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What is Gm-C filters?

Definition:

Active filter controlled by OTA (current gain) and capacitors parameters, over a CMOS or BiCMOS technology.

Key Points:

Introduction

Comparative of RC, MOSFET-C and Gm-C filters

Biquad overview

Gm-C filter synthesis

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08/26/2008

Course Title

BA01 Analog IC Design

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Introduction: Gm-C Filters

Where / why we do use Continous-Time Filters:

Pre and post filters for sampled-data systems; Mixed analog digital systems; Biomedical applications (peacemarker); Area and Power efficient solution.

Gm-C Filters properties:

Well-suited for high-frequency applications; Many transconductance elements required; Limited dynamic range (OTA nonlinearities);

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Course Title

BA01 Analog IC Design

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Comparison of CT-filters type

Comparison of CT-filters type 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 4

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BA01 Analog IC Design

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The Biquad Filter

The Biquad Filter 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 5
The Biquad Filter 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 5
The Biquad Filter 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 5

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BA01 Analog IC Design

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The Biquad Filter

The Biquad Filter 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 6
The Biquad Filter 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 6
The Biquad Filter 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 6
The Biquad Filter 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 6
The Biquad Filter 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 6

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BA01 Analog IC Design

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The Biquad Filter

The ressonator Natural Modes

The Biquad Filter The ressonator Natural Modes Active ressonator 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC
The Biquad Filter The ressonator Natural Modes Active ressonator 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC
The Biquad Filter The ressonator Natural Modes Active ressonator 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC
The Biquad Filter The ressonator Natural Modes Active ressonator 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC
The Biquad Filter The ressonator Natural Modes Active ressonator 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC
Active ressonator
Active ressonator

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Course Title

BA01 Analog IC Design

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The Two-Integrator-Loop Biquad

Consider first a high pass filter.

Biquad Consider first a high pass filter. Kerwin-Huelsman-Newcomb (KHN) biquad 2/9/07 08/26/2008
Biquad Consider first a high pass filter. Kerwin-Huelsman-Newcomb (KHN) biquad 2/9/07 08/26/2008
Biquad Consider first a high pass filter. Kerwin-Huelsman-Newcomb (KHN) biquad 2/9/07 08/26/2008

Kerwin-Huelsman-Newcomb (KHN) biquad

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Course Title

BA01 Analog IC Design

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The Tow-Integrator-Loop Biquad

Another way to sum the partial integrated signals

Biquad Another way to sum the partial integrated signals Tow-Thomas biquad 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01

Tow-Thomas biquad

Another way to sum the partial integrated signals Tow-Thomas biquad 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog

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Course Title

BA01 Analog IC Design

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Other Techniques Available

SAB ( Single Amplifier Biquad) Simulation of passive ladder network Other higher order techniques.

of passive ladder network Other higher order techniques. 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design
of passive ladder network Other higher order techniques. 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design

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First-Order OTA-C

First-Order OTA-C 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 11
First-Order OTA-C 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 11

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First-Order OTA-C 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 11

Course Title

BA01 Analog IC Design

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Basic Blocks

Basic Building Block

OTA-C Integrator

Basic Blocks Basic Building Block OTA-C Integrator 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 12
Basic Blocks Basic Building Block OTA-C Integrator 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 12

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BA01 Analog IC Design

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Basic Blocks

Parasitic capacitance effects:

The Miller effect

Basic Blocks Parasitic capacitance effects: The Miller effect How to reduce this parasitic capacitance 2/9/07 08/26/2008
Basic Blocks Parasitic capacitance effects: The Miller effect How to reduce this parasitic capacitance 2/9/07 08/26/2008

How to reduce this parasitic capacitance

The Miller effect How to reduce this parasitic capacitance 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC

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Course Title

BA01 Analog IC Design

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Basic Blocks

OTA simulated resistor

Basic Blocks OTA simulated resistor 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 14
Basic Blocks OTA simulated resistor 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 14

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BA01 Analog IC Design

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Basic Blocks

OTA simulated inductor

Basic Blocks OTA simulated inductor 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 15
Basic Blocks OTA simulated inductor 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 15

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BA01 Analog IC Design

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Filter Topologies

Example of an RLC circuit

Filter Topologies Example of an RLC circuit 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 16
Filter Topologies Example of an RLC circuit 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 16
Filter Topologies Example of an RLC circuit 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 16
Filter Topologies Example of an RLC circuit 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 16
Filter Topologies Example of an RLC circuit 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 16

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Course Title

BA01 Analog IC Design

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Two Integrator Loop OTA-C filter

Very known from opamp realization

Two Integrator Loop OTA-C filter Very known from opamp realization 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog
Two Integrator Loop OTA-C filter Very known from opamp realization 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog

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Two Integrator Loop OTA-C filter Very known from opamp realization 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog
Two Integrator Loop OTA-C filter Very known from opamp realization 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog
Two Integrator Loop OTA-C filter Very known from opamp realization 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog
Two Integrator Loop OTA-C filter Very known from opamp realization 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog

Course Title

BA01 Analog IC Design

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Two Integrator Loop OTA-C filter

Summed feedback and Distributed feedback

Loop OTA-C filter Summed feedback and Distributed feedback 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design
Loop OTA-C filter Summed feedback and Distributed feedback 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design
Loop OTA-C filter Summed feedback and Distributed feedback 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design

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Loop OTA-C filter Summed feedback and Distributed feedback 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design
Loop OTA-C filter Summed feedback and Distributed feedback 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design
Loop OTA-C filter Summed feedback and Distributed feedback 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design

Course Title

BA01 Analog IC Design

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Two Integrator Loop OTA-C filter

Designing

Making t1 = t2 = t ; select k11 and k12

filter Designing Making t1 = t2 = t ; select k11 and k12 Or making k11=k12;

Or making k11=k12; select t1 and t2

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= t2 = t ; select k11 and k12 Or making k11=k12; select t1 and t2

Course Title

BA01 Analog IC Design

19

Two Integrator Loop OTA-C filter

Biquad

Two Integrator Loop OTA-C filter Biquad 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 20
Two Integrator Loop OTA-C filter Biquad 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 20

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Course Title

BA01 Analog IC Design

20

OTA-C Realizations of (DF) Configuration

How to use inputs and outputs

Realizations of (DF) Configuration How to use inputs and outputs 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog
Realizations of (DF) Configuration How to use inputs and outputs 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog

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OTA-C Realizations of (DF) Configuration

Summarized table

OTA-C Realizations of (DF) Configuration Summarized table 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 22

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OTA-C Realizations of (DF) Configuration Summarized table 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 22

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OTA-C Realizations of (DF) Configuration Summarized table 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 22

Course Title

BA01 Analog IC Design

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Biquad Realization

Summarizing

Distributed Feedback Summer feedback (KHN – biquad) Lossy integrator (Tow-Thomas)

Summer feedback (KHN – biquad) Lossy integrator (Tow-Thomas) 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design
Summer feedback (KHN – biquad) Lossy integrator (Tow-Thomas) 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design
Summer feedback (KHN – biquad) Lossy integrator (Tow-Thomas) 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design

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Course Title

BA01 Analog IC Design

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Final Considerations

Dynamic Range Mismatch transconductance Output impedance and load problem Component substitution (LC ladder, RLC Ressonator)

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Course Title

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References

Deliyannis, T. Sun, Y. Fidler, J.K. Continuous-Time Active Filter Design. New York:

CRC Press. 1999

Johns, D. Martin, K. Analog Integrated Circuit Design. New York: Wiley. 1997

Ficher, G. Transconductance-C Filters at:

http://www.ele.uri.edu/courses/ele539/lectures/chapter9.pdf

Sedra, A.S., Smith, K.C. Microelectronic circuits. Fifth Ed. New York: Oxford press.

2004

"

R. L. Geiger and E. Sánchez-Sinencio , Active Filter Design Using Operational

Transconductance Amplifiers: A Tutorial," IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine, Vol. 1, pp.20-32, March 1985.

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Course Title

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Pratical example

Band Stop

Pratical example Band Stop Making t1 = t1 =t Or making k12=k22=k requirements 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course

Making t1 = t1 =t

Pratical example Band Stop Making t1 = t1 =t Or making k12=k22=k requirements 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course

Or making k12=k22=k

example Band Stop Making t1 = t1 =t Or making k12=k22=k requirements 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title

requirements

Band Stop Making t1 = t1 =t Or making k12=k22=k requirements 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01

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BA01 Analog IC Design

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Pratical example

Band Stop

The integrators and amplifiers transconductance

Band Stop The integrators and amplifiers transconductance Simulated Resistor and Capacitors 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course

Simulated Resistor and Capacitors

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and amplifiers transconductance Simulated Resistor and Capacitors 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 29
and amplifiers transconductance Simulated Resistor and Capacitors 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 29
and amplifiers transconductance Simulated Resistor and Capacitors 2/9/07 08/26/2008 Course Title BA01 Analog IC Design 29

Course Title

BA01 Analog IC Design

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