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Grammaire : les pronoms relatifs simples

Les pronoms relatifs qui, que, qui


In Sec 1, you learnt the relative pronouns qui and que. Can you remember the "i# "ii# functions of a relative pronoun!

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What is a relative pronoun? %elative pronouns are used to introduce a clause &hich is 'ivin' more information about a noun. (ou must select the correct relative pronoun accordin' to its 'rammatical function &ithin the clause. 1. )hen the relative pronoun is subject of the verb follo&in', you must choose QUI "&ho, &hich# : *+: ,a dame qui chante est ma tante. "The lady who is singing is my aunt# %emeber that qui is never abbreviated. *+: ,e sac qui est sur la table est - moi. . )hen the relative pronoun is the object of the verb follo&in', you must choose QUE, or QU if the ne+t &ord be'ins &ith a vo&el "&hich, that, &hom#: *+: ,e travail que .e fais est difficile. "The work that I am doing is hard.# *+: ,e cadeau qu/il a achet0 est ma'nifique. " The present which he bought is wonderful.# *+: ,/homme que tu connais est mon oncle. " The man whom you know is my uncle.# 1. )hen the relative pronoun is the indirect ob.ect of the verb follo&in', you must choose A QUI "to &hom#: *+: 2oici la dame - qui ./ai donn0 la carte. "3ere is the lady to &hom I 'ave the map# 4 donner quelque chose - quelqu/un "to 'ive somthin' to somebody# 5a6e not that the indirect ob.ect must be a person introduced by the preposition -. 4 envoyer quelque chose - quelqu/un "to send # 4 dire quelque chose - quelqu/un 4 t0l0phoner - quelqu/un

Exercices dapplication INCL UDE Exercice PICT Compltez avec les pronoms qui, que, qui.

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,a femme $$$$$$$$$ tu parles s7appelle Sarah. ,70quipe $$$$$$$ .e pr0f8re est championne du monde. C7est l70quipe bleue$$$$$$$ est la plus forte. C7est une 0quipe $$$$$$ .e ne connais pas. ,es 'ens $$$$$$$$ elle t0l0phone ont 'a'n0 au loto; ,es =ran>ais sont des personnes $$$$$$$ aiment beaucoup les animau+ domestiques. ?. Inception, c7est le film $$$$$$$ il a pr0f0r0.

@. ,es voitures $$$$$$$$$$$ il aime sont europ0ennes. A. C7est le pr0sident de la r0publique $$$$$$$$$ travaille - l7Blys0e. 1C.Ce sont les femmes $$$$$$$$$ travaillent le plus en =rance. 11.,a r0'ion $$$$$$$$$$$$$ elle aime se trouve au bord de la mer. 1 .,es bandes dessin0es $$$$$$$$$$$ les =ran>ais pr0f8rent sont Dst0ri+ et 5intin. 11.,es escar'ots $$$$$$$$$ ma m8re pr0pare sont meilleurs. 19.,7e+ercice $$$$$$$$$$ .e suis en train de faire est facile.

Exercice !

Transformez ces phrases en une seule phrase.


*+ : Nous venons de voir un film. Ce film terrifie les enfants. Nous venons de voir un film qui terrifie les enfants. Le film que nous venons de voir terrifie les enfants 1. Ee dois rencontrer un ami. Il est en retard. 4,7ami $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ . Fous commen>ons un travail. Il est lon' et difficile. 4Fous $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 4,e travail $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 1. Geu+Htu apporter le parapluie! Il est derri8re la porte. ! 4Geu+Htu$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 9. E7esp8re rencontrer cet homme. 5u admires cet homme. 4 E/esp8re$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ :. DsHtu mon stylo rou'e ! Ee le cherche depuis C minutes. 4DsHtu $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ <. Fous voulons acheter une voiture. Cette voiture a ? places. 4Fous $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 4 ,a voiture$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ ?. DsHtu vu la fille! Ee dois lui rendre ce livre. 4 DsHtu $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ @. E/ai quelques amis intimes. Ee leur confie tous mes secrets. 4 E/ai $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

,es pronoms relatifs


5he function of a relative pronoun is to replace common information bet&een t&o sentences &hen &e need to .oin them to'ether to ma6e one, comple+ sentence. ( ou have learned ho& to use three relative pronouns in =rench thus far: I qui J I que J and I - qui J 3ere is a short reminder of ho& to use these three relative pronouns. Is used to replace *+amples 1. Gapa ach8te une voiture. *lle est belle. Gapa ach8te une voiture qui est belle I ,a voiture J is a sub.ect of the verb I Ltre J. . ,/actrice a 'a'n0 un Mscar. *lle est australienne. ,/actrice qui a 'a'n0 un Mscar est australienne. I,/actrice J is a sub.ect of the verb I'a'ner J. 1. ,e 'Oteau est d0licieu+. Ee man'e le 'Oteau. ,e 'Oteau que .e man'e est d0licieu+. I ,e 'Oteau J is the CMN of Iman'erJ. . ,e dessin anim0 est produit par Nisney. Fous re'ardon ce dessin anim0. ,e dessin anim0 que nous re'ardons est produit par Nisney. I ,e dessin anim0 Jis the CMN of Ire'arderJ. 1. Qes amis habitent en *spa'ne. Ee t0l0phone - mes amis. ,es amis - qui .e t0l0phone habitent en *spa'ne. I ,es amis J is the CMI of the verb It0l0phonerJ. . Ee donne un cadeau - l/enfant. Cet enfant est mon neuveu. ,/enfant - qui ./ai donn0 un cadeau est mon neveu. I ,/enfant J is the CMI of the verb IdonnerJ

Kui

Sub.ects of a verb

Nirect Mb.ects of a Kue verb "Compl0ment d/ob.et directHCMN#

Indirect ob.ects of a verb P qui "Compl0ment d/Mb.et IndirectH CMI#

,e pronom relatif I oRJ


In this lesson, you &ill learn ho& to use t&o ne& relative pronouns I oR J and I dont J Ds you should already 6no& I oR J is also an interro'ative pronoun and means I &here J. Ds a relative pronoun, its meanin' is often the same, but it can also mean I that J, I &hich J and I &hen J. ,et/s loo6 at the e+amples belo&. 5he common information &e need to replace is underlined. 1. Ee travaille dans ce ma'asin. ,e ma'asin est - cSt0 de la banque. ,e ma'asin oR .e travaille est - cSt0 de la banque. The shop where I work is ne t to the bank.

. E/habite dans ce petit villa'e. Ce petit villa'e est situ0 au nord de Qarseille. ,e petit villa'e oR ./habite est situ0 au nord de Qarseille. The little village where I live is located north of !arseille. 1. ,e pays est tr8s biTarre. Il vient de ce pays. ,e pays d/oR il vient est tr8s biTarre. The country "where# he$s from is very strange. 9. Fous avons conduit .usqu/- ce villa'e. ,e villa'e s/appelle Sprin'field. ,e villa'e .usqu/oR nous avons conduit s/appelle Sprin'field. The village until which we drove is called %pringfield. In all of the e+amples belo&, I oR J is used to replace places preceeded b" a preposition# 3o&ever, I MR J can also be used to replace times# ,oo6 at the e+amples belo&.

No not use IoRJ every time the information you need to replace indicates a place; Sometimes another relative pronoun must be used.
*+. C/est un beau pays. E/aime ce pays. C/est un beau pays que ./aime. I Ce pays J is the CMN of the verb I aimer J. *+. C/est une belle ville. Cette ville se situe en Dsie C/est une belle ville qui se situe en Dsie. :. E/ai pris le train un .our. Il y avait une 'r8ve ce .ourHl-. E/ai pris le train le .our oR il I y Cette avait une ville 'r8ve. J is sub.ect of the verb I se situer J. I took the train on the day "when# there was a strike. <. E/irai - St. 5ropeT une semaine. Il n/y aura pas trop de touristes pendant cette semaine. E/irai - St. 5ropeT la semaine oR il n/y aura pas trop de touristes. I will go to %t. Trope& the week there aren$t too many tourists.

,e pronom relatif I dontJ

*n'lishHspea6ers tend to use IquandJ instead of I oR J in the e+amples above. 5his is incorrect in =rench, because I quand J is not a relative pronoun;

e+. Ee suis arriv0 - Garis un .our. Il nei'eait ce .ourHl- Ee suis arriv0 - Garis le 5he relative I dont J is used to replace information introduced by Ide J. .our quand pronoun o$ il nei'eait. ,oo6 at the e+amples belo&. 1. ,a =rance, c/est un pays. ,es habitants de ce pays semblent accueillants. ,a =rance est un pays dont les habitants semblent accueillants. 'rance is a country whose inhabitants seem welcoming.

. Spielber' est un r0alisateur. ,es films de ce r0alisateur sont e+cellents Spielber' est un r0alisateur dont les films sont e+cellents. %pielberg is a director whose movies are e cellent. In these t&o e+amples, I dont J indicates possession. I Nont J can have other meanin's in *n'lish too. Glease observe the e+amples 'iven belo& 1. ,e chanteur est mort. 5u parles de ce chanteur. ,e chanteur dont tu parles est mort. The singer "who/that# you are talking about is dead. 9. MR est le livre! E/ai besoin du livre. MR est le livre dont ./ai besoin ! (here is the book "that# I need ) :. Il y a C 0l8ves dans la classe. 1C de ces 0l8ves sont de %GS. Il y a C 0l8ves dans la classe, dont 1C sont de %GS. There are *+ students in the class, of which -+ are from ./%.

,es pronoms ( et *F de lieu


%ronom &
5he =rench adverbial pronoun " is so tiny that one mi'ht thin6 its role in a sentence is not very important, but in fact quite the opposite is true. It is e+tremely important in =rench. & refers to a previously mentioned or implied placeU it is normally translated by VthereV in *n'lish. & usually replaces a prepositional phrase be'innin' &ith 0, che&, sur, sous, dans, devant, derri1re, etc2 5u vas - la banque au.ourd7hui ! Fon, .7y vais demain. Fous allons au ma'asin. 5u veu+ y aller ! Il 0tait cheT Eean. Il y 0tait. MR est la monnaie ! Sur la table ! H Mui, ./y ai laiss0 l/ar'ent. 3re you going to the bank today) No, I4m going "there# tomorrow. (e4re going to the store. 5o you want to go "there#) 6e was at 7ean4s house. 6e was there. (here is the change ) 8n the table ) 9 :es. I left the money there.

Fote that VthereV can often be omitted in *n'lish, but " can never be omitted in =rench. 7e vais "I7m 'oin'# is not a complete sentence in =renchU if you don7t follo& the verb &ith a place, you have to say 74y vais.

Attention ' (#

& can also replace 0 W a noun "an entire phrase or idea# that is not a person: *+: Ee r0ponds - une lettre. E7y r0ponds . I4m responding to a letter. I4m responding "to it#. E7ai assist0 - la r0union. E7y ai assist0. I attended the meeting. I attended "it#. 5a question est difficile. Ee dois y r0fl0chir. "X Ee dois r0fl0chir - ta question.# :our question is difficult. I need to think it over.

Gronom *F
*F, li6e the pronoun ( can refer to a place. En usually replaces a prepositional phrase be'innin' &ith de, de la, de l$, du, des. Il revient de Garis ! Mui, il en revient. *lle est sortie du ma'asin avec *lle en est sortie avec sacs. Is he coming from ;aris) :es, he is coming back from there. sacs. %he came out of the shop with * bags. %he came out of there with * bags.

Et aussi(

En also replaces the partitive article W noun or de W indefinite article W noun. It is equivalent to Vsome,V Vany,V or VoneV in *n'lish. *+: *stHce que tu as du pain ! Mui, ./en ai. 5o you have any bread) :es, I have some. Il a envie d7une pomme. Il en a envie. "avoir envie de Y# 6e wants an apple. 6e wants one. DsHtu beaucoup de travail ! Mui, ./en ai trop. 5o you have a lot of work) :es, I have too much.

*+ercice d/application nZ
%emplaceT le 'roupe souli'n0 par en ou y *+: a# Ils vont - la piscine le dimanche Ils y vont le dimanche. b# Ils sortent de l/0cole - 1? heures Ils en sortent - 1? heures. 1. Ils passent le &ee6Hend - la campa'ne. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ . ,es cl0s sont sur le bureau. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 1. *lles retournent bientSt dans leur pays. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 9. Ils arrivent de [an'6o6. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ :. Ee viens de la poste. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ <. Il sort du ta+i. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$