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33.

ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF METALS

where Af = the area at fracture, df = the diameter at fracture, and RA is the reduction
of area given as
RA =

Ao Af
Ao

(33.11)

The significance of the true stress and true strain will become more obvious later,
when we describe the stress-life and strain-life fatigue behavior of metals. For convenience, monotonic stress-strain properties of several steels and aluminum alloys
are listed in Tables 33.1 and 33.2, respectively.8 Also shown are cyclic properties that
will be explained subsequently. Additional information of this nature may be found
at http://fde.uwaterloo.ca/Fde/Materials/dindex.html. Although this is a website, it is
TABLE 33.1 Monotonic and Cyclic Properties of Several Steels
Monotonic
3

Ex10 ,
Ksi
(GPa)

Sy, Ksi
(MPa)

Su, Ksi
(MPa)

K, Ksi
(MPa)

Alloy

Condition

A136

As recd.

30
(207)

46.5
(321)

30.6
(211)

A136

150 HB

30

46.0
(317)

SAE950X

137 HB

30

SAE950X

146 HB

SAE980X

f, Ksi
(MPa)

%RA

144.0
(990)

0.21

67

143.6
(987)

1.06

31.9
(220)

0.21

60

145.0
(997)

1.19

62.6
(432)

75.8
(523)

94.9
(652)

0.11

54

30

56.7
(391)

74.0
(510)

110.0
(756)

0.15

74

141.8
(975)

1.34

225 HB

30

83.5
(576)

100.8
(695)

143.9
(989)

0.13

68

176.8
(1216)

1.15

1006

Hot-rolled
85HB

27
(186)

36.0
(248)

46.1
(318)

60.0
(413)

0.14

73

1020

Ann. 108
HB

29
(200)

36.8
(254)

56.9
(392)

57.9
(398)

0.07

64

95.9
(659)

1.02

1045

225 HB
Q&T

29

74.8
(516)

108.9
(751)

151.8
(1044)

0.12

44

144.7
(995)

1045

390 HB
Q&T

29

184.8
(1274)

194.8
(1343)

0.04

59

269.8
(1855)

0.89

1045

500 HB
Q&T

29

250.6
(1728)

283.7
(1956)

341.0
(2344)

0.04

38

334.4
(2300)

1045

705 HB
Q&T

29

264.7
(1825)

299.8
(2067)

0.19

309.6
(2129)

0.02

10B21

320 HB
Q&T

29

144.0
(993)

152.0
(1048)

187.7
(290)

0.05

67

217.4
(1495)

1.13

1080

421 HB
Q&T

30

141.8
(998)

195.6
(1349)

323.0
(2221)

0.15

32

338.6
(2328)

4340

350 HB
Q&T

29

170.8
(1178)

179.8
(1240)

229.2
(1576)

0.07

57

239.7
(1648)

0.84

4340

410 HB
Q&T

30

198.8
(1371)

212.8
(1467)

38

225.8
(1552)

0.48

33.6

CHAPTER THIRTY-THREE

TABLE 33.1 Monotonic and Cyclic Properties of Several Steels (Continued)


Monotonic
3

Alloy

Condition

5160

440 HB
Q&T
254 HB
Q&T

8630

Ex10 ,
Ksi
(GPa)
30
30

Sy, Ksi
(MPa)

Su, Ksi
(MPa)

K, Ksi
(MPa)

215.7
(1487)
102.8
(709)

230.0
(1581)
118.9
(817)

281.4
(1935)
158.9
(1092)

%RA

0.05

39

0.08

16

f, Ksi
(MPa)
280.0
(1925)
121.8
(837)

f
0.51
0.17

Cyclic
Sy, Ksi
(MPa)

K, Ksi
(MPa)

Hot-rolled
85 HB
Ann.
108 HB
225 HB
Q&T
390 HB
Q&T
500 HB
Q&T
705 HB
Q&T
320 HB
Q&T

47.9
(329)
48.0
(330)
51.2
(352)
59.3
(408)
82.5
(567)
34.2
(235)
33.8
(232)
58.3
(401)
122.1
(839)
189.0
(130)
327.0
(2248)
100.2
(689)

148.8
(1023)
167.0
(1148)
138.8
(954)
136.2
(936)
385.5
(2650)
196.0
(1348)
174.0
(1196)
179.8
(1236)
216.4
(1488)
672.1
(4621)
613.2
(4216)
143.6
(987)

421 HB
Q&T
350 HB
Q&T
410 HB
Q&T
440 HB
Q&T
254 HB
Q&T

126.2
(868)
115.6
(795)
127.0
(873)
155.2
(1067)
87.5
(602)

460.8
(3168)
270.2
(1858)
282.8
(1944)
352.7
(2425)
139.4
(958)

Alloy

Condition

A136

As recd.

A136

150 HB

SAE950X

137 HB

SAE950X

146 HB

SAE980X

225 HB

1006
1020
1045
1045
1045
1045
10B21
1080
4340
4340
5160
8630

Courtesy of L. E. Tucker, Deere & Co, Moline, Ill

n
0.18
0.20
0.16
0.13
0.25
0.28
0.26
0.17
0.09
0.20
0.10
0.06
0.21
0.14
0.13
0.13
0.08

f , Ksi
(MPa)
115.9
(797)
122.7
(844)
112.0
(822)
119.5
(822)
171.8
(1181)
116.3
(800)
123.3
(848)
139.2
(957)
204.2
(1404)
418.9
(2880)
350.4
(2409)
150.3
(1033)
342.9
(2357)
282.0
(1939)
275.3
(1893)
300.0
(2063)
152.1
(1046)

0.09

0.22

0.46

0.08

0.20

0.42

0.08

0.34

0.52

0.08

0.42

0.51

0.10

0.09

0.48

0.12

0.48

0.52

0.12

0.44

0.51

0.08

0.50

0.52

0.07

1.51

0.85

0.09

0.23

0.56

0.07

0.002

0.47

0.04

1.33

0.85

0.10

0.51

0.59

0.10

1.22

0.73

0.09

0.67

0.64

0.08

0.56

1.05

0.11

0.21

0.86

33.7

ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF METALS

TABLE 33.2 Monotonic and Cyclic Properties of Several Aluminum Alloys


Monotonic
3

Ex10 ,
Ksi
Alloy Condition (GPa)

Sy, Ksi
(MPa)

Su, Ksi
(MPa)

K, Ksi
(MPa)

f, Ksi
%RA (MPa)

1100

As recd.

10.0
(68.8)

14
(386)

16
(110)

88

2.1

2014

T6

10.6
(72.9)

67
(462)

74
(510)

35

91
(627)

0.42

2014

T6

10.8
(74.3)

70
(483)

78
(538)

2024

T351

10.2
(70.1)

44
(303)

69
(476)

117
(807)

0.20

35

92
(634)

0.38

2024

T4

10.6
(72.9)

T/C
55/44
(379/303)

68
(469)

25

81
(558)

0.43

2219

T851

10.3
(70.8)

52
(359)

68
(469)

0.28

5086

10.1
(69.4)

30
(207)

45
(310)

0.36

5186

10.5
(72.2)

L/T
37/44

57
(393)

L/0.46
T/0.58

5454

10.0
(68.8)

20
(138)

36
(248)

44

53
(365)

0.58

5454

10%CR

10.0
(68.8)

5454

20%CR

10.0
(68.8)

5456

H311

10.0
(68.8)

34
(234)

58
(400)

35

76
(524)

0.42

6061

T651

10.0
(68.8)

42
(290)

45
(310)

53
(365)

0.042

58

68
(469)

0.86

7075

T6

10.3
(70.8)

68
(469)

84
(579)

120
(827)

0.113

33

108
(745)

0.41

7075

T73

10.4
(71.5)

60
(414)

70
(483)

86
(593)

0.054

23

84
(579)

0.26

T/C
T/C
66/92
0.32/0.17
(455/634)

L/T
L/T
16/19
44/49
(110/131) (303/338)

Cyclic
Sy, Ksi
(MPa)

K, Ksi
(MPa)

f , Ksi
(MPa)

Alloy

Condition

1100

As recd.

8
(55)

23
(159)

0.17

28
(193)

0.106

1.80

0.69

2014

T6

65
(448)

102
(703)

0.073

114
(786)

0.081

0.85

0.86

2014

T6

73
(503)

107
(738)

0.062

129
(889)

0.092

0.37

0.74

33.8

CHAPTER THIRTY-THREE

TABLE 33.2 Monotonic and Cyclic Properties of Several Aluminum Alloys (Continued)
Cyclic
Sy, Ksi
(MPa)

K, Ksi
(MPa)

T351

65
(448)

114
(786)

0.090

2024

T4

62
(427)

95
(655)

2219

T851

48
(331)

5086

5186

Alloy

Condition

2024

f , Ksi
(MPa)

147
(1014)

0.110

0.21

0.52

0.065

160
(1103)

0.124

0.22

0.59

115
(793)

0.140

121
(834)

0.110

1.33

0.08

43
(296)

87
(600)

0.011

83
(572)

0.092

0.69

0.75

43
(296)

68
(469)

0.075

122
(841)

0.137

1.76

0.92

5454

34
(234)

58
(400)

0.084

82
(565)

0.116

1.78

0.85

5454

10%CR

34
(234)

62
(427)

0.098

82
(565)

0.108

0.48

0.67

5454

20%CR

37
(255)

59
(407)

0.081

82
(565)

0.103

1.75

0.80

5456

H311

51
(352)

87
(600)

0.086

105
(724)

0.110

0.46

0.67

6061

T651

43
(296)

78
(538)

0.096

92
(634)

0.099

0.92

0.78

7075

T6

75
(517)

140
(965)

0.010

191
(1317)

0.126

0.19

0.52

7075

T73

58
(400)

74
(510)

0.032

116
(800)

0.098

0.26

0.73

Courtesy of Professor R. W. Landgraf, Virginia Polytechnic and State University, Blacksburg, Va.

used as a reference (as are several other sites in this section) because it is constantly
changing, with the addition of new data. It is updated by the University of Waterloo
on a regular basis.
Similar relationships and equations exist for the torsional deformation of metals.1,2 It is sufficient to point out here that monotonic properties may be employed as
an indicator of a metals fatigue and fracture mechanics behavior.

TEMPERATURE AND STRAIN RATE EFFECTS


As might be anticipated, the monotonic properties of metals are affected by
temperature. In general, the greater the test temperature, the less the yield strength,
ultimate strength, and modulus of elasticity but the greater the ductility. Conversely,
the lower the temperature, the greater the opposite trends that occur. The yield
strength of a structural steel, for example, is approximately 90 percent of the ambient-temperature value when determined at 400F (200C), 60 percent at 800F
(430C), 50 percent at 1000F (540C), 20 percent at 1300F (700C), and 10 per-