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FOUNDATION OF MANAGEMENT BBA-B101 PART - A ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS 1. Defi e M! !"e#e $. 2. W%!$ !&e $%e f' ($i) * )f #! !

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11. A) Di*('** $%e 5!&i)'* f' ($i) * )f M! !"e#e $. (O&) 11. B) 9%!$ !&e $%e 1- 2&i (i26e* )f #! !"e#e $ *$!$e. 0/ <e &/ F!/)6+ Ex26!i . 12. A) Ex26!i $%e 2&)(e** )f MBO.

1. Define Management. A(()&.i " $) <!&)6. =)) $3> ?M! !"e#e $ i* ! !&$ )f "e$$i " $%i "* .) e $%&)'"% ! . 9i$% $%e 2e)26e i f)&#!66/ )&"! i3e. "&)'2*. I$ i* ! !&$ )f (&e!$i " ! e 5i&) #e $ i 9%i(% 2e)26e (! 2e&f)&# ! . i .i5i.'!6* ! . (! ()-)2e&!$e $)9!&.* !$$!i #e $ )f "&)'2 ")!6*@. 2. What are the functions of management? P6! i "> )&"! i3i "> *$!ffi "> 6e!.i " )& .i&e($i "> ! . () $&)66i " !&e $%e f' ($i) * )f #! !"e#e $ 3. Define MBO. ?MBO i* ! 2&)(e** 9%e&e0/ $%e *'2e&i)& ! . $%e #! "e&* )f ! )&"! i3!$i) A)i $6/ i.e $if/ i$* ()##) ")!6*> .efi e e!(% i .i5i.'!6B* #!A)& !&e! )f &e*2) *i0i6i$/ i $e&#* )f &e*'6$* ex2e($e. )f %i#> ! . '*e $%e*e #e!*'&e* !* "'i.e* f)& )2e&!$i " $%e ' i$ ! . !**e**i " $%e () $&i0'$i) )f e!(% )f i$* #e#0e&*.@ 4. What do you mean by forecasting? F)&e(!*$i " %e62* #! !"e#e $ i i$* !$$e#2$* $) #! !"e 9i$% $%e ' (e&$!i $/ )f $%e f'$'&e> &e6/i " #!i 6/ ) .!$! f&)# $%e 2!*$ ! . 2&e*e $ ! . ! !6/*i* )f $&e .*. 5. What are the types of organi ation chart? 1. <)&i3) $!6 (%!&$ 2.Ce&$i(!6 (%!&$ ,.Di&('6!& (%!&$ ()&) () (e $&i( (%!&$ !. What are the ad"antages of decentra#i ation? 1. Re.'(e* 0'&.e )f $)2 exe('$i5e* 2. Q'i(E ! . 0e$$e& .e(i*i) *F ,. G&)9$% ! . .i5e&*ifi(!$i) -. Be$$e& ()##' i(!$i) F 1. De5e6)2#e $ )f exe('$i5e*F

4. I#2&)5e#e $ i #)$i5!$i) ! . #)&!6e 7. Effe($i5e *'2e&5i*i) ! . () $&)6 8. De#)(&!$i( #! !"e#e $ $. Define staffing A(()&.i " $) <!&)6. =)) $3> *$!ffi " i* .efi e. !* f)66)9*F ?S$!ffi " #e! * fi66i " ! . Eee2i " fi66e.> 2)*i$i) * i $%e )&"! i3!$i) *$&'($'&e.@ T%e *e6e($i) ! . $&!i i " )f i .i5i.'!6* f)& *2e(ifi( A)0 f' ($i) *> ! . (%!&"i " $%e# 9i$% $%e !**)(i!$e. &e*2) *i0i6i$ie*. %. Mention any t&o #eadership 'ua#ities. I $e66i"e (e> E#)$i) !6 S$!0i6i$/> U .e&*$! .i " <'#! Be%!5i)&> U .e&*$! .i " $%e 5ie9* )f )$%e&*> M)$i5!$i " $%e F)66)9e&*> I i$i!$i5e ! . D&e!$i5e A0i6i$/> G'."i " A0i6i$/> Re*2) *i06/ H De(i*i) M!Ei "> G'i.! (e> Pe&*) !6i$/> Di" ifie.> <) e*$ (. What are the three types of inno"ation? Te(% i(!6 i )5!$i) P&)(e** i )5!$i) A.#i i*$&!$i5e i )5!$i) 1). Define moti"ation. I $e& !6 ! . ex$e& !6 f!($)&* $%!$ *$i#'6!$e .e*i&e ! . e e&"/ i 2e)26e $) 0e () $i '!66/ i $e&e*$e. ! . ()##i$$e. $) ! A)0> &)6e )& *'0Ae($> )& $) #!Ee ! eff)&$ $) !$$!i ! ")!6. M)$i5!$i) &e*'6$* f&)# $%e i $e&!($i) )f 0)$% () *(i)'* ! . ' () *(i)'* f!($)&* *'(% !* $%e (1) i $e *i$/ )f .e*i&e )& ee.> (2) i (e $i5e )& &e9!&. 5!6'e )f $%e ")!6> ! . (,) ex2e($!$i) * )f $%e i .i5i.'!6 ! . )f %i* )& %e& 2ee&*. T%e*e f!($)&* !&e $%e &e!*) * ) e %!* f)& 0e%!5i " ! (e&$!i 9!/. A ex!#26e i* ! *$'.e $ $%!$ *2e .* ex$&! $i#e *$'./i " f)& ! $e*$ 0e(!'*e %e )& *%e 9! $* ! 0e$$e& "&!.e i $%e (6!**.

PART-B 11. A) Di*('** $%e 5!&i)'* f' ($i) * )f #! !"e#e $. (OR)

PART-B 11.A) Di*('** $%e 5!&i)'* f' ($i) * )f #! !"e#e $.

Functions of Management
Management has been described as a social process involving responsibility for economical and effective planning & regulation of operation of an enterprise in the fulfillment of given purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These activities are different from operative functions like marketing, finance, purchase etc. Rather these activities are common to each and every manger irrespective of his level or status. Different experts have classified functions of management. ccording to !eorge & "erry, #There are four fundamental functions of management i.e. planning, organi$ing, actuating and controlling%. ccording to &enry 'ayol, #To manage is to forecast and plan, to organi$e, to command, & to control%. (hereas )uther !ullick has given a key*ord +POSDCORB, *here stands for -lanning, . for .rgani$ing, / for /taffing, D for Directing, 0o for 0o1ordination, R for reporting & 2 for 2udgeting. 2ut the most *idely accepted are functions of management given by 3..4T5 and .,D.446) i.e. Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling. 'or theoretical purposes, it may be convenient to separate the function of management but practically these functions are overlapping in nature i.e. they are highly inseparable. 6ach function blends into the other & each affects the performance of others. 1. Planning It is the basic function of management. It deals *ith chalking out a future course of action & deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre1determined goals. ccording to 3..4T5, #-lanning is deciding in advance 7 *hat to do, *hen to do & ho* to do. It bridges the gap from *here *e are & *here *e *ant to be%. plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. -lanning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Thus, planning is a systematic thinking about *ays & means for accomplishment of predetermined goals. -lanning is necessary to ensure proper utili$ation of human & nonhuman resources. It is all pervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties, risks, *astages etc. 2. Organizing It is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources and developing productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organi$ational goals. ccording to &enry 'ayol, #To organi$e a business is to provide it *ith everything useful or its functioning i.e. ra* material, tools, capital and personnel,s%. To organi$e a business involves determining & providing human and non1human resources to the organi$ational structure. .rgani$ing as a process involves8 Identification of activities. 0lassification of grouping of activities. ssignment of duties. Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility. 0oordinating authority and responsibility relationships. 3. Staffing It is the function of manning the organi$ation structure and keeping it manned. /taffing has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology,increase in si$e of business, complexity of human behavior etc. The main purpose of staffing is to put right man on right 9ob i.e. s:uare pegs in s:uare holes and round pegs in round holes. ccording to 3oot$ & .,Donell, #Managerial function of staffing involves manning the organi$ation structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed un the structure%. /taffing involves8 Manpo*er -lanning ;estimating man po*er in terms of searching, choose the person and giving the right place<. Recruitment, selection & placement. Training & development. Remuneration. -erformance appraisal. -romotions & transfer. 4. Directing

It is that part of managerial function *hich actuates the organi$ational methods to *ork efficiently for achievement of organi$ational purposes. It is considered life1spark of the enterprise *hich sets it in motion the action of people because planning, organi$ing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the *ork. Direction is that inert1personnel aspect of management *hich deals directly *ith influencing, guiding, supervising, motivating sub1ordinate for the achievement of organi$ational goals. Direction has follo*ing elements8 /upervision Motivation )eadership 0ommunication (i Su!er"ision# implies overseeing the *ork of subordinates by their superiors. It is the act of *atching & directing *ork & *orkers. (ii Moti"ation# means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging the sub1ordinates *ith $eal to *ork. -ositive, negative, monetary, non1monetary incentives may be used for this purpose. (iii $ea%ers&i!# may be defined as a process by *hich manager guides and influences the *ork of subordinates in desired direction. (i" Communications# is the process of passing information, experience, opinion etc from one person to another. It is a bridge of understanding. '. Controlling It implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organi$ational goals. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities *ith the standards. n efficient system of control helps to predict deviations before they actually occur. ccording to Theo &aimann, #0ontrolling is the process of checking *hether or not proper progress is being made to*ards the ob9ectives and goals and acting if necessary, to correct any deviation%. ccording to 3oont$ & .,Donell #0ontrolling is the measurement & correction of performance activities of subordinates in order to make sure that the enterprise ob9ectives and plans desired to obtain them as being accomplished%. Therefore controlling has follo*ing steps8 ;i< 6stablishment of standard performance. ;ii< Measurement of actual performance. ;iii< 0omparison of actual performance *ith the standards and finding out deviation ifany. ;iv< 0orrective action.

11. B) 9%!$ !&e $%e 1- 2&i (i26e* )f #! !"e#e $ *$!$e. 0/ <e &/ F!/)6+ Ex26!i .
(enr) Fa)ol*s 14 Princi!les of Management+ The principles of management are given belo*8 =. Di"ision of ,or-+ Division of *ork or speciali$ation alone can give maximum productivity and efficiency. 2oth technical and managerial activities can be performed in the best manner only through division of labour and speciali$ation. >. .ut&orit) an% Res!onsi/ilit)+ The right to give order is called authority. The obligation to accomplish is called responsibility. uthority and Responsibility are the t*o sides of the management coin. They exist together. They are complementary and mutually interdependent. ?. Disci!line+ The ob9ectives, rules and regulations, the policies and procedures must be honoured by each member of an organi$ation. There must be clear and fair agreement on the rules and ob9ectives, on the policies and procedures. There must be penalties ;punishment< for non1obedience or indiscipline. 4o organi$ation can *ork smoothly *ithout discipline 7 preferably voluntary discipline. @. 0nit) of Comman%+ In order to avoid any possible confusion and conflict, each member of an organi$ation must received orders and instructions only from one superior ;boss<. A. 0nit) of Direction+ ll members of an organi$ation must *ork together to accomplish common ob9ectives. B. 1m!&asis on Su/or%ination of Personal 2nterest to 3eneral or Common 2nterest+ This is also called principle of co1operation. 6ach shall *ork for all and all for each. !eneral or common interest must be supreme in any 9oint enterprise. C. Remuneration+ 'air pay *ith non1financial re*ards can act as the best incentive or motivator for good performance. 6xploitation of employees in any manner must be eliminated. /ound scheme of remuneration includes ade:uate financial and nonfinancial incentives. D. Centralization+ There must be a good balance bet*een centrali$ation and decentrali$ation of authority and po*er. 6xtreme centrali$ation and decentrali$ation must be avoided. E. Scalar C&ain+ The unity of command brings about a chain or hierarchy of command linking all members of the organi$ation from the top to the bottom. /calar denotes steps.

=F. Or%er+ 'ayol suggested that there is a place for everything. .rder or system alone can create a sound organi$ation and efficient management. ==. 14uit)+ n organi$ation consists of a group of people involved in 9oint effort. &ence, e:uity ;i.e., 9ustice< must be there. (ithout e:uity, *e cannot have sustained and ade:uate 9oint collaboration. =>. Sta/ilit) of 5enure+ person needs time to ad9ust himself *ith the ne* *ork and demonstrate efficiency in due course. &ence, employees and managers must have 9ob security. /ecurity of income and employment is a pre1re:uisite of sound organi$ation and management. =?. 1s!rit of Co#o!eration+ 6sprit de corps is the foundation of a sound organi$ation. Gnion is strength. 2ut unity demands co1operation. -ride, loyalty and sense of belonging are responsible for good performance. =@. 2nitiati"e+ 0reative thinking and capacity to take initiative can give us sound managerial planning and execution of predetermined plans.