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VOL. 81

ECONOMIC

GEOLOGY

BULLETIN

AND

THE

OF

THE

SOCIETY

OF

ECONOMIC

GEOLOGISTS

DECEMBER,

1986

NO.

8

Genesisof KupferschieferCu-Ag Depositsby ConvectiveFlow of

RotliegendeBrines during TriassicRifting

E. CRAIGJOWETT*

Departmentof Geology,University of Toronto,Erindale Campus, Mississauga,

Ontario, Canada L5L 1C6

Abstract

Extensiveand rich Cu-Ag sulfide mineralization

occurs in Polandacross the contactbetween

the UpperPermian Zechstein restricted marine sequence and the LowerPermian Rotliegende

continentalvolcanic and clastic sequence. Geologic evidence suggests that the mineralization

wasformed during late diagenesis when metalliferous brines migrated through the Rotliegende,

leachingmetals from the volcanicdetritus, and up the flanksof basementhighs, possibly along

fractureporosity, to thepyritic Kupferschiefer and Zechstein limestone above. Thick evaporites

in the lower Zechsteinpreclude a verticalflow-through model, but metalzoning attitudes

suggestthat the brinesoverturned where the Rotliegendepinched out againstthe highsand

movedlaterally along the baseof the Zechsteintoward the basincenters, presumably to sink

backdown into the Rotliegende, completing a convection cell. A MiddleTriassic palcomagnetic

agefor the metalzoning and Kimmerian attitudes of dilatantsulfide veinlets indicate that the

mineralizingevent coincided with continentalrifting associatedwith the openingof the

Tethys ocean.

Slowunicellular convection may be commonplacein sandstonebasins where smalllateral

temperaturegradients, AT, exist,but greatervelocities are necessary

to formlarge orebodies.

An anomaloustensional and thermal event, such as rifting, canincrease velocities by increasing

permeability,slope angle, or AT. The palcothermalstructure of southwesternPoland was

determinedby modelingthe conductiveheat flow in 14 one-dimensional

geologic sections

which describedthe evolutionof the basinarchitecture for 10 m.y. in the Early Triassic.

Riftingwas simulated by increasingthe lowerboundary condition from 500ø to 1,000øCat

25 km. Thisthermal pulse produced a surprisinglyhigh AT of 25øC acrossthe Lubinore

districtsolely from differences in thermalconductivities between the basementhigh (4.2 W/

møC), the sandstone(2.5 W/møC), and the shalebasin center (1.25 W/møC). Unicellular

convectionpatterns would be inducedby the lateralboundary conditions of warmbasement

highsand cold shalecenters and by the greaterhorizontal permeability. These cells were 15

to 20 km long, 400 m high, and subhorizontal.

A slopeangle of 2ø anda permeabilityof i D producesa convectionvelocity of 13 cm/yr

which,with a coppersolubility of 1,000 mg/kgin 20 to 30 percentCa-Na-C1 brines in equilib-

riumwith hematite,can form the Lubin deposit in lessthan 6 m.y.Using a fracturepermeability

of 2 D and a solubilityof 300 mg/kg,the time neededis lessthan 10 m.y. The Konradmine

canbe formedin similartime periods.Without the continuousrecycling of the brineinherent

in convectiveflow (20 timesor more),the metalsolubilities needed to formthe Lubindeposits

by a flow-throughmodel would be unreasonablyhigh.

Natural gaseslikely migratedalong with the metalliferousbrines and helpedconvection

by creatingsecondary

porosity and increasing the buoyancyof the fluids.Because the fluids

are recirculatedand not expelled,convection provides a way in which secondarymigration

of methaneand petroleumcan occureffectively in solutionas well as in separatephases.

Introduction

EXTENSIVECu-Ag-(Pb~Zn) sulfide mineralization ex-

ists across the

contact

between

the

Lower

Permian

Presentaddress:

Department of GeologicalSciences,

University

of Michigan,Ann Arbor,Michigan 48109.

Rotliegendecontinental volcanic rocks and rift-filling

red beds and the Upper Permian Zechsteinmarine

carbonate-evaporite-redbed sequencein centralEu-

rope, with the largestand richestdeposits being in southwestPoland (Fig. 1). Althoughthe Kupferschie- fer depositsare usuallythought to be syngeneticor

0361-0128/86/618/1823-1552.50

1823

1824

E. CRAIGJOWETT

15'E

•,

16

17'E

•/•

1•'•

.....

••.•L

/%•

• •'•",

•:"•::::• •

•/

•,,•-•'-,

'

16

ered by Rydzewski (1965, 1978), Lisiakiewicz

(• basement

highs

RFRole F,ule

• Zechstein

basin

edge

(1969), andOszczepalski (1980) to be the centersof

upwellingof ore-formingfluids. Most workers believe thatthe sourceof the metalswas the Rotliegende(e.g., Rentzschet al., 1976), althoughsome (e.g., Wede-

,

,.

,

pohl, 1971) considerthat they were broughtin by

rivers.(For detailedand comprehensivesyntheses of

the

historyof

geneticideas and their geologicbasis,

the

reader is

directed to Gregory (1930), Dunham

(1964), Oberc and Serkies (1968), Lisiakiewicz

(1969), Jungand Knitzschke (1976), andRentzsch et

al. (1976).)

 

The mineralizationoccurs as thin, but laterallyvery

extensive,blankets of sulfidesin distinct metal zones

above and lateral

to the barren

rote f•iule. The

rote

f•iule-ore contacts and other metal zone contacts

FIG.1. The hematite(RF), copper, lead, zinc, and pyrite metal

zoningin the basalZechstein and uppermostRotliegende of

southwesternPoland. The rote f•iule (RF) copperzones are as-

sociatedwith underlyingbasement highs and lower Rotliegende

volcanicsand are consideredto representthe foci of upwelling

Rotliegendefluids. Mining areas are: (1) the Lubin districtwhich

includesthe Malomice,Lubin, Polkowice,Rudna, and Sieroszow-

ice mines,each about 50 km•; (2) the Konradmine; and (3) the

Nowy Koscioland Lena mines.Line A-A' representslocation of

sectionin Figure 2. (Palcogeographyafter Pokorski(1978); metal

zoningafter Rydzewski(1978).)

early diagenetic(Gregory, 1930; Dunham, 1964;

Rentzsch,1974), thispaper will showevidence which

suggeststhat the ore depositswere formedduring

late diagenesisin the Triassicby metalliferousfluids

convectingin a unicellularmanner within the Rotlie-

gende(Jowett, 1983, 1984).

The criteria

for convection

in clastic basins will be

discussed,and it will be shownthat vertical andlateral

temperaturegradients, AT, causedby the difference

in thermalconductivities

between the basementhighs

and the shale basin centers can initiate

unicellular

transgresslithologic bedding from the Zechstein limestonethrough the Kupferschiefershale down to

the Weissliegendesandstone of the uppermostRot-

liegende (Fig. 2). The rote f•iule-copperzones are

associatedwith underlyingbasement highs and lower

Rotliegendevolcanics (Fig. 1); the metal zoninggen-

erally dipsaway from the highstoward the basincen-

ters(Fig. 2). Coppersulfides commonly replace pyrite

and other coppersulfides, quartz grains,lithic frag-

ments, and diagenetic calcite cement (Haranczyk,

1972). (Detailed accountsof the metal zoning and

sulfidemineralogy can be foundin Haranczyk(1972),

Rentzsch(1974), and Jungand Knitzschke(1976).)

Dilatant

sulfide veinlets were formed after lithification

(Salski,1977) andat the sametime asthe replacement

SSW

/

,••

tubiuDistrict

NNE

Zechstein

i Evaperite•

'

,,.•

.,

..

•,.

, '•

'

convection.The palcothermalstructure of southwest

Polandwill be reproducedby simulatingthe Triassic

rifting event and modelingthe conductionof the

thermal pulse through the crust and sediments.In

order to form the ore sonabletime period,a

depositsin a geologicallyrea-

sufficientlylarge AT

is needed

to create adequateconvection velocities. It will be

shownthat a specificregional thermal event, such as

rifting, is able to producethis AT.

Evidencefor Late Diagenetic Convection

Severallarge and irregularzones of rote f•iule,1 within whichpyrite hasbeen replacedby hematite,

occurin the mineralizingsystem in Poland(Fig. 1). These zoneshave low domal shapesand are consid-

] An old miner's term which means "red-colored waste rock."

\

?,,,,, ,.

i

l

//

FIG. 2.

Geologicreconstruction across the North Sudeticbasin,

Fore-Sudeticblock, Fore-Sudetic monocline, and Wolsztyn high-

lands, showingthe closed Rotliegendebasins and mineralized

Kupferschiefer(Ks) and Zechsteinlimestone (Ca 1) coveredby

gypsumand anhydrite(A 1) and rock salt (Na 1) of the Zechstein

first cycle. In general,the rote

f•iule and metal zones(RF, Cu,

Pb, Zn, pyrite) dip away from the basementhighs toward the basincenters, suggesting that the oreswere formedby Rotliegende

brines which migrated up along the flanksof the highs, turned

over below the Zechstein,and presumablysank back down into

the clasticbasins, forming a simpleconvection cell.

GENESISOF KUPFERSCHIEFER

Cu-Ag DEPOSITS

1825

sulfides(Jowett, 1985). Thesecharacteristics suggest

that the rote fSuleand ore-gradesulfides are late dia-

genetic(Lisiakiewicz, 1969; Niskiewicz,1980; Jowett

et al., 1982, 1987).

The

dilatant

veinlet

orientations

are

similar

to

the permeabilityof the medium,AT is the tempera-

ture differenceacross the layer, H is the thicknessof

the porouslayer, v is the kinematicviscosity of the

fluid, and h* is the effectivethermal conductivityof

the fluid-filled

medium.

Kimmerian-agedirections (Middle Triassicto Late Jurassic)(Salski, 1977; pers.commun. 1983), andthe

rote f'•iule hematite carries a stable chemical remanent

magnetizationacquired in Middle Triassictime (Jow- ett et al., 1986), suggestingthat the mineralizing

event

occurred

in the Triassic.

Most hydrologicmodels for secondarymigration of metalliferousoil field brinesinvoke movement up

alongflanks of basementhighs or alongfracture zones

and then through a chemicaltrap where metalsare

precipitated(White, 1971; Anderson,1983; Cathies and Smith, 1983; Goldhaberet al., 1983). Thick beds

of saltand anhydrite in the lower Zechsteinpreclude

sucha flow-throughmodel. The geologicevidence is

compatible,however, with a modelwhereby Rotlie- gendebrines, carrying metals leached from the vol-

canicdetritus, migrated through the red bedsand up

the flanksof the basementhighs to mineralizethe

overlyingpyritic Kupferschieferand Zechsteinlime-

stone.The brinesappeared to haveoverturned along the Zechstein-Rotliegendecontact toward the basin centers,presumably to sink down into the Rotlie- gende,completing a simpleconvection cell (Fig. 2).

Criteria

for Convection

in Porous Media

Theoreticaland practical aspects of hydrothermal

convectionin porousmedia have been

fully treated

by Boriesand Combarnous(1973) and Combarnous

and Bories (1975) and summarizedby Wood and

Hewett (1982, 1984) in their model of sandstonece-

mentation.These authorsassumed box-shaped basins

and homogeneous,isotropic permeabilities, whereas the Rotliegendebasins are wedgeshaped (thickening

towardthe centers)and have anisotropic permeabil-

ities causedby interbedsof shale toward the basin

centers. Because of the lack of theoretical

work which

canbe adaptedto irregular,anisotropic basins in gen-

eral, formulasfor homogeneousboxes will be used:

however, the calculated values must be considered

only rough approximationsof the real values.

The criteria

for the onset of convection

is the

di-

For layers with isothermal upper and lower boundaries,and slopingat an angle,0, simpleunicel-

lular convectionwill alwaysoccur until:

Ra. cos0 k 4•r2 • 40.

(2)

Abovethis value,the convectioncells will be poly-

hedralif the slopeis lessthan 15ø, or counterrotating

rolls if above15 ø (Boriesand Combarnous,1973). In

basinswith irregular boundaries,the shapesof the

cells are affectedby the basingeometry.

In

unicellular

convection, fluid velocities are

greatestnear the upperand lower boundaries, though

in differentdirections; they decreasetoward the cen-

ter of the cell, as in:

.

--

,

where z is the distancefrom the lower boundary

(Boriesand Combarnous,1973).

It is unlikely that world-classorebodies like the

Lubin districtwere createdduring normal diagenetic fluid flow ascommon cements were; otherwise,they

would be more common. Rather, an unusual event at

a specifictime is probablynecessary. The parameters,

which canvary significantlywith time and affectthe

velocity, are the temperature difference, AT, the

slope,0, andthe permeability,K. Permeabilitycould

be increasedby tensionalfracturing during tectonism or duringrapid unroofing(Narr andCurrie, 1982) or throughsecondary porosity (Schmidt and McDonald,

1979). The slopeangle could be increasedby differ-

ential subsidencebetween basin margin and basin

center, and temperaturegradients across the Rotlie-

gendemight be increasedby differentialburial or by

a thermal

event.

An anomalous

thermal

or tensional

eventis probably necessary to increasethese variable

parametersenough to initiate adequateconvection to

form Lubin, and this event shouldbe reflected in the

geologicrecord.

General GeologicHistory

mensionlessRayleigh number, Ra, which through

theoryand physical modeling has been shown to con-

trol the onsetand shapeof convectioncells in hori-

zontal and slopinglayers (Boriesand Combarnous,

1973). This numberis expressedas:

g. a.

Ra=

(t)C)e'K- AT. H

,

(1)

where g is the gravitationalacceleration, a is the vol- umetric thermal expansioncoefficient of the fluid,

(pC)fis the volumetricheat capacity of the fluid,K is

The CarboniferousHercynian orogeny in central

Europe culminatedin the depositionof the West-

phaliancoal-bearing continental clastics in late Car-

boniferoustimes in broadregional basins in the fore-

land of the youngmountain chain (Ziegler, 1978). At

the beginningof the Lower Permian(ca. 280 m.y.), strongextensional tectonism with associatedconti- nental flood basaltsand rhyolitesproduced a series

of linear and isolated closed basins into which Rotlie-

gende clasticswere rapidly deposited(Jowett and Jarvis,1984). The basin-fillingsediments of the lower

1826

E. CRAIGIOWETT

andupper Rotliegende consist of a lateraland upward-

changing sequenceof alluvial fan, braided river,

meanderingstream, and eolian and saline lake de-

positionalenvironments laid down in a successionof

sedimentary cycles in a semidesertenvironment

(Glennie et al., 1978; Pokorski,1978, 1981). This

results in a basin architecture

of coarse clastics ad-

jacent to the interbasinbasement highs and basin

edges,and of siltstoneand shale toward the basin

centers. Rapid lateral facies changesindicate that

syndepositional

tectonics were importantin the basin

history, especially in the lower section (Tomasik,

1980; Nemec, 1981; Roniewicz et al., 1981).

The Zechsteinwas depositedon a peneplain as a seriesof four to five sedimentarycycles (Z1, Z2, Z3,

monocline(Dadlez and Kopik, 1975). The Late Cre-

taceousto Cenozoic Alpine orogeny which accom-

paniedthe closingof the Tethysocean caused inver-

sionof thesebasins and regional uplift in the foreland

(Ziegler, 1982). Alpine tectonismdisturbed the ore

depositswithout remobilizingthe sulfides(Salski,

1977) and uplifted the Fore-Sudeticblock to expose

the basement(Fig. 1).

Aspectsof the geologicrecord

relevant

to convection

This geologichistory indicates several aspects im-

portantto convectionofRotliegende formational wa-

ters.First, in the basin-and-rangegeomorphology and

semidesert environment,

concentrated interstitial

etc.) in a tectonicallyquiescent period relative to the

Rotliegende(Peryt, 1978). The cyclestypically con-

sist of coaly carbonate-richshale (like the Kupfer-

schiefer),normal to restrictedshallow marine car-

bonate, and thick beds of sulfate, red shale, and sand-

stone,often with

rock saltand potash(Wagner et al.,

1981). The Z1 andZ3 cyclescompletely covered the

PolishRotliegende basins and the Fore-Sudeticblock

(Peryt, 1981), whereasthe Z2 had a narrowerextent.

brinescan form during sedimentation and then evolve

into Na-Ca-C1brines (Hardie and Eugster, 1970;

Eugsterand Hardie, 1978).

simply by precipitationof

anhydrite(Lerman, 1970),

This evolutioncan occur

carbonate,gypsum, and

which are commonRot-

liegende cements(Brunstrom and Walmsley, 1969;

Glennieet al., 1978; Pokorski,1981). The extremely

salinebrines in the Rotliegendebasins (Bojarska et al., 1981; Laszcz-Filakowa,1981) are contaminated

The Z4a and Z4b cycleswere depositedin narrow

basinsin northwesternPoland (Wagner et al., 1981),

before

the Triassic Buntsandstein

covered

the whole

Zechstein basin

(Senkowiczowa and Szyperko-

Sliwczynska,1975). In general,the Zechsteinis thin-

ner overbasement highs and is thicker over the Rot-

liegende basins (Peryt, 1978, 1981; Oszczepalski,

1980). Over the Fore-Sudeticblock the Zechsteinwas

likely only 150 m thick (Peryt, 1981); in the Lubin

and Fore-Sudetic monocline areas, about 250 to 500

by surfacewater only around Cretaceous Alpine faults

(Bojarskaet al., 1981; Solakand Zolnierczuk, 1981),

suggestingthat thesebrines are originaland that the

basinswere isolateduntil the Alpine orogeny. Second,the completecovering of the closedRot-

liegendebasins by thickZ1 evaporiteswould disallow

anybasin dewatering after Z1 time, resultingin over-

pressuringof the Rotliegendeand basalZechstein

sediments.This precludes a flow-through genetic model after Z1 time. The resultingundercompaction

m (Tomaszewski,1981; Wagner et al., 1981); and it

reaches a maximum of 1,500 m in the Polonian basin

in northwesternPoland (Wagner et al., 1981).

Followingthe regularZechstein sedimentation, a

furtherperiod of extensionand rifting occurred (this

timewith little igneousactivity) across central Europe

duringthe Triassicand Early Jurassic (Ziegler, 1982),

likelyassociated

with the openingof the Tethysocean

to the south.Day (1984) foundevidence to suggest

that extensionoccurred by reactivationof Hercynian

thrust faults. Deposition of the continental to re-

strictedmarine Buntsandstein

red beds,open marine

Muschelkalk carbonates,and restricted marine Keu-

would keep porosityand permeabilityopen during

diagenesis,allowing more internalfluid flow. Rotlie-

gende brines are often overpressured(Van Wijhe

et al., 1980; Bojarskaet al., 1981) and the Polish

brines are characteristicallyuniform in composition

throughoutthe basin and have stable pressuregra-

dients, unlike the highly variable Zechsteinbrines

(Bojarskaet al., 1981). This uniformitypossibly re-

flectsthe opennature of the porosityand flow within

the Rotliegendebasins.

In addition,the Lower PermianRotliegende and

the Lower

Triassic

Buntsandstein

record

two

conti-

nental rifting events. Continental extensionis gen-

per shaleswas very widespread and rapid, with up to

erallythought to be causedby stretchingand thinning

2,500 m of Triassicsediments deposited in longlinear basins(Senkowiczowa and Szyperko-Sliwczynska,

of the lithosphere(Jarvis and McKenzie, 1980), which

raisesthe asthenospherehigher in the section,pro-

1968).

ducing a regional thermal anomaly (Turcotte and

Continentaland shallow marine Jurassic sediments

reacheda similarthickness in Poland(Dadlez, 1968) but were restrictedto narrowerbasins through the centerof Poland,with uplift anderosion alternating

with sedimentation

in the area of the Fore-Sudetic

Emerman,1983). This anomalyis dissipatedby con-

duction through the lithosphere when there is no

magmatichydrothermal convection (Turcotte and

Ahern, 1977; Beaumontet al., 1982).

The organicchemistry of the Fore-Sudeticmono-

GENESIS OF KUPFERSCHIEFER Cu-Ag DEPOSITS

1827

cline sediments(Gondek, 1980) indicatesmaximum

palcotemperaturesof 110 ø to 140øC for the Zech-

Permian

L

U

Triassic

L

M

U

Jurassic

L

M

U

Cretaceous

L

U

steinand Triassic rocks, whereas temperatures for the

Lowerand Middle Jurassic

sediments

were 100 ø and

below90øC, respectively. These palcotemperatures

were corroboratedby vitrinite reflectancestudies

performedin Poland(Gondek, 1980; Majorowicz et

al., 1983) This indicatesthat

a thermal anomaly,

probablyrelated to thinningof

the lithosphere,oc-

curredin theTriassic

and was dissipated

during the

::

:•

:-:--:-:_-::-==

:

___

_5--_E--

:-=%---:--•_

.:_%•::_•

--

__

............

Jurassic.Therefore, the Triassicrifting eventrepre-

sents the thermal and tensional event which can form

the Kupferschieferdeposits by convection.

-25

280

251 23J25213 195 176161 141

Age (My)

100

Tertiary

Subsidence

65

SedimentationRates during the Triassic

Rifting Event

Continental

shales and sandstones were formed to-

ward the end of the Zechsteinand are gradational

into the Lower TriassicBuntsandstein (Milewicz,

1968). The uplift and accompanyingerosion of the

Variscanhighlands to the south (Milewicz, 1968)

causedthe depositionof the Buntsandsteininto rap-

idlysubsiding

basins over most of Poland. It developed

to 600

m maximum in the North

Sudetic basin and at

least 90 m survives in the Sudeten basin to the south.

In the Fore-Sudetic monocline, 600 to 740 m was

depositedand a maximum of 800 m occursin the

CentralPolish basin (Sokolowski

et al., 1976), indi-

catingfairly consistent

subsidence

over a largearea.

The westerlyto northwesterlydepositional strike of

the Zechsteinand Triassic sediments (Sokolowski

et

al., 1976) suggeststhat the Fore-Sudeticblock was

alsocovered before the Cretaceousuplift. Somedif-

ferential subsidence occurred in the North Sudetic

FIG.

3.

Sedimentation

rates

in

the

Fore-Sudetic

monocline

fromthe Permianto the present,showing the effectsof the Triassic continentalrifting associatedwith the openingof the Tethysocean to the south.The rapid, fault-controlledsubsidence of the Triassic

givesway to the thermally controlled subsidenceof the latest

Triassicand Jurassic. (Sources: Dadlez and Kopik (1975), Pokorski

and Wagner (1975), Senkowiczowaand Szyperko-Sliwczynska

(1975), Sokolowskiet al. (1976), Wagner et al. (1981).)

rectly comparedwith the other Triassicrocks, which

arecontinental and lagoonal clastics. Rapid subsidence

duringMuschelkalk time would produce a basinfilled

with water, and the sediment-starvedbasin would not

recordrapid subsidencein the rock record. For these reasonsthe averagerate has been drawn above the

Middle Triassicrate and below the Upper Triassic

rate.The rateschosen for the first10 m.y. of computer

simulationvaried with time from 130 to 90 m/m.y.

in the Fore-Sudetic monocline, and from 120 to 80

m/m.y. in the North Sudeticbasin area.

basin(Milewicz, 1968), but the consistent600 to 800

m depositedin only6 m.y.,using Van Eysinga's

(1975)

time scale, suggeststhat the continental crust had

completelyfoundered over the whole area between

the Variscansand the present-dayBaltic coast.

The MiddleTriassic Muschelkalk was also fairly

consistentin thickness,with 217 to 291 m deposited

in the monocline and 112 m in the Central Polish

basin(Sokolowski

et al., 1976).Although only the

lower Muschelkalk survives in the North Sudetic ba-

sin,its thickness(145-167 m) is similarto the maxi-

mum 169 m of lower Muschelkalk in the monocline.

The rangesof sedimentationrates for the Permian

to Cretaceous(Fig. 3) showthat the ratejumps to a

maximumin the Early Triassicbut decreasesexpo-

nentiallyto zero by the Middle to Upper Jurassic.

Thisis succeededby upliftand erosion in the Upper

Jurassicand slow sedimentationduring the Creta-

ceous.

The Muschelkalkrate is anomalouslylow, but the

rates of theseopen marine carbonatescannot be di-

Comparisonof SouthwestPoland

with

the Anadarko

Basin

Thereis a similarityin the geologichistories of the

Anadarko basin in Texas and Oklahoma and the Fore-

Sudeticmonocline region. The SouthernOklahoma

aulacogenwas formed by rifting with muchigneous

activityduring the Proterozoicto Cambrian(Hoffman

et al., 1974), followedby 20 m.y. of rapid,fault-con-

trolled subsidenceand 70 m.y. of slower,thermal

subsidencein the Ordovician(Feinstein, 1981). Dur-

ing the Pennsylvanian,a secondrifting event created

fault-controlledsubsidence

for 20 to 25 m.y.followed

by thermallycontrolled subsidence

for 70 m.y. (Gar-

ner andTurcotte, 1984), but there waslittle igneous

activity.

In Poland,the LowerPermian rifting event (Jowett

andJarvis, 1984) wasmarked by the intensebimodal

igneousactivity (Ryka, 1981) andrapid, tectonically

controlleddifferential subsidence

of the Rotliegende

(Tomasik,1980), followed by theregular, presumably

1828

E. CRAIGJOWETT

thermal, subsidenceof the Zechstein.Similarly, the

secondrifting event in the Triassiclacks significant

igneousactivity. The rapid subsidence(100-120 m/

m.y.) duringBuntsandstein deposition (Fig. 3) is sim-

ilar to the fault-controlled,synextensional

subsidence

of the Anadarko(Garner and Turcotte, 1984). The

lower rates from the latest Triassic(30 m/m.y.) to

latestJurassic (0 m/m.y.) are like thoseof their period

of thermal

subsidence.

The similar geologichistories of these two areas

and the similarsubsidence rates over similartime pe-

riodsof the secondrifting eventsimply that certain

of the thermal and mechanicalassumptions used and

confirmedby Garnerand Turcotte (1984) canbe ap-

plied to the Fore-Sudeticmonocline in modelingthe

thermalstructure of the lithosphereduring a rifting

event.They showedthat isostaticsubsidence occurred

earlyin the riftingevent as a resultof tensionalnormal

faulting,producing a lithospherewith low flexuralri-

gidity. This was accompaniedby differentiallitho-

a rifting event was simulatedby instantaneouslyin-

creasingthe temperatureat 25 km depth to 1,000øC

from the assumedprerift temperatureof 500øC and

by allowing the thermal pulse to conduct upward

throughthe crustwith time.

The simulatedrifting period is a 10-m.y. eventbe-

ginningat the Zechstein-Buntsandstein boundary and

ending4 m.y. into Muschelkalkdeposition, a period

of rapid,presumably fault-controlled, subsidence.

The

computerprogram maintainedthe lower boundary

temperatureat 1,000øC throughoutthe time studied

after rifting (10 m.y.); an artificialcondition unless

the stretchingmechanism were alsomaintained. The

lack of igneousactivity imposesslow lithospheric

coolingby conductionalone, and the thermal struc-

ture of only the upper few kilometersare of interest

in this study.Thus this lower boundarycondition is

a reasonableapproximation for the 10-m.y. period.

Computermodel and physicalparameters

sphericthinning (thinning of the crustfrom 45

to 32

A computerprogram which modelsthe thermal

km and raisingof the 1,200øC isothermof the

litho-

structure of a one-dimensionalgeologic section by

sphere-asthenosphere

boundary from 100 to 35 km),

and a subsequentincrease in heat flow. (This early

and

differentialthinning of the lithospherewill be

usedin the followingmodeling.) After the fault-con-

trolled subsidence, thermal contraction and subsi-

denceoccurred as the lithospherereturned to thermal equilibrium.

ConductiveHeat Flow Modeling of the TriassicRifting Event

Thermaland mechanicalassumptions

Only about 50 m.y. separatedthe startingpoints

of the riftingperiods (280 and230 m.y.), sothe litho-

spherewould still have been anomalouslyhot and

thin, assuming90 to 95 m.y. for thermalequilibrium.

For this reason and because the Fore-Sudetic

mono-

using a finite difference model of time-dependent

conductiveheat flow was suppliedby RossBoutilier

of the Universityof Toronto. (A more extensivever-

sion was used by Beaumont et al. (1982) in their thermo-mechanicalmodeling.) In this study a series

of 14 columns,representing one-dimensional geologic

sections,were usedto definethe palcothermalstruc-

ture of southwestPoland (Fig. 4). The columnswere spacedacross the North Sudeticbasin in the south,

through the Fore-Sudeticblock and Fore-Sudetic

monoclineto the Wolsztyn Highlandsin the north,

to reflect the architectureof the Rotliegendebasins.

Alluvial

fan and braided

river

sandstone occurs next

to the basementhighs and in the entire North Sudetic

basin:meandering stream and saline lake shaleoccurs

in the basin centers in the monocline.

The Zechstein

and Triassicsediment types were made the sameas

cline presentlyhas a thermal gradientof 20 ø to

over

the Rotliegendesediments because of computerpro-

30øC/km (Znosko,1981; Downorowicz,1983)

with

gram limitations.

a palcothermalgradient of over 40øC/km (Majoro-

wicz et al., 1983), an average20øC/km gradient over

25 km was chosenas the prerift condition.The sim-

ulationsand calculationsof Beaumontet al. (1982)

and Garnerand Turcotte (1984) showthat depth-de-

pendentthinning of the lithospheremore closely ap-

proximatedthe geologicand geophysical

observations

in these rifting eventsthan if the crust and lower

lithospherewere uniformly thinned. Therefore, a

temperatureof 1,000øC at 25 km, as a result of dif-

After including the Rotliegendeand Zechstein

sediment thicknesses,the columns were allowed to

"equilibrate"for 10 m.y. using0.1 m.y. time steps

to approximatethe thermal structure at the end of

the 20 m.y. Zechsteindeposition period. The prerift

upper and lower boundaryconditions (20øC at the

surfaceand 500øC at 25 km) were then changedto

20 ø and 1,000øC to simulatethe thinning of the

lithosphereat the beginningof the fault-controlled

Buntstandstein

sedimentation.

The thermal

structure

ferentialthinning, is reasonable.Observed heat flow

patternsare better predicted by rapid, rather than

wascalculated for each1-m.y. interval, using 0.1 m.y.

time stepsand a 0.1-km grid size,as the thermalpulse

slow,thinning models (Morgan, 1983), andJarvis and

McKenzie (1980) concludedthat an instantaneous thinning model is a good approximationof an event

of lessthan 20 m.y.duration. Therefore, in thisstudy,

migrated through the section. Horizontal heat flux

was assumed to be zero.

Triassic

sediments

at 20øC

were addedat variousrates each 1-m.y. interval for

the 10-m.y. period.

GENESISOF KUPFERSCHIEFERCu-Ag DEPOSITS

18 2 9

Physicalparameters used for basement(crust),

shalecenter is at a highertemperature than the sand-

sandstone,and

shalewere: specificheats of 1,375,

stonebasins and the sameas the basementhighs.

1,088, and 837

J/kgøCand radioactiveheat produc-

One rather surprisingeffect is the large, lateral

tionsof 6.276, 12.552, and 12.552 t•W/ma over a

temperaturegradient (12ø-14øC across about 20 km)

7.5-km depth.The latter are relativelyhigh because

of the intrudedgranites and locally derived sediments.

The thermal conductivityof the basement(4.2 W/

møC) representsa compositionof 40 percentschist,

  • 40 percent quartzite, and 20 percent granite (from

Znoskoand Pajchlowa,1968) with conductivitiesof

3.6, 5.2, and 3.2 W/møC, respectively(Clark, 1966;

Kristiansenet al., 1982). The conductivityof the

sandstone(2.5 W/møC) representsa compositionof

  • 45 percent quartz sandstone,30 percent conglom-

erate, and 25 percent water with conductivitiesof

4.0, 2.0, and 0.7 W/møC, respectively(Clark, 1966;

Downorowicz, 1983; Andrews-Speedet al., 1984);

that of the shale(1.25 W/reøC) representsshale (1.5

W/møC) with 25 percent water (Clark, 1966; Kris-

tiansenet al., 1982; Andrews-Speedet al., 1984).

Triassic

Palcothermal

Structure

of Southwest Poland

The prerift temperaturearray (Fig. 4A) showsthat

the isothermsare depressedsomewhat within the

sedimentsbut that in generalthey cut throughthe

basins.In the shalebasin center (column 11) a low

thermalgradient characterizes the structurefrom the

surface down to the base of the shale, below which

there is a buildup of heat and a high gradient.Sedi-

mentsof low thermal conductivityact as a thermal

blanket;the heat cannotrise easilyand is trapped.

whichexists in the prerift,quasiequilibrium

condition

betweenthe baseof the Rotliegendein column8 and

its top in column11. This suggeststhat slowconvec-

tion of interstitialfluids, possibly causing quartz and

calcitecementation (Wood and Hewett, 1982, 1984;

Rabinowiczet al., 1985), mightbe commonplace.

Duringrift simulation,Triassic sediments at 20øC

were addedat the surfaceand the thermal pulserose

throughthe section.No effect of the pulsewas ap-

parentin the upper 3 km until after 2 m.y. (Fig. 4C).

Betweeni and 5 m.y. (Fig. 4B-E), the temperature

at 3-km depth consistentlyrose 10øC/m.y. After 5

m.y. (Fig. 4E) the temperaturesbelow the Triassic

sedimentsapproached an approximateequilibrium

condition,and between 8 and 10 m.y. (Fig. 4F), they

were essentiallyat equilibrium,possibly because the

coolingfrom above tended to balancethe heating

from below.The overalleffect was one of decreasing

the verticalthermal gradient between the surfaceand

the top of the Rotliegende,and of increasingit from

there down.

During this heatingperiod, the blanketingeffect

increasedto producea very coolbasin center above

and within the shale,and a high thermal gradientat

the base of and below the shale. More dramatic is the

changein the basementhighs (columns 1 and 6).

Al-

thoughthe thinly coveredhighs (columns 1 and 6)

were cooler than the adjacentbasins before rifting

Sandstone is not as effective

a thermal

blanket

as is

and at 1 m.y. after, the thermalpulse rose through

shale.The basementhighs with little sedimentcover

the

conductivebasement more quickly and caused

(columns1 and 6) are slightlylower in temperature

the highsto becomethe hottestregions at 5 m.y.,

thanthe adjacentbasins; however, this does not apply

bothabove the Rotliegende(500 m) andbelow (2,000

to basementhighs with significantsediment cover

m).

The mostdeeply buried basementhigh (column

(column14 is hotter than 13). In a horizontalsection

14)

alwaysremained a thermalhigh comparedto the

at 500-m depth, the overalleffect in the prerift con-

adjacentbasin.

dition is one of a cold shale basin, a warm sandstone

The horizontaltemperature gradient between col-

basin,and either a cooleror warmerbasement high

umns8 and 11, a distanceof only 20 km, almostdou-

region. (The cold shalebasin is causedpresumably

bled, from 12ø to 14øC (at a 700-m depth)to 22 ø to

by the trappingof heatbelow the shale;the coolhighs

 

24øC (at

1,700 m), by 8 to 10 m.y. after rifting (Fig.

are probablythe resultof no sedimentcover, whereas

the warmer highshave the thermal blanket of sedi-

ment cover.) At greater depths (e.g., 1,500 m) the

4F). The verticalgradient across the 400-m average

Rotliegendethickness similarly increased. The high

lateral temperature gradient could be further in-

FIG. 4.

Palcothermalstructure of the surficial3-km crust in southwestPoland demonstrating the

changingisotherms due to differentialthermal conductivities

during a simulatedrift (detailedexplanations

in text). Stippledpattern = sandstone,dashed pattern -- shale.Top stippledpattern (B-F) denotescold

Triassicsediments deposited on the surfaceat each 1-m.y. time step.A. Quasiequilibriumstage at the

endof Zechsteinsedimentation

with upperboundary condition of 20øCat surfaceand lower boundary

conditionof 500øC at

25 km. B. One millionyears after rift simulationwith new boundarycondition

of 1,000øCat 25 km.

C.

Two millionyears after rifting;thermal pulse is now beginningto heat the

upper3 km. D.

Three millionyears after rifting.E. Five millionyears after rifting.A quasiequilibrium

stagehas been reachedin which rate of coolingfrom aboveby sedimentationmatches the rate of

heatingfrom below. F. Ten million yearsafter rifting, the end of the rift simulation.

1830

E. CRAIGJOWETT

SSW

Depth(m)

A

0

NORTHSUDETIC

1

2

BASIN

3

4

500............

5

20

FORESUDETIC

BLOCK

FORESUDETICMONOCLINE

6

7

e

9

tO

11

12

NNE

WOLSZTYN

HIGHLANDS

13

14

'......

4:................................................

•..:

....................

! 000

15oo

eo

2000

2500

3000

Distance

(

k

m

Depth(m)

B

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

2500

Distance

(

k

m

)

Depth(m)

C

o

1

2

3

4

5

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

1 ooo

'::.'•'.,•- .. •
'::.'•'.,•-
..

¾;

..

:.•

...

•,•------•

4o •:

........?':.-

:

.......

;•

............

..........

.......................

• .........................

...........

............................

500

..................................................

3000

..................................................ß

.........................................................................

..........

, ..

..............

/ø'"'-

.......

•.

"""

............

...........

.

.........................

.........................

•'0

2'0

3'0

..................................................................

4'0

5'0

6'0

7'0

...........

,

e'o

9'0

• 60

• { 0

• • 0

D

i

s

t

a

n

c

e

(

k

m

)

GENESISOF KUPFERSCHIEFERCu-Ag DEPOSITS

1831

ssw WOLSZTYN NORTHSUDETIC FORESUDETIC FORESUDETICMONOCLINE BASIN BLOCK HIGHLANDS Depth(m) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
ssw
WOLSZTYN
NORTHSUDETIC
FORESUDETIC
FORESUDETICMONOCLINE
BASIN
BLOCK
HIGHLANDS
Depth(m)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
D
o
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
Distance
(
k
m
)
E•pth
1
2
3
4
5
6
,:.:.-
.....
;
..
..
:-
........
-
....
::.:•
...
:
..
;
..
,2o
......
-
.......
:.-.-
...
,
E ø
•/:.:::;' •'.':
..
'
..
':'.'.•.:;5'
..
:::::'.:' :.':.".:':.L.'.'-
'.:
..
';:•.?:.
..
'
..
'.::
...
:
..
'
..
'
..
":'.:':.:•::.'.';::.:::.:.:::.].::
::::'.':,
500
1 ooo
1500
2000
2500
3000
1'0
2'0
3'0
4'0
5'0
7'0
8
9'0
160
1{0
1•0
D
i
st
an
c
e
(
k
m
)
Depth(m)
0
F
500
lOOO
1500
2000
2500
3000
90
160
lie
1•o

NNE

1832

E. CRAIG]OWETT

creasedby imposingdifferential sedimentation

during

the Triassic,or by keepingin mind that poorlycon-

ductingPaleozoic sediments underlie the Rotliegende

basins(Znosko and Pajchlowa,1968). Both of these

changeswould add to the thermalblanketing effect

in the basins.Also, fluid convection itself would in-

creasethe lateraltemperature gradient by increasing

heatflow in areasof upwelling,thus heating the flanks

of the highs,and of decreasingit where fluidsare

descending,thus cooling the basincenters (Sass and

Sammel,1976; Andrews-Speedet al., 1984). Assum-

ing, therefore,that the temperaturegradients cal-

culatedin thisstudy are minimum values, then a ther-

mal gradientof 25øC is reasonableand will be used

in the convection

calculations to follow. The vertical

temperaturedifferences in columns8, 9, 10, and 11

betweenthe

top andbottom of the Rotliegendeare

12 ø, 20 ø, 30 ø, and 45øC over œ00, 350,

500, and

600 m of sediment.This representsa constantgra-

dientof 60øC/kmfor the sandstoneand about 75øC/

km

for the

shale.

The maximumtemperature attained by the Kup-

ferschieferwas 50øC in columns1, 5, and 7 andclose

to 60øC in column14,

all near the basementhighs.

This is far belowthe temperaturesof 110ø to 140øC

m2 (for fracturedrock); 0 = 2'•0ø slope(for Lubin at

  • 10 m.y. after rifting);0 -- 1.3ø slope(for Konradat

  • 10 m.y. after rifting).

Usingthe Lubin parameters, the Rayleigh number,

Ra, is 157 and Ra. cos 0 at 0 =

1.3 ø is well above the

criticalvalue of 40, indicatingthat polyhedralcon-

vection shapesshould prevail (Boriesand Combar-

nous, 1973). However, greater horizontal perme-

abilitywould tend to forcethe flow alongthe flanks

of the basementhighs to producea unicellularshape,

andthe geologicevidence supports this. As well, the

boundaryconditions of a warmingeffect on oneside

(basementhigh) and a coolingeffect on the other

(shalecenter) will tend to direct the convectiveflow

up the highsand downtoward the

basincenters in a

unicellular pattern. In this

case, the basin can be

viewed as a combination of a Bories and Combarnous

(1973) boxat 0 ø slope(in whichpolyhedral flow oc-

curs)and one at 90 ø slope(in which unicellularcon-

vection alwaysoccurs). The convectionvalues cal-

culatedhere mustbe assumedto be onlyrough ap-

proximations.

The velocityalong the 2ø slopeat Lubin,5 m above

thelower contact, is 0.132 m/yr.Thus the brine would

take 303,000 yr to completea full 40-km

convection

notedabove for the Fore-Sudeticmonocline Kupfer-

schiefer.That the maximumtemperature was not at-

tainedin thisconduction study suggests

that the max-

imum came later when the rate of cold sedimentation

decreasedand the Kupferschieferhad time to equil-

ibrate at a greaterdepth of burial (2,500 m in the

monoclineat the beginningof

the Lower, and 3,000

m by the Upper Jurassic).As the thermal structure

approachedthermal equilibrium after rifting,likely

nearthe Jurassic-Cretaceous

boundary, the isotherms

in eachcolumn would becomemore equidistantand

a temperatureof 110ø to 130øC at 2,500 to 3,000 m

wouldnot be unreasonable(see Fig. 4F). In addition,

fluid convectionwould increase the overallheat flux,

possiblyin a heterogeneouspattern (Andrews-Speed

et al., 1984) and thus raise the temperatureof the

basalZechstein, at leastlocally, above that predicted

by this conductionmodel. Otherwise,the difference

could be the result of additional factors not considered

in this study;e.g., the existenceof deep tensional

fractureswhich permitted the advectionof heatfrom

below.

cell,equivalent to 3.3 cycles/m.y.For the Konradba-

sinedge, with a slopeof 1.3ø, the velocityis 0.05 m/

yr, equivalentto 600,000 yr for a 30-km cell, or 1.67

cycles/m.y.

Time neededfor mineralization

The time neededfor the migratingfluid to forman

orebodycan be approximatelydetermined by cal-

culating a massbalance between the metalliferous

brine anda sliceof ore parallelto the flow.The Lubin

depositcan be approximatedby a sliceof 2 percent

Cu ore whichis œm high, 1 m wide, and 6 km long,

andwhich transects the lithology over a 10-mvertical

height(Fig. 5). Thisslice contains 2.15 millionkg Cu

usinga densityof 8,950 kg/m3 for coppermetal. In

the 10 m by 1 m

by 40 km volume of rock in one

convectioncycle, with 25 percentporosity, there are

  • 1 X 105m 3 of brine,or

1.15 X l0 s kg at 1,150kg/

ma density.For a very concentrated,chloride-rich

brine in equilibriumwith hematite,a solubilityof

1,000 mg Cu per kg solutionis reasonable(Rose,

Brine

Convection

Calculations

1976;

Barnes, 1979; Roedder, 1979), which works

Stylesand velocitiesof convection

outto

1.15 X 105kg Cu in onecycle of solution.

A concentratedbrine closeto equilibriumwith he-

To calculatethe Rayleighnumber and velocities,

the followingvalues for brinesand undercompacted

clasticswould be reasonable:a = 4.0 X ]0-4C-1; •oCf

= 4.0 X 106W secm-aC-•; H = 400 m; AT = 25øC

matite would have very low sulfide activitiesand

would

carry metalsas chloride complexes(Barnes,

1979). The efficiencyof sulfideprecipitation is close

to 100 percentin a situationsuch as this where metal

(forLubin); AT = 15øC(for Konrad); v = 4.0 X 10-7

m2sec-•;)•* = 2.5 W m-•C-•; K =

1D =

1 X 10-12

chloridesin solutionare broughtinto contactwith

reducedsulfur (pyrite in the Kupferschiefer)(Barnes,

m2 (for25% porosity in undercompactedsiliciclastics

1979). Assumingthis, the brine wouldneed to com-

GENESISOF K UPFERSCHIEFERCu-Ag DEPOSITS

1833

the metal through the slice of ore. Therefore, the

convectioncell would have to endure for 5.75 m.y.

to form the orebody.Using the fracturepermeability

of 2 D, and a more conservative300 mg/kg copper

solubility,the orebodycould be formedin 9.6 m.y.

If intensefracturing occurred, increasing permeabil-

itiesto 10 D, the mineralizingprocess, using the lower

solubility,could be completedin lessthan 2 m.y.

Similarly,the Konraddeposit can be represented

by a sliceof 1.1 percentCu ore whichis 1.2 m high,

  • 1 m wide, and4 km long,but whichtransects 5

m of

section instead

of

10

m. The

time needed

for min-

eralization is 6.6 m.y. using 1-D permeability and

1,000-mg/kgsolubility, or 11 m.y. using2 D and 300

mg/kg.

In these calculations,the brine is recycled within

the Rotliegendebasins a minimumof about20 times

(at 1,000 mg/kg solubility)in order to bring enough

metal through the ore deposits.In a flow-through

model, where the brine is constantlybeing expelled

from the basin, metal solubilitiesmight have to be

tensof thousandsof mg/kg in order to form the de-

posits--a difficultvalue to justify.

Thesesimple mass balance approximations

indicate

that

convection

of brines

in

this

environment

can

readily producean orebodywithin geologicallyrea- sonabletime but that the metal solubilitiesnecessary

for a flow-throughmodel may be unreasonablyhigh.

Movementthrough Kupferschiefer shales

The presenceof ore severalmeters thick in the

basalZechstein indicates that mineralizingfluids mi-

gratedinto the shalesfrom the Rotliegendebasins,

althoughthe 6-km lateral extent of the Lubin district suggeststhat the flow was more horizontalthan ver-

tical.This migration into relatively impermeable sed-

iment need not presenta problemif the shaleswere

geopressuredrelatively soonafter depositionas dis-

cussedearlier. The resultingdelay in sedimentde-

wateringduring burial would preserve porosity and

permeabilityto a greaterextent than if dewatering

were allowed. As well, the mineralized dilatant vein-

letsin the Kupferschiefer(discussed

earlier) indicate

that a systemof horizontaland verticalfractures was

opento mineralizingfluids after the shalewas lithified.

The Zechsteinmineralization

(or alteration) is thickest

in areaswhere the rote f•iuleis developed,and thins

awayfrom these zones until the mineralization

ispre-

dominantlyin the sandstonebelow, suggesting that

the verticalcomponent of fluidflow was greatest in

areasnear the rote f•iulezones, the presumedsites of

upwelling.

Increasein velocity

This modelingshows that adequatevelocities for

mineralizationcould be maintainedin the Early to

Middle Triassic.However, with more rapid subsi-

, HOle

FIG. 5.

Sectional,1-m-thick slice of rock, parallelto presumed

fluid flow, representingthe Lubin ore district. Fluid flow was

probablygreater in the more porousWeissliegende, tilting the

oxidation-reduction

front to near horizontal. Both the Konrad and

Lubindeposits could be formedin 5 to 10 m.y.by fluidconvection.

denceoccurring to the northin the basincenter (Peryt

et al., 1978) anda subsequentincrease in slopeangle,

the velocityfluid motion on the northernflanks of the

basementhighs (including the Lubin district)could

actuallyincrease with time if other factorsremained constant.Similarly, the velocities on the southern

flanksof the basementhighs (including the Konrad

district) shoulddecrease with time.

Speculationon the Effectsof

Natural

Gas Generation

Additionalporosity and permeability

Secondaryporosity is created during the early

stagesof hydrocarbongeneration when organic mat-

uration produces carbon dioxide which in solution

leachescarbonate cements (Schmidt and McDonald,

1979). Someof the porosityin the North SeaRotlie-

gendeis thoughtto be secondaryin origin (Schmidt

andMcDonald, 1979; Shanmugam,1985). The source

of the naturalgases at the top of the Rotliegendeis

consideredto be the Westphaliancoals which gen-

erated gasesduring the Triassic(Calikowski et al.,

1971; Calikowskiand Glogoczowski, 1976) or Jurassic

(Van Wijhe et al., 1980). The rate at which hydro-

carbonsare generatedfrom kerogenaccelerates rap-

idly above80øC (Laplante,1974). This temperature

couldeasily be obtainedin the basementduring the

Triassicrifting event (see80øC isothermin the base-

ment 3 m.y. after rifting in Fig. 4D). Migration of

hydrocarbonsthrough the Rotliegendeduring the

Triassicand Jurassicindicates that permeabilitywas

quite high at that time.

Certainrote f•iule-copperzones are associatedwith

west-northwest-trendingfault zoneswhich may have

beenthe focifor ascendingoxidizing and metalliferous

solutions(Lisiakiewicz, 1969; Oszczepalski,1980).

Since the convectionprobably occurred during the

Triassic,a period of extensionaltectonism, and since

thesefaults were activeeven during Z 1 sedimentation

(Oszczepalski,1980), it seemsreasonable to assume

thatfracture porosity, caused by rejuvenationof fault

zones,played a role in the internal migrationof Rot-

1834

E. CRAIGJOWETT

liegendebrines. Fault rejuvenationby crustalfailure

during extensionis implied by the fault-controlled

subsidenceof the Buntsandstein(Fig. 3).

Additional buoyancy

Organicmatter derivedfrom terrestrialsources (as

in the Westphaliancoals and the Kupferschiefer)pro-

ducescarbon dioxide, water, methane,and nitrogen

duringthermal metamorphism (Rohrback and Kaplan,

1978; Rohrbacket al., 1984; Shanmugam,1985).

Hydrocarbonsin the Rotliegendeare almost com-

pletely methane, and the high nitrogen content in-

dicatesboth a high temperatureat the source(De-

powski,1981) anda terrestrialsource (Barker, 1979).

In the sourcerock, as hydrocarbonsare produced,

the pore water is likely to be saturatedwith CO2, and

methanesolubility also increases with the increasein

CO2 (Brayand Foster, 1980). When the methaneand

CO2 are expelledinto the Rotliegende,the methane

can exsolveinto a separatephase because of the in-

creasein

salinity(McAuliffe, 1980) from 7 percent

or lessin the sourcerock (Schmidt,1973) to the 20

to 30 percentsalinity (Bojarska et al., 1981) andbe-

causeof the lossof CO• used in leachingcarbonate

cement (Schmidt and McDonald, 1979). This gas

phaseshould increase the overall buoyancyand in-

creasethe velocity of the metalliferousbrine. As the

fluid convectsup the basementhigh flank, the de-

creasingtemperature and pressurewill exsolvemore

gas(McAuliffe, 1980).

McAuliffe (1980) concludedthat the principal

mechanismfor secondarymigration of naturalgas was

by buoyantflow asa separatephase, because the vol-

umesof waternecessary for migrationin solutionwere

unreasonable. This water supply restriction is avoided,

however, if convection occurs, and methane should

be able to migrateeffectively in solution,as well as

by

buoyantflow, and collect in the upperRotliegende

by exsolutionas long as the convectioncell wasmain-

tained. Wood and Hewett (1984) and Rabinowiczet

al. (1985) suggestthat convectionplays a role in hy-

drocarbonmigration.

Conclusions

diageneticcementation, probably occurred during

periodsof normal heat flow, but the Triassicrifting

event,associated with the openingof the Tethysocean and indicatedby rapid Buntsandsteinsedimentation,

providedthe tensionaland thermal event necessary

for unusuallyhigh convectionvelocities and the for-

mationof the Lubin districtore deposits.

Natural gas,generated in the

Carboniferousbase-

ment, probablymigrated with the mineralizingfluids

up the flanksof the basementhighs and helped con-

vectionby providingsecondary porosity and buoy-

ancyto the fluids.Convection may also provide a way

in which secondarymigration of naturalgases can oc-

cur in solutionas well asin separatephases.

Abnormal tensional and thermal events, such as

rifting, can providethe drivingforce for the gener-

ationof hydrocarbons,the migrationof metalliferous

oilfield brines,and the formationof kupferschiefer-

type ore deposits.

Acknowledgments

The supportof Z. Dembowski,President, Central

Boardof Geologyof Poland,W. Ryka,Director, and

  • A. Rydzewskiof the Instytut Geologiczny,K. Dubin-

ski, Lubin District Chief Geologist,and their permis- sionto undertakethis and related studiesare grate-

fully acknowledged.As well, thanksgo to T. Kowal

of Lubin, H. Flak and J. Zanko of Polkowice,and A.

Cholesiak and T. Klos of Konrad, for their aid in vis-

iting the mines,and specialthanks to C. Skowronek

for discussionsconcerning the Konrad,Nowy Kosciol,

and Lena mines. Discussionswith J. Bojarska,Z.

Cwierz, S. Downorowicz, I. Grotek, B. Laszcz-Fila-

kowa,S. Oszczepalski,T. Peryt,W. Salski,and E. Zu-

rawek in Poland and G. T. Jarvis,P.-Y. F. Robin,

  • A. J. Naldrett,and J. B. Currie in Canadaproved use-

ful in the formulation of these ideas. In particular, I

wouldlike to thankR. Boutilierfor providingthe heat

flow modelingprogram and follow-up advice on spe-

cific problems.I appreciatethe financialsupport

throughthe Natural Sciencesand EngineeringRe-

searchCouncil grants to A. J. Naldrett and G. W.

Pearceof the Departmentof Geologyat Toronto.

Geologicevidence suggests that unicellularcon-

vectionof fluidsup alongthe flanksof basementhighs

and downtoward the shalecenters of the Rotliegende

basinsformed the KupferschieferCu-Ag depositsin

Polandand that thismigration occurred in the Triassic.

Heat flow modelingof a simulatedrift supportsthis

evidenceand showsthat, given reasonablegeologic

conditions, the Lubin deposits could have been formed within 5 to 10 m.y.

The differencein thermalconductivity between the

basementhighs and the shalebasin centerscreated the lateral temperature gradients which initiated

August 1, 1985; January 16, 1986

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