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PowerIT LV Active Filter PQFT

The ABB comprehensive solution for active filtering of harmonics for commercial loads including zero-sequence harmonics

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Harmonics and Power Quality


Harmonics caused by non-linear electrical loads such as variable speed drives, rectifiers, UPS's, computers, TV sets, are a growing problem both for electricity suppliers and users.
Harmonics can lead to serious problems:
overheating of cables, motors and transformers damage to sensitive equipment tripping of circuit breakers blowing of fuses premature ageing of the installation

An example of a line current distortion due to a variable speed drive is shown below.

Line current - Initial situation

UNFILTERED LINE CURRENT (100A/div)

800 UNFILTERED SUPPLY CURRENT (% FUNDAMENTAL)

25%

20%

15%

10%

5%

-800 0 TIME (5MS/div)

0% 0
2 5 8 11 14 17 20 23 26 29 32 35 38 41 44 47 50

HARMONICS

The ABB Solution: PQF Power Quality Filter


The Power Quality Filter developed by ABB is an active filter offering unprecedented ability to clean the network from harmonics. The PQF eliminates harmonics in a controlled way. It is easy to extend and adapt to changes in the network.
Principle of operation

The PQF monitors the line current in real time and processes the measured harmonics as digital signals in a high-power DSP (Digital Signal Processor). The output of the DSP controls PWM (Pulse Width Modulated) power modules that through line reactors inject harmonic currents with exactly the opposite phase to those that are to be filtered.

Fundamental only CT LOAD PQF Harmonics only

PQF : The Ultimate Step in Filtering Efficiency


As shown below, the net effect of the installation of a PQF is an elimination of the harmonics and a clean sine wave as seen by the feeding transformer. The flexibility and accuracy of the PQF is due to a closed loop control system incorporating additional microprocessor capability in addition to the main DSP. The overall performance and power of the concept relies on optimally designed IGBT power modules used to the particular needs of an active filter application. The PQF is usually directly connected to the LV network. Solutions for higher voltages are also available.

Line current - Filter running

800 FILTERED LINE CURRENT (100A/div)

FILTERED SUPPLY CURRENT (% FUNDAMENTAL)

25%

20%

15%

10%

5%

-800 0 TIME ( 5MS/div)

0% 0
2 5 8 11 14 17 20 23 26 29 32 35 38 41 44 47 50

HARMONICS

Advantages of the PQF


Harmonic attenuation factor better than 3% for every harmonic order Filters up to 15 harmonics simultaneously at 50Hz (up to 12 harmonics at 60Hz) Filters up to the 50th harmonic Filters with closed loop control for best accuracy Is not overloadable Has a programmable filtering strategy and free choice of harmonics May filter without generation of reactive power May generate and control power factor Has programmable task priorities Does not require detailed network analysis Does not require special CT's Is easy to extend on site Comes factory tested

PQFT: the ABB solution for active filtering of harmonics for commercial loads including zero-sequence harmonics Typical applications
Offices and buildings, UPS, lighting, HVAC, computer centers, lifts, ...

Digital Control (DSP)


Programmable filtering characteristics Perfect multi-tuning to selected harmonics (including zero-sequence) Not overloadable Programmable power factor correction Zero-Q filtering capacity Programmable task priorities

Auxiliaries

Contactor & fuses

Power electronics
PWM converter IGBT technology

Forced air cooling

Top or bottom cable entry

Description
PQFT
The PQFT consists of one controller and one power section mounted either in an IP23 cubicle or on a
W D

The standard dimensions of the cubicle are 600 x 600 x 2150 mm (W x D x H). The standard dimensions of the mounting plate are

common plate (plate execution IP00). The cubicle version is factory assembled with auxiliary
H

499 x 400 x 1696 mm (W x D x H). The PQFT is extensible to a maximum of 4 power sections of the same rating (1 master unit and 3 slave units). Several PQFT may operate together on the same network.

apparatus and wiring. The plate execution is equipped with a terminal for the connection of the wires to the cubicle front door. All the accessories to be installed on the front door are also supplied.

PQFT Technical specifications


Active filter for three-phase-four wires systems for filtering harmonics, including non-zero sequence, and reactive power compensation.

RMS current per module 50 Hz - from 208V to 415V 60 Hz - from 208V to 415V Neutral current ratings Modularity(**) Physical mounting Voltage tolerance Harmonics to filter

50 Hz: 60 Hz:

Degree of filtering Attenuation factor Reactive power Communication Programming (RS232 port)

Alt 1) Alt 2) Alt 3)

40A, 70A, or 100A / power section 40A, 70A or 80A (*) / power section (*) 100A from 208V up to 280V 3 times the RMS current per module mentioned here above up to 4 power sections / system 1 power section / cubicle +/- 10% up to 15, programmable up to the 50th harmonic up to 12, programmable up to the 50th harmonic Individually programmable per harmonic in relative or absolute terms Better than 97% for every harmonic order Power factor programmable from 0.7 inductive to 0.7 capacitive RS232 port Using PC (not provided) and software supplied with the equipment Using optional PQF-Manager Using PC (not provided) and optional PQF- Link software

Response time Active power Protection Cubicle dimensions Plate dimensions Weight Colour Installation

Environment Ambient temperature Humidity Options

40 ms less than 3 kW per module at full load IP23 - Plate execution IP00 600 x 600 x 2150 mm (W x D x H) 499 x 400 x 1696 mm (W x D x H) Appr. 250 kg (IP00 : appr. 200 kg) RAL 7032 (Beige) IP23: Floor fixation. Lifting lugs provided. Bottom and top cable entry. IP00: plate to be mounted in cubicle Indoor installation in clean environment up to 1000m altitude -10C/+40C Maximum 95% RH; non-condensing Socle PQF-Manager PQF-Link

(**) A derating of 5% should be considered for systems with more than one power section.

Connection diagram

SUPPLY N LOAD(S)

PQFT

Optional accessories
The PQF-Manager
The PQF-Manager offers direct control, programming and monitoring capability without using a PC. It is located on the front panel of the filter cubicle.

Keyboard

160x80 pixel backlit LCD

Indicator lights

The PQF-Manager Technical Specifications


Dimensions: 258 x 124 mm Installation: As an option, on the front panel of the filter cubicle. Display: 160 x 80-pixel backlit LCD
RS-232 serial port (connection with control rack) Window selection

Access-key to the 3-level menu

MENUS
3 main menus are available according to the priority level of the user: Consulting level (default level) Filter operation Hardware set-up

Voltage THD (L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L1) Current THD (L1, L2, L3) - Waveform Line voltages (L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L1) Line currents (L1, L2, L3) Filter currents (L1, L2, L3) - Spectrum The spectrum of any of the mentioned waveforms is available. The values indicated may be

Reactive power Reactive power compensation functionality may be selected. If fixed compensation is chosen, then the output power needs to be set. If dynamic compensation is chosen, then the desired target power factor needs to be set. Harmonics The frequency components to actively filter may be freely selectable. The degree of filtering may be specified per component in Amps or as a percentage of the fundamental or total RMS current.

ACCESS PROTECTION
Filter operation and hardware setup are password protected. In order to increase safety, the priority level automatically goes down to the lowest level after one minute of non-use of the PQF-Manager.

Consulting level
In the consulting level, the PQFManager displays the following information: - Filter status Percentage of filter capability used Error messages - Network status Line voltages (L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L1) Line currents (L1, L2, L3)

expressed in Amps or in Volts.

Filter operation
Mode The basic operation is to filter to a prescribed level. The function Mode allows using the additional capabilities of the filter for maximum filtering (harmonics close to zero) or for generation of reactive power.

Hardware set-up
This level gives access to hardware configuration parameters: network characteristics, filter sensors, and filter hardware set-up.

The PQF-Link
The PQF-Link software offers direct control, programming and monitoring capability from a PC through the RS-232 serial port. A cable for PC connection is supplied with the PQF-Link. All the features of the PQF-Link are directly accessible by clicking on the icons of the shortcut menu. According to the login level of the user, different icons are displayed. 3 access levels are defined in the login procedure: Consulting level: default level access to filter and network status, to waveform and spectrum display Filter operation: access to consulting level and filter programming Hardware set-up: access to filter operation and hardware set-up Particular features include: Detailed information on filter status: % of filter capability used error history Advanced spectrum display: bar graph and table of values in the same window: line voltages line currents filter currents Display of the filter and network waveforms with a customised time base: Line voltages Line currents Filter currents Simultaneous waveform display for the 3 phases Continuous updating of displayed information or snapshot display Remote control and programming of the PQF On/off Mode selection Reactive power control Harmonics and reactive power specifications Remote hardware set-up Network characteristics Filter sensors Filter hardware Display of several windows simultaneously Add/remove users and define their access level
Simultaneous display of several windows Line current spectrum and waveform (3 phases) displayed simulteanously

The PQF-Link works under Windows NT (Service Pack 3 minimum).

IndustrialIT describes the ABB Group commitment to bridging the gap between industrial and business assets and the information technology (IT) required to integrate these components in real time. The commitment encompasses a portfolio of compatible product building blocks for power, automation, and information; a robust, open architecture for integrated solutions; plus the domain expertise acquired through more than 100 years of meeting customer needs. While all care has been taken to ensure that the information contained in this publication is correct, no responsibility can be accepted for any inaccuracy. We reserve the right to alter or modify the information contained herein at any time in the light of technical or other developments. Technical specifications are valid under normal operating conditions only. We do not accept any responsibility for any misuse of the product and cannot be held liable for indirect or consequential damages.