'


3or a given power capacity, the size o< the steam pipe can be determined by calculating the pressure drop, heat losses and the electric power output, given by the e6uations in #able )+

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Piping design2 #he <undamentals

#/;$% )2 %6uations <or calculating the pressure drop, heat losses and the electric power output o< steam pipes 0tem ' Description


;ernoulli %6uation

P 1P ' 1 O ' O z' E ) O ) O z ) O h $ R )gR)g h$ E h $Pipe O h $3ittings


3riction $osses in pipe and <ittings


h$Pipe E
B Darcy"Geisbach %6uation Cpipe <rictionD

S$1 )
D)g = T 3ittings 1 ) )g


h$3ittings E


%lectric output

.G E m C h' N h) DU tU g


where P 1 R X g z S $ D T h$ h' h) Ut,g


PressureK 1elocity o< <luidK Speci<ic weight CXgDK DensityK GravityK -eightK Pipe <riction coe<<icientK $ength o< pipeK 0nner diameter o< pipeK Resistance coe<<icient <or <ittingsK Pressure dropK %nthalpy at inlet turbine conditionsK %nthalpy at outlet turbine conditionsK and #urbine and generator e<<iciency+

#he deliverables that maHe up and document the design will consist o< the conceptual design drawings, speci<ications, bill o< materials, pad general arrangements, reports, piping layout, cross country drawings etc+ 3or the process design, the deliverables consist o< the Process 3low Diagram CP3DD, Process P 0nstrumentation Diagram CPP0DD and the $ine, 1alve, 0nstrument and %6uipment list+ 3rom the mechanical, civil and electrical design, the deliverables are Drawings, Speci<ications, Data sheets, Calculations, Reports and ;ill o< Muantities+

B+ P0P0!G D%S0G! B+' Design procedure #he problem o< design procedure is to <ind a pipeline con<iguration and size within the constraints, which is sa<e and economical+

Piping design2 #he <undamentals

#he steps in pipeline design are as <ollows2

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0+ #he determination o< the problem, which includes2 a+ #he characteristics o< the <luid to be carried, including the <low rate and the allowable headlossK b+ #he location o< the pipelines2 its source and destination, and the terrain over which it will pass, the location o< separator station and the power plantK c+ #he design code to be <ollowedK and d+ #he material to be used+ 00+ #he determination o< a preliminary pipe route, the line length and static head di<<erence+ 000+ Pipe diameter based on allowable headlossK 01+ Structural analysis2 a+ Pipe wall thicHnessK and b+ Stress analysis+ 1+ #he stress analysis is per<ormed in pipe con<iguration until compliance with the code is achieved+ 10+ Support and anchor design based on reaction <ound in the structural analysis+ 100+ Preparation o< drawings, speci<ication and the design report+

B+) 3luid characteristic 0mportant <actors to be considered are the mass <low rate, pressure, temperature, saturation inde= and the allowable headloss over the pipeline length+ #wo phase piping #he steam and water <low patterns in the pipe vary <rom annular, slug to open channel <lowK depending on the velocity and wetness o< the steam+ Slug <low generates high dynamic load and vibration that can damage the piping system+ #he pre<erred <low regime in the pipes is usually the annular <low+ Pipes need to be sized correctly and run <lat or on a downhill slope to achieve annular <low+ ;aHer or .andhane map combined with a simple understanding o< the value o< super<icial velocity can be used in predicting the <low pattern inside a pipe+ phill sloping pipes are not desirable as this encourages slugging in the pipe+ #he pressure loss in two" phase line is usually high and not easy to predict+ Correlations <or two" phase <low regimes and pressure drop in pipes and <ittings are derived <rom -arrison, .uHher9ee and ;rill, 3reeston, %SD data 0tem F?*')+ #he piping <or two" phase <luids has to be designed <or high pressure, dynamic load, possible slug <lows, erosion, corrosion, minimum pressure loss Cby running the pipe as short as possibleD, the desired <low regime Cby selecting the correct <luid velocity and slope <or the pipesD, vibration prevention+ ;rine piping #he brine leaving the separator is at saturated conditions+ 0< the pressure at any point in the line is less than the saturation pressure, brine will <lash into steam+ #his will cause slug <low which can result to dynamic <orces that can damage the pipes+ ;rine lines are designed to gain static head pressure+ Re" in9ection wells should be located lower than the separator+ ;rine pipes have the highest hydrostatic head pressure at the lowest elevation due to the water column+ Some brines pipes that have been designed have elevation shi<t o< I** to 8** meters+

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Piping design2 #he <undamentals

#he pressure at the lowest point is usually high, where in this case, the pipe has to be divided into several pressure class rating+ ;rine <low is a combination o< open channel and <ull <lows, depending on the geometry o< the line+ ,n a sloping line, the <low commonly starts as an open channel <low and develops to a <ull <low+ #he minimum slope o< the line re6uired <or open channel <low is predicted by ChezyYs or .anning e6uations+ 3ull <low velocity is in the order o< ) to B mAs and the pressure drop can be predicted by Darcy Geisbach e6uation with the <riction <actor calculated <rom ColebrooHeYs e6uation+ RocH <ragments carried by the <luid <rom the production well are removed <rom the steam by the separator+ #hey eventually travel down the brine pipe to the re"in9ection well+ $iHe in the two "phase <low, this will cause erosion to the pipes and can clog the wells+ Ghen designing brine pipes, the <ollowing <actors need to be considered 2 erosion, corrosion, scaling due to silica saturation, residence time o< the brine, pressure to be maintained above saturation pressure Cto prevent <lashing and sluggingD, high hydrostatic pressure, dynamic load <rom potential slug <low and water hammer, open channel <low, pressure, temperature and provision <or drainage+ Steam piping 3or a given mass <low rate, the high speci<ic volume o< steam maHes the pipe diameter bigger+ Steam <rom the separators contains non"condensable gases, chlorides and others chemical species that can cause corrosion along the pipes, turbine, and related e6uipment o< the power plant+ #hese chemical species can be dissolved in the condensate, which then are collected in drain pots and discharged by means o< steam traps+ #he steam velocity is typically I* mAs+ Pressure drop can be predicted using Darcy" GeisbachZs e6uation and ColebrooHeYs <riction <actor+ Steam pipe sizing is based on velocity, pressure drop and capital cost+ $ow <luid velocity is usually correlated to low pressure drop, however, this results to large diameter pipes which are generally e=pensive+ -igh <luid velocity usually travels to small diameter pipes, which reduces capital cost but results to unacceptable high pressure losses+ Githin the limit o< acceptable velocity range <or a given service, a compromise needs to be made between pressure drop and capital cost+ #his is o<ten termed as sizing the pipe by economic pressure drop+ 3actors needed to be considered <or steam pipe design are scrubbing the steam, steam velocity, corrosion allowances, pressure drop, pressure and temperature+ B+B Separator location #he separator location is controlled by site topography, process and control system re6uirements and the pipes+ ,ne option is locate the separator close to the production well, which can reduce the overall line pressure drop <rom the well to the turbine+ #he separator pressure will be similar to the wellhead pressure, which means a lower <lash ratio, there<ore we will obtain less steam and more brine to dispose+ #he other option is to locate the separator close to the turbine+ #he advantage is lower separator pressure, which produces a higher <lash ratio, to obtain more steam and less brine to dispose+ $ong two" phase line usually have high pressure drop <rom the well to the turbine+

Piping design2 #he <undamentals

-enr56uez and /guirre

Ghen the resource pressure is relatively low Cwhere every HPa represents additional <low and generationD, two"phase pipelines produce B to 8 times higher pressure loss than a single"phase steam line, and may not be the best method+ 3or high pressure and high <low rate well resource, the reservoir engineers must provide with estimates on the well deliverability and the pro9ected decline rate+ 0nitially, two"phase <low pipelines can be a viable option, however, in the <uture, conversion to a steam and brine pipeline maybe re6uired+ 0t is pre<erred to have the separator located as close as possible to the production well pads to minimize process risH due to unpredictable two" phase <low+ 3igures ' and ) show the separation station location in ;erl5n geothermal <ield+

Production Gells

Separation Station

Separation Station 30G R% '2 #R"8 well pad B+I Pipe types and application

Production Gells 30G R% )2 #R"'W well pad

Seamless pipe CS.$SD #hese pipes are e=truded and have no longitudinal seam+ #here is no weld and is the strongest o< the three type pipes mentioned+ Submeged arc welded pipe CS/GD #hese pipes are manu<actured <rom plates, normally rolled and seam welded together+ #he welding has a 9oint e<<iciency o< *+?8+ %lectric resistance welded pipe C%RGD #hese pipes are manu<actured <rom plates, where the seam weld is done by electric resistance welding+ #he welding e<<iciency is *+F+ B+8 Design codes #he principal design codes used <or piping design are the /!S0A/S.% ;B'+'CCode <or Power PipingD and /!S0A/S.% ;B'+B CCode <or Process PipingD+ Complementing these codes are /S.% 1000 CCode <or Pressure 1esselD and ;ritish Standard ;S88** <or un<ired <usion welded pressure vessel+ #he basic consideration o< ;B'+' Code is sa<ety+ 0t includes2 a+ .aterial and component standardsK b+ Designation o< dimensional standards <or elements o< piping systemK c+ Re6uirements <or design o< components, including supportsK

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Piping design2 #he <undamentals

d+ Re6uirements <or evaluation and limitation o< stresses, reactions and movements associated with pressure, temperatures and e=ternal <orces, e+ Re6uirements <or <abrication, assembly and erectionK <+ Re6uirements <or testing and inspection be<ore and a<ter assembly+ Pipes 3or pipes, the materials used in geothermal application are normally /8B";, /'*("; and /P0 8$"; pipe , with mill tolerance+ Commercial available pipes normally have a mill tolerance o< ')+8L and pipe schedule numbers based in ;B(+'*+ 3ittings 3or elbows, tees, and reducers, the material used in geothermal application is normally /)BI GP;+ /ll dimensions are in accordance with ;'(+?+ 3langes and valves rating 3langes are rated to /!S0 ;'(+8 standard, 3or those up to )I diameter, they are rated to /!S0 '8*, /!S0 B**, /!S0 (** and /!S0 ?**+ 3or <langes o< )( and bigger , /!S0 ;'(+IW applies+ #he <langes are usually classi<ied series / and series ;+ #he material used <or these <langes are /'F' grade 0 and /'*8 grade 0+ 1alve rating is similar to the <lange rating selected <or the pipe+ B+( Pipe routes /erial photographs and contour plan o< the area are su<<icient in<ormation to identi<y a preliminary route <or the pipes and suitable locations o< the plant components+ #he preliminary route is then inspected on site to checH land owner, houses, swamps, soil condition <or <oundations, anchors and e=pansion loops, hot spots, slip risH, road crossing, watercourses, change in elevation, access+ sing the preliminary pipe route, an estimate o< e6uivalent line length can be made+ #he design <low and enthalpy are determined <rom the well data, and with this in<ormation, the optimum diameter <or the pipes can be Hnown+ 3igure B shows a contour plan o< ;erl5n geothermal <ield+ B+W Structural analysis Circum<erential stress or -oop stress due to pressure and vacuum is considered <or sizing and selecting the pipe with suitable wall thicHness+ %6uations <or pipe stress analysis are given in the design code+ #he <irst step is the determination o< wall thicHness re6uired by ;B'+'2

#m E

PD o O/ )C S% O Py D


where #m P Do S% y /


Gall thicHness in millimetersK Design pressure in HilopascalsK Pipe outside diameter in millimetersK /llowable stress in HilopascalsK *+I, <or most geothermal application it based on temperature range and steel typeK B mm corrosion and erosion allowance+

Piping design2 #he <undamentals

-enr56uez and /guirre

Stress analysis should be carried out <or the <ollowing load cases <or compliance with the code re6uirement and support load calculation+ ;B'+' re6uires that a pipeline shall be analyzed between anchors <or the e<<ects o<2 '+ Sustained loads, Gravity O PressureK )+ ,peration loads, thermal e=pansion stress alone or thermal e=pansion stress O sustained loadsK B+ ,ccasional loads, sustained loads O seismic load or wind load perpendicular to the general alignment o< the pipeK I+ ,ccasional loads, sustained loads O seismic loads along the general direction o< the pipeK 8+ Reverse the direction o< seismic or wind loadsK (+ .odes o< thermal operation need to be considered in the analysis+ 0n addition to this, an analysis should be carried out <or zero <riction to determine the ma=imum load on the anchors in the event o< an earth6uaHe+ ,ther dynamic loads that can be considered are <luid hammer e<<ects, thrusts <rom sa<ety valves, and slugging <low+ 0n 3igure I is shown the well pad piping analysis using the so<tware PipePlus+ B+F %=pansion loops, pipe supports and anchors locations %=pansion loops are the most commonly used in cross" country pipelines to handle thermale=pansion+,n standard runs, $ bends, > bends, conventional ?* degree elbow and 1 bends are the mostlyusedpipe con<iguration <or the design+ > bends can be very stable on downhill runs+ -orizontal loops are very e<<ective in congested areas+ Custom design based on <ollowing the natural con<iguration o< the terrain can be very e<<ective on cross" country designs+

/nchors shall be strategically 30G R% B2 Contour plan o< ;erl5n geothermal <ield locatedtoreducethe magnitude o< the resultant load+ #his reduces the size o< the <oundation+ #ypically, a cross" country pipe run without compensators will re6uire an anchor every '8* to )** meters+ #he types o< supports used are [ stop, Guide, $ine Stop, Constant Geight Support, ShocH absorbers+ Reducing the number o< pipe supports by spacing them as <ar apart as the ma=imum pipe span is allowed+ #here should be a pipe support located near every bend, as it reduces eccentric loading on the pipe and minimizes vertical vibration at bends, especially in two" phase lines+

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Piping design2 #he <undamentals

Production Gells

30G R% I2 Pipe view o< Pipe plus so<tware+ Gell pad design+ Pipes are run close to the ground to reduce overturning moment e<<ect on the pipe support and anchors, which then reduce the <oundation size and hence the cost+ 3igures 8 to W show e=pansion loops commonly used in ;erl5n and 3igure F the types o< support <or the pipe lines+

I+ ,#-%R /SP%C#S ,3 #-% P0P0!G D%S0G! So<tware 0n order to simpli<y process calculations and stress analysis, computer programs are available+ Some are listed here2 /utoC/D, Plant3low, %%S, /utopipe, Caesar 00, PipePlus, 3inite %lement /nalysis " 3%/+

30G R% 82 1 ;end e=pansion loop

30G R% (2 ,mega bend e=pansion loop

Piping design2 #he <undamentals


-enr56uez and /guirre

30G R% W2 > ;end connecting to the vessel

30G R% F2 Support types

!ozzles connection Q pressure vessel, pumps, turbines, etc+ !ozzle connection is beyond the scope o< this paper+ Generally, the piping designer worHs with the load limitation given by the manu<acturer or a <inite element specialist+ /s a general rule o< thumb, loading on nozzle should be less than I* .ega Pascals+ /ll care must be employed to protect nozzle connect on vessel, e6uipment, well"heads and attachments+ Pipe bucHling $arge diameter thin wall steam pipe supported by an anchor in a long steep slope is sub9ected to high gravity load near de anchor+ #his could cause the pipe to <ail by local bucHling+ #he load re6uired to cause this can be calculated using %ulerYs e6uation or by 3%/+ Cost o< pipe system #he piping installation cost is made up o< material B*L, 3ittings '*L, 0nstallation labor )8L, 0nstallation e6uipment '*L, Supports '8L and PPG '*L+ #he total cost can vary <rom SJ(** to SJ')** per meter, depending on pipe diameter, slope o< the terrain, cross" country or well pad piping+

R%3%R%!C%S /S.%, )**W2 /S.% ;B'+'")**W+ Power piping+ #he /merican Society o< .echanical %ngineers, !ew [orH+ DiPippo, R+, )**F2 Geothermal power plants+ Principles, applications, case studies and environmental impact+ %lsevier, ,=<ord, 8)* pp+ 3isher )*'*2 1alves handbooH, <ourth edition+ %merson process management+ Geb site2 http2AAwww)+emersonprocess+comAen"usAbrandsA<isherAPagesA3isher1alves0nstruments+asp=+ Geothermal 0nstitute niversity /ucHland2 Pipe Design <or geothermal steam system+ $ecture+ &ung, D+;+, '??W2 .aHing geothermal cost competitive2 Production e6uipment and <acilities cost reduction+ GRC #ransaction, )', 8IW"88B+

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Piping design2 #he <undamentals

/PP%!D0\ '2 Control system <or steam separation station '+ PR,D C#0,! G%$$P/D PR,C%SS D%SCR0P#0,! / geothermal production wellpad consists o< the <ollowing main e6uipments2 Steam separator, water tanH, ball valve, instrumentation system, control system and electrical system+ #he steam separator receives the two"phase <luids <rom the geothermal wells and separates the steam and the water+ #he steam is sent directly to the power plant <or the generation process+ #he separated water is sent to the water tanH and then to the rein9ection wells+ #he ball valve is located in the steam line a<ter the steam separator and protects the steam line against the presence o< humidity+ 0n case o< the operation o< the ball valve, there is a motorized valve that isolates the steam line and permits the draining o< the ball valve to normalize the operation o< the steam line+ 3igure ' shows the PP0D <or a typical geothermal production pad in %l Salvador+

30G R% '2 PP0D <or a production pad #he instrumentation system is in charge o< the measurement and control o< the most important mechanical variables o< the process+ #he measurement e6uipment includes di<<erent Hinds o< transmitters liHe pressure transmitter, level transmitter and <low transmitter, that send their measurement to the control system as an electrical variable+ #he control system processes the electrical signal and sends commands to the <inal control element that modi<ies the process conditions+ #he <inal control elements include control valves that are operated by electrical and pneumatic actuators+ #he electrical system <eeds all the electrical e6uipment re6uired in the production wellpad liHe control system, instrumentation system, electrical actuators, compressors, lighting systems and au=iliary outlets <or maintenance worHs, which is normally provided <rom the power plant+ ;ecause o< the long distance between the power plant and the production wellpads, a medium voltage line C'B+) H1D is installed <rom the power plant to the production wellpad to minimize the electrical losses in the cable

Piping design2 #he <undamentals


-enr56uez and /guirre

because o< the distance+ / substation is located in the wellpad that converts the voltage <rom 'B+) H1 to *+IF H1+ #he control system is a Programmable $ogic Controller, P$C, with di<<erent Hinds o< input and output cards liHe analog input C/0D, analog output C/,D, digital input CD0D or digital output CD,D that receive the electrical signals <rom the instrumentation system+ #he P$C has power source, CP communication cards and communication networH redundancy to ensure the sa<ety and availability o< the process+ #he wellpad control system is in communication with the main control system in the power plant and allows a remote monitoring o< the process+ 3or this separation station remote control is not allowed to ensure that the control system will not <ail in case o< communication lost+ 3igure ) shows a control system architecture used <or production pad+ #he most important control loops in a geothermal production wellpad are the ones <or the pressure in the steam separator and the level in the water tanH+ #he pressure loop avoids pressure increases that can create disturbances in the steam supply and a<<ect the power generation process+ #he level loop avoids the water to go into the steam line and trips the ball valve, or the steam to go into the water line and reduce the electrical generation+ #he pressure loop is described as <ollows2 i< the pressure in the steam separator increases, the control system operates a pneumatic valve that sends the steam to the silencers and relieve the pressure on it+ #he type o< valve used <or this application is a butter<ly valve with a spring opposed single acting cylinder actuator, because a high speed operation is re6uired+ #he level control is described as <ollows2 there are two pneumatic valves in the water line, the main one is connected to the rein9ection line and the other one to the silencer line+ #he 30G R% )2 Control system <or production pad rein9ection valve is operated to control the level in the water tanH under normal operation conditions+ #he silencer valve starts to worH in case o< an abnormal condition in the system where the high level in the water tanH canZt be controlled by the rein9ection valve+ %ach control valve has a di<<erent level set point where the rein9ection valve set point is lower than the silencer valve set point+ 0< there is a level increase in the water tanH, both valves open, according to their own set point, reducing the water level and i< the level decreases, both valves start to close+

)+ 0!S#R .%!#/#0,! /!D C,!#R,$ S[S#%. S%$%C#0,! )+' #ransmitterZs main characteristic 3or the pressure transmitter selection, the most important characteristics to be considered are the temperature rating, precision, !%./ classi<ication, hart protocol available, electrical transient protection and $CD display+

-enr56uez and /guirre


Piping design2 #he <undamentals

#he temperature rating <or the transmitters is based on the geothermal <luid temperature, C'?* @C in ;erlinD+ 0n case the transmitter rating is not available <or this temperature, an alternative installation method permits the transmitter to be used under this temperature condition+ #he precision o< the transmitter will depend on the application o< any particular case+ -igh precision is re6uired <or critical application liHe <low or pressure measurement at the turbine input or level in the condensers+ / typical precision <or geothermal application is *+'L o< the calibrated span+ !%./ classi<ication re<ers to the grade o< protection <or outdoor use+ /de6uate protection <or dust and water is necessary+ #ypical protection <or geothermal application is !%./ I\ or 0P((+ ;ecause o< the presence o< -)S in the atmosphere, all the e6uipment should be corrosion resistant+ /ll the instrument parts that are in contact with geothermal <luid should be made o< stainless steel+ -art protocol permits the easy con<iguration o< the transmitter+ #here are special tools to access to the transmitter and con<igure them, liHe portable hart communication tools or so<tware+ -art protocol is used too to create special networH that permits the communication o< more than one transmitter to a Scada system <or multiple transmitter con<iguration or monitoring+ %lectrical transient protection protects the transmitter against electrical variation in the system, produced by e=ternal <aults or atmospheric discharges+ #his protection can be integrated in the transmitter or be installed e=ternally+ $CD display permits the local monitoring o< the di<<erent variables+ #ypical instrumentation brands used in geothermal power plants are listed in #able '2 #/;$% '2 0nstrumentation and control valves, common brands+ Description;rand Rosemount, -oneywell, #ransmitters 3o=boro, [oHogawa 3isher, 1anessa, Control valves .asoneilan, $imitor6ue )+) Pressure transmitter description #he pressure transmitter has two main elements2 sensor and transmitter+ #he most common sensor used is a piezoelectric sensor that changes its vibration <re6uency with pressure changes+ #he transmitter taHes the sensor signal and converts it into an industrial standard, typically a I")* m/, that is proportional to the measurement range in the e6uipment+ )+B $evel transmitter description #he most common method used in the application in ;erlin <or level measurement is the di<<erential pressure between the high and low sections o< the containers+ Di<<erential pressure is proportional to the water level+ #he di<<erential transmitter used <or level measurement has the same principle as that o< the pressure transmitter described below, but has two sensors where the transmitter receives both signals and gives the di<<erence between them+ )+I 3low transmitter description #he <low transmitter has three main elements2 <low element, sensor and transmitter+ #he most common method used <or <low measurement is the pressure drop caused by a <low element that is proportional to the <low in the pipe using the averaging Pitot tube <or steam <low measurement and the 1enturi tube <or water measurement+ #he transmitter used <or <low measurement is a di<<erential pressure transmitter that has the same principle that the pressure transmitter described below+

Piping design2 #he <undamentals

)+8 Control valves main characteristic


-enr56uez and /guirre

3or geothermal production wells, there are two types o< control valves 2 pneumatic valves and electric valves+ Pneumatic valves are used <or steam pressure control and water rein9ection control+ %lectrical valves are used in steam and two phase line to isolate the process in case o< emergency or maintenance activities++ Pneumatic valves normally worH as regulation valves operated by compressed air and have three main components2 aD .echanical valve " the part that is in contact with the <luid process, usually o< three Hinds2 the ;utter<ly valve, ball valve and gate valve+ bD /ctuator " + a powered device that supplies <orce and motion to open or close a valve, usually o< two types2 cylinder spring"opposed single acting and diaphragm spring opposed+ cD Positioner " a controller that is mechanically connected to its actuator and automatically ad9usts its output to the actuator to maintain a desired position in proportion to the input signal+ 0t is electro"pneumatic type and receives an electrical signal CI")* m/D, which then converts it to a pneumatic signal CB"'8 psiD %lectrical valves are normally gate valves type with an electrical actuator that supplies motion to the valve by an electrical motor and a gear bo=+ #he electrical actuator has an integral electronic control and protection <unctions+ #his valve is normally used as onAo<< valves+ Steam pressure control valve controls the separation pressure and in case o< an overpressure, it opens to relieve the pressure through the silencer in the wellpad+ #his valve is normally butter<ly type valve with eccentric disH to avoid sha<t stucH because o< silica deposition+ #he actuator used in these valves is a spring"opposed single acting as piston that provides high tor6ue, characteristic <or valve operation+ Gater rein9ection valves control the level in the water tanH to avoid water to go into the steam line, or the steam going into the water line+ #hese valves are normally segmented ball valves with a 1"shape, which permit good seal characteristics and help against silica deposition in the valve body and entrained solids in the water+