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Incompressible flow Aerodynamics Theory, formulas and problems ISA, basics on lift and drag, continuity, momentum

Incompressible flow Aerodynamics

Theory, formulas and problems

ISA, basics on lift and drag, continuity, momentum and energy equation, streamline, stream function, velocity potential, basic flows, symmetric thin airfoil theory, lifting line theory.

Ramanathan V Dept. of Aeronautics, Anna university Dept. of Physics, Bharathiyar University India.

Formulas Properties of Atmosphere

T = T 0 – αh,

α- lapse rate, h- height above the sea level

Determination of Drag and Lift over bodies

the sea level Determination of Drag and Lift over bodies Forces on the body are due
the sea level Determination of Drag and Lift over bodies Forces on the body are due

Forces on the body are due to two parameters

1. Shear force over the surface

2. Pressure distribution normal to the surface

1. Shear force over the surface 2. Pressure distribution normal to the surface On the upper

On the upper surface,

1. Shear force over the surface 2. Pressure distribution normal to the surface On the upper

on the lower surface,

1. Shear force over the surface 2. Pressure distribution normal to the surface On the upper
1. Shear force over the surface 2. Pressure distribution normal to the surface On the upper
In terms of non dimensional co efficient, the lift and drag Example :
In terms of non dimensional co efficient, the lift and drag Example :

In terms of non dimensional co efficient, the lift and drag

In terms of non dimensional co efficient, the lift and drag Example :

Example :

Example :
SPECIAL CASES CONE AT HYPERSONIC FLOW We can’t use the same formula since the cone

SPECIAL CASES

CONE AT HYPERSONIC FLOW

We can’t use the same formula since the cone is a 3 dimensional body, so from the

figure,

CASES CONE AT HYPERSONIC FLOW We can’t use the same formula since the cone is a

Force on the surface of the cone is

Force on the surface of the cone is CENTRE OF PRESSURE: When the aerodynamic forces are
Force on the surface of the cone is CENTRE OF PRESSURE: When the aerodynamic forces are

CENTRE OF PRESSURE:

When the aerodynamic forces are to be represented in terms of N and A then to represent their position on the chord we specify a point called cop, where the moment produced by the N and A is same as that is produced by the body due to the distributed loads,

that is produced by the body due to the distributed loads, Alternative way of expressing the
that is produced by the body due to the distributed loads, Alternative way of expressing the

Alternative way of expressing the moment when the force and moment on some other point is known :

when the force and moment on some other point is known : infinity when N is

infinity when N is zero.

this is generally preffered bcoz the former method cop goes to

In terms of nondimensional coefficient:

In terms of nondimensional coefficient: Flow Similarity: Since the coefficients depend on Reynolds numbers and Mach

Flow Similarity:

In terms of nondimensional coefficient: Flow Similarity: Since the coefficients depend on Reynolds numbers and Mach

Since the coefficients depend on Reynolds numbers and Mach number for flow to be similar the flow must have the parameters identical.

General formulas:

Level flight

number for flow to be similar the flow must have the parameters identical. General formulas: Level
number for flow to be similar the flow must have the parameters identical. General formulas: Level
number for flow to be similar the flow must have the parameters identical. General formulas: Level
number for flow to be similar the flow must have the parameters identical. General formulas: Level
number for flow to be similar the flow must have the parameters identical. General formulas: Level

Fluid Statics:

number for flow to be similar the flow must have the parameters identical. General formulas: Level
number for flow to be similar the flow must have the parameters identical. General formulas: Level
Hence, Vector notations and some important definitions Gradient Physically gradient is the representation of the
Hence, Vector notations and some important definitions Gradient Physically gradient is the representation of the

Hence,

Hence, Vector notations and some important definitions Gradient Physically gradient is the representation of the rate

Vector notations and some important definitions Gradient

Physically gradient is the representation of the rate of change of the quantity in the specified direction.

rate of change of the quantity in the specified direction. Divergence of a vector field Physically

Divergence of a vector field Physically means the time rate of change of the volume of moving fluid element with fixed mass per unit volume.

field Physically means the time rate of change of the volume of moving fluid element with
field Physically means the time rate of change of the volume of moving fluid element with
Curl Physically represents the half of angular velocity of the element under consideration, it measures
Curl Physically represents the half of angular velocity of the element under consideration, it measures

Curl

Physically represents the half of angular velocity of the element under consideration, it measures sine component of the element under consideration.

measures sine component of the element under consideration. Theorem connecting the line, surface and volume integral:
measures sine component of the element under consideration. Theorem connecting the line, surface and volume integral:
measures sine component of the element under consideration. Theorem connecting the line, surface and volume integral:

Theorem connecting the line, surface and volume integral:

sine component of the element under consideration. Theorem connecting the line, surface and volume integral: Mass
sine component of the element under consideration. Theorem connecting the line, surface and volume integral: Mass
sine component of the element under consideration. Theorem connecting the line, surface and volume integral: Mass

Mass flux:

sine component of the element under consideration. Theorem connecting the line, surface and volume integral: Mass

Drag force when the velocity profile @ inlet and outlet are given:

when the velocity profile @ inlet and outlet are given: Substantial Derivative: ----- average time rate
when the velocity profile @ inlet and outlet are given: Substantial Derivative: ----- average time rate

Substantial Derivative: ----- average time rate of range of the property

Derivative: ----- average time rate of range of the property Streamline: Streamlines are lines whose tangent
Derivative: ----- average time rate of range of the property Streamline: Streamlines are lines whose tangent

Streamline:

Streamlines are lines whose tangent at any point gives the direction of velocity vector

at that point.

So,

Streamline: Streamlines are lines whose tangent at any point gives the direction of velocity vector at
Streamline: Streamlines are lines whose tangent at any point gives the direction of velocity vector at
Streamline: Streamlines are lines whose tangent at any point gives the direction of velocity vector at
Streamline: Streamlines are lines whose tangent at any point gives the direction of velocity vector at

Angular velocity, Vorticity, Strain:

Angular velocity, Vorticity, Strain: Angular velocity about z axis: Vorticity: General method of representation of the
Angular velocity, Vorticity, Strain: Angular velocity about z axis: Vorticity: General method of representation of the
Angular velocity, Vorticity, Strain: Angular velocity about z axis: Vorticity: General method of representation of the

Angular velocity about z axis:

velocity, Vorticity, Strain: Angular velocity about z axis: Vorticity: General method of representation of the angular
velocity, Vorticity, Strain: Angular velocity about z axis: Vorticity: General method of representation of the angular
velocity, Vorticity, Strain: Angular velocity about z axis: Vorticity: General method of representation of the angular

Vorticity:

General method of representation of the angular velocity is through Vorticity, which is numerically twice the magnitude of the angular velocity and is quite useful since it appears more generally in equations.

Strain:

useful since it appears more generally in equations. Strain: Refers to the change in the angle,

Refers to the change in the angle, positive strain corresponds to decreasing angle.

Change in angle from the figure, Strain,

to the change in the angle, positive strain corresponds to decreasing angle. Change in angle from
to the change in the angle, positive strain corresponds to decreasing angle. Change in angle from

Time rate of strain:

Time rate of strain: Matrix of components: Circulation: Circulation is the negative line integral of velocity
Time rate of strain: Matrix of components: Circulation: Circulation is the negative line integral of velocity
Time rate of strain: Matrix of components: Circulation: Circulation is the negative line integral of velocity

Matrix of components:

Circulation:

Time rate of strain: Matrix of components: Circulation: Circulation is the negative line integral of velocity
Time rate of strain: Matrix of components: Circulation: Circulation is the negative line integral of velocity

Circulation is the negative line integral of velocity along the contour. Positive circulation is clockwise whereas the line integral is positive in counterclockwise direction hence reasoning the negative sign in the equation.

integral is positive in counterclockwise direction hence reasoning the negative sign in the equation. Stream Function:

Stream Function:

integral is positive in counterclockwise direction hence reasoning the negative sign in the equation. Stream Function:
integral is positive in counterclockwise direction hence reasoning the negative sign in the equation. Stream Function:

Stream fn in polar coordinates:

Stream fn in polar coordinates: Incompressible equations Velocity Potential: Relation b/w velocity potential and stream

Incompressible equations

Stream fn in polar coordinates: Incompressible equations Velocity Potential: Relation b/w velocity potential and stream

Velocity Potential:

fn in polar coordinates: Incompressible equations Velocity Potential: Relation b/w velocity potential and stream function:
fn in polar coordinates: Incompressible equations Velocity Potential: Relation b/w velocity potential and stream function:
fn in polar coordinates: Incompressible equations Velocity Potential: Relation b/w velocity potential and stream function:
fn in polar coordinates: Incompressible equations Velocity Potential: Relation b/w velocity potential and stream function:

Relation b/w velocity potential and stream function:

fn in polar coordinates: Incompressible equations Velocity Potential: Relation b/w velocity potential and stream function:

Basic Flow Equations:

Basic Flow Equations:
Basic Flow Equations:
Basic Flow Equations:
Basic Flow Equations:

Euler equation and Bernoulli equation:

Euler equation and Bernoulli equation: Rotational flow Irrotational flow Pressure Coefficient: Condition for
Euler equation and Bernoulli equation: Rotational flow Irrotational flow Pressure Coefficient: Condition for

Rotational flow

Euler equation and Bernoulli equation: Rotational flow Irrotational flow Pressure Coefficient: Condition for

Irrotational flow

and Bernoulli equation: Rotational flow Irrotational flow Pressure Coefficient: Condition for incompressibility:
and Bernoulli equation: Rotational flow Irrotational flow Pressure Coefficient: Condition for incompressibility:

Pressure

Coefficient:

Rotational flow Irrotational flow Pressure Coefficient: Condition for incompressibility: Condition for
Rotational flow Irrotational flow Pressure Coefficient: Condition for incompressibility: Condition for

Condition for incompressibility:

flow Pressure Coefficient: Condition for incompressibility: Condition for irrotationality: (angular moment about the z

Condition for irrotationality: (angular moment about the z axis is zero for 2d flows)

(angular moment about the z axis is zero for 2d flows) Laplace Equation – for both

Laplace Equation for both incompressible and Irrotational flows only

Laplace Equation – for both incompressible and Irrotational flows only Laplace equation in terms of stream
Laplace Equation – for both incompressible and Irrotational flows only Laplace equation in terms of stream
Laplace Equation – for both incompressible and Irrotational flows only Laplace equation in terms of stream
Laplace Equation – for both incompressible and Irrotational flows only Laplace equation in terms of stream

Laplace equation in terms of stream function:

Laplace Equation – for both incompressible and Irrotational flows only Laplace equation in terms of stream

Boundary Conditions:

Infinity Boundary condition:

Far away from the object flow approaches uniform free stream condition in all directions, where only u is present and v is zero.

in all directions, where only u is present and v is zero. Wall Boundary Condition: At
in all directions, where only u is present and v is zero. Wall Boundary Condition: At

Wall Boundary Condition:

At the wall the normal velocity to the wall is zero, only the velocity component in tangential direction is present. (Inviscid, incompressible, Irrotational flow)

is present. (Inviscid, incompressible, Irrotational flow)  Flow tangency condition for flow where velocity

Flow tangency condition for flow where velocity components are known.

Procedure:

incompressible, Irrotational flow)  Flow tangency condition for flow where velocity components are known. Procedure:
incompressible, Irrotational flow)  Flow tangency condition for flow where velocity components are known. Procedure:

FUNDAMENTAL FLOW velocity potential, stream function, radial velocity, angular velocity:

Uniform Flow

FLOW – velocity potential, stream function, radial velocity, angular velocity: Uniform Flow Source and Sink flow
FLOW – velocity potential, stream function, radial velocity, angular velocity: Uniform Flow Source and Sink flow
FLOW – velocity potential, stream function, radial velocity, angular velocity: Uniform Flow Source and Sink flow
FLOW – velocity potential, stream function, radial velocity, angular velocity: Uniform Flow Source and Sink flow

Source and Sink flow

FLOW – velocity potential, stream function, radial velocity, angular velocity: Uniform Flow Source and Sink flow
FLOW – velocity potential, stream function, radial velocity, angular velocity: Uniform Flow Source and Sink flow
FLOW – velocity potential, stream function, radial velocity, angular velocity: Uniform Flow Source and Sink flow
FLOW – velocity potential, stream function, radial velocity, angular velocity: Uniform Flow Source and Sink flow

Combination of Uniform flow with source and sink flow:

Combination of Uniform flow with source and sink flow: Stagnation point : (r, o ) =
Combination of Uniform flow with source and sink flow: Stagnation point : (r, o ) =
Combination of Uniform flow with source and sink flow: Stagnation point : (r, o ) =

Stagnation point : (r, o ) =

with source and sink flow: Stagnation point : (r, o ) = Combination of Uniform, Source

Combination of Uniform, Source and Sink (equal strength separated by distance 2b):

o ) = Combination of Uniform, Source and Sink (equal strength separated by distance 2b): Stagnation
o ) = Combination of Uniform, Source and Sink (equal strength separated by distance 2b): Stagnation

Stagnation point from origin,

o ) = Combination of Uniform, Source and Sink (equal strength separated by distance 2b): Stagnation

Doublet Flow:

Doublet Flow: From the equation: From analytical geometry it represents the equation of circle with d
Doublet Flow: From the equation: From analytical geometry it represents the equation of circle with d
Doublet Flow: From the equation: From analytical geometry it represents the equation of circle with d
Doublet Flow: From the equation: From analytical geometry it represents the equation of circle with d
Doublet Flow: From the equation: From analytical geometry it represents the equation of circle with d

From the equation:

From analytical geometry it represents the equation of circle with d as the diameter.

Doublet Flow: From the equation: From analytical geometry it represents the equation of circle with d

Non lifting flow over a cylinder: (combination of uniform and doublet flow)

Non lifting flow over a cylinder: (combination of uniform and doublet flow) STAGNATION POINTS
Non lifting flow over a cylinder: (combination of uniform and doublet flow) STAGNATION POINTS
Non lifting flow over a cylinder: (combination of uniform and doublet flow) STAGNATION POINTS
Non lifting flow over a cylinder: (combination of uniform and doublet flow) STAGNATION POINTS

STAGNATION POINTS

Non lifting flow over a cylinder: (combination of uniform and doublet flow) STAGNATION POINTS

Flow can be replaced with a circular cylinder of radius R and a freestream flow with velocity V.

Flow can be replaced with a circular cylinder of radius R and a freestream flow with
Flow can be replaced with a circular cylinder of radius R and a freestream flow with
Flow can be replaced with a circular cylinder of radius R and a freestream flow with
Flow can be replaced with a circular cylinder of radius R and a freestream flow with

Vortex Flow:

Vortex Flow: LIFTING FLOW OVER THE CIRCULAR CYLINDER:
Vortex Flow: LIFTING FLOW OVER THE CIRCULAR CYLINDER:
Vortex Flow: LIFTING FLOW OVER THE CIRCULAR CYLINDER:
Vortex Flow: LIFTING FLOW OVER THE CIRCULAR CYLINDER:

LIFTING FLOW OVER THE CIRCULAR CYLINDER:

Vortex Flow: LIFTING FLOW OVER THE CIRCULAR CYLINDER:
Vortex Flow: LIFTING FLOW OVER THE CIRCULAR CYLINDER:
Vortex Flow: LIFTING FLOW OVER THE CIRCULAR CYLINDER:
Vortex Flow: LIFTING FLOW OVER THE CIRCULAR CYLINDER: