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MARCUSE TIMELINE

1898 1914 1917 1918 1919-1922 1923 1929-1933 1932 1933 1933 1934 1934-1941 1937 1941 1942-1945 1951 1955 1964

Herbert Marcuse is born in Berlin to wealthy Jewish parents. World War I begins Russian Revolution World War I ends Marcuse studies at universities at Frieburg and Berlin; studied Hegel, Marxism, literature, philosophy, economics. Frankfurt School founded Marcuse works with Heidegger at Frieburg; writing focuses on Hegel, Marxism, phenomenology, existentialism, German idealism; tried to synthesize Marx and Heidegger . Hegel's Ontology Hitler ascends to power Frankfurt School emigrates to Geneva; Marcuse joins Institute Frankfurt School emigrates to United States, Columbia University Marcuse helps Frankfurt School develop Critical Theory "Philosophy of Critical Theory" - focus "historically situated reason" Reason and Revolution - focus critical reason and dialectical thinking Marcuse works for Office of Strategic Services, U. S. Frankfurt School moves back to Germany - without Marcuse Eros and Civilization - focus on Freud One-Dimensional Man - focus on technological rationality Marcuse taught at Harvard, Yale, Brandeis

1965 1965-1970 1968 1969 1972 1972 1978 1979

A Critique of Pure Tolerance University of California at San Diego - Professorship Negations An Essay on Liberation Studies in Critical Philosophy Counterrevolution and Revolt Aesthetic Dimensions Herbert Marcuse dies in Germany

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ON HERBERT MARCUSE prepared by Harold Marcuse for a screening of the video "Herbert's Hippopotamus," UC Santa Barbara, 4/16/97

for more information, visit the Official Herbert Marcuse website: www.marcuse.org/herbert

Born 1898 in Berlin, well-to-do family served in WWI; not combat, but "wiping horses' asses" for infantry in Berlin (pre-automobile age!) participated briefly in 1918 German revolution which brought an end to WWI 1918-1922: graduate school in German literature, Ph.D. Univ. of Freiburg in 1922 1922-1928 worked as a bookseller in Berlin 1928: my father born in Berlin; Herbert went to Freiburg as an assistant to the philosophy professor Martin Heidegger. (One of my dissertation advisors (M. Geyer) turns out to have been Heidegger's nephew) Project: critique of existing Marxism as rigid orthodoxy; need to focus on the INDIVIDUAL o concern with individual liberation, personal well being, personal contribution to social transformation 1933: Institut fur Sozialforschung (Institute for Social Research) in Frankfurt o develop new theory of state and economy, beyond what Marx had foreseen o use of Freud; later (after move to US) called CRITICAL THEORY Heidegger (120% Nazi) warned him; fled Germany to Geneva, Paris, finally NYC December 1942: joined the Office of War Information as a senior analyst in the Bureau of Intelligence o report "Presentation of the Enemy:" proposed ways that the mass media of the Allied countries could present images of German fascism March 1943: Office of Secret Services (OSS), identified Nazi and anti-nazi people and groups, drew up plan for "denazification" 1945-1951: worked at US State Dept. after OSS dissolved 1952-53, Columbia University; 1954-55 Harvard. Grant to study Soviet Marxism (COLD WAR) 1955: Eros and Civilization: synthesis of Marx and Freud, sketched non-repressive society o anticipated values of 1960s counterculture (UTOPIAN VISION) 1958: Soviet Marxism. argued that the Soviet Union was not the realization of Marx' theory. Pointed to "liberalizing trends" ultimately realized under Gorbachev in 1980s 1958-65: Prof. of Political Science at Brandeis (memories of visits of grandpa's house in Newton, Mass.) 1964 most important work: One Dimensional Man. o Critiqued both capitalist and communist societies

"advanced industrial society" creates false needs MASS MEDIA, ADVERTISING, INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT: integrate individuals into the existing system of production and consumption o championed non-integrated forces of minorities, outsiders, radical intelligentsia 1965: essay "Repressive Tolerance" in book Critique of Pure Tolerance (w/ Barrington Moore) Brandeis didn't renew his contract, was recruited by UC San Diego-already 67 years old!! retired in 1976 1960s: achieved world renown as "the guru of the New Left " 1969: Essay on Liberation (gave me a copy in 1977 when I was studying German) 1972: Counterrevolution and Revolt 1970s: traveled widely, work was often discussed in the mass media o became one of few American intellectuals to gain wide international attention. 1978: The Aesthetic Dimension offered "answer" to where nonmanipulated consciousness might come from: culture and "high art," which often contained powerful critiques of the status quo Never an advocate of violent demonstrations, esp. on campuses: US universities (called them "oases of free speech") Student movements should try to protect this citadel, and radicalize the departments from within (faculty complacency)

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Books

Hegel's Ontology and Theory of Historicity (1932) originally written in German A Study on Authority (1936) originally written in German Reason and Revolution: Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory (1941). ISBN 978-157392-718-5 Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud (1955). ISBN 978-0-41518663-6 Soviet Marxism: A Critical Analysis (1958) One-Dimensional Man (1964). A Critique of Pure Tolerance (1965) Written with Robert Paul Wolff and Barrington Moore, Jr. The End of Utopia , (1967) lecture . translation in 1970 into English Negations: Essays in Critical Theory (1968) An Essay on Liberation (1969) Counterrevolution and Revolt (1972) ISBN 978-0-8070-1533-9 The Aesthetic Dimension: Toward a Critique of Marxist Aesthetics (1978) ISBN 978-0-8070-1519-3

Five Lectures (1969)

Essays

Repressive Tolerance[23] (1965) On the Problem of the Dialectic[24] (1932-1972) Liberation[25] (1969)

Spanish: Sociedad Carnvora (Buenos Aires: Editorial Eco Contemporneo, 1970). Contains the four articles:

"Liberndose de la sociedad opulenta" (sellected papers v. 3) "La rebelin de Paris" "Perspectivas de la nueva izquierda radical" "Exijamos lo imposible".