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QUIZ CHAPTER 14 and 15 ANATOMY Ans. Chapter 14 1. corpus callosum 2. frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital, insula 3.

longitudinal fissure 4. false 5. true 6. d 7. c 8. d 9. e 10. d 11. e 12. (a) 3, (b) 5, (c) 6, (d) 8, (e) 11, (f) 10, (g) 7, (h) 9, (i) 1, (j) 4, (k) 2, (l) 12, (m) 1, (n) 8, (o) 5, (p) 7, (q) 12, (r) 10, (s) 9, (t) 1 and 2, (u) 3, 4, and 6, (v) 11 13. (a) 9, (b) 2, (c) 6, (d) 10, (e) 4, (f) 11, (g) 1, (h) 2, (i) 5, (j) 8, (k) 12, (l) 7, (m) 3, (n) 6 and 8, (o) 13, (p) 7, (q) 1 14. (a) 5, (b) 9, (c) 11, (d) 6, (e) 3, (f) 1, (g) 10, (h) 8, (i) 2, (j) 4, (k) 7 15. (a) 10, (b) 2, (c) 6, (d) 8, (e) 7, (f) 5, (g) 3, (h) 11, (i) 14, (j) 13, (k) 4, (l) 1, (m) 12, (n) 9 (o) 15 Fill in the blanks in the following statements. 1. The cerebral hemispheres are connected internally by a broad band of white matter known as the _____. corpus callosum 2. List the five lobes of the cerebrum: _____, _____, _____, _____, _____. frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital, insula 3. The _______ separates the cerebrum into right and left halves. longitudinal fissure Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. 4. The brain stem consists of the medulla oblongata, pons, and diencephalon. False 5. You are the greatest student of anatomy and physiology, and you are well-prepared for your exam on the brain. As you confidently answer the questions, your brain is exhibiting beta waves. True Choose the one best answer to the following questions. 6. Which of the following is not a function of the thalamus? (a) relaying information from the cerebellum and basal ganglia to primary motor areas of the cerebral cortex (b) helping maintain consciousness (c) playing a role in emotions and memory (d) regulating body temperature (e) relaying sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex 7. Which of the following statements is false? (a) The blood supply to the brain is provided mainly by the internal carotid and vertebral arteries. (b) Neurons in the brain rely almost exclusively on aerobic respiration to produce ATP. (c) An interruption of blood flow to the brain for even 20 seconds may impair brain function. (d) Glucose supply to the brain must be continuous. (e) Low levels of glucose in the blood to the brain may result in unconsciousness. 8. In which of the following ways does cerebrospinal fluid contribute to homeostasis? (1) mechanical protection, (2) chemical protection, (3) electrical protection, (4) circulation, (5) immunity. (a) 1, 2, and 3 (b) 2, 3, and 4 (c) 3, 4, and 5 (d) 1, 2, and 4 (e) 2, 4, and 5 9. Which of the following are functions of the hypothalamus? (1) control of the ANS, (2) production of hormones, (3) regulation of emotional and behavioral patterns, (4) regulation of eating and drinking, (5) control of body temperature, (6) regulation of circadian rhythms. (a) 1, 2, 4, and 6 (b) 2, 3, 5, and 6 (c) 1, 3, 5, and 6 (d) 1, 4, 5, and 6 (e) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6

10. Which of the following statements is false? (a) Association tracts transmit nerve impulses between gyri in the same hemisphere. (b) Commissural tracts transmit impulses from the gyri in one cerebral hemisphere to the corresponding gyri in the other hemisphere. (c) Projection tracts form descending and ascending tracts that transmit impulses from the cerebrum and other parts of the brain to the spinal cord, or from the spinal cord to the brain. (d) The internal capsule is an example of a commissural tract. (e) The corpus callosum is an example of a commissural tract. 11. Which of the following statements is true? (a) The right and left hemispheres of the cerebrum are completely symmetrical. (b) The left hemisphere controls the left side of the body. (c) The right hemisphere is more important for spoken and written language. (d) The left hemisphere is more important for musical and artistic awareness. (e) Hemispheric lateralization is more pronounced in males than in females. 12. Match the following (some answers will be used more than once): 12. (a) 3, (b) 5, (c) 6, (d) 8, (e) 11, (f) 10, (g) 7, (h) 9, (i) 1, (j) 4, (k) 2, (l) 12, (m) 1, (n) 8, (o) 5, (p) 7, (q) 12, (r) 10, (s) 9, (t) 1 and 2, (u) 3, 4, and 6, (v) 11 (a) oculomotor- cranial nerve III (b) trigeminal- V (c) abducens- VI (d) vestibulocochlear- VIII (e) accessory-XI (f) vagus- X (g) facial- VII (h) glossopharyngeal- IX (i) olfactory- 1 (j) trochlear- IV (k) optic- II (l) hypoglossal- XII (m) functions in sense of smell- I (n) functions in hearing and equilibrium- VIII (o) functions in chewing- V (p) functions in facial expression and secretion of saliva and tears- VII (q) functions in movement of tongue during speech and swallowing- XII (r) functions in secretion of digestive fluids- X (s) functions in secretion of saliva, taste, regulation of blood pressure, and muscle sense- IX (t) sensory only- I AND II (u) functions in eye movement by controlling extrinsic eye muscles- III, IV AND VI ONLY (v) functions in swallowing and head movements- XI (1) cranial nerve I (2) cranial nerve II (3) cranial nerve III (4) cranial nerve IV (5) cranial nerve V (6) cranial nerve VI (7) cranial nerve VII (8) cranial nerve VIII (9) cranial nerve IX (10) cranial nerve X (11) cranial nerve XI (12) cranial nerve XII

13. Match the following (some answers may be used more than once): 13. (a) 9, (b) 2, (c) 6, (d) 10, (e) 4, (f) 11, (g) 1, (h) 2, (i) 5, (j) 8, (k) 12, (l) 7, (m) 3, (n) 6 and 8, (o) 13, (p) 7, (q) 1 (a) emotional brain; involved in olfaction and memory- limbic system (b) bridge connecting parts of the brain with each other- pons (c) sensory relay area- thalamus (d) alerts the cerebral cortex to incoming sensory signals- reticular formation (e) regulates posture and balance- cerebellum (f) lacks a blood-brain barrier; can monitor chemical changes in the blood- circumventricular organs (g) site of decussation of pyramids- medulla oblongata (h) site of pneumotaxic and apneustic areas- pons (i) secretes melatonin- pineal gland (j) contains sensory, motor, and association areas- cerebrum (k) responsible for maintaining consciousness and awakening from sleep- reticular activating system (l) controls ANS- hypothalamus (m) contains reflex centers for movements of the eyes, head, and neck in response to visual and other stimuli, and reflex center for movements of the head and trunk in response to auditory stimuli- midbrain (n) plays an essential role in awareness and in the acquisition of knowledge; cognition- thalamus, cerebrum (o) several groups of nuclei that control large autonomic movements of skeletal muscles and help regulate muscle tone required for specific body movements- basal ganglia (p) produces hormones that regulate endocrine gland function- hypothalamus (q) contains the vital cardiovascular center and medullary rhythmicity center- medulla oblongata (1) medulla oblongata (2) pons (3) midbrain (4) cerebellum (5) pineal gland (6) thalamus (7) hypothalamus (8) cerebrum (9) limbic system (10) reticular formation (11) circumventricular organs (12) reticular activating system (13) basal ganglia 14. Match the following: 14. (a) 5, (b) 9, (c) 11, (d) 6, (e) 3, (f) 1, (g) 10, (h) 8, (i) 2, (j) 4, (k) 7 (a) protrusions in the medulla formed by the large corticospinal tracts- tentorium cerebelli (b) dura mater extension that separates the two cerebral hemispheres- falx cerebri (c) fingerlike extensions of arachnoid mater where CSF is reabsorbed- arachnoid villi (d) dura mater extension that separates the two cerebellar hemispheres- falx cerebelli (e) located in the hypothalamus; relay stations for reflexes related to smell- mammillary bodies (f) folds in the cerebral cortex- gyri (g) shallow grooves in the cerebral cortex- sulci (h) bundles of white matter that relay information between the cerebellum and other parts of the brain- cerebellar peduncles (i) a thick band of sensory and motor tracts that connect the cerebral cortex with the brain stem and spinal cord- internal capsule (j) dura mater extension that separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum- tentorium cerebelli (k) thin membranous partition between the lateral ventricles- septum pellucidum (1) gyri (2) internal capsule (3) mammillary bodies (4) tentorium cerebelli (5) pyramids (6) falx cerebelli

(7) septum pellucidum (8) cerebellar peduncles (9) falx cerebri (10) sulci (11) arachnoid villi 15. Match the following: 15. (a) 10, (b) 2, (c) 6, (d) 8, (e) 7, (f) 5, (g) 3, (h) 11, (i) 14, (j) 13, (k) 4, (l) 1, (m) 12, (n) 9 (o) 15 (a) allows planning and production of speech- primary visual area (b) receives impulses for sound- primary auditory area (c) controls voluntary contraction of muscles- primary motor area (d) allows recognition and evaluation of visual experiences- visual association area (e) integration and interpretation of somatic sensations; comparison of past to present sensations- somatosensory association area (f) receives impulses for touch, proprioception, pain, and temperature- primary somatosensory area (g) receives impulses for taste- primary gustatory area (h) interpretation of sounds as speech, music, or noise- auditory association area (i) receives impulses from many sensory and association areas as well as the thalamus and brain stem; allows formation of thoughts so appropriate action can occur- common integrative area (j) translates words into thoughts- Wernickes area (k) receives impulses for smell- primary olfactory area (l) allows interpretation of shape, color, and movement- primary visual area (m) coordinates muscle movement for complex, learned sequential motor activities- premotor area (n) involved in scanning eye movements- frontal eye field (o) allows you to discriminate among different odors- orbitofrontal cortex (1) primary visual area (2) primary auditory area (3) primary gustatory area (4) primary olfactory area (5) primary somatosensory area (6) primary motor area (7) somatosensory association area (8) visual association area (9) frontal eye field (10) Brocas area (11) auditory association area (12) premotor area (13) Wernickes area (14) common integrative area (15) orbitofrontal cortex

Chapter 15 1. acetylcholine, epinephrine or norepinephrine 2. thoracolumbar, craniosacral 3. true 4. true 5. d 6. e 7. b 8. c 9. e 10. a 11. a 12. c 13. e, b, g, f, d, a, c14. (a) 3, (b) 2, (c) 1, (d) 1, (e) 2, (f) 3, (g) 3, (h) 1, (i) 4, (j) 2, (k) 5 15. (a) 2, (b) 1, (c) 1, (d) 2, (e) 1, (f) 1, (g) 2, (h) 2 Fill in the blanks in the following statements. 1. Cholinergic neurons release _____ and adrenergic neurons release _____. acetylcholine, epinephrine or norepinephrine 2. Because of the location of the preganglionic cell bodies, the sympathetic division of the ANS is also called the _____ division; the parasympathetic division is also called the _____ division. thoracolumbar, craniosacral Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. 3. The vagus nerves transmit 80% of the outflow of the parasympathetic preganglionic axons. True 4. Organs that receive both sympathetic and parasympathetic motor impulses are said to have dual innervation. True Choose the one best answer to the following questions. 5. Which of the following statements is false? (a) A single sympathetic preganglionic fiber may synapse with 20 or more postganglionic fibers, which partly explains why sympathetic responses are widespread throughout the body. (b) Parasympathetic effects tend to be localized because parasympathetic neurons usually synapse in the terminal ganglia with only four or five postsynaptic neurons (all of which supply a single effector). (c) Some sympathetic preganglionic neurons extend to and terminate in the adrenal medullae. (d) The parasympathetic preganglionic neurons synapse with the postganglionic axons in the prevertebral ganglia. (e) Parasympathetic preganglionic neurons emerge from the CNS as part of a cranial nerve or anterior root of a spinal nerve. 6. Which autonomic plexus supplies the large intestine? (1) renal, (2) inferior mesenteric, (3) hypogastric, (4) superior mesenteric, (5) celiac. (a) 2, 3, and 4 (b) 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 (c) 3 and 4 (d) 4 and 5 (e) 2 and 4 7. Which of the following statements are true? (1) The somatic nervous system and the ANS both include sensory and motor neurons. (2) Somatic motor neurons release the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. (3) The effect of an autonomic motor neuron is either excitation or inhibition, but that of a somatic motor neuron is always excitation. (4) Autonomic sensory neurons are mostly associated with interoceptors. (5) Autonomic motor pathways consist of two motor neurons in series. (6) Somatic motor pathways consist of two motor neurons in series. (a) 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 (b) 1, 3, 4, and 5 (c) 2, 3, 5, and 6 (d) 1, 3, 5, and 6 (e) 2, 4, 5, and 6 8. Which of the following statements is false? (a) The first neuron in an autonomic pathway is the preganglionic neuron. (b) The axons of preganglionic neurons are located in spinal or cranial nerves. (c) The postganglionic neurons cell body is within the CNS. (d) Postganglionic neurons relay impulses from autonomic ganglia to visceral effectors. (e) All somatic motor neurons release acetylcholine.

9. Which of the following is true? (1) Monoamine oxidase enzymatically breaks down norepinephrine. (2) Activation of _2 and _2 receptors generally produces excitation in the effectors. (3) A beta blocker works by preventing activation of _ receptors by epinephrine and norepinephrine. (4) An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and prevents the natural neurotransmitter from exerting its effect. (5) Activation of nicotinic receptors always causes excitation of the postsynaptic cell. (a) 2 and 3 (b) 1, 2, and 3 (c) 2, 4, and 5 (d) 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 (e) 1, 3, and 5 10. Which of the following are cholinergic neurons? (1) all sympathetic preganglionic neurons, (2) all parasympathetic preganglionic neurons, (3) all parasympathetic postganglionic neurons, (4) all sympathetic postganglionic neurons, (5) some sympathetic postganglionic neurons. (a) 1, 2, 3, and 5 (b) 1, 2, 3, and 4 (c) 2, 3, and 5 (d) 2 and 5 (e) 1, 3, and 5 11. Which of the following statements are true? (1) Most sympathetic postganglionic axons are adrenergic. (2) Cholinergic receptors are classified as nicotinic and muscarinic. (3) Adrenergic receptors are classified as alpha and beta. (4) Muscarinic receptors are present on all effectors innervated by parasympathetic postganglionic axons. (5) In general, norepinephrine stimulates alpha receptors more vigorously than beta receptors; epinephrine is a potent stimulator of both alpha and beta receptors. (a) 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 (b) 2, 3, 4 and 5 (c) 1, 3, 4, and 5 (d) 3, 4, and 5 (e) 1, 2, 3, and 4 12. Which of the following are reasons why the effects of sympathetic stimulation are longer lasting and more widespread than those of parasympathetic stimulation? (1) There is greater divergence of sympathetic postganglionic fibers. (2) There is less divergence of sympathetic postganglionic fibers. (3) Acetylcholinesterase quickly inactivates ACh, but norepinephrine lingers in the synaptic cleft for a longer time. (4) Norepinephrine and epinephrine secreted into the blood by the adrenal medullae intensify the actions of the sympathetic division. (5) ACh remains in the synaptic cleft until norepinephrine is produced. (a) 1 and 3 (b) 1, 3, and 5 (c) 1, 3, and 4 (d) 2, 3, and 4 (e) 2, 3, and 5 13. Place the following components of an autonomic reflex arc in the correct order from beginning to end. (a) postganglionic neuron (b) sensory neuron (c) effector (d) autonomic ganglion (e) receptor (f) preganglionic neuron (g) integrating center E,b,g,f,d,a,c 15. Match the following: 15. (a) 2, (b) 1, (c) 1, (d) 2, (e) 1, (f) 1, (g) 2, (h) 2 (a) stimulates urination and defecation- 2 (b) prepares the body for emergency situations-1 (c) fight-or-flight response-1 (d) promotes digestion and absorption of food- 2 (e) concerned primarily with processes involving the expenditure of energy- 1 (f) controlled by the posterior and lateral portions of the hypothalamus- 1 (g) controlled by the anterior and medial portions of the hypothalamus-2 (h) causes a decrease in heart rate- 2 (1) increased activity of the sympathetic division of the ANS (2) increased activity of the parasympathetic division of the ANS