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T3

Color Imaging on the


Internet
Robert Buckley
Xerox Innovation Group

Giordano Beretta
Hewlett-Packard Laboratories

http://www.inventoland.net/imaging/cii/

VCIP 2003
8–11 July 2003
University of Italian Switzerland (USI)
Lugano, Switzerland

Tuesday 8 July 2003


Morning

www
Visual Communications and Image Processing 2003
Copyright © Robert Buckley & Giordano Beretta, 1999–2003. All rights reserved.

Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication
may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in
any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or other-
wise), without the prior written permission of the copyright owners.

UGRA/FOGRA POSTSCRIPT CONTROL STRIP - COPYRIGHT 1990 - Version 1.1 EPS 0 3 5 10 20 30 40 50 1x1 2x2 4x4
Acrobat Distiller 6.0 Hamburgefons 1 1
Postscript V.3015.102 2 2
1200 DPI/21my Hamburgefons 3 3
Canon Palo Alto 4 4
100 97 95 90 80 70 60 50
Table of Contents
Course objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Rationale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Course roadmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1 Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1 The Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1.1 The communication process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.1.2 Multi-layer models for networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.1.3 IETF standards development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.1.4 The WWW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2 Protocols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
1.2.1 FTP — File Transfer Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
1.2.2 HTTP — HyperText Transfer Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
1.2.3 Protocols for wireless applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
1.2.4 Protocol evolution for services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
1.3 Internet media types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
1.4 New trends in image processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
1.4.1 Polarization of devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
1.4.1.1 Global Crossing’s peak network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
1.4.2 How fast is the Internet? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
1.4.3 Leveraging on vision theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
1.5 Anatomy of a Web page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
1.5.1 Web page elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
2 Color representations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
2.1 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
2.2 Viewing condition issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
2.3 Color representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
2.4 Luma-chroma spaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
2.4.1 RGB separations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
2.4.2 CIELAB separations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
2.4.3 Chroma subsampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
2.5 Some popular schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
2.5.1 RGB specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
2.5.1.1 sRGB viewing conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
2.5.2 CIELAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
2.5.2.1 8-bit CIELAB encodings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
2.5.3 The YUV color space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
2.5.4 The YCbCr color space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
2.6 More color representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38
2.6.1 ICC profile concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

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2.6.2 ICC profile based color reproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
2.7 Color interchange models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
2.7.1 Color interchange model types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
2.8 Server side color management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
2.8.1 True Internet Color architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
2.8.2 Verifi Accurate Web Color architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
2.8.3 WebSync architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
2.8.4 Coloreal architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
2.8.5 RealNetColor architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
2.9 Display trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
2.9.1 Display gamuts, the whole story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
2.9.2 Future display technologies — OLED. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
2.9.3 Future display technologies — MEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
2.10 Appearance mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
2.11 Rendering state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
2.11.1 Digital color image flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
2.11.2 Rendering in Photoshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
3 Data compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
3.0.1 Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
3.0.2 General compression system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
3.1 Coding methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
3.1.1 Encoding methods (cont.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
3.1.2 Huffman coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
3.1.2.1 Huffman coding example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
3.1.3 Arithmetic coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
3.1.4 LZ coding method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
3.1.5 LZW coding method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
3.1.6 Flate and deflate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
3.2 Binary image compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
3.3 Palette color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
3.3.1 Color palettes (mapped color) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
3.4 Transform coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
3.4.1 Transform coding (cont.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
3.5 JPEG compression method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
3.5.1 JPEG sequential modes of operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
3.5.1.1 JPEG non-sequential modes of operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
3.5.2 Color in JPEG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
3.5.2.1 Examples of problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
3.5.3 JPEG sequential (baseline) pipeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78
3.5.4 The DCT and its kernels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
3.5.5 Classical approach: the q-factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
3.5.6 Perceptually lossy compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
3.5.7 More than just compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
3.5.8 Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
3.6 JPEG 2000 — overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84

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3.6.1 JPEG 2000 — applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
3.6.2 JPEG 2000 — features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
3.6.3 JPEG 2000 — operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87
3.6.4 JPEG 2000 — wavelet transform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
3.6.5 Image compressed with JPEG. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
3.6.5.1 Image compressed with JPEG 2000, no ROI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
3.6.5.2 JPEG 2000 codestream is packetized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
3.6.5.3 Image compressed with JPEG 2000 @ 0.125 bpp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
3.6.5.4 Image compressed with JPEG 2000 @ 0.25 bpp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
3.6.5.5 Image compressed with JPEG 2000 @ 0.5 bpp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
3.6.5.6 Image compressed with JPEG 2000 @ 1 bpp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
3.6.5.7 Image compressed with JPEG 2000 @ 2 bpp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
3.6.5.8 Image compressed with JPEG 2000 @ 4 bpp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
3.7 Mixed Raster Content — background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
3.7.1 Mixed Raster Content — solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
3.7.2 Fax implementation tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
3.7.3 Mixed Raster Content — overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
3.7.4 Mixed Raster Content — model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
3.7.4.1 MRC model — decomposition by stripe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
3.7.5 MRC — test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
3.7.5.1 MRC test — decomposition by stripe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
3.7.6 MRC — performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
3.7.7 MRC specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
3.8 Which compression method should I use for my images?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
3.8.1 Slide 21 revisited in bytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
4 File formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
4.1 Color images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
4.1.1 File formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
4.2 What is metadata? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
4.3 GIF — Graphics Interchange Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
4.4 PNG — Portable Network Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
4.5 JPEG file formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
4.5.1 JFIF — JPEG File Interchange Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
4.5.2 Exif and Exif Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
4.6 TIFF — Tagged Image File Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
4.6.1 FlashPix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120
4.6.2 TilePic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121
4.7 PDF — Portable Document Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
4.7.1 Optimized PDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
4.7.2 PDF for images on the Internet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124
4.7.3 Marking up PDF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125
4.7.4 PDF short-comings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
4.8 HTML, with XHTML coming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
4.9 XML — eXtensible Markup Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
4.9.1 XML for metadata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129

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4.9.1.1 RDF — Resource Description Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
4.9.1.2 RDF problem 1: DTD vs. schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
4.9.1.3 RDF problem 2: ontology merging. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
4.9.2 DOM — Document Object Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
4.9.3 XML for presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
4.10 SVG — Scalable Vector Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
4.10.1 SVG — example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
4.11 SMIL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
4.12 MRML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
4.13 XML vs. PDF for Web pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
4.14 VRML — ISO/IEC 14772-1:1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140
4.15 QuickTime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
4.15.1 QuickTime concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
4.15.2 QuickTime file format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
4.16 JPEG 2000. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
4.16.1 JPEG 2000 File Format Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
4.17 TIFF-FX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
4.17.1 Relationship among TIFF-FX profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147
4.18 File format overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
4.18.1 File format summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
4.18.2 Internet media types and file extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150
5 Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152
5.1 Internet fax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
5.1.1 Internet fax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154
5.1.2 Internet fax — configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155
5.1.3 Internet fax — operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156
5.2 IPP — Internet Printing Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157
5.2.1 IPP — Internet Printing Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158
5.2.2 IPP — Internet Printing Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159
5.2.3 Internet Printing Protocol — model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160
5.2.4 Internet Printing Protocol — status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161
5.2.5 Internet Printing Protocol — fax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162
5.2.6 Remote printing and proofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163
5.2.7 Canon’s approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164
5.2.8 Electronic Color Proof (ECP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165
5.3 Digital sending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166
5.4 IIP — Internet Imaging Protocol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
5.4.1 JPIP Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168
5.5 WebDAV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
5.6 Service discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170
5.6.1 UPnP — Universal Plug and Play. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
5.6.1.1 UPnP network components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172
5.6.1.2 Steps in UPnP networking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
5.6.2 Jini. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
6 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175

6 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet


6.1Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
6.1.1 Entropy and the secret for success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
6.2 Imaging research for the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
6.2.1 Image retrieval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
6.2.1.1 Retrieval metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
6.2.1.2 Navigation vs. searching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
6.2.2 Web photo albums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182
6.2.2.1 User model for a Web photo album . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183
6.2.2.2 Web photo album . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
6.2.2.3 The indexing problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
6.2.2.4 The category scaling problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186
6.2.2.5 Solution part I: heaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
6.2.2.6 Solution part II: tickets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188
6.2.2.7 Solution part III: ticket editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
6.2.2.8 Solution part IV: sequencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
6.2.2.9 Conclusions for Web photo albums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191
6.2.3 Commercial Web photo albums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
6.2.3.1 Popular business models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193
6.2.4 Algorithms for ROI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
6.2.4.1 Intelligent clipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
6.3 Browsers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
6.3.1 Authoring tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
6.3.2 Instant Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
6.4 Three tier architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
6.4.1 Three tier architecture concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200
6.4.2 Programming tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201
6.4.3 .net to J2EE model comparison. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202
6.4.3.1 J2 acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
6.4.3.2 .NET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204
6.4.4 Simple image Web site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
6.4.4.1 Simple solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206
6.4.4.2 Java servlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207
6.4.4.3 Tomcat JavaServer Pages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208
6.4.5 Web services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209
6.4.5.1 AlterCast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210
6.4.5.2 e-Speak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211
6.4.5.3 WebSphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212
6.5 Summary 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213
6.5.1 Summary 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
7 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
8 Issues and futures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216
9 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217
9.1 Acknowledgements (continued) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218
10 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219
11 Links to references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220

T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet 7


12 Conference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
Colophon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
Historical Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230

8 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet


Color Imaging on Course objectives 1

the Internet • List and describe the current and emerging methods for
Internet image exchange

Robert Buckley • Develop a systematic understanding of the principles of


color encoding, image compression, file formatting,
Xerox Innovation Group protocols, and Internet imaging applications

• Understand the differences between the various methods


Giordano Beretta for each imaging function

Hewlett-Packard Laboratories • Develop an intuition for specifying well-balanced scalable


architectures for Internet imaging
http://www.inventoland.net/imaging/cii/
www
Visual Communications and Image Processing 2003 R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

Rationale 2 Course roadmap 3


Why a course on color imaging specifically for the Internet?
Application
• A picture is worth ten thousand words…
Protocol
• A screenful of text requires 24×80 = 1,920 bytes
Format
• A VGA size image requires 640×480×3 = 921,600 bytes • Systematic bottom-up
Compression
presentation and
• …but requires almost 500 times as much bandwidth… comparison of methods
Color image

• data compression is essential for images on the Internet


• which compression is best for my image? • Intended for top-down
system design
• …and the server and client are unknown a priori
• which color representation is suitable to both?
• which file format can be understood by both?
• how can they negotiate the above?
• how can we provide for unknown viewing conditions?

To be successful, systems must be designed in a top-down approach

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

1 Basics 4 1.1 The Internet 5


Evolution of Internet imaging Born Arpanet, Fall 1969

• Internet developed over 30 years, now mature and in • Originally a high-speed packet-switching network
incremental engineering mode connecting research super-computers
• packet switching allows building a reliable system that is based on an
• Although the Internet has been used for scientific infrastructure assumed at all times to be unreliable
visualization from the beginning, it has become a visual • each packet is individually addressed and each node just forwards
packets not addressed to itself
medium only since the advent of the free Mosaic browser
• the routing of packets is irrelevant
in 1993
• based on TCP/IP
• Outline of this module:
• Today the Internet is the communications medium for
• the Internet
• individuals
• protocols
• businesses
• media types
• communities of practice (extended knowledge networks)
• intelligent image processing

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
1.1.1 The communication process 6 1.1.2 Multi-layer models for networking 7
Claude Shannon, 1941
DoD 4-layer model OSI 7-layer model

Process Application
1. Information source: person or thing generating original FTP, SMTP, HTTP
Presentation
message
Host-to-Host Session
2. Transmitter: intrument that transforms the message into a TCP, UDP

signal suitable for transmission Transport


Internet
3. Communication channel: medium that conducts the signal IP, IPv6 Network

4. Receiver: instrument that takes the signal and tries to Data Link
Network Access
reconstruct the message Ethernet, FDDI Physical
5. Destination: person or thing the message is intended for
Used in the original Used in newer designs
development of
the Internet

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

1.1.3 IETF standards development 8 1.1.4 The WWW 9


4000
Born World Wide Web, March 1989
3559
3500
• Using hypertext links to connect chunks of information on
3000 the Internet

2500 • The WWW is a set of three specifications


• URL, Uniform Resource Locator, to locate information
RFC No.

2000 • HTML, Hypertext Markup Language, to write simple documents


• HTTP, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, to transfer HTML files
1500
• The WWW became popular when
1000 • the Internet became commercialized
• fast data connections became pervasive
500 • graphical browsers made navigation easy and appealing
• early adopters understood the value of the new communication medium
0 and invented disruptive technologies
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

1.2 Protocols 10 1.2.1 FTP — File Transfer Protocol 11


• A protocol is a set of conventions or rules governing Transfer files from one machine to another
communications
• Based on TCP/IP
• Protocols allow networks to interconnect and ensure • TCP (transmission control protocol) converts messages into streams of
packets at the source, then reassembles them back into messages at the
compatibility between devices of different manufacturers destination
• IP (Internet protocol) handles addressing, seeing that packets are routed
• Examples: across multiple nodes and even across multiple networks with multiple
• FTP — file transfer protocol standards
• HTTP — hypertext transfer protocol • Requires explicit directory navigation both at the source
• IIP — Internet imaging protocol and the destination
• IPP — Internet printing protocol
• SMTP — Simple Mail Transfer Protocol • Allows anonymous login
• Protocols become standards when signed off by an official • Can perform end-of-line conversion in ASCII files
body like IETF, W3C, ITU-T, ISO, or IEEE
• de facto and de jure standards

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
1.2.2 HTTP — HyperText Transfer Protocol 12 1.2.3 Protocols for wireless applications 13
Transfer compound documents with links The PC is no longer at the center of the world

• Application-level protocol for distributed, collaborative,


hypermedia information systems
• WASP — wireless application service providers
• Requires a reliable transport such as TCP/IP
• WAP — wireless application protocol
• Request the components of a document identified by
hypertext links • WML — wireless mark-up language for WAP
• existing commercial applications for automatic translation from HTML to
WML by AvantGo and Phone.com
• Provides support for HTML forms
• iMode — uses HTML, but the screen is still small
• Typing and negotiation of data representation allows
• created by NTT DoCoMo
systems to be built independently of the data being
• does not require translation from HTML
transferred
• example: color images

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

1.2.4 Protocol evolution for services 14 1.3 Internet media types 15


remote messages remote procedures distributed objects web services
• Identify type and encoding of transmitted data
• type/subtype
DLL CLR .NET • used by Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) and others

DDE OLE 1.0 COM DCOM • used to be called MIME types


• standard types registered with Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA)
MSRPC SOAP
LPC COM/ • Standard types, sample subtypes
CORBA
NCS text plain, html
UDP/TCP RPC DCE
CORBA
multipart mixed, related
J2EE
ONC message rfc822, http
RPC ONC+
IPC JAVA/RMI application pdf, vnd.ms-powerpoint, ipp

SHL RRBC image tiff, jpeg, png, gif, vnd.fpx


audio basic, 32kadpcm
1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 video mpeg, quicktime

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

1.4 New trends in image processing 16 1.4.1 Polarization of devices 17


User’s expectations The nomadic workforce

• Many users access the Internet in the office on fast • The new generation grew up on video games & WWW
workstations connected over fast links to the Internet
• At work, they expect concise answers immediately on
• At home users often have fast graphics controllers for multiple media
playing realistic computer games
• The new working world is mobile and wireless
• Increasingly, private homes are equipped with fast • a comprehensive fast fiber optics network provides a global backbone
connections over DSL, cable modem, 802.11g, FTTH, … • the “last mile” is wireless
• computers are wearable
• The latest video game machines are very powerful graphic
workstations • An appropriate viewing device has not yet been invented
• but it will not be printed paper
• the viewing conditions will be unpredictable
These user experiences set very high expectations for color • likely, a plethora of viewing devices will be in use
imaging on the Internet
R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
1.4.1.1 Global Crossing’s peak network 18 1.4.2 How fast is the Internet? 19
It is both fast and slow

• There is a lot of global fiber


• example: Global Crossing planned to circumscribe all continents

• Backbones will have ample bandwidth


• oversupply: a large amount of fiber is dark
• competition is fierce
• movies on demand and telepresence will consume this bandwidth

• Most users will access the data wireless


• color imaging over the Internet must be efficient

• Today’s game machines have much more processing


power than desktop machines
• trade-off data for computation on the client
Trend: separation of data from control
R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

1.4.3 Leveraging on vision theory 20 1.5 Anatomy of a Web page 21


• To conserve power, wireless devices will have low effective
transmission bandwidth and small display areas
computer graphics
• Concomitantly the new users are impatient

• Progressive encoding based on region of interest will be


crucial
• JPEG 2000 and MPEG-21 provide the frameworks plain text
• algorithms are required

• Automatic cropping based on region of interest is a


necessary capability for major commercial sites

• Leverage on vision theory for Internet imaging full color image

• Intelligent image processing technologies


• Lawrence Stark & Claudio Privitera, UC Berkeley

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

1.5.1 Web page elements 22 2 Color representations 23

Application
Protocol
Format
Compression
Color image

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
2.1 Requirements 24 2.2 Viewing condition issues 25
see also §2.6.2, slide 40

• Color must be encoded in standards that • There is no control over the user’s viewing conditions
• support communication over the Internet • users often work in poor viewing conditions
• the total size of a page should be such it can be transferred quickly • viewing conditions can change during a session
• hence the color space must compress well • there is a plethora of viewing devices
• are suitable for heterogeneous environments
• an applications implementation may not be aware of the difference, e.g.
• there is no a priori knowledge of the user platform between colorimetric RGB and device RGB
• the Internet is more like a bazaar than a cathedral
• can easily be implemented efficiently and robustly • Issues too complex to expect users controlling their
• Internet imaging applications are not implemented by color scientists viewing conditions
• images must be displayed reliably (no unexpected rendering)
• there is no a priori knowledge of the user’s machine power • Color integrity is more important than color fidelity
• Ralph Evans: consistency principle

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

2.3 Color representations 26 2.4 Luma-chroma spaces 27


Color model operators
L fR ( R )
• XYZ C1 = A ⋅ f ( G )
G
• basis for all colorimetry
• defined by CIE for 1931 2˚ and 1964 10˚ Standard Observers
C2 fB ( B )
• most applications refer to 2˚ Observer

• RGB
• scanners and digital cameras — linear, non-CIE YIQ YUV YC1C2
• monitors and displays — non-linear, CIE-based

• Luma-chroma NTSC EBU SMPTE CCIR sRGB


XYZ RGB RGB RGB 709
• luminance (lightness) and 2 opponent color signals
• color television — luminance-chrominance YIQ, YUV, YCbCr
• uniform color spaces — CIELAB, CIELUV Photo
CIELAB YES YCC
• color fax uses CIELAB

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

2.4.1 RGB separations 28 2.4.2 CIELAB separations 29

R L*

G B
a* b*

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
2.4.3 Chroma subsampling 30 2.5 Some popular schemes 31
to represent color on the Internet

• sRGB is a colorimetric standard based on common CRTs


• gamma function is built-in for efficient display
• does not require computations in most cases
• viewing conditions are part of the standard, but are not realistic for
casual users on the Internet
• extended sRGB color spaces are under development
L*
• CIELAB and YUV are opponent color spaces that compress
well in the case of pictorial images

• YCbCr is an opponent color space that was used


extensively in developing the JPEG standard
b* a* • Y is the same as in YUV
• U and V are scaled and zero-shifted so that Cb and Cr are in [0, 1]; then
they are scaled by 255 to be represented by a byte

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

2.5.1 RGB specification 32 2.5.1.1 sRGB viewing conditions 33


Transformation from sRGB to 1931 CIE XYZ values
R’sRGB = R8bit / 255.0
Reference display conditions
• Primaries
G’sRGB = G8bit / 255.0
• red: (xR, yR) Display parameter Reference condition
B’sRGB = B8bit / 255.0
• green: (xG, yG) If R’sRGB, G’sRGB, B’sRGB ≤ 0.04045 luminance level 80 cd/m2
• blue: (xB, yB) RsRGB = R’sRGB / 12.92 white point D65
GsRGB = G’sRGB / 12.92
• White point: (xN, yN) gamma 2.2
BsRGB = B’sRGB / 12.92
else R’sRGB, G’sRGB, B’sRGB > 0.04045 Reference viewing conditions
• Non-linearity (gamma) RsRGB = [(R’sRGB + 0.055) / 1.055]2.4
Viewing parameter Reference condition
GsRGB = [(G’sRGB + 0.055) / 1.055]2.4
• Example: sRGB 2.4 screen background 20% of reference display area
BsRGB = [(B’sRGB + 0.055) / 1.055]
• IEC 61966-2-1
and surround 20% of ref. ambient illuminance level
• (xR, yR) = (0.64, 0.33)
proximal field 20% of ref. display luminance level
• (xG, yG) = (0.30, 0.60) X 0.4124 0.3576 0.1806 R sRGB
Y = 0.2126 0.7152 0.0722 G sRGB ambient illuminance level 64 Lux
• (xB, yB) = (0.15, 0.06)
• (xN, yN) = (0.3127, 0.3290) Z 0.0193 0.1192 0.9505 B sRGB ambient white point D50

• same as ITU-R BT.709-2 veiling glare 1%

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

2.5.2 CIELAB 34 2.5.2.1 8-bit CIELAB encodings 35


• CIE standard for color difference evaluation • CIE encoding (TIFF)
• uniform color space • scale L* = [0, 100] to [0, 255]
• illuminant Xn, Yn, Zn • limit a* and b* to [-128, 127]
• L* range: [0, 100]
• ICC encoding
L* = 116 ⋅ 3 Y ⁄ Y n – 16 • scale L* = [0, 100] to [0, 255]
a* = 500 ⋅ { 3 X ⁄ X n – 3 Y ⁄ Y n } • add offset 128 and limit a* and b* to [0, 255]
• white point: D50
b* = 200 ⋅ { 3 Y ⁄ Y n – 3 Z ⁄ Z n }
• ITU-T encoding
• Xn, Yn, Zn: reference white • scale L* = [0, 100] to [0, 255]
• D50: 96.422, 100, 82.521; D65: 95.047, 100, 108.883 • apply scale/offset so a* = [-85, 85] maps to [0, 255]
• apply scale/offset so b* = [-75, 120] maps to [0, 255]
• von Kries type adaptation
• white point: D50
• Color fax, ICC Profile Connection Space

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
2.5.3 The YUV color space 36 2.5.4 The YCbCr color space 37
Used in the PAL television system Popular for JPEG

• From ITU-R BT.601-2 for color television


Y 0.299 0.587 0.114 R
U = – 0.148 – 0.289 0.437 ⋅ G Y 0.299 0.587 0.114 R
V 0.615 – 0.515 – 0.100 B Cb = – 0.169 – 0.331 0.500 ⋅ G
Cr 0.500 – 0.419 – 0.081 B
or
Y = 0.299 ( R – G ) + G + 0.114 ( B – G ) • 8-bit encoding in digital files

U = 0.493 ( B – Y ) Y 0.299 0.587 0.114 R 0


Cb = – 0.169 – 0.331 0.500 ⋅ G + 128
V = 0.877 ( R – Y )
Cr 0.500 – 0.419 – 0.081 B 128
Reference: Bhaskaran & Konstantinides

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

2.6 More color representations 38 2.6.1 ICC profile concepts 39


• CMYK • Profile classes
• color print separations — device specific, non-linear • input devices (scanners, digital cameras)
• example: SWOP printing process specification • display devices (monitors, LCD projectors)
• output devices (printers, film recorders)
• Palette
• DeviceLink (dedicated device to device)
• color map or lookup table
• ColorSpace
• color represented by an index into a table of N colors
• Abstract (PCS-to-PCS, effects, e.g., contrast adjustment)
• see §3.3.1, slide 70
• NamedColor (Pantone®, Trumatch®)
• ICC profiles
• Rendering intents
• profile is a transform between a given color space and a Profile
Connection Space (PCS) • colorimetric: absolute, relative; perceptual; saturation
• defines color explicitly in terms of its transform to PCS
• Models
• PCS is XYZ or CIELAB
• shaper/matrix (shaper is a 1-D LUT)
• ICC has defined standard formats for profiles
• shaper/multi-D LUT

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

2.6.2 ICC profile based color reproduction 40 2.7 Color interchange models 41
• One cannot assume that a casual Web User works in a
color S R D color
controlled environment Type I source T1 T2 destination

• sRGB is considered a safe bet for “average” situations destination parameters

• Tools are available to control color rendering on the color


S R D color
Type II source T1 T2 destination
Internet server side

• It is imperative that the entire workflow is characterized


and ICC profiles be always embedded in images, instead S R D
Type III color color
of assumed source T1 T2 destination

• For an example on how to set up an ICC based source parameters

environment see
//www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/1999/HPL-1999-110.pdf color values: S = source, R = reference, D = destination
Ti = color conversion

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
2.7.1 Color interchange model types 42 2.8 Server side color management 43
• Type I • On the client side, a set of filters is used to create visually
• interchange uses device color values an ICC profile with an applet running in the browser
• source prepares color data for known destination
• example: traditional graphic arts CMYK workflow • High-end systems are based on spectroradiometry &
compensate for brightness level differences among
• Type II monitors
• interchange uses device-neutral, reference color space
• examples: color TV broadcasting, color facsimile 1. On the server side, a servelet pushes each image through
a color management system before it is sent to the client
• Type III
• E-Color True Internet Color, Imation Verifi
• source transmits source values + source characteristics
2. …or servelet sends applet that does correction at browser
• similar to type II, but with delayed conversion
• Gretag-Macbeth WebSync
• examples: PDF CIE-based color spaces, ICC workflow
3. …or the HTML page is tagged with a trigger
• WayTech Coloreal, Praxisoft RealNetColor

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

2.8.1 True Internet Color architecture 44 2.8.2 Verifi Accurate Web Color architecture 45

send uncorrected images

2
3
Merchant’s send raw Imation’s
2 Image Server uncorrected Profile Server
Merchant’s image URL E-Color’s image 3
send page points to request
Server with E-Color’s
Server 1 6
profile
image URL request send color-
server corrected
page 4
4 image send cookie
1 5 with
send color- send profile
request corrected profile
page from
image cookie

Browser
Browser

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

2.8.3 WebSync architecture 46 2.8.4 Coloreal architecture 47


4
replace • Polynomial for display monitor’s gamma curve is stored in
5
send page image monitor’s EDID chip
and tags
color-matching WebSync
applet • On merchant’s Web server all images are encoded in sRGB
Software
• Web server adds a Coloreal tag to each HTML file
1
request 2
page forward • When monitor is first connected, installer reads gamma
3 request curve from EDID chip to create an ICC profile for the
send
Browser page monitor

• When an HTML page contains the Coloreal


tag, Windows ICM is invoked to use the IC
profile to compute device RGB counts
Merchant’s
Server

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
2.8.5 RealNetColor architecture 48 2.9 Display trends 49
LCDs are not CRTs

• On Web server all images are encoded in sRGB or are • CRT displays are being replaced
tagged with an ICC profile by LCD displays

• Web server adds a RealNetColor tag to each HTML file • LCDs are brighter, smaller, and
use less power
• Each use of the RealNetColor tag triggers a payment from
the Web retailer to Praxisoft • However, the colorimetry can
be quite different
• When an HTML page contains the • with careful calibration,
RealNetColor tag, a plug-in converts the characterization & color management,
an LCD can be made to perform close
color using the ICC profile or assuming sRGB to a CRT in terms of linearity, gamma,
values and white point
• the color gamut can be very different
• today’s LCDs can outperform CRTs (monitors above are from 1995, 1998)

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

2.9.1 Display gamuts, the whole story 50 2.9.2 Future display technologies — OLED 51
• Gamut renderings in chromaticity diagrams are Organic light-emitting-diode displays
misleading, because of colorfulness and appearance mode
• LCD displays use absorption filters and polarizers, limiting
the gamut in the blues and the brightness

• OLED displays are emissive and are brighter


• no filters nor polarizers

• Current limited lifetime of blue OLEDs limits the gamut in


the blues even more than for LCDs

• Wafer size still limited


• today’s applications: car stereo, portable DVD players
21” studio CRT 23” LCD • largest prototype display shown: 13”
• manufacturing process more expensive than LCD
reproduced with permission, © Apple

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

2.9.3 Future display technologies — MEMS 52 2.10 Appearance mode 53


• MEMS (Micro-ElectroMechanical System) technology • CRT at 80 cd/m2 is darker than surroundings
makes is possible to build displays based on interference • perceived as object in field of view
• viewing conditions must be controlled
• color fidelity is important

glass substrate V
• LCD at 300 cd/m2 is brighter than indoor surroundings
air thin film stack • similar to illuminator viewing condition
metallic membrane reproduced with permission, © Iridigm

• visual system adapts to white point, memory colors


• Voltage between thin film stack and metallic membrane
controls their gap and therefore the pixel’s color • OLED achieves 30,000 cd/m2 in military applications
• expect 1,000 cd/m2 in consumer applications
• Luminance by flickering or dithering • MEMS interference displays can be brighter than any surroundings

• Typical resolutions: 400–1000 dpi • Consistency principle (Evans)


• reproduction of relation among colors more important than absolute
• Bistable, only draws power during switching colorimetry

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
2.11 Rendering state 54 2.11.1 Digital color image flow 55

sensor unrendered rendered device


• Stock photo agency images are rendered to a normalized space space space space
intent

• Typical consumer images are the raw output of digital


cameras or scanners

• Many CBIR algorithms rely on color histograms

• Need to specify when images are unrendered input device colorimetric colorimetric output device
estimate of estimate of a specific RGB
specific RGB original scene reproduction or CMYK
• RIMM/ROMM RGB

• Need algorithms to perform automatic rendering device and/or


image specific image specific device and/or
image specific
transformation
operation transformation transformation

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

2.11.2 Rendering in Photoshop 56 3 Data compression 57

connection space display Application


(XYZ) (RGB counts) Protocol
Format
Compression
Color image
input connection space working color space
(RGB counts) (CIELAB or XYZ) (Adobe RGB, or …) rendered image

connection space printer


(CIELAB or XYZ) (CMYK counts)

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

3.0.1 Approach 58 3.0.2 General compression system 59

• Waveform coding of color images • 3 stages: transform — quantize — code


• with “waveform” we put the emphasis on the signal, as opposed to its • quantize — lossy
meaning
• code — lossless
• “Avoiding the transmission of information which the eye
cannot use” A.V. Bedford, 1950

• Reducing statistical or visual redundancy transform quantize code


original compressed
• source vs. sink coding T Q C

• lossless vs. lossy (visually lossless) coding


spatial filter scalar quantizer Huffman coding
• lossless: decompressed image identical to original color transform vector quantizer arithmetic coding
• lossy: decompressed image tolerably different spatial transform color palette Lempel-Ziv

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
3.1 Coding methods 60 3.1.1 Encoding methods (cont.) 61
• Statistics known
• Huffman coding
• Achieve compression by exploiting statistical redundancy
• method of constructing the optimum prefix code
in the symbol set • Arithmetic coding
• average number of bits cannot be less than the entropy H
• represents a symbol string as a binary fraction
• H = – ∑ pi log (pi), where ∑ pi = 1 (pi is the probability of symbol i) • typically 5–10% better than Huffman coding, but more complex
• entropy sets bound on performance
• Statistics not known
• Lempel-Ziv (dictionary methods) in 3 flavors: LZ77, LZ78, LZW
• Not all symbols are equally likely • represent a string in terms of previous occurrences using:
• use short codewords for more probable symbols • a pointer to the previous occurrence and its length (LZ77)
• a dictionary of previous occurrences (LZ78, LZW)
• use long codewords for less probable ones

• Flate
• LZ77 followed by Huffman coding
• in some contents authoring tools, Flate encoding is labelled as ZIP

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

3.1.2 Huffman coding 62 3.1.2.1 Huffman coding example 63


Developed 1952 by D.A. Huffman • In most Internet imaging applications the size of the
alphabet composing these symbols is restricted to at most
• Produces the optimum prefix code
64,000 symbols
• fixed-length symbols to variable-length codewords

1. Order the symbols according to their probabilities • Average number of bits cannot be less than the entropy
• frequency of occurrence of each symbol known a priori
H = – ∑ p i log ( p i )
• in practice, a training set of data is used pi 1 1.00
V1 000 0.5 1
2. Merge the two symbols with the smallest probabilities V2 001 0.2
1
01
3. Repeat step 2 until one merged symbol is left V3 010 0.1
1 0.50 0 0011
0.18 1
• step 2 can be viewed as construction of a binary tree, since at each V4 011 0.08
0 0010
recursion we merge two symbols 0.30 0
1
V5 100 0.06 0001
• at end of recursion, all symbols will be leaf nodes of this tree 1 0.12 0
V6 101 0.03 00001
• the codeword for each symbol is obtained by traversing the binary tree 1 0.06 0
V7 110 0.02 000001
from root to the leaf node corresponding to that symbol 0.03 0
V8 111 0.01 0 000000

Entropy = 2.16 2.19

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

3.1.3 Arithmetic coding 64 3.1.4 LZ coding method 65


• Achieves higher compression than Huffman by combining Jacob Ziv and Abraham Lempel, 1977 and 1978
several symbols into a single unit
• A sliding window is moved across the data stream
• a message is encoded as a whole new symbol instead of as separate
symbols
• LZ77:
• geometric interpretation: symbols correspond to subintervals in [0, 1)
• a string is represented in terms of a pointer to the previous occurrence
• Separates coding from modeling and its length

• this allows for the dynamic adaptation of the probability model without • LZ78:
affecting the design of the coder
• a string is represented in terms of a pointer into a dictionary of previous
• Many image compression standards allow to substitute occurrences

Huffman with arithmetic coding • a dictionary is built that maps variable length bit strings from the data
stream into fixed length codes
• Huffman coding is often the baseline requirement
• the decoder parses the code sequence, recursively builds the same
• arithmetic coding can be used in critical applications dictionary, and reconstructs the data stream

• Covered by patents from IBM, Mitsubishi, and AT&T

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
3.1.5 LZW coding method 66 3.1.6 Flate and deflate 67
Lossless compression of graphics Proposed in 1996 by L. Peter Deutsch

• Improvement of LZ proposed by Terry Welch in 1984 • L77 cascaded with Huffman


• window size up to 32K bytes
• Dictionary is initialized with the character set • Huffman coding of pointers and lengths

• Bytes from the input stream are read and used to • Performance
progressively form larger and larger sequences until a • substantially better compression than LZW
sequence is formed that is not in the dictionary • considerably slower encoding speed than LZW
• same decoding speed
• The last known sequence’s encoding is output and the
new sequence is added to the dictionary • Usage
• PNG format
• Typical compression ratio: 2:1 • gzip, StuffIt, and ZIP archives
• PDF 1.2 and later to compress text, graphics, and indexed image data
• Implementing LZW may require licensing USP 4,558,302
• see http://www.unisys.com/about__unisys/lzw/ • Specification Ver. 1.3, IETF RFC 1951
R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

3.2 Binary image compression 68 3.3 Palette color 69


• Group 3 1-d (MH) and 2-d (MR) Counting colors
• ITU-T Rec. T.4
• 24-bit pixels can represent 16 million colors
• Group 4 (MMR)
• ITU-T Rec. T.6 • Humans can distinguish 10 million colors

• JBIG — progressive bi-level image compression • A 2×3K image contains


• ISO 11544 / ITU-T Rec. T.82 6 million pixels
• ITU-T Rec. T.85 — application profile for fax
• ITU-T Rec. T.43 — bit-plane coding for color fax images using JBIG
• A 512×512 image contains
250 thousand pixels
• JBIG2 — lossy/lossless coding for bi-level images
• ISO 14492 / ITU-T Rec. T.88 • A “typical” 5122 image has
• text halftone, and generic modes 26 thousand colors
• add color tags to symbols in text mode
• One byte can represent 256 colors

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

3.3.1 Color palettes (mapped color) 70 3.4 Transform coding 71


• Represent original colors by indices into a map with
reduced set of colors (paint by numbers)
• Represent pixels p(x, y) as linear basis functions ci(x, y)
• choose N colors (palette)
p ( x, y ) = k ∑ C i c i ( x, y )
• image dependent (adaptive) or image independent (fixed)
• e.g., median cut
• Coordinate transformation / spectral decomposition
• quantize (map) original to palette colors
• decorrelating original pixels
• use look-up table to map index to palette color
• compacting signal energy
• may use dither in palettized image
• matching quantizer to human visual system

quantize • Quantize and code transform coefficients Ci


original index
Q • emphasis on T step of T-Q-C compression model

transform quantize code


original compressed
T Q C

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
3.4.1 Transform coding (cont.) 72 3.5 JPEG compression method 73
ISO/IEC 10918–1, ITU-T Rec. T.81

• Discrete Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT) is optimal • Lossy compression of images


• uncorrelated coefficients, best energy packing
• image dependent, no fast implementation • Pixels are correlated across space
• the compaction efficiency of the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is close
• Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) to the optimal transform (KLT)
• image independent, fast transform exists • DCT is an orthogonal and separable transform
• performance approaches KLT
7 7
• Transformed data is quantized
1 ( 2x + 1 )kπ ( 2y + 1 )lπ
Y ( k, l ) = --- C ( k )C ( l )
4 ∑ ∑ S ( x, y ) cos --------------------------- cos --------------------------
16 16 • Compression is achieved with cascaded entropy coder
x = 0y = 0

• Baseline JPEG standard uses block DCT • Typical compression ratios (depends on resolution)
• Joint Photographic Experts Group • 10:1 in RGB
• 25:1 in opponent color spaces

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

3.5.1 JPEG sequential modes of operation 74 3.5.1.1 JPEG non-sequential modes of operation 75

• Sequential DCT • Progressive DCT


• image blocks are coded in scan-like sequence • image blocks are processed sequentially, but coding is completed in
multiple scans
• Huffman coding (baseline)
• spectral selection: successively more coefficients are coded in zig-zag
• arithmetic coding
• successive approximation: DCT coefficients are divided by power of 2
before encoding and slices from MSB to LSB are coded
• requires buffering
• Sequential lossless
• DPCM predictive • Hierarchical coding
• each image component is encoded as a sequence of frames
• first frame is a low-resolution version of image
• subsequent frames are differential frames between source
components and reference reconstructed components
• useful for multi-resolution applications

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

3.5.2 Color in JPEG 76 3.5.2.1 Examples of problems 77


Very flexible The same image: original, GIF, JPEG

• No color space specification


Hot colors adients
o n gr
• Baseline JPEG: 4 or less color components
• Colorimetric color representation is possible Cool colors o gradients
n
• Full JPEG: 256 or less color components Soft colors gradients
on
• Discrete spectral color representation is possible

• Compression can be improved with chroma subsampling

Conclusions: • GIF can cause color quantization problems due to


palettization before LZW compression
• JPEG can be used for full color communication
• Just changing the q-factor introduces ringing and
• Find way to solve artifact problem in JPEG blockiness artifacts
R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
3.5.3 JPEG sequential (baseline) pipeline 78 3.5.4 The DCT and its kernels 79
7 7
1 ( 2x + 1 )kπ ( 2y + 1 )lπ
Y ( k, l ) = --- C ( k )C ( l )
4 ∑ ∑ S ( x, y ) cos ---------------------------
16
cos --------------------------
16
x = 0y = 0
compressed
original raster to stream
m ⎛ n + ---⎞ π
block DCT quantization entropy
coding
1
translation ⎝ 2⎠
[ C 8 ] mn = k m cos ----------------------------
8
Q
Huffman
tables
The 64 kernels of the
quantization
tables discrete cosine transform:

critical knob
for image quality

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

3.5.5 Classical approach: the q-factor 80 3.5.6 Perceptually lossy compression 81


The same image compressed with the same parameters except • Internet images often include text
for an increasing q-factor
• Readability of text is preserved when small features are
preserved

• Optimize quantization tables to preserve typeface parts

itag serif
bar

stem

terminal
ear

stress

USP 5,883,979

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

3.5.7 More than just compression 82 3.5.8 Strategies 83


Image processing in the compressed domain to optimize the JPEG method

• Optical shortcomings can be compensated • A discrete quantization table (DQT) can be used for all
• cost reduction images of the same class
• text
• Geometric transformations
• business graphics
• Preferred rendering • maps
• drawings
• gradients in various directions
• etc.

• But: image is created only once, downloaded many times


• it can be more efficient to compute custom tables for each image:
adaptive algorithm

• Main goal is system balancing!


USP 5,850,484

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
3.6 JPEG 2000 — overview 84 3.6.1 JPEG 2000 — applications 85
ISO/IEC 15444, ITU-T Rec. T.800

• Wavelet-based follow-on to JPEG • Internet and WWW images


• same committee, different contributors • low bandwidth, multiple resolutions, random access
• replacement for FlashPix with multiple, tiled JPEG images?
• Single compression architecture
• continuous-tone and binary compression • Mobile applications
• lossy, lossless, and lossy-to-lossless coding • error resilience, rate control, progressive decompression
• progressive rendering • low bit rate
• by quality or by resolution via order of codestream packets
• Digital photography
• Offer better compression (~25%) with more features
• Facsimile and multi-function products
• More parts coming with extensions, profiles, file formats
& conformance • Compound images

• Part 1 (core decoder) approved as January 2001


R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

3.6.2 JPEG 2000 — features 86 3.6.3 JPEG 2000 — operation 87


• Superior low-bit rate performance
LL LH
LL LH 2-D DWT LL
• Random access within compressed image 2-D DWT HL HH
LH
Original
HL HH HL HH
• Multiple resolutions with multi-level wavelet transform

• Can specify bit rate

• Error resilience original


transform quantize code
compressed
T Q C
• re-synchronization of decoder

• Regions of Interest (ROI) Component transform Scalar by Modeling followed


• reversible for lossless mode by binary adaptive
• some parts of the image compressed with higher fidelity sub-band
• RGB-to-YCbCr for lossy mode arithmetic coder
• none
Pixel transform skip for lossless mode
• 1–256 color (spectral) components • 2-D discrete wavelet transform
• separable, by tiles, multilevel

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

3.6.4 JPEG 2000 — wavelet transform 88 3.6.5 Image compressed with JPEG 89

LL 2-D DWT LL LH
LH LL LH
2-D DWT HL HH
Original
HL HH HL HH

• 2-level wavelet transform


• with JPEG 2000 9×7 filter 0.125 bpp

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
3.6.5.1 Image compressed with JPEG 2000, no ROI 90 3.6.5.2 JPEG 2000 codestream is packetized 91

• First few packets are such that you can decompress and
obtain an image with more quality in the ROI (face) than
in the periphery (surround)

• As more packets arrive, you obtain the data to produce


better quality in the surround, so that the entire image is
rendered at the same quality

• User can truncate the process anywhere in between

0.125 bpp

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

3.6.5.3 Image compressed with JPEG 2000 @ 0.125 bpp 92 3.6.5.4 Image compressed with JPEG 2000 @ 0.25 bpp 93
ROI coding (face) ROI coding

equivalent to 0.125 bpp equivalent to 0.25 bpp


R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

3.6.5.5 Image compressed with JPEG 2000 @ 0.5 bpp 94 3.6.5.6 Image compressed with JPEG 2000 @ 1 bpp 95
ROI coding ROI coding

equivalent to 0.5 bpp equivalent to 1 bpp


R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
3.6.5.7 Image compressed with JPEG 2000 @ 2 bpp 96 3.6.5.8 Image compressed with JPEG 2000 @ 4 bpp 97
ROI coding ROI coding

equivalent to 2 bpp equivalent to 4 bpp


R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

3.7 Mixed Raster Content — background 98 3.7.1 Mixed Raster Content — solution 99
T.6 T.4
black-and-white black-and-white black-and-white
T.44
MMR text and line text and line MH text & digrams
diagrams diagrams as before, Mixed
colored Raster
text Content
T.85 in1
out
in1
out
too
in2 in2
JBIG
black-and-white interchange
text, halftones, black-and-white
stipples, line art, PSTN text and line
and so on diagrams
black-and-white
text, halftones,
stipples, line art,
color text and
in1 and so graphics
on
in2 out

Multiple, independent MRC is a method for using


compression methods— multiple compression methods
T.42 T.43 each optimized for one in raster documents that contain
JPEG JBIG kind of image content multiple kinds of content
CIELAB CIELAB

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

3.7.2 Fax implementation tree 100 3.7.3 Mixed Raster Content — overview 101
black-and-white T.4
text and line
diagrams
• MRC = Mixed Raster Content
MH
• multi-layer model for representing compound images
in1 • described in ITU-T Recommendation T.44
in2 out
• originally proposed in joint Xerox/HP contribution
• efficient processing, interchange and archiving of raster-oriented pages
with a mixture of multilevel and bilevel images
black-and-white black-and-white T.42
text and line text, halftones,
diagrams stipples, line art,
and so on
JPEG • Technical approach
CIELAB
• segmentation of an image into multiple layers (planes), by image content
in1
in2 out • use spatial resolution, color representation and compression method
matched to the content of each layer
T.6 T.85
• Compound image architecture
MMR JBIG
• framework for using compression methods
T.44 black-and-white
T.43 text & digrams
as before,
Mixed colored • Performance
JBIG Raster text • can achieve compression ratios of several 100 to 1 on typical documents
CIELAB Content too

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
3.7.4 Mixed Raster Content — model 102 3.7.4.1 MRC model — decomposition by stripe 103
Image 1 strip/page, 3 layers vs. multiple strips/page, 1-3 layers/strip
3-layer model If we do not make Recommendations Stripe 1: M
together, we will surely not make them at all
black-and-white
text & digrams
colored text • Foreground
Did you Stripe 2: M, B
• multilevel, e.g., text color ever get a
bla
c k • JBIG @ 12 bpp, 100 dpi sinking
red feeling? Time to pull
together? Stripe 3: M, B, F
• Mask
bla
tex ck-a • bilevel, e.g., text shape Stripe 4: B
t & nd-
co w
lor digra hite • MMR @ 1 bpp, 400 dpi
Too late! Too late! Stripe 5: M, B, F
ed ms
tex
t
• Background Stripe 6: B
• multilevel, e.g., contone im.
• JPEG @ 24 bpp, 200 dpi But it is better to have proposed a Recommendation
and failed, than to never have proposed at all. Stripe 7: M, F
Image = M • FG + M’ • BG But better still to propose and see success in both
document and marketplace Based on Fig. 3 & 8 in T.44

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

3.7.5 MRC — test 104 3.7.5.1 MRC test — decomposition by stripe 105
Create the same-sized files using JPEG and using MRC
Stripe 1: Mask image with FG = red
Stripe 2: Mask image only

Stripe 3: Mask image with graphic in FG

Stripe 4: Mask image only

Stripe 5: Mask (white) with image in BG

Unless otherwise noted, FG is defaulted


to black and BG is defaulted to white

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

3.7.6 MRC — performance 106 3.7.7 MRC specifications 107

Original • Standards
@ 200 dpi • ITU-T Rec. T.44
• TIFF-FX Profile M
• JPM (JPEG2000 standard, Part 6)

JPEG
@200 dpi
CR = 95:1 • Proprietary
• ScanSoft PagisPro
• LizardTech Document Express (DjVu)
MRC • Luratech LuraDocument
M — MMR @ 400 dpi
FG — JPEG @ 200 dpi
BG — JPEG @ 200 dpi
CR = 382:1 @ 400 dpi

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
3.8 Which compression method should I108 3.8.1 Slide 21 revisited in bytes 109
use for my images? uncompressed compressed

• Users do not like plug-ins — avoid them if possible 238,960 8,838

• Static pictorial image: JPEG

• Image with few colors: LZ (no dithering)


• GIF (§4.3, slide 114) is being replaced by PNG; currently there are still 1,427
differences in what is native in browsers

• Vector graphics: do not rasterize


• SVG file format (see §4.10, slide 135)
• plug-in still new and huge; not available for all platforms
393,448 56,331
• High concept vector graphics: scripting
• Flash file format
• requires plug-in; not available for all platforms 619K bytes total 65K bytes total

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

4 File formats 110 4.1 Color images 111

Application • Image: a rectangular array of pixels


Protocol • a pixel is an array of samples
Format • image document: an array of page images
Compression
Color image
• Two things a file format should do
• provide sufficient information to decode an image or rendering or
processing
• height, width, samples per pixel, bits per sample, resolution,
color space, compression method, associated images
• image structure, bye ordering
• provide useful information about the image
• metadata, e.g., image description, OCR data

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

4.1.1 File formats 112 4.2 What is metadata? 113


How is the data and its metadata stored?

• Specify the structure of a file • Metadata is machine understandable information about


• file consists of file resources
• metadata (e.g., color space, white point, little endian, big endian)
• compressed data • The architecture is of metadata represented as a set of
independent assertions
• Text, structure, and meta oriented: HTML, XML • assertions about resources are attributes of the resource
• this architecture facilitates programming
• Image oriented: GIF, PNG, JFIF, FlashPix, TIFF-FX
• The set of valid attribute names for a context are defined
• Compound document oriented: TIFF-FX, PDF
by convention in a vocabulary

• Metadata increases the value of information

• See §4.9.1, slide 129

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
4.3 GIF — Graphics Interchange Format 114 4.4 PNG — Portable Network Graphics 115
• Developed by CompuServe, Inc. in 1987 Patent-free replacement for GIF

• Protocol for the on-line transmission and interchange of • Developed within W3C as license-free alternative to GIF
raster graphic data.
• Supports palettized color, grayscale, and RGB color
• Colors specified in uncalibrated device dependent RGB • extension chunk for sRGB and ICC profiles
• allows for gamma correction for better cross-platform performance
• Color is palettized & restricted to power of 2 in [0, 7] • not supported by all browsers

• A GIF data stream can contain several raster-based • Optional 8-bit alpha channel can be used for transparency
graphics — this can be used for animations • not supported by all browsers
• a optional global color map and a local optional map per image
• Only supports single images (no animation)
• The raster data is a string compressed with LZW • proposed multi-image version is MNG (Multi-image Network Graphics)
• sliding window is moved across data stream and dictionary is built
• Compression method is flate
• code size is limited to 12 bits per code
• there are special codes for resetting tables and end-of-stream
R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

4.5 JPEG file formats 116 4.5.1 JFIF — JPEG File Interchange Format 117
The JPEG standard does not specify a file format; several • Developed by C-Cube Microsystems as a simple file format
different formats have been proposed to exchange JPEG bitstreams
• ANPA/IPTC — newspaper industry • just adds APP0 marker segment with application specific information to a
JPEG datastream, as defined in ISO 10918
• ITU-T — ITU-T Rec. T.4 Annex E for color fax
• baseline or progressive JPEG
• ETSI — photo videotext, video telephony
• EXIF and Exif Print — digital cameras • Simpler than TIFF, but for JPEG only
• single codestream, with thumbnail in APP0 marker segment
• TIFF/EP — digital cameras, ISO/DIS 12234–2
• quantization and Huffman tables in codestream
• IOCA — IBM Image Object Content Architecture
• NITFS — intelligence community, DoD • Allows for additional attributes over those of JPEG
• TIFF — Tag Image File Format rev. 6.0 and later
• The color space is YCbCr
• PDF — Portable Document Format • no provisions for gamma correction
• JFIF — JPEG File Interchange Format • an offset is applied to turn CbCr into non-negative numbers (see §2.5.4,
slide 37)
• SPIFF — ISO 10918 Part 3

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

4.5.2 Exif and Exif Print 118 4.6 TIFF — Tagged Image File Format 119
Exchangeable Image File • Originally developed by Aldus, acquired by Adobe
• current version: TIFF Rev. 6.0
• Exif being revised from V2.1 to V2.2, called Exif Print
• easily extensible, supports private fields
• New features: • several published extensions (notes) and derivatives
• enhanced metadata • Supports single images and multi-page image documents
• scene modes (portrait, landscape, etc) • images can be striped or tiles
• more manditory camera data
• user / image preference data (sharpness, chroma, …) • Supports multiple color spaces
• formalized use of sYCC for larger than sRGB color gamut
• Gray, RGB, palette RGB, CMYK, YCbCr, CIELAB, …
• ExifPrint sYCC is display referenced for a display with sRGB properties
• ICC defines TIFF field for ICC profiles; extension for ICCLAB
but with no gamut limitations
• ExifPrint sYCC can include ICC profile
• Supports multiple compression types
• Exif Print was adoped April 2002 • Group 3 (2 ways: use Compresion=3), Group 4, JPEG (but use TIFF
Technical Note 2 with optional JPEG tables), LZW, Packbits

• Often used with Digital Print Order Form (DPOF) • Most popular image format, not supported by browsers

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
4.6.1 FlashPix 120 4.6.2 TilePic 121
• Images stored in resolution pyramid
• color spaces are PhotoYCC and NIF RGB ≈ sRGB
• A file format developed by the Berkeley Digital Library
• Each plane is tiled (64×64 pixels) Project
• each tile is compressed with JPEG
• Designed to store tiled data of arbitrary type in a
• IIP protocol allows transfer of individual tiles or groups hierarchical, indexed format in order to provide fast
retrieval

• Influenced by the FlashPix format

• Based on the GridPix format developed by the Tertiary


Disk Project at UC Berkeley

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

4.7 PDF — Portable Document Format 122 4.7.1 Optimized PDF 123
• A PDF file contains a PDF document, a version number, A PDF file can be optimized for transmission over the Internet
and a directory of important structures in the file • All data for first page is at the beginning of the file
• A PDF document consists of a number of pages • Embedded fonts are subsetted
• each one is a page description (PostScript imaging model)
• recommended setting: subset if less than 99% used
• preserves all of the fonts, formatting, colors, and graphics of any source
document • Common page elements are stored only once
• can contain also vector graphics, images, hypertext links, sound, movies
• supported compression methods: JPEG, G-3, G-4, LZW, flate, and run • Text and vector graphics are flate compressed
length encoding
• supports ICC profiles • All uncompressed images are compressed with flate
• already compressed images are left intact
• PDF/X is emerging ANSI standard for digital publication • flate is lossless
• currently there are no tools, but Adobe’s Acrobat tools can be used in
conjunction with PDF 1.3, which is superset of PDF/X • Consider down-sampling images in the Distiller
• Use when layout is important

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

4.7.2 PDF for images on the Internet 124 4.7.3 Marking up PDF 125
• PDF has excellent provisions for compression • One of the key WWW features is linking
• in PDF the file size for an image is typically 3–5 times smaller than in EPS
• PDF avoids platform dependency of EPS • As a file format for the Internet, PDF has extensive
hypertext provisions
• Acrobat Exchange can import most file formats and
convert them to PDF • Some authoring tools (e.g. FrameMaker) also have
powerful hypertext capabilities
• Several graphic programs can save as PDF without Distiller
• CorelDraw, Freehand, Illustrator, Photoshop, … • Hypertext information can be passed from the authoring
• see also §6.3.1, slide 197 tool to the Distiller via the pdfmark operator
• manual: click help in the Distiller, select pdfmark Guide
• PDF libraries can be used to generate PDF files from
custom programs • With a PDF library, it is possible to create applications that
mark up PDF images for the Internet with metadata
• Most text editing programs can import images in PDF files • examples: licensing data, copyrights, author, keywords,…

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
4.7.4 PDF short-comings 126 4.8 HTML, with XHTML coming 127
• Requires a plug-in on Windows OS Hypertext Markup Language 4.0

• Designed before XML • A subset of SGML format for hypertext documents


• originally developed within the IETF, now in W3C
• Contents is static — it is hard to customize content on the • current version: HTML 4
fly for personal experiences
• consider SVG as an alternative (see §4.10, slide 135)
• XHTML reformulates HTML as an XML application
• brings the rigor of XML
• Poorly reflows documents for palm-top devices • better support of small portable devices
• conduit only for Windows platform • modularity allows better support for vector graphics, math, etc.
• easily fails on non-tagged PDF files; cannot find all drawing elements
• crashes on complex files like the course material you are reading
• Images in HTML or XHTML
• use the IMG or OBJECT element
• It is challenging to write software to manipulate PDF • image formats: GIF, JPEG, PNG
documents • has more to do with the browser than the format

• XHTML is the image format for UPnP Ver. 1.0


R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

4.9 XML — eXtensible Markup Language128 4.9.1 XML for metadata 129
Framework for markup languages • Most computer applications manage some metadata in
property lists
• Meta-grammar (data type dictionary) allows to describe
any data (users can add new attribute names and tags) • XML has the advantage of many available tools
• lower implementation cost
• Document’s flow can be nested (tree instead of list)
• faster implementation
• Extensible Style Language (XSL) for appearance • better interoperability

• Using XML for metadata allows to enforce a grammar


• Grammar can be supplied for structural validation
• increases quality of metadata, thus the value of the information
• Preserve all semantic information on data • facilitates application to application communication

• Allows to bring database applications to the WWW • As XML is a computer language with a well-defined
syntax, it is possible to build equivalence classes and
• Use when contents and structure are most important aggregate (merge) information repositories

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

4.9.1.1 RDF — Resource Description Framework 130 4.9.1.2 RDF problem 1: DTD vs. schema 131
• Early effort to represent metadata for the web • XML DTD does not explicitly support name spaces

• Simple descriptive data • XML schema solves this problem but provides little
• card index information (Dublin Core) semantic information
• privacy information (P3P)
• association of style sheets with documents • RDF schema proposal (MetaNet ontology) provides
• intellectual property rights labeling support for richer semantic definitions…

• Adobe’s XMP (a.k.a. XAP) is based on this early RDF • …however, it provides limited support for local usage
• will be supported in all Adobe products and their file formats constraints, like
• open source SDK lowers the entry bar for developers • closed vocabularies
• supporting XMP is a business and development issue, not a research issue • occurrence or formatting constraints

• Today the research focus for RDF has shifted towards the • Example for the vocabulary problem
semantic web (semweb) • Library of Congress: author
• British Library: creator

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
4.9.1.3 RDF problem 2: ontology merging 132 4.9.2 DOM — Document Object Model 133
• Semantic knowledge is represented in the form of an For writing XML applications
ontology
• Generally, a parser is used to transform an XML file into a
• There is no universal ontology representing all human data structure — the parse tree
knowledge — we can only create local ontologies
• Applications operate on the parse tree, not on the
• Today there are no algorithms for automatically original file
aggregating and merging ontologies
• Libraries are provided, exploiting the DOM to manipulate
• example: cook A has an ontology for Mandarin cuisine, cook B has an
ontology for Cantonese cuisine — build an ontology for Chinese cuisine the data structure generated by an XML parser
• an interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and
• Bioinformatics has developed very powerful structure update the content, structure and style of documents
matching and aggregation algorithms for the human • Working Draft released for public review 29 September 2000
genome project
• XML is not only for documents
• can they provide a solution to the semweb problem?
• cfr. the role of the scheme language in the late 80s

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

4.9.3 XML for presentation 134 4.10 SVG — Scalable Vector Graphics 135
• Original idea of the WWW is that authors determine An XML language for final presentation
contents and its structure, while readers determine the
• Language for describing 2-dimensional graphics in XML
appearance
• XML encoding of PostScript imaging operations
• Graphic artists need to control appearance • Web-based display of vector data, as well as images and text
• supports styles, scripting, searching and linking
• This dichotomy explains why so much text on the WWW is • supported by Illustrator 9.0 and 10 — free viewer plug-in from Adobe
communicated as images
• ‘image’ element
• XML can be used to define languages for look • conforming SVG viewers must support JPEG and PNG files
• XSL is an example of such a styling language • result of processing is 4-channel RGBA image (A = α-channel)
• style for example maps emphasis into an oblique font
• Color representations
• XML can be used to define languages for format • sRGB or ICC-profile-based color
• format specifies the placement of individual elements on a page • profile embedded or accessed via a URI (Uniform Resource Identifiers)
• the final form can be expressed in an XML language like SVG

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

4.10.1 SVG — example 136 4.11 SMIL 137


<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?> Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language
<!-- Generator: Adobe Illustrator 10, SVG Export Plug-In . SVG Version: 3.0.0 Build 76) -->
<!DOCTYPE svg PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD SVG 1.0//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-SVG-20010904/DTD/svg10.dtd" [ • Pronounced “smile”
<!ENTITY ns_flows "http://ns.adobe.com/Flows/1.0/">
<!ENTITY ns_svg "http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"> • Enables simple authoring of interactive audiovisual
<!ENTITY ns_xlink "http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"> presentations
]>
<svg xmlns="&ns_svg;" xmlns:xlink="&ns_xlink;"
xmlns:a="http://ns.adobe.com/AdobeSVGViewerExtensions/3.0/"
• SMIL is typically used for “rich media” (multimedia)
width="113.964" height="116.656" viewBox="0 0 113.964 116.656" overflow="visible" presentations which integrate streaming audio and video
enable-background="new 0 0 113.964 116.656" with images, text or any other media type
xml:space="preserve">
<g id="Layer_1">
• Main feature is capability to synchronize multiple streams
<path fill="#FF00FF" stroke="#0000FF" stroke-width="3"
d="M105.362,97.903l-37.386-9.682l-29.169,25.309l-2.345-38.548
L3.377,55.062L39.314,40.92l8.722-37.621l24.555,29.807l38.475-3.33
• SMIL is an easy-to-learn HTML-like language, and many
L90.306,62.34L105.362,97.903z"/> SMIL presentations are written using a simple text-editor
</g>
</svg>

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
4.12 MRML 138 4.13 XML vs. PDF for Web pages 139
Multimedia Retrieval Markup Language Should I use PDF or XML?

• XML-based markup language • PDF workflow gives authors full control of contents,
structure, and form (layout)
• Basis for an open communication protocol for content-
based image retrieval systems (CBIRSs) • XML workflow gives authors full control of contents and
structure, while the form can be controlled by reader
• Separates CBIR engines from their user interfaces
• i.e., query formulation from actual query • In the case of text documents it is easy to reflow the
contents algorithmically
• Essential for the formulation and implementation of
• a necessity for PDAs and eBooks
common benchmarks for CBIR
• For rich multimedia documents, automatic layout
• http://mrml.net/ algorithms my produce unacceptable results
• the re-incarnation of documents

• XML and PDF may converge


R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

4.14 VRML — ISO/IEC 14772-1:1997 140 4.15 QuickTime 141


Virtual Reality Modeling Language • Platform-independent suite of files, applications, and
plug-ins for playing or interacting with a wide range of
• File format for describing interactive 3D multimedia on
popular media formats
the Internet
• imported formats: AVI, Flash, MOV, PICT, BMP, GIF, JPEG/JFIF, Photoshop,
• structured graphics and extra dimensions (z and time) PNG, Targa, TIFF, FlashPix, QuickTime Image, DV, MPEG, AIFF, Audio CD,
• application example: color device gamut visualization Karaoke, MIDI, MP3, AAC, WAV, Text
• exported formats: AVI, DV Stream, MOV, BMP, JPEG, Photoshop, PNG,
• VRML 1.0 specification created by Silicon Graphics, Inc. Targa, TIFF, QuickTime Image, AIFF, MIDI, MP3, AAC, WAV and Text
• based on OpenInventor file format
• Comprises two managers: the Movie Toolbox and the
• Rikk Carey, Gavin Bell, and Chris Marrin
Image Compression Manager
• In December 1997 VRML 2.0 became VRML97 • Movie Toolbox allows to store, retrieve, and manipulate time-based data
that is stored in QuickTime movies
• Web3D Consortium formed 1994 • a single movie may contain several types of data
• Image Compression Manager comprises a set of functions that compress
• Requires plug-in and decompress images or sequences of graphic images

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

4.15.1 QuickTime concepts 142 4.15.2 QuickTime file format 143


• Metadata part is called movie
video • index, number of tracks, compression method, timing,…
metadata • Image part is called media data
audio
• video frames, audio samples,…
user data VR
copyright information • Movie and media data can be in different files
3D • example: slide shows
media data
MIDI • Basic data unit is called atom
• atom contains size & type info plus (big-endian) data
media index graphics • atoms can be nested—containment hierarchy, tree-structure
text • QuickTime files consist of atoms
types of tracks
compression format
edit information … • QuickTime Image File Format
• provides container for QuickTime-compressed still images
• supports ColorSync

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
4.16 JPEG 2000 144 4.16.1 JPEG 2000 File Format Family 145
• JPEG 2000 standard will define optional file formats • JP2 (JPEG2000)
• unique format for branding, syntax based on QuickTime format • single image
• file format is a sequence of boxes (atoms) • contiguous codestream
• each box has an identifier, length and data • gray, sRGB, restricted ICC profiles, palette, sYCC
• different approach than JPEG
• JPEG standard defined codestream syntax, but not file format
• JPX (JPEG2000 EXtensions)
• multiple code streams, possibly fragmented
• JPEG 2000 File Format Family (ISO 15444–N) • other color spaces and compression types
• Part 1 — includes minimal file format: JP2
• MJ2 (Motion JPEG2000)
• Part 2 — includes JP2 extensions: JPX
• timed sequences of JPEG 2000 images
• Part 3 — Motion JPEG 2000: MJ2
• uses many of the same boxes/atoms as MPEG-4
• Part 6 — Compound Images: JPM
• JPM (JPEG2000 Multi-layer)
• Usage
• MRC model for JPEG2000 (and other) compressed images
• coming, early adopters: digital cameras
• represents page as a sequence of (Mask, FG) layout objects
• JP2 will replace FlashPix

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

4.17 TIFF-FX 146 4.17.1 Relationship among TIFF-FX profiles 147


• Developed within IETF as file format for Internet fax
• TIFF representation of image data generated by suite of ITU-T standards S
for black-and-white and color facsimile MH
T.4
• TIFF-FX = TIFF for Fax eXtended
B&W COLOR
• IETF Proposed Standard (RFC 2301)
• required by ITU-T Rec. T.37 and IETF RFC 2532 Internet Fax standards
• extension proposed for JBIG2

• Color representation: CIELAB with ITU encoding J F C


JBIG MH, MR, MMR JPEG
B&W color T.5, T.82 T.4, T.6 T.42, T.81

Profile S — Group 3 1-D (MH) Profile C — JPEG


Profile F — Group 3, 2-D (MR), Profile L — JBIG color (T.82)
Group 4 (MMR)
Profile J — JBIG (T.85) Profile M — Mixed Raster Content
L M
JBIG MRC
T.43, T.82 T.44

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

4.18 File format overview 148 4.18.1 File format summary 149
Color spaces supported with the compression methods

• Single image LZW flate JPEG


• GIF, PNG, VRML, JFIF, TIFF-FX, JPEG 2000, PDF, QuickTime
GIF device RGB n/a n/a
• Multiple images
PNG n/a device RGB, sRGB n/a
• animated GIF, MNG, FlashPix, QuickTime
JFIF n/a n/a YCbCr
• Multi-page images
• TIFF-FX, PDF FlashPix n/a n/a PhotoYCC, sRGB

• Compound images TIFF-FX Profile C n/a n/a CIELAB


• TIFF-FX Profile M, PDF
PDF dev. RGB, dev. CMYK, cal. RGB, CIELAB, XYZ, ICC profiles
• Compound documents — vectors, text, images
• XML formats, HTML, SVG, PDF, SMIL • LZW, flate for text, graphics, and indexed images
• JPEG for images

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
4.18.2 Internet media types and file extensions 150 File Format Internet Media Type File Extension151
SVG image/svg-xml* .svg†
Flash application/x-shockwave-flash .swf
File Format Internet Media Type File Extension VRML model/vrml .wrl

GIF image/gif .gif QuickTime movie video/quicktime .mov

PNG image/png .png QuickTime image .qif

JFIF image/jpeg .jpg HTTP print job application/ipp

FlashPix image/vnd.fpx .fpx * proposed, not yet registered


† generic XML files often have the extension .xml, files for particular XML
JPEG 2000 image/jpeg2000* .jp2 applications or DTDs have specific extensions, such as .svg for SVG or, for ex-
image/jpeg2000; extended* .jpx ample, .cdf for the Channel Definition Format

image/jpeg2000-mrc* .jpm
TIFF-FX image/tiff .tif
PDF application/pdf .pdf
HTML text/html .htm, .html
XML text/xml, application/xml .xml†

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

5 Protocols 152 5.1 Internet fax 153


What is it?

Application • Store-and-forward Internet fax


Protocol • scanned document transmission using e-mail attachments
Format • ITU-T standards and IETF protocols
Compression • uses ESMTP with delivery confirmation and capabilities exchange
Color image
• ITU-T Recommendation T.37 — approved September 1999
• references IETF standards
• requires use of TIFF-FX
• Simple Mode — TIFF-FX Profile S: April 1999
• minimal b&w with no delivery confirmation or capability exchange
• Full Mode — TIFF-FX all profiles: September 1999
• range of b&w and color with delivery confirmation and capability
exchange

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

5.1.1 Internet fax 154 5.1.2 Internet fax — configurations 155


• Advantages
• higher bandwidth for color and high resolution
• high confidence SMTP messaging

• Status
• B&W Internet fax products available now
Internet
• Brooktrout Technology
all-in-one
• Daewoo Telecom and Connect One
• Dialogic (Intel) workstation
• Internet Magic
• NetCentric and Cisco
• Omtool
• Panasonic PSTN
• Xerox
• Working implementations: Canon, Quality Logic, Interstar Technologies,
iReady, KDD, Matsushita, Metasoft, Natural Microsystems, Open Port
Technology, Optus Software, Ricoh, WIDE Project, …
on/off ramp fax

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
5.1.3 Internet fax — operation 156 5.2 IPP — Internet Printing Protocol 157
Group 3 fax S&F Internet fax What is it?
Image format ITU-T Rec. T.4 TIFF-FX
• IETF standard developed with help from the Printer
Addressing +120227653000 recipient@name.org Working Group
Content ITU-T Rec. T.30 Internet fax schema • Client-server protocol for distributed printing on the
(RFC 2531)
capabilities Internet
point-to-point multi-point • intended to replace LPR/LPD
Transmission
Notification & in-band out-of-band • Uses HTTP 1.1 POST application protocol
MCF MDN, DSN • Internet media type: application/ipp
confirmation

MUA — Mail User Agent


MTA — Mail Transfer Agent
MCF — Message Confirmation
MDN — Message Disposition Notification
DSN — Delivery Status Notification

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

5.2.1 IPP — Internet Printing Protocol 158 5.2.2 IPP — Internet Printing Protocol 159
Functions Sample configurations

• Get a list of capabilities for a particular printer Client to printer

• Send a print job to a selected printer IPP

• Check on the progress of a particular print job

• Cancel a previously submitted print job client IPP object

• Get status from the printer Client to server

• Use modern PDLs IPP

• Options for multi-document jobs and print-by-reference

• Event notification client IPP object

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

5.2.3 Internet Printing Protocol — model 160 5.2.4 Internet Printing Protocol — status 161
IPP or
IPP direct connect or
network connection
• Current version: IPP 1.1
requests jobs • Newly published RFCs, September 2002
printer job control output
client object device • RFC 3380 IPP: Job and Printer Set Operations
responses status • RFC 3381 IPP: Job Progress Attributes
• RFC 3382 IPP: The ‘collection’ attribute syntax

• Many IPP products available


Printer and job objects • http://www.pwg.org/ipp/IPP-Products.html
• clients
• printer object / printer description attributes
• small and large print servers
• document-format-supported
• printers with embedded IPP
• Internet media type
• compression-supported • network cards
• around document, not within document • software
• e.g., none, deflate, gzip, compress • test tools
• color supported

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
5.2.5 Internet Printing Protocol — fax 162 5.2.6 Remote printing and proofing 163
Internet facsimile status

Internet fax over IPP, used to be Qualdocs


publisher Rio
• Real-time alternative to store-and-forward Internet fax job server
• IPP offers negotiation (limited) and delivery receipts printer
• firewalls will be an issue New Dehli
• TIFF-FX support mandatory
Internet
agency NY
• PDFax is PDF with:
• image-only
• streamable
• supports encryption
• synchronous, negotiated image transmission RIP server
client Rom
• use an extended version of IPP 1.1

capabilities client Seul

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

5.2.7 Canon’s approach 164 5.2.8 Electronic Color Proof (ECP) 165
Educate user & parametrize ambient conditions Imagicolor — Richard Holub

• User is given clear instructions on how to set up • ECP insures consistent color in a network
equipment • resides in a network linking production nodes
• background and glare for soft copy
• Mediates the
• illuminance for hard copy
• sharing of information about the capabilities of nodal color devices
• Low cost sensor is used to assess ambient conditions • interpretation of color image data to the devices
• control of color reproduction
• Color appearance model is used to compute a color
by the devices to a common or a negotiated criterion
transformation for the current ambient conditions
• Separable from image data
• USP 5,521,708; 5,532,848; 5,831,686; 5,900,932; 5,901,243;
6,078,732 • Special emphasis on gamut data

• USP 6,043,909; 6,157,735

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

5.3 Digital sending 166 5.4 IIP — Internet Imaging Protocol 167
Internet scanning for the office Transfer tiled images compressed with JPEG

• Scanners connected to Ethernet instead of computer • An HTTP client-server protocol to request FlashPix data
from an Internet server
• Documents distributed via e-mail, fax servers, remote
printers, or ISV applications • Motivation:
• execution efficiency
HP 9100C Imaging • special commands to request image attributes and metadata
Service Application • supports sequences of tiles
write read • provisions for security and e-commerce
TCP/IP
• locking at the tile level
• intelligent caching on proxy servers
image +
metadata
• Joint initiative by Hewlett-Packard Company and Live
NOTIFY.DAT
Picture Inc.
HP 9100C Windows Shared Application
Digital Sender Server Disk Server • Now a consortium: DIG — Digital Imaging Group
R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
5.4.1 JPIP Protocol 168 5.5 WebDAV 169
• JPIP defines the interactive protocol to achieve the WWW Distributed Authoring and Versioning
efficient exchange of JPEG 2000 imagery and imagery
• Set of extensions to the HTTP protocol which allows users
related data
to collaboratively edit and manage files on remote web
• The protocol defines the client-server interactions based servers
on a client request and server response
• Very lightweight, works well on slow networks

image display • OS support in Windows XP, MacOS X, NetWare 6


metadata metadata
client request • Application support in Office XP, Acrobat, Oracle 9iAS
server capabilities client capabilities

JPP or JPT streams data limits


• in Acrobat a user viewing a PDF file can upload comments and edits to a
shared data repository, which can be tapped by and added to by other
index tables x-path workers connected to the Web server
server response
• Apple’s iDrive is implemented in WebDAV
cache model cache
HTTP, TCP, UDP • other Microsoft WebDAV application: SharePoint Portal Server

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

5.6 Service discovery 170 5.6.1 UPnP — Universal Plug and Play 171
provide positive user experiences Device discovery in home networks

• “Self-configuring computational infrastructure” • Architecture for pervasive peer-to-peer network


• avoid driver installation and finding networked devices connectivity of PCs of all form factors, intelligent
appliances, and wireless devices
• Automatic service discovery (brokering, agents, avatars)
• user specifies a desired service (e.g., print this image in color) • Distributed, open networking architecture that leverages
• network finds a resource to fulfill the request TCP/IP and the Web to enable seamless proximity
• Proposed architectures either address a few layers of the networking in addition to control and data transfer
protocol stack (see §1.1.2, slide 7) or all among networked devices in the home, office, and
everywhere in between
•Three major players:
•Microsoft — UPnP • Heavily leverages Internet components,
•Sun — Jini including IP, TCP, UDP, HTTP, and XML
•Apple — Rendezvous
= IETF zeroconf

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

5.6.1.1 UPnP network components 172 5.6.1.2 Steps in UPnP networking 173
UPnP enabled device UPnP enabled device 1. Addressing: supported by TCP/IP, UDP and DHCP or AutoIP
2. Discovery: enables control points to locate interesting
device device
control point
devices on a network and their capabilities; the
service 1 service 2 service 2
capabilities are announced with unicast and multicast
variants of HTTP
3. Description: detailed description of a sought after device;
an XML document
control point
4. Control: control point requests actions to be performed;
UPnP enabled device actions are formatted using SOAP (Simple Object Access
protocol)
root device
embedded device 5. Eventing: services may contain variables reflecting their
control
service server state; control points can request notification by
service service 1 service 2
subscribing to a service
state event
table server 6. Presentation: HTML based user interface for a device

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
5.6.2 Jini 174 6 Applications 175
• Architecture for the construction of systems from objects
and networks
Application
• lets programs use services in a network without knowing anything about
the wire protocol that the service uses Protocol
Format
• client is taught by each service how to talk to it
Compression
• When a service is plugged into a network of Jini services Color image
and/or devices, it advertises itself
• client finds services by looking for an object that supports the API
• then it will download any code it needs in order to talk to the service

• The Jini architecture uses objects that move around


the network to make each service, as well as the
entire network of services, adaptable to new
strategies over time

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

6.1 Outline 176 6.1.1 Entropy and the secret for success 177

1. Research issues regarding Internet imaging applications • As John von Neuman remarked to Claude Shannon, the
• image retrieval formula for the information content of a message is
• regions of interest mathematically identical to the formula of entropy
2. Commercial applications
• Second law of conservation of energy
• browsers
• authoring tools • Entropy and information can only incease
3. Services
• basic tools
• three-tier model • The human endeavor is to counteract to entropy by
• experimental services creating order
• production services
• This is the secret for inventing successful Internet
appliations

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

6.2 Imaging research for the Internet 178 6.2.1 Image retrieval 179
• Where can I find a picture of the Golden Pavilion? Text or contents based

• Is there a different view? With autumn color? Sakura? • Text-based image retrieval: images are annotated and a
database management system is used to perform image
• Can I organize my images? retrieval on the annotation
• drawback 1: labor required to manually annotate the images
• How can JPEG2000
• drawback 2: imprecision in the annotation process
find the regions of
interest? • Content-based image retrieval systems (CBIRS) overcome
these problems by indexing the images according to their
• If I browse my image visual content, such as color, texture, etc.
collection on a PDA,
can they be cropped • A goal in CBIR research is to design representations that
by the server? correlate well with the human visual system

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
6.2.1.1 Retrieval metrics 180 6.2.1.2 Navigation vs. searching 181
Exact queries are not possible for images (nor text) Scalability requirements

• Recall (Sensitivity) = Number of relevant items retrieved / • Vetting the result of a query requires considerable effort
Number of relevant items in database
• An Internet imaging system must allow users to capture
• Precision (Specificity) = Number of relevant items the fruits of their vetting labor
retrieved / Number of items retrieved
• After a search, a good system must provide functionality
• Algorithms must make a compromise between these two to organize the retrieved images so they can subsequently
metrics: broad general vs. narrow specific query be navigated
formulation
• Different users navigate differently a given image set
• http://www.benchathlon.net/
• Navigation is facilitated by general structures, like
• CBIR algorithms tend to be very imprecise… taxonomies or ontologies

• …the result of a query requires further manual processing


R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

6.2.2 Web photo albums 182 6.2.2.1 User model for a Web photo album 183
Organizing pictures • Hypothesis: picture taking households want simple system
that can be used iteratively
• Amateurs: shoe box
• Market rule: customer is willing to buy gadgets when
• Professionals:
their entertainment value is larger than purchase price
• image storage/retrieval of stock photos
• structured work-flow • Web Photo Album design goals
• operate on single images • publish and retrieve with joy collections of images on the Web
capture Pr • scalable: many images
view print
ofe
r

• scalable: wide gamut of user skills


u

catalog ss
ate

ion capture & archive

al
Am

great? process

archive
catalog process retrieve set

put in wallet put in shoe box


retrieve best

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

6.2.2.2 Web photo album 184 6.2.2.3 The indexing problem 185
Challenges and opportunities
1. structure for navigation 2. storytelling • Indexing entails categorization
• external intelligence, categories
• semantics, context, metadata
• thesaurus, taxonomy, ontology • Categorization is a difficult cognitive task
• iconography, context

• High degree of specialization

• Changes in time as iconography evolves


digital images iconography / semantics

• Categories implemented as keywords


digital assets
R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
6.2.2.4 The category scaling problem 186 6.2.2.5 Solution part I: heaps 187
• User groups images on desktop by piling them into heaps
• A typical consumer photo album requires more than 500 • Desktop has arbitrary number of baskets
keywords → hard to manage User groups images by dragging their icons into baskets
• Easy solution: hierarchical keywords → too difficult for • An image can be in several baskets
untrained person
• Heaps are transient
• Classical S&R solution: taxonomy (e.g., decimal Images are automatically ungrouped
classification system) → too bulky • at the end of a session
• when indexing is committed
• Moreover:
• a basket is dissolved
• each image has several keywords
• untrained person needs to reclassify
CPL PIC-NIC PEOPLE ISLANDS
Events Subjects Places

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

6.2.2.6 Solution part II: tickets 188 6.2.2.7 Solution part III: ticket editor 189
• On the desktop there are also tickets

• A ticket represents a set of keywords… • Tickets are built in a separate mode (double-click)

• …or filter operations on images (rendering intent


prediction, sharpening, special effects, etc.) • Keywords: User can consult an extensive built-in
taxonomy for help in building keyword hierarchy
• Tickets can be combined by drag & drop

• User indexes images by dragging ticket on top of basket • Filters: User can select or disable image operations and
parameters of filters
De-blur
Events

Angel Island

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

6.2.2.8 Solution part IV: sequencing 190 6.2.2.9 Conclusions for Web photo albums 191
A scalable web photo album

• User can order images by arranging icons • Size: database

• User skills: tickets


• The result of a query is a heap
• Workflow: iterative

• Effort: heaps
• User can expand a heap and arrange the icons
System adds a priority, invisible to the user • Algorithms: display list

• An image can have a different priority in each heap

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
6.2.3 Commercial Web photo albums 192 6.2.3.1 Popular business models 193
• Adobe ActiveShare.com — http://www.activeshare.com/ Digital
Film
Camera
• Agfa eLab — http://www.agfanet.com/en/ips/fsub_ips.php3
• Prints and merchandising Home
• HP Cartogra — http://www.cartogra.com/ etc. Scanner
Consumers
• Web or printed photo albums
• † Fuji Film Picture Your Life
• E-services (custom looks, a.k.a. reskinning)
• Kodak PhotoNet — http://www.kodak.com/US/en/consumer/aol/aol.shtml Internet

• Example: Indigo Photo-e-Print


• Lifetouch, Inc. — http://www.lifetouch.com/ Data
Management
• Ofoto — http://www.ofoto.com/ System

• PhotoAccess.com — http://www.photoaccess.com/
• Seattle PhotoWorks — http://www.photoworks.com/
with http://www.ememories.com
• † PrintLife
• Shutterfly.com Shutterfly — http://www.shutterfly.com/ http://www.indigonet.com/photo/index.shtml
• † Zing.com ZingAlbums Prints

• …

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

6.2.4 Algorithms for ROI 194 6.2.4.1 Intelligent clipping 195


• Human vision collects low resolution overview in the
retina’s periphery

• High resolution views in the fovea with each fixation as


the eye jumps from ROI to ROI under top-down control Image for desktop browser

ROIs 3K bytes

Image for wireless browser

3K bytes 100K bytes

L. Stark and C. Privitera, U.C. Berkeley

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

6.3 Browsers 196 6.3.1 Authoring tools 197


IE has won the browser war Beyond vi and xv

• Microsoft Internet Explorer, AOL Netscape, Mozilla • Web site and HTML page production
• support GIF, JFIF and PNG • BBEdit, Dreamweaver, GoLive,…
• differ in support of PNG gamma correction and transparency
• W3C site has a link to a page that tests compliance: • Image editing
http://www.w3.org/Graphics/PNG/ • CorelDraw, Ghostscript, GraphicConverter, PBMPLUS, Photoshop, …
• in Photoshop, saving an image as “Single Image PDF” compresses it using
• Independent browsers JPEG. To choose between JPEG and Flate, save as “Photoshop PDF”
• Opera, OmniWeb, Camino, KHTML/Safari
• Vector based illustrations: Freehand, Illustrator,…
• Users do not like to install plug-ins
• on the open Internet, avoid encodings that require a plug-in • Animation: Flash, ImageStyler, LiveMotion,…
• in intranets plug-ins are acceptable
• Image optimization
• WAP vs. iMode • GraphicConverter, Fireworks, ImageReady, PBMPLUS, …

• Multimedia: Shockwave
R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
6.3.2 Instant Delivery 198 6.4 Three tier architecture 199
Custom newspapers — an HP product Technology trends

• Subscription system for newspapers and magazines

• Every night the server polls the publisher’s sites for new • With the transition from programs to Web services, the
material underlying technology has evolved:

• Each user receives a custom publication with the articles 1. Objects — Java, C++, Smalltalk
on subjects they subscribed 2. Components — CORBA, COM
3. Services — XML
• The custom publication is automatically printed on the 4. Web services — J2EE and .NET
user’s local printer, ready for breakfast
• How are Web imaging services built?
• Anyone can publish with Instant Delivery

• Currently supported on Windows and MacOS

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

6.4.1 Three tier architecture concepts 200 6.4.2 Programming tools 201
Microsoft vs. non-Microsoft
business partner’s app, Web client
firewall • Java
client tier Web-based clients
• extensive classes for various format and ICC profiles
internal clients
• watch out for existing intellectual property if you plan to distribute your
W3C standards software
• Microsoft: C#
UI, demarshalling, error checking, converters
Web service
business logic
J2EE and • JavaScript
container .NET
transactions, events
• Netscape’s scripting language (was LiveScript)
• also used in Acrobat
mostly proprietary standards
• Microsoft: Visual Basic
billing, customer management, identity
back-end
• Scripting languages — the duct tape of the Internet
systems databases • Perl — for CGI scripts and SQL database interface
e-mail, printing
• PHP — for MySQL database interface
• scripts are not architected, are inefficient, are unreliable — avoid them

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

6.4.3 .net to J2EE model comparison 202 6.4.3.1 J2 acronyms 203


.dll, .exe, .asp, … packaging .class, bean (primary), .dll, …

EJB Enterprise Java Beans, transactional server components


MS foundation services helper classes/services J2 services JAF JavaBean App. Framework, maps data blobs to manipulators
EJB events, JNDI, JTS, EJB security, … , EJB, JAF, JavaMail, JMS

VB scripting intrfaces Java reflection Jidl Java IDL, Java to CORBA bridge
.net events, MTS, Passport, Domain, shopping cart

JSDL Java WSDL, Java to SOAP bridge


UDDI, DISCO discovery/registration UDDI, Java Inspection
JavaMail Mail services

Runtime GC activation/lifecycle BOA/POA


JDBC Database access
security

security

JDK Java Developer’s Kit


CLR object model Java JMS Events/asynchronous messaging
JNDI Abstraction over DNS, LDAP, Novell Directory, CORBA naming
marshalling format/
NDR, XML/SOAP, MIME message types CDR, GIOP, XML JSP Java Server Pages, replacement to CGI
JTS Transactions
communication
COM-IPC, SOAP protocol SMTP, IIOP, RMI, SOAP
RMI/IIOP Intra-enterprise communication

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
6.4.3.2 .NET 204 6.4.4 Simple image Web site 205
• Microsoft's Internet-based strategy to wire appliances,
Web services, and legacy applications on the Internet
• Client: any Web browser
• Comprises Biztalk Server 2000 meant for XML document
• Service: Apache server with PHP or Perl scripts
routing on the Internet in a reliable manner
• Back-end: MySQL database on Linux
• The .NET platform also comprises Visual Studio based
interfaces to wrap legacy business applications as Web • Problems with decent size images:
enabled services • Linux file system too slow
• MySQL not transaction oriented
• Third component of .NET involves Common Language
• scripts too slow, CGI requires initialize processes
Runtime (CLR) environment, aimed at unseating Java
client tier Web-based clients
• .NET does not address the business conventions required
for the automatic business-to-business dynamic Web service container business logic
interactions required in the e-marketplace back-end systems databases

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

6.4.4.1 Simple solutions 206 6.4.4.2 Java servlets 207


• Servlets extend the functionality of Web servers
• work with Apache, Netscape, iPlanet, MS IIS, etc.
• Use a real Unix workstation with high performance disks
and file system • Like an applet running on the server side

• Use a full database like Oracle when you need • Process always runs and services all requests
transactions and stored procedures
• Full access to all Java classes, in particular to JDBC for
• Use Java servlets instead of CGI scripts database access

• Can be integrated with Web-enabled application servers


• BEA WebLogic, IBM WebSphere, iPlanet, etc.

client tier Web-based clients • JavaServer Pages (JSP) extend servlet technology
to combine static HTML template data with
Web service container business logic
dynamic content
back-end systems databases

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

6.4.4.3 Tomcat JavaServer Pages 208 6.4.5 Web services 209

• Open-source implementation of Java Servlet and Web services are modular and reusable software components
JavaServer Pages technologies that are created by wrapping a business application inside a
Web service interface
• Developed under the Jakarta project at the Apache
Software Foundation • Adobe — AlterCast
• Jakarta is an Apache umbrella project that includes 3 subprojects related
to JSP and servlet technology: • HP — e-Speak
• Tomcat, a JavaServer Pages and Java Servlets implementation
• Watchdog, a JSP page and servlet validator • IBM — WebSphere
• Taglibs, a JSP tag library repository
• … client tier Web-based clients

Web service container business logic

back-end systems databases

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
6.4.5.1 AlterCast 210 6.4.5.2 e-Speak 211
database Content mgt. syst. Asset mgt. syst.
• Advanced features provided by e-Speak include discovery,
customer
negotiation, and mediation of e-services
application layer
Perl scripts Java JSP VIsual Basic, VB.NET, ASP shell script • There are two components in the e-Speak platform:
• Service Framework Specification (SFS)
• e-Speak Service Engine (SE), which is a high performance software
Perl Java COM, COM+, .NET comand line implementation of the SFS
API XML AlterCast commands
layer HTML • Based on XML and Java
SOAP server
• Supports TCP/IP, HTTP, WAP

• Compatible with Jini and UPnP


AlterCast core
AlterCast
core layer • Compatible with pervasive object models
PSD libraries SVG libraries CoolType etc.
imaging technologies • EJB, CORBA, DCOM

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

6.4.5.3 WebSphere 212 6.5 Summary 1 213


• IBM’s scalable Internet software platform for e-business Color space to applications
Application
• Technology for dynamic business to business process Web Browsers Image Transfer

integration — seamlessly links into existing systems Protocol HTTP *TP


• built on standards like Java and XML
• runs on all major operating systems Format
• supports applications on 35 different platforms HTML
Other formats
via plug-ins
• Foundation of the platform is the WebSphere Application e.g., PDF,
Server TIFF, SVG GIF PNG JFIF

• scales from servelets+JSP+XML to EJB to high-volume transactional Compression LZW flate JPEG
applications integrating EJB and CORBA through JTS

• While WebSphere addresses more business conventions palette


than .NET, it still lacks the power and features of e-Speak's Color Space
ICC
SFS business conventions RGB sRGB Profile YCbCr

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

6.5.1 Summary 2 214 7 Conclusions 215


Color space to applications • Take a top-down systems design approach
Application Internet Internet
Image Transfer Fax Printing • There is a lot available
• GIF, JFIF, HTML, …
Protocol *TP IIP *TP ESMTP IPP
• … And a lot happening
Format
• MRC, IPP, Internet Fax,...
JFIF FlashPix JP2 TIFF-FX Supported
Profile Profile Document • …With more coming
C M Formats
• JPEG 2000, SVG, wireless...

Compression MRC • All fueled by the possibilities offered by the Internet and
JPEG JPEG JPEG 2000 the Web
JPEG
• The challenge will be delivering the desired color via all
Color Space
YCbCr sRGB Photo- sRGB, Simple CIELAB Binary
these possibilities for Internet color imaging
YCC Gray ICC profile

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
8 Issues and futures 216 9 Acknowledgements 217
• Will JPEG 2000 replace JPEG? • Carl-Uno Manros for his inputs on IPP

• The graphic arts industry is accustomed to CMYK; why was • Ricardo de Queiroz for supplying the wavelet-
CMYK never mentioned? transformed images

• Can I use ICC profiles? • David McDowell for his insights on standardization
• variable appearance documents (browsers) activities and clarifications
• fixed appearance documents (PDF) • Standards Update column in IS&T Reporter is an excellent source for
information on current imaging standardization activities
• How do I control the viewing conditions?
• color robustness vs. color fidelity
• James King for his insights into XML
• display calibration widgets
• Lawrence Stark and Claudio Privitera for many discussions
• environment sensors
on intelligent image processing and illustrations
• How can I create digital assets?
• syndication (hitch-hiking), e-services, metadata, digital rights
management, image retrieval

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

9.1 Acknowledgements (continued) 218 10 Bibliography 219


Color encoding: Giorgianni & Madden, Digital Color Management,
Addison Wesley, Reading, 1998
• Jean Gastinel for showing emerging display technologies
Compression: Bhaskaran & Konstantinides, Image and Video
• David Boggs, Neil Gunther, Keith Moore, Peter Schnorf for Compression standards, Kluver, Boston, 1997
their insights on communications and Web services Held & Marshall, Data and Image Compression, Wiley & Sons,
Chichester, 1996
• Mark Gorzynski for his input on color management and
file formats Fax: MCConnell, Bodson, & Schaphorst, FAX: Digital Facsimile
Technology and Applications, 2nd ed., Artech House, Boston, 1992
• Gabriel Marcu for illustrations and ColorSync advice
JPEG: Pennebaker & Mitchell, JPEG Still Image Data Compression
Standard, Chapman & Hall, 1993

PDF: Thomas Merz, Web Publishing with Acrobat/PDF, Springer


Verlag, Berlin, 1998

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

11 Links to references 220 FlashPix: http://www.digitalimaging.org/ 221


http://www.Kodak.com/go/flashpix
Latest version of this list: http://elib.cs.berkeley.edu/tilepic/
http://www.inventoland.net/imaging/cii/links.html http://now.cs.berkeley.edu/Td/GridPix/

Contents based image retrieval (CBIR): Flate: http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1950.html


http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/2000/HPL-2000-162.html ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1950.txt
http://www.benchathlon.net/ http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1951.html
http://www.almaden.ibm.com/almaden/hermitage.html ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1951.txt
http://www.virage.com/index.html
GIF: ftp://ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu/misc/file.formats/graphics.formats/
http://vrw.excalib.com:8015/cst
http://www.unisys.com/unisys/lzw/
http://viper.unige.ch/
Graphics: http://www.w3.org/Graphics/
DjVu: http://djvu.research.att.com/
http://www.lizardtech.com/ HTML: http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/
http://www.luratech.com/
HTTP: http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616.html
e-Speak:
http://www.bluestone.com/products/hp_web_services/ ICC: http://www.color.org/ see also

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
http://www.hpl.hp.com/techreports/1999/HPL-1999-110.html 222 IPP: http://www.pwg.org/ipp/ 223
http://www.pwg.org/ipp/IPP-Products.html
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force): http://www.ietf.org/
ITU-T standards: http://www.itu.ch/publications/bookstore.html
IEEE Computer Society Guide to Web Resources
http://www.computer.org/internet/links.htm JBIG: ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-erlangen.de/pub/doc/ISO/JBIG/

Instant Delivery: http://www.instant-delivery.com/ JFIF: http://www.w3.org/Graphics/JPEG/jfif3.pdf


http://icib.igd.fhg.de/icib/it/defacto/research/jfif/read.html
Intelligent image processing: ftp://ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu/misc/file.formats/graphics.formats
http://scan.berkeley.edu/research/eye/eye.stm
Jini: http://www.sun.com/jini/overview/
Internet fax: http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/fax-charter.html
http://www.ifaxbus.org/ JPEG: http://www.w3.org/Graphics/JPEG/
http://www.humancomm.com/aboutinetfax.htm http://www.jpeg.org/public/jpeglinks.htm
ftp://ftp.uu.net/graphics/jpeg/
Internet media types:
ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/media-types/media-types JPEG 2000: http://www.jpeg.org/JPEG2000.htm

IIP: http://www.digitalimaging.org/ LZW: http://www.unisys.com/unisys/lzw/

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

MNG: http://www.cdrom.com/pub/mng/ 224 QUALDOCS: http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-moore- 225


qualdocs-protocol-00.txt
MPEG: http://mpeg.telecomitalialab.com/
QuickTime: http://developer.apple.com/techpubs/quicktime/
MRC: http://www.xerox.com/research/xac/mrc/index.htm qtdevdocs/RM/pdfframe.htm
http://www.scansoft.com/products/pagismill/
Rendezvous:
MRML: http://mrml.net/ http://www.apple.com/macosx/jaguar/rendezvous.html
http://www.opensource.apple.com/projects/rendezvous
PBMPLUS: http://www.acme.com/software/pbmplus/
http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/zeroconf-charter.html
PDF: http://partners.adobe.com/asn/developer/PDFS/TN/
RFC####: ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc####.txt
PDFSPEC.PDF
http://www.rfc-editor.org/
http://www.ghostscript.com/
http://www.pdflib.com/ Server side color management:
http://www.coloreal.com/
PDF/X: http://www.ddap.org/solutions/pdf-x_faqs.html
http://www.ecolor.com/
PNG: http://www.cdrom.com/pub/png/ http://www.gretagmacbeth.com/
http://www.w3.org/Graphics/PNG/ http://www.praxisoft.com/products/internet.html
http://www.verifi.net/
R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet

SMIL: http://www.w3.org/AudioVideo/ 226 WebDAV: 227


http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/webdav-charter.html
sRGB: http://www.srgb.com/ http://www.webdav.org/
http://www.w3.org/Graphics/Color/sRGB
Web photo albums:
SVG: http://www.w3.org/Graphics/SVG/ http://www.activeshare.com/
http://www.agfanet.com/en/ips/fsub_ips.php3
Test images: ftp://nic.funet.fi/pub/graphics/misc/test-images/
http://www.apalo.com/
TIFF: http://partners.adobe.com/asn/tech/tiff/index.jsp http://www.cartogra.com/
http://www.pictures.fujifilm.com/pictures/
TIFF/EP: http://www.indigonet.com/photo/index.shtml
http://www.kodak.com/go/photonet/
TIFF-FX: ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc2301.txt http://www.ofoto.com/
http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-fax-tiff-fx-07.txt http://www.photoaccess.com/
http://www.xerox.com/research/xac/tiff-fx/index.htm http://www.photoworks.com/
http://www.shutterfly.com/
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP): http://www.upnp.org/ http://www.zing.com/
VRML: http://www.vrml.org/ WebSphere: http://www.ibm.com/websphere

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
Wireless: 228 12 Conference 229
WAP: http://www.wap.com/, http://www.wapforum.org/
WML: http://www.oasis-open.org/cover/wap-wml.html
iMode: http://www.nttdocomo.com/
From January 2000, the IS&T/ SPIE Symposium on Electronic
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium): http://www.w3c.org/ Imaging: Science and Technology at Photonics West has an
XHTML: http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/ annual conference on Internet Imaging
http://electronicimaging.org/
XML: http://www.w3.org/XML/

Zero Configuration Networking:


Proceedings are available from
http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/zeroconf-charter.html http://spie.org/app/Publications/index.cfm?fuseaction=proceedings&type=byconf

Latest version of this list:


http://www.inventoland.net/imaging/cii/links.html

R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet R.R. Buckley & G.B. Beretta VCIP 2003— Lugano, 8 July 2003 T3 — Color Imaging on the Internet
Colophon
As McLuhan observed, instead of saving The completed FrameMaker book and
work, labor-saving devices permit everybody images were distilled to PDF. The imposition
to do their own work. was performed in Acrobat with Quite
This scribe worked in a Silicon Valley Imposing Plus, and PitStop was used for
garage creating his art in Illustrator/Photoshop touch-ups. All color was converted to sRGB
and the text in FrameMaker, on his vintage using Quite a Box of Tricks. The ICC profiles
7500/100 home computer with a PowerPC 601 were created by the author with ProfileMaker
processor running at 100 MHz. The internal 4.1. The book was printed on an HP 3000
500M byte hard disk was supplemented with Digital Press by Paul Matheson and finished
external hierarchical storage on DynaMO on Duplo booklet making equipment.
removable magneto optical disks.

Historical Note
During the Middle Ages it was common for Ages to indicate the beginning of a year.
a copyist—scriptor—to leave a remembrance Among the chronological elements there could
of his activity inside codices produced by him. even be the quote of the exact hour of the day
The person copying a manuscript would or night, the reference to a liturgical moment
enrich it with a signature, which was usually like Easter, the holiday of a saint, or even a
placed at the end of the text, in a part that was specific event in the copyist’s personal
called explicit or colophon of the manuscript. existence, such as during the Christmas
It turns out that there was a wide variation vacation, or when he was a student in Padova,
in the elements of these signatures; sometimes or when he was working for a ruler.
all elements were present, other times only a It is particularly interesting to look at the
single element informed on the copyist, or on colophons in books of the Benedictine monks
the times, the modalities, or the events that set of Bouveret, who had accumulated a large
apart the work of copying a codex. number of signatures. These colophons tell us
Usually copyists communicated essential how copyist often added references to their
information: their name, the place, and the own biographical events or to the events of
moment when the work was finished. This great history. We can learn of the copyist’s
data, sometimes scanty and clear, was other diseases, such as gout, the growth of his family
times enriched with other elements. by the birth of a new son, or even of the crisis
The name of the copyist could be situation of an epidemic or a siege.
accompanied with his qualification, such as The signature was also the place where the
notarius, magister, frater, or his patronymic— copyist could express a vow or a request: to
his place of origin. The name could also be the reader for a prayer, to God to obtain
expressed by word plays, or hiding it behind absolution from sins and the certitude of
a cryptography. The place of copy could be eternal life. But requests could also be more
not only the name of a city, but also a house, a profane and concrete, from a break deserved
street, a district, a monastery were the copyist after the hard work of writing—many
was working. copyists repeated tres digiti scribunt, sed totum
As for the date, the chronic element, there corpus laborat, three fingers write but the
were numerous possibilities. There could be entire body suffers—to something to drink,
mention of just the year, or also to the month especially a good wine, to the request for the
and day according to the Roman calender or company of a beautiful girl—pulchra puella.
one of the many styles common in the Middle
Notes
Notes
Notes