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Sakka's Quest

Sakka-pah Sutta
Introduction, Translation and Comments
by

Sister Vajira
Buddhist Publication Society andy ! Sri "anka

The #heel Publication $o% &'

Copyright Kandy; Buddhist Publication Society 2008 First Edition 1 ! " #eprinted 1 $% and 1 8$ BPS &nline Edition '2008( )igital *ranscription Source+ BPS and ,ccess to -nsight *ranscription Pro.ect For /ree distribution0 *his 1or2 3ay be republished" re/or3atted" reprinted and redistributed in any 3ediu30 4o1e5er" any such republication and redistribution is to be 3ade a5ailable to the public on a /ree and unrestricted basis" and translations and other deri5ati5e 1or2s are to be clearly 3ar2ed as such0

Introduction
*he Buddhist te6t 'Sutta or )iscourse( discussed here belongs to a group o/ Buddhist scriptures called )7gha 8i29ya" the Collection o/ :ong )iscourses" and is the *1enty;/irst )iscourse in it0 -t tells the story o/ a deity descending /ro3 his hea5enly real3 to our earth /or 3eeting and <uestioning the Buddha" the Enlightened &ne0 So" at /irst glance" it 3ay appear that it is <uite a 3iraculous story" and so3e e5en 3ay regard it as a =/airy tale>; but it has a 5ery realistic and <uite topical bac2ground because that deity>s 5isit to the Buddha had a purpose that concerns all hu3ans in the 5ery sa3e 1ay as it concerned that deity" Sa22a" t1o thousand and /i5e hundred years ago0 Be/ore presenting to the reader the translation o/ the te6t" it see3s desirable to gi5e /irst so3e general in/or3ation about it0 *he <uestions and ans1ers the3sel5es 1hich /or3 the core o/ the te6t" 1ill be e6plained at the places 1here they occur0 -t is" ho1e5er" not the purpose o/ 1hat 1as originally a lecture to deal 1ith the3 in /ull" 1hich 1ould re<uire a separate treat3ent0 4ere 1ill chie/ly be stressed those characteristic <ualities o/ Sa22a 1hich 3ar2 hi3 an indi5idual ripe /or the /irst stage o/ sainthood" Strea3;entry 'sotpatti(0 Such an indi5idual" a Sot9panna" brea2s the lo1est and 3ost 5ital bonds that chain us to the sorro1;laden cycle o/ repeated births and deaths?to 1hich also a deity is sub.ect?and enters the strea3 to1ards /inal deli5erance0 *he spot in -ndia 1here our te6t is located and 1here the 5isit o/ the deity" Sa22a" too2 place beca3e /a3ous throughout the Buddhist 1orld and is re3e3bered up to the present day as the -ndas9laguh9" the @rotto o/ the -ndas9la0 -ndas9la is the na3e o/ a tree 1hich 3ust ha5e stood near that grotto0 *he 5illage near the @rotto o/ the -ndas9la 1as at that ti3e called ,3basaABa" and 1as inhabited by Brah3ins0 *oday its na3e is @iriye2" situated about si6 3iles east o/ 3odern #9.g7r or #9.agaha; it is a lo5ely spot" surrounded by hills" 1ith ancient ruins0 -n later ti3es" the scene described in our te6t?the hea5enly 5isitors appearing be/ore the Buddha? has been represented <uite /re<uently in the sculptural art o/ -ndia and Ceylon 'no1 Sri :an2a(" and so3e o/ these 1or2s o/ considerable artistic 3erit are still preser5ed 'see co5er picture(0 Ce shall no1 introduce brie/ly the hea5enly personages appearing in our te6t0 Sa22a is chie/ o/ *95atiDs9" the hea5en o/ the *hirty;three gods" 1hich still belongs to the 1orld o/ sensual desire 'kma-loka(" and ranges ne6t but one to our o1n terrestrial sphere0 Sa22a and his gods o/ the *hirty; three are thus co3parati5ely lo1 deities0 ,s the Bhaga59" the E6alted &ne" hi3sel/ says in our Sutta" it 1as indeed surprising that Sa22a" 2ing o/ gods" /ound the ti3e and" 1hat is 3ore" actually thought o/ seeing the Buddha0 ,ccording to the te6ts" the deities o/ the *hirty;three ha5e a li/eti3e o/ thirty;si6 3illions o/ years0 Chat is 1ith the3 a day and a night are here on earth a hundred years0 *hat 3eans" those gods do not e5en spend a day; night 1hile a 3an spends a /ull li/e0 Since the te6ts tell us o/ se5eral 5isits paid by Sa22a to the E6alted &ne" 1e ha5e to understand that he has 5isited the Buddha se5eral ti3es during only a single o/ his hea5enly days" /or the Easter li5ed on earth as a Buddha" an Enlightened &ne" /or less than hal/ a century?1hich to Sa22a is less than a day0 ,nd this /re<uency o/ Sa22a>s 5isits to the Bhaga59 is indeed stri2ing i/ 1e co3pare his attitude 1ith our o1n attitude to1ards spiritual things?though our pleasures and acti5ities are surely 3uch less engaging than the pleasures and acti5ities o/ such a po1er/ul god0 Bet1een Sa22a>s real3 and ours" range the C9tu3ah9r9.i2a )e59" the Four @reat Kings or @uardians o/ the Four Fuarters0 *hey are closely connected 1ith Sa22a and the *hirty;three gods0 &ne o/ these Four @reat Kings is Gessa5ana or Ku5era" lord o5er the 8orthern direction and the treasures o/ 2

the 4i3alayan regions0 4e is 3ild and bene5olent" and his is the -deal :and o/ per/ect beauty" har3ony and abundance?the Htopia drea3t o/ by 3any a poet0 &ne /airy o/ his suite occurs in the Sutta0 4er na3e is BhuI.at70 *he @andhabbas" sub.ects o/ the Four @reat Kings" are the hea5enly 3usicians attending on Sa22a and the *hirty;three gods0 *he King o/ the @andhabbas is *i3baru" /a3ed /or his e6cellence in 3usic" and his lo5ely daughter is Baddh9 SJriya;5accas9" engaged to the son o/ Sa22a>s charioteer" E9tali0 &/ the @andhabbas one is repeatedly 3entioned in the Suttas0 -t is PaIcasi2ha" the young @andhabba" possessor o/ the 3iraculous panduvn 1hich is said to ha5e belonged once to E9ra" the E5il &ne0 *his /a3ous pandu57n9" so3e say" is a yello1 lute o/ 5il5a;1ood; others say it is a lyre o/ the sa3e 1ood0 -n our Sutta" 1here the young @andhabba" PaIcasi2ha" also plays his role" it is described as a lyre o/ red 5il5a;1ood0 *he deities 3entioned so /ar are all 5oluntary sub.ects o/ Sa22a and the *hirty;three" and are higher beings than 3en0 Sa22a" ho1e5er" has also so3e po1er/ul and /erocious /oes?the ,suras" ranging lo1er than 3en0 *hey are said to be a 2ind o/ giants" li5ing in the ocean0 Further it is said o/ the3 that they once 1ere Sa22a>s brothers; /or reasons un2no1n they 1ere banished by Sa22a into the ocean 1ith the help o/ Sa22a>s thunderbolt0 *he hostility bet1een *95atiDsa )e5as and ,suras beco3es acute /ro3 ti3e to ti3e" and battles ta2e place bet1een the30 Chat no1 about the spiritual standard o/ all these beingsK Early Buddhist tradition re5eals that in general the Buddha and his great disciples sho1 little regard /or these pleasure;lo5ing deities o/ in/erior intellect and super/icial understanding o/ the )ha33a0 *he Buddha and his early disciples call the3 the =puthukya"> the co33on /ol2" as 1e shall see0 &nly later" 1hen actual 2no1ledge o/ these beings disappeared" 1ere intellectual abilities" superior to those o/ 3en" /alsely attributed to the30 , good proo/ o/ their inade<uacy is gi5en in our Sutta0 *he young @andhabba" PaIcasi2ha" 1ith his lyre o/ red 5il5a;1ood" being re<uested by Sa22a /irst to =1in o5er> the Bhaga59 be/ore he hi3sel/ 1ould co3e into presence o/ the Buddha" /oolishly produces a song 1hich is nothing 3ore than a lo5e;poe3 ?though PaIcasi2ha tries 3uch to gi5e so3e spiritual airs to it0 -t 3ay 1ell be a beauti/ul song" but a 3an o/ tact and so3e understanding 1ould hardly e6pect a personality li2e the Buddha e5en to listen to it 3uch less to be pleased 1ith it0 But Sa22a as 1ell as PaIcasi2ha both /ir3ly belie5ed this0 *hat is 1hy the Bhaga59 3a2es a so3e1hat ironical re3ar2 about it" as 1e shall see later0 But polite as the Bhaga59 is" he carries on a con5ersation 1ith the3 and ne5er /ails to address Sa22a as =2ing o/ gods"> so3eti3es addressing hi3 =yasm"> =Generable &ne0> *1o /urther na3es o/ Sa22a occur? Kosiya" being the na3e o/ his /ather" and Gasa590 -t is true that a great 3any o/ these deities are /ond o/ the Bhaga59" not" ho1e5er" /or the Bhaga59>s pro/ound 1isdo3 and pure 5irtue 1hich they are hardly able to appreciate" but rather because they 2no1 that the appearance o/ a Buddha increases their po1er and 1ea2ens their opponents" the ,suras and other lo1er beings0 *hey 2no1 that a Buddha 3a2es 3any /ollo1 the good path and discourages the3 /ro3 /ollo1ing the e5il path; and so he upli/ts 3any to hea5en and pre5ents 3any /ro3 do1n/all0 Sa22a" ho1e5er" is an e6ception altogether0 4e" as already indicated by the /re<uency o/ his 5isits to the Bhaga59" is sincerely de5oted to the Buddha as the teacher o/ deli5erance and aspires a/ter the goal proclai3ed by hi30 &ne e5ent that too2 place in his o1n real3 e5idently i3pressed hi3 deeply and beca3e the i33ediate cause o/ his present 5isit to the Bhaga590 4e had seen t1o gods lo1er than hi3sel/" 1ho /or3erly had been 3on2s 'bhi22hus( o/ the Bhaga59" suddenly" and be/ore his 5ery sight" transcend e5en hi3 and pass into the Brah3a;1orld" 1hich is /ar higher then the real3 o/ the *hirty;three0 *his L

happened a/ter another god" 1ho li2e1ise 1as a /or3er disciple o/ the Bhaga59" re3inded the3 o/ the Buddha;s9sana" the )ispensation o/ the Buddha" and o/ their /or3er aspirations 1hich" in the en.oy3ent o/ hea5enly pleasures" they had al3ost /orgotten0 Sa22a e5idently had li5ed up to the principles o/ the )ha33a and had succeeded in puri/ying his 3ind /ro3 grosser de/ile3ents0 4is <uestions are put 1ith great thought/ulness and s2ill" and the pro/ound ans1ers 1ere recei5ed 1ith the .oy that arises /ro3 understanding0 -t is by the understanding o/ the Bhaga59>s replies that Sa22a" 2ing o/ the *hirty;three gods" attains sotpatti" the /irst stage o/ Sainthood" and .oy/ully proclai3s his achie5e3ent0 4e sees no1 his possible /uture li5es '1hich" /or a Sot9panna" cannot e6ceed se5en in nu3ber( reduced to t1o at the 3ost+ one as a 3an" 1here he possibly 1ill achie5e sainthood" or" /ailing that" he 1ill beco3e an ,n9g937" &nce; returner" spending his last li/e a3ong the deities o/ the Pure ,bodes 'suddhvs(0 Sa22a>s attain3ent o/ sotpatti during this discourse gi5es deep signi/icance to this Sutta" and it /or3s a stri2ing contrast to the elaborate /ra3e1or2 o/ our te6t that depicts" in a so3eti3es hu3orous 1ay" a 1orld o/ ease and super/iciality0

Sakka's Quest
10 *hus - heard0 &nce the Bhaga591 d1elt in Eagadha" to the east o/ #9.agaha" in the -ndas9la @rotto" on the Gediya;3ountain" to the north o/ the Brah3in;5illage" ,3basaABa0 ,t that ti3e there arose in Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" a desire to see the Bhaga59 and he thought to hi3sel/" MChere 3ay the Bhaga5a at present abide" the ,rahant" Sa339 Sa3buddha" the 4oly &ne" /ully enlightenedKN ,nd he beheld the Bhaga59 staying in Eagadha" to the east o/ #9.agaha" in the -ndas9la @rotto" on the Gediya; 3ountain" to the north o/ the Brah3in;5illage" ,3basaABa0 20 ,nd Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" addressed the gods o/ the *hirty;three and PaIcasi2ha" the young @andhabba" MSirs" the Bhaga59 d1ells in Eagadha" to the east o/ #9.agaha0 Chat" sirs" i/ 1e 1ere to go and see the Bhaga59" the ,rahant" Sa339 Sa3buddhaKN MSo be itO ,nd good luc2 unto youON said the gods o/ the *hirty;three and PaIcasi2ha" the young @andhabba" in assent to Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods; and PaIcasi2ha" the young @andhabba" too2 his lyre o/ red 5il5a;1ood and /ollo1ed in attendance on Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods0 ,nd Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" surrounded by the gods o/ the *hirty;three and attended by PaIcasi2ha" the young @andhabba" had" as <uic2ly as a strong 3an 3ight stretch out the bent ar3 or dra1 in the ar3 stretched out" 5anished /ro3 the hea5en o/ the *hirty;three and appeared in Eagadha" to the east o/ #9.agaha" on the Gediya;3ountain" to the north o/ the Brah3in;5illage" ,3basanda0 L0 ,nd" 5erily" at that ti3e the Gediya;3ountain together 1ith the Brah3in;5illage" ,3basanda" 1as bathed in a splendid radiance" as i/ through the hea5enly po1er o/ the gods0 ,nd the people round about in the 5illage said" M,s i/ set on /ire" the Gediya;3ountain shines todayO ,s i/ burning and blaPingO Chat 3ay ha5e happened today to the Gediya;3ountain that it is bathed in a splendid radiance" together 1ith the Brah3in;5illage" ,3basaABa"?as i/ through the hea5enly po1er o/ the godsKN ,nd they 1ere a3aPed" 1ith hair standing on end0

Bhagav" Mthe E6alted &neN is a /re<uent appellation o/ the Buddha0

%0 8o1 Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" addressed PaIcasi2ha" the young @andhabba" M4ard o/ access" 3y dear PaIcasi2ha" are *ath9gatas 'Per/ect &nes( to /ol2s li2e us; 3ostly are they in retreat" absorbed in 3editation" delighted therein0 Chat" 3y dear PaIcasi2ha" i/ you /irst 1ere to gain o5er the Bhaga59K @ained o5er by you" 3y dear" 1e a/ter1ards shall dra1 near to see the Bhaga59" the ,rahant" Sa339 Sa3buddha0N MSo be itO ,nd good luc2 unto you"N said PaIcasi2ha" the young @andhabba" in assent to Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" and too2 his lyre o/ red 5il5a;1ood and approached the -ndas9la @rotto0 !0 4a5ing dra1n near" he thought to hi3sel/" MFro3 here it 1ill be neither too /ar nor too near /or the Bhaga59 to hear the song"N and he stood aside0 Standing aside" PaIcasi2ha" the young @andhabba" let his lyre o/ red 5il5a;1ood be heard and a song alluding to the Buddha" the )ha33a" to ,rahants" and to lo5e0 $0 *he song being o5er" the Bhaga59 addressed PaIcasi2ha" the young @andhabba" M*he sound o/ your strings" PaIcasi2ha" har3oniPes 1ith that o/ your song" and the sound o/ your song 1ith that o/ your strings; but" 5erily" PaIcasi2ha" your strings neither go beyond your song" nor does your song go beyond your strings0 But 1hen" PaIcasi2ha" did you co3pose these stanPas alluding to the Buddha" the )ha33a" ,rahants and to lo5eKN M*here 1as a ti3e" :ord" 1hen the Bhaga59 d1elt at Hru5el9" on the ban2 o/ the 8eraI.an9 ri5er" at the /oot o/ the goatherds> banyan;tree" soon a/ter his supre3e enlighten3ent0 ,t that 5ery ti3e" :ord" 1as - ena3oured o/ Baddh9 SJriya;5accas9" the daughter o/ *i3baru" King o/ the @andhabbas0 *his girl" ho1e5er" :ord" 1as in lo5e 1ith another" 1ith Si22haddh7" the son o/ the charioteer E9tali" /or 1ho3 she longed0 Since - could not 1in that girl by any 3eans 1hatsoe5er" - too2 3y lyre o/ red 5il5a; 1ood" approached the abode o/ *i3baru" 2ing o/ the @andhabbas" and" ha5ing dra1n near" let 3y lyre o/ red 5il5a;1ood be heard and the song alluding to the Buddha" the )ha33a" ,rahants and to lo5e0 Q0 M*he song being o5er" Baddh9 SJriya;5accas9 addressed 3e+ =- did not see yet" Sir" that Bhaga59 /ace to /ace0 4o1e5er" - ha5e heard o/ the Bhaga59 1hen - 1ent to dance at the pleasure hall o/ the *hirty;three gods0 Since you" Sir" spo2e in praise o/ that Bhaga59" let there be a 3eeting bet1een us today0> ,nd so" :ord" there 1as a 3eeting bet1een that girl and 3e; but don>t let 3e spea2 on this any /urther0N 80 8o1" Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" thought to hi3sel/+ MPaIcasi2ha" the young @andhabba" is in pleasant con5ersation 1ith the Bhaga59 and the Bhaga59 1ith hi30N ,nd he addressed PaIcasi2ha" the young @andhabba+ MEy dear PaIcasi2ha" you no1 pay 3y respects to the Bhaga59 and say" =Sa22a" :ord" the 2ing o/ gods" 1ith his 3inisters and suite pays ho3age at the /eet o/ the Bhaga590>N MSo be itO ,nd good luc2 unto youON said PaIcasi2ha" the young @andhabba" in assent to Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" and did as re<uested0 M4appiness be unto Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" and his 3inisters and suiteO For desirous o/ happiness are gods and 3en" ,suras" 89gas" @andhabbas and other co33on /ol2s0N *his is the 1ay *ath9gatas greet these hosts o/ great po1er0 So greeted" Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" entered the Bhaga59>s @rotto o/ the -ndas9la" saluted the Bhaga59 and stood aside" and so did the gods o/ the *hirty;three and PaIcasi2ha" the young @andhabba0

0 But 5erily" at that ti3e those une5en spots o/ the -ndas9la @rotto had beco3e e5en" the narro1 spaces 1idened" the dar2ness 5anished" and light had arisen" as i/ through the hea5enly po1er o/ the gods0 *hereupon the Bhaga59 addressed Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" MConder/ul is this" <uite 1onder/ul" that the Generable Kosiya" 1ith so 3uch 1or2 to do" despite his 3any obligations" yet has co3e hereON MFor a long ti3e" :ord" 1as - desirous o/ seeing the Bhaga59; but engaged in 3any acti5ities on behal/ o/ the *hirty;three gods" - 1as not able to co3e0 4o1e5er" :ord" on one occasion 1hen the Bhaga59 1as d1elling in S95atth7" in the Bo1er o/ the Salala creeper" - 1ent to see the Bhaga590 100 MBut at that 5ery ti3e" :ord" the Bhaga59 1as seated in a state o/ absorption" and BhuI.at7 o/ Gessa5ana>s suite" 1ith clasped hands saluting the Bhaga59 stood near0 *hen -" addressing BhuI.at7" said+ =Sister" you pay 3y respects to the Bhaga59 and say" =Sa22a" :ord" the 2ing o/ gods" 1ith his 3inisters and suite pays ho3age at the /eet o/ the Bhaga590> *o 3y re<uest BhuI.at7 replied" =Sir" it is not the proper ti3e no1 to see the Bhaga59; the Bhaga59 is in seclusion0> =Cell" sister" you then 3ay salute the Bhaga59 in 3y na3e a/ter the Bhaga59 has arisen /ro3 that absorption0> )id" :ord" that sister salute the Bhaga59" and does the Bhaga59 re3e3ber her 1ordsKN M*hat sister" 2ing o/ gods" did salute 3e" and - do re3e3ber her 1ords0 - had arisen /ro3 that absorption through the sound o/ the Generable>s chariot 1heels0N 110 MFro3 those gods" :ord" 1ho 1ere born be/ore us in the real3 o/ the *hirty;three" - ha5e heard that 1hene5er *ath9gatas arise in the 1orld" ,rahants" Sa339 Sa3buddhas" the hea5enly hosts gro1 in nu3ber and the ,sura hosts decrease0 ,nd that is true" :ord" - 3ysel/ ha5e realiPed it" /or since the *ath9gata" the ,rahant" Sa339 Sa3buddha" has appeared in the 1orld" the hea5enly hosts gre1 in nu3ber and Asura hosts decreased0 M*a2e this instance" :ord0 *here 1as" :ord" a daughter o/ the S92yan clan in Kapila5atthu0 4er na3e 1as @opi290 She 1as de5oted to the Buddha" the )ha33a and SaAgha and 1as o/ acco3plished 5irtue0 )isgusted 1ith the 1o3anly nature" she culti5ated the nature o/ a 3an" and at the brea2ing up o/ the body" a/ter death" she rose to a happy state" to the hea5enly 1orld" to co33unity 1ith the gods o/ the *hirty;three" and obtained =sonship> by us0 ,nd there they 2no1 hi3 as =@opa2a" son o/ the gods; @opa2a" son o/ the gods0> MBut" :ord" three bhi22hus 1ho had led the holy li/e under the Bhaga59 1ere born in the lo1er ran2 o/ @andhabbas0 *hey en.oy the /i5e sense pleasures surrounding the3" and they co3e to 1ait upon and 3inister to us0 *his being so" @opa2a" the son o/ gods" ad3onished the3+ =Chere 1ere your ears 1onder" Sirs" 1hen you listened to the doctrine o/ the Bhaga59K -" ha5ing been only a /e3ale lay disciple" a3 no1 a god" son o/ Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods0 Rou" ho1e5er" Sirs" 1ho led the holy li/e under the Bhaga59 ha5e risen but to the lo1er ran2 o/ @andhabbas0 , sad sight indeed is this to us that 1e should see the /ollo1ers o/ the higher li/e appearing in the lo1er ran2 o/ @andhabbasO> M&/ those" :ord" ad3onished by @opa2a" the son o/ the gods" t1o gods regained 3ind/ulness at once" and passed into the 1orld o/ Brahma Purohita" and only one god re3ained in sensual pleasures0N 120 '@opa2aSs2 Song( M@opi29" the Seer>s de5oteeL 1as -0 Faith/ul to the Buddha and the :a1"

2 L

=@opa2a> is the 3asculine and =@opi29> the /e3inine /or3 o/ the na3e0 Upsika: a /e3ale lay disciple o/ a Buddha

*o the Co33unity - happily 3inistered" Hntiringly con/or3ing to the Buddha>s 8or30 *o *95atiDsa>s real3 - rose" a3 Sa22a>s son" &/ po1er great and splendour great" ,s =@opa2a> they 2no1 3e here" But" a3ong @andhabba;/ol2s" *he 3on2s o/ @ota3a - sa1 *o 1ho3 1e /or3erly" at ho3e" Seated at the bhi22hus> /eet" 4ad o//ered /ood and drin20 Chy did you" sirs" not grasp *he Buddha>s :a1" 1ell;propounded" E5ident" and recogniPed By the3 1ho ha5e eyes to seeK Fro3 you it 1as - too ha5e learnt *his teaching /air+ ,3 Sa22a>s son" &/ po1er great and splendour great" *o *95atiDsa>s real3 - rose0 But you" though choosing 1hat is best" *he unsurpassed :i/e o/ Purity" 4a5e no1 appeared in lo1er ran2+ -nappropriate your rebirth see3sO , sad sight indeed is this to us? *he /ollo1ers o/ the 4igher :i/e ,ppearing but in lo1er ran2+ ,s @andhabba;/ol2s" & sirs" Rou co3e to 1ait upon us godsO - stayed at ho3e" yet behold the di//erence+ , 1o3an then" today - a3 a 3an" a god" ,nd hea5enly delights are 3ineON @opa2a" stal1art o/ the 8or3" *hus incited a1e in the3; Falling in 1ith hi3" they spo2e+ MCell then" ,n e//ort let us 3a2e" let>s stri5e onO :est the ser5ants 1e 1ould be o/ others hereON ,nd t1o o/ the3 put /orth their energy" *he 8or3 o/ @ota3a they called to 3ind; *hey cleansed their thoughts 1ithout delay" ,nd realiPed the 1retchedness o/ carnal .oys0 ,s an elephant 3ight brea2 his chains" So they cast o// the bounds o/ /leshly lusts" *he yo2es o/ E9ra" hard to o5erco3e" ,nd le/t behind the real3 o/ *hirty;three0 Q

Putting an end to passion" *he stainless heroes transcended all+ *he gods 1ho 1ere asse3bled -n *95atiDsa>s pleasure hall" *ogether 1ith their chie/ and <ueens" *hrilled 1ith this sight" G9sa59" :ord o5er gods" a3id celestial hosts" Spo2e this+ M,lasO *hese" born in lo1er ran2" *hey lea5e behind the *hirty;threeON Beholding hi3" the deeply agitated" @opa2a spo2e this to G9sa59+ M*he Buddha 5erily is god a3ong 3en" Con<ueror o5er sense;desire" *he Cise o/ S92yans> clanO *hese sons o/ 4is" on passing thence" *heir insight lost" but got it bac2 through 3e0 &/ those 1ho stayed 1ith us" &ne still re3ains a3ong @andhabba;/ol2s0 But t1o trace out the path to Per/ect Kno1ledge" *heir 3inds set /ir3" and they no1 pity usO For in 1hate5er disciple *he :a1 should 3ani/est itsel/+ )oubts do not beset his course0 Ce hail the Buddha 1ho has crossed the /lood ,nd cut o// doubts" the Gictor" Chie/ o/ Een0 4ere /ro3 Rou they learnt the 8or3? , blessing 5erily it 1as to the3+ *1o to Brahma-Purohitas e6cellence attainedO Ce too ha5e co3e" & :ord" *his :a1" it is our <uestO See us appearing hereO Could" & :ord" that 1e , <uestion /ro3 the Bhaga59 3ay as2ON 1L0 *hereupon the Bhaga59 thought to hi3sel/" M:ong indeed has this Sa22a been pure in 3ind; 1hate5er <uestion he 1ill as2 3e it 1ill be to good purpose" not 5ain; and the ans1er - shall gi5e" he 1ill <uic2ly understand0N ,nd so the Bhaga59 addressed Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" by this stanPa+ MFree art thou & G9sa59" *o as2 at 1ill thy <uestions; ,nd all thy proble3s - shall sol5e /or you0N

II
10 #ecei5ed into audience" Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" put the /irst <uestion to the Bhaga59+ MChat bond" & :ord" holds gods and 3en" ,suras" 89gas" @andhabbas and other co33on /ol2s 1ho aspire /or li5ing in a3ity" in har3lessness" in cle3ency" in bene5olence" 1ithout hostility" but yet 1ho li5e in hostility" in 5iolence" in cruelty" in 3ale5olence" not in /riendlinessKN *his 1as the <uestion Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" put to the Bhaga590 *he Bhaga59 3ade ans1er+ M*he bond" & 2ing o/ gods" is en5y and sel/ishness; bound by the bond o/ en5y and sel/ishness" gods and 3en" ,suras" 89gas" @andhabbas and other co33on /ol2s li5e in hostility" in 5iolence" in cruelty" in 3ale5olence; not in /riendliness?e5en though they aspire /or li5ing in a3ity" in har3lessness" in bene5olence" 1ithout hostility0N -n this 3anner the Bhaga59 ans1ered the <uestion put by Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods0 Edi/ied" Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" appro5ed o/ the Bhaga59>s saying and too2 delight in it" M*hus it is" & Blessed &ne0 Con<uered are 3y doubts" gone 3y uncertainty" ha5ing heard the Bhaga59>s ans1er to this <uestion0N Comment0 Sa22a ob5iously is concerned about the hostility as it e6ists bet1een a great 3any beings o/ the sensual sphere 'kma-loka(; bet1een gods" 3en" ,suras" 89gas" @andhabbas and other co33on /ol20 But also so3ething else did he obser5e0 ,ni3osity o/ any 2ind" be it open 1ar/are or a single 3alicious thought" is unpleasant to anyone a//licted 1ith it" and so beings resol5e not to surrender to it; but /or the 3ost part they /ail utterly e5en as a habitual drun2ard cannot by a 3ere resolution possibly abstain /ro3 into6icants0 ,nd here" in the disparity bet1een a 3ental resolution and the inability to /ollo1 it up" Sa22a sa1 the proble3; and the Buddha re5eals to hi3 that this is due not to so3ething out1ard" but to conditions inherent in beings the3sel5es?to en5y and sel/ishness0 &/ 3ental de/ile3ents" en5y and sel/ishness 'iss-macchariya( are the 3ost 5ital" e6isting in al3ost all beings o/ the sensual sphere in so3e degree or other0 *hese de/ile3ents" ho1e5er hidden they 3ay be" by their 5ery nature trespass on the do3ain o/ others" and so introduce ill; /eeling 1hich" at any occasion" 3ay result in open hostility0 Sa22a at once co3prehends the i3portance o/ the Bhaga59>s ans1er0 4e is .ubilant to /ind the re3edy to 1hat so sorely aggrie5ed hi3" na3ely" to puri/y one>s 3ind /ro3 en5y and sel/ishness0 4ero too his lo/ty spirit is re5ealed0 -t 3ust be re3e3bered that Sa22a" as a deity" e6tre3ely seldo3" perhaps once in 3illions o/ years" personally e6periences the har3/ul result o/ en5y and sel/ishness" na3ely ani3osity0 4is li/e /or the 3ost part is /ull o/ har3ony because o/ the co3parati5e 1ea2ness o/ these de/ile3ents 1ithin hi30 But Sa22a" ha5ing once /ully understood that en5y and sel/ishness are e5il" is no longer interested in 3ore or less o/ the3; he 1ants to see nothing but the /inal destruction o/ en5y and sel/ishness0 So deeply concerned is he 1ith the 3atter that he no1 begins a radical in<uiry into the conditions 1hich bring on en5y and sel/ishness and the conditions necessary /or the eradication o/ these de/ile3ents0 4e does this 1ith the ad3irable s2ill that 1as already e5ident /ro3 his /irst <uestion0 20 ,nd Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" appro5ing o/ the Bhaga59>s saying and delighting in it" put a /urther <uestion+ MBut 1hat" & :ord" brings on en5y and sel/ishnessK Chat is their originK Fro3 1hat do they springK Chat gi5es rise to the3K Chat being present" en5y and sel/ishness appearK Chat not being present" en5y and sel/ishness do not appearKN

MChat brings on en5y and sel/ishness" & 2ing o/ gods" are li2es and disli2es0 :i2es and disli2es are their origin0 Fro3 li2es and disli2es do they spring0 :i2es and disli2es gi5e rise to the30 :i2es and disli2es being present" en5y and sel/ishness appear0 :i2es and disli2es not being present" en5y and sel/ishness do not appear0N MBut 1hat" & :ord" brings on li2es and disli2esK Chat is their originK Fro3 1hat do they springK Chat gi5es rise to the3K Chat being present" li2es and disli2es appearK Chat not being present" li2es and disli2es do not appearKN MChat brings on li2es and disli2es" & 2ing o/ gods" is desire0 )esire is their origin0 Fro3 desire do they spring0 )esire gi5es rise to the30 )esire being present" li2es and disli2es appear0 )esire not being present" li2es and disli2es do not appear0N MBut 1hat" & :ord" brings on desireK Chat is its originK Fro3 1hat does it springK Chat gi5es rise to itK Chat being present" desire appearsK Chat not being present" desire does not appearKN MChat brings on desire" & 2ing o/ gods" is '1rong( re/lection0% #e/lection is its origin0 Fro3 re/lection does it spring0 #e/lection gi5es rise to it0 #e/lection being present" desire appears0 #e/lection not being present" desire does not appear0N MBut 1hat" & :ord" 3a2es /or '1rong( re/lectionK Chat is its originK Fro3 1hat does it springK Chat gi5es rise to itK Chat being present" re/lection appearsK Chat not being present" re/lection does not appearKN MChat 3a2es /or '1rong( re/lection" & 2ing o/ gods" is 3ultiplicity o/ perception0 Eultiplicity o/ perception is its origin0 Fro3 3ultiplicity o/ perception does it spring0 Eultiplicity o/ perception gi5es rise to it0 Eultiplicity o/ perception being present" re/lection appears0 Eultiplicity o/ perception not being present" re/lection does not appear0N Comment% -n this set o/ <uestions and ans1ers the core o/ the Buddha>s teaching is represented" the idea o/ conditionality ' paicca-samuppda(" in a ne1 /or3ula0 *he condition o/ en5y and sel/ishness ' iss-macchariya(" li2es and disli2es ' piyappiy(" the condition o/ li2es and disli2es is desire ' chanda(; the condition o/ desire is '1rong( re/lection ' vitakka(; and the condition o/ re/lection is 3ultiplicity o/ perception (papaca-sa-sakha(0 By the cessation o/ 3ulti/arious perception re/lection ceases; by the cessation o/ re/lection desire ceases; by the cessation o/ desire li2es and disli2es cease" and by the cessation o/ li2es and disli2es en5y and sel/ishness are uprooted" and so all ani3osity0 *he idea o/ conditionality ' paicca-samuppda( is 2no1n to Sa22a; that is e5ident /ro3 the 1ay he <uestions0 ,nd it is indeed the pro/undity o/ Sa22a>s <uest that has led to such philosophical heights0 For no1 it has to be understood that en5y and sel/ishness" and the hostility they i3ply" are so deep;rooted that their destruction ulti3ately beco3es possible only 1hen di5ersi/ied perception ceases; in other 1ords" en5y and sel/ishness and hostility are ine5itable /acts o/ e6istence0 Eultiplicity o/ perception is a si3pli/ied translation o/ papac-saa-sakh" a Pali ter3 di//icult to translate0 Papaca-sa-sakh includes any perception that enters indi5idual e6perience" anything percei5ed by 3ind or sense;/aculties0 Papaca-sa-sakh is the continual in/lu6 o/ 3ulti/arious perceptions 1hich is e5o2ed by" or /inds response in cra5ing0! -t is the
By re/lection is 3eant here a thought in/luenced by savas 'taints(0 )hp0 2!%+ =Papacabhirat paj, nippapac Tathgat =Ean2ind delights in di5ersity" but not *athTgatas> i0e0" 5ariety o/ e6perience is the 5ery thing co33only 1anted0 Further re/erences+ Ea..hi3a 8i2Tya Sutta 18; SuttanipTta 550 !L0" 8Q%" 1$0
! %

10

inner and outer 1orld o/ an indi5idual" dependent on /or3er action '2a33a(" and the cause o/ /resh one0 *he cessation o/ di5ersi/ied perception thus really 3eans the cessation o/ e6istence itsel/ 'U cessation o/ 2a33a(" the ulti3ate goal" 8ibb9na0 ,nd this is e5ident to Sa22a at once0 4e has /ound the co3prehensi5e outloo2 that appeals to hi3; no1 he 1ants to 2no1 ho1 this can be brought about0 L0 M,nd ho1" & :ord" 3ust a bhi22hu conduct hi3sel/ to be endo1ed 1ith the path /it /or leading to the dissolution o/ the continual in/lu6 o/ 3ulti/arious perceptionsKN M4appiness" & 2ing o/ gods" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 Sorro1 too" & 2ing o/ gods" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 ,nd also indi//erence" & 2ing o/ gods" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 M4appiness" & 2ing o/ gods" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 ,nd 1hyK -/ one 2no1s o/ a happiness+ =*his happiness 1hen /ollo1ed a/ter by 3e 3a2es e5il states 'akusal dhamm( gro1 and good states 'kusal dhamm( 5anish"> then that happiness" the happiness connected 1ith 1orldliness" should not be /ollo1ed a/ter0$ ,nd again" i/ one 2no1s o/ a happiness+ =*his happiness 1hen /ollo1ed a/ter by 3e 3a2es e5il states 5anish and goods states gro1"> then that happiness" Vthe happiness that arises /ro3 truly understanding the e5anescent nature o/ all pheno3ena" and the detach3ent connected 1ith such an understandingW"Q should be /ollo1ed a/ter0 *his 3ay be done 1ith re/lection and discursi5e thin2ing ' savitakka-savicra(8 or 1ithout re/lection and discursi5e thin2ing 'avitakka-avicra(0 &/ the t1o" that 1ithout re/lection and discursi5e thin2ing is the better0 4appiness" & 2ing o/ gods" - declare to be t1o/old as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 -/ this 1as said" it 1as said /or that reason0 MSorro1 too" & 2ing o/ gods" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 ,nd 1hyK -/ one 2no1s o/ a sorro1+ =*his sorro1 1hen /ollo1ed a/ter by 3e 3a2es e5il states gro1 and good states 5anish"> then that sorro1 Vthe /rustration" sensual indulgence ine5itably results inW should not be /ollo1ed a/ter0 ,nd again" i/ one 2no1s o/ a sorro1+ =*his sorro1 1hen /ollo1ed a/ter by 3e 3a2es e5il states 5anish and good states gro1"> then that sorro1 Vthe sorro1 o/ a holy disciple 1ho cra5es /or acco3plish3ent but has not yet achie5ed the destruction o/ the taints ' sav(W should be /ollo1ed a/ter0 *his 3ay be done 1ith re/lection and discursi5e thin2ing or 1ithout re/lection and discursi5e thin2ing0 &/ the t1o" that 1ithout re/lection and discursi5e thin2ing is the better0 Sorro1 too" & 2ing o/ gods" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 -/ this 1as said" it 1as said /or that reason0 M,nd also indi//erence" & 2ing o/ gods" - declare to be t1o/old+ as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 ,nd 1hyK -/ one 2no1s o/ an indi//erence+ =*his indi//erence 1hen /ollo1ed a/ter by 3e 3a2es e5il states gro1 and good states 5anish"> then that indi//erence 'the stupidity and dullness o/ an ordinary 3an 1ho re3ains indi//erent" into6icated by delusion( should not be /ollo1ed a/ter0 ,nd again" i/ one 2no1s o/ an indi//erence+ =*his indi//erence 1hen /ollo1ed a/ter by 3e 3a2es e5il states 5anish and good states gro1"> then that indi//erence Vthe true e<uani3ity o/ a holy disciple" arising
$

See Ea..hi3a 8i2Tya 1LQ 'pleasant" etc0" /eelings connected 1ith 1orldliness and 1ith renunciation(0
Q 8

E6planatory addition by the translator0 *his re/ers to bene/icial 'kusala( re/lection on the nor3al le5el o/ consciousness and to the tran<uilliPed and reduced re/lection e6isting in the /irst absorption 'jhna(0 *his re/ers to the second and third state o/ absorption 1here re/lection and discursi5e thin2ing are absent0

11

/ro3 insight and detach3entW should be /ollo1ed a/ter0 *his 3ay be done 1ith re/lection and discursi5e thin2ing or 1ithout re/lection and discursi5e thin2ing010 &/ the t1o" that 1ithout re/lection is the better0 -ndi//erence too" & 2ing o/ gods" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 -/ this 1as said" it 1as said /or that reason0 M-t is thus" & 2ing o/ gods" that a bhi22hu 3ust conduct hi3sel/ to beco3e /it /or the path leading to the dissolution o/ the continual in/lu6 o/ 3ulti/arious perceptions0N -n this 3anner it 1as that Bhaga59 ans1ered the <uestion put by Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods0 Edi/ied" Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" appro5ed o/ the Bhaga59>s saying and too2 delight in it+ M*hus it is" & Bhaga59O *hus it is" & SugataO Con<uered are 3y doubts" gone is 3y uncertainty" ha5ing heard the Bhaga5a>s ans1er to this <uestion0N Comment% , tas2 such as the dissolution o/ di5ersi/ied perception rooted in di5ersi/ying o/ cra5ing is but one o/ the 3any courses o/ training to1ards the sa3e ulti3ate goal o/ 8ibb9na0 -t can be atte3pted only by a bhi22hu0 *hat 3uch is <uite clear to Sa22a0 *hat is" he does not hope /or its acco3plish3ent in his present li/e as a deity" but dedicates hi3sel/ to the li/e o/ a bhi22hu in a birth to co3e 1hich 1ill be in the hu3an 1orld" as he hi3sel/ later announces0 -t 1as said earlier that 3ultiplicity o/ perception 'papaca-sa-sakh( co3prises the 1hole o/ possible e6perience" /or e5ery single perception" be it a /or3" a sound" an odour" a taste" a touch or an idea" is connected 1ith one o/ the three /eelings" either 1ith happiness 'somanassa(" or 1ith sorro1 'domanassa(" or 1ith indi//erence (upekh(0 ,n untrained 3ind does neither co3prehend this /act nor" and still less so" does he atte3pt to control the i33ensity o/ i3pressions" but indiscri3inately /ollo1s a/ter 1hate5er /eeling begets0 But the Buddha declares that not any type o/ happiness" not any type o/ sorro1 and not any type o/ indi//erence should be pursued" 1hilst" on the other hand" a certain happiness" a certain unhappiness and a certain indi//erence should be culti5ated" as indicated in the conte6t abo5e0 *his is the standard that a trained 3ind applies to /eelings" 1hether their pursuit is conduci5e to 8ibb9na or not0 ,nd so the path 1hich the Buddha sho1s to Sa22a is a radical re;e5aluation o/ all e6perience" ta2ing place in a strenuous course o/ indi5idual application0 ,nd this is bhvan" a =3a2ing beco3e; bringing into being; an actualiPation o/ the )ha33a 1hich has to be pursued until 1hat is no1 di3ly percei5ed or not at all" beco3es a do3inant 3ental /orce through 1hich one acts e//ortlessly" in per/ect accordance 1ith reality" /reed /ro3 taints" 'sava(0 ,nd Sa22a has understood this too0 *here re3ain to be clari/ied /or hi3 the 3oral conduct obligatory on a bhi22hu and the restraint o/ sense /aculties0 %0 ,nd Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" appro5ing o/ the Bhaga59>s saying and delighting in it" put a /urther <uestion+ M,nd ho1" & :ord" 3ust a bhi22hu conduct hi3sel/ to be endo1ed 1ith the 3oral restraint obligatory on hi30N11 MBodily conduct" & 2ing o/ gods" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 Conduct by speech too" & 2ing o/ gods" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 ,nd also pursuit 'pariyesan(" & 2ing o/ gods" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 MBodily conduct, & 2ing o/ gods" - declare to be t1o/old as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 ,nd 1hyK -/ one 2no1s o/ a bodily conduct+ =*his bodily conduct 1hen /ollo1ed a/ter by 3e 3a2es e5il states gro1 and good states 5anish" then that bodily conduct V2illing" stealing and
10 11

*he latter alternati5e re/ers to the /ourth absorption0 Ptimokkha0

12

se6ual actsW should not be /ollo1ed a/ter0 ,nd again" i/ one 2no1s o/ a bodily conduct+ =*his bodily conduct 1hen /ollo1ed a/ter by 3e 3a2es e5il states 5anish and good states gro1"> then that bodily conduct Vabstaining /ro3 2illing" stealing and se6ual actsW should be /ollo1ed a/ter0 Bodily conduct" & 2ing o/ gods" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 -/ this 1as said" it 1as said /or that reason0 MConduct by speech too" & 2ing o/ gods" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 ,nd 1hyK -/ one 2no1s o/ a conduct by speech+ =*his conduct by speech 1hen /ollo1ed a/ter by 3e 3a2es e5il states gro1 and good states 5anish"> then that conduct by speech Vlying" slander" harsh 1ords and /ri5olous tal2W should not be /ollo1ed a/ter0,nd again" i/ one 2no1s o/ a conduct by speech" =*his conduct by speech 1hen /ollo1ed a/ter by 3e 3a2es e5il states 5anish and good states gro1"> then that conduct by speech Vabstaining /ro3 lying" slander" harsh 1ords and /ri5olous tal2W should be /ollo1ed a/ter0 Conduct by speech too" & 2ing o/ gods" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 -/ this 1as said" it 1as said /or that reason0 M,nd also pursuit" & 2ing o/ gods" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 ,nd 1hyK -/ one 2no1s o/ a pursuit+ =*his pursuit 1hen /ollo1ed a/ter by 3e 3a2es e5il states gro1 and good states 5anish"> then that pursuit V1orldly pursuit?misa pariyesanW should not be /ollo1ed a/ter0 ,nd again" i/ one 2no1s o/ a pursuit+ =*his pursuit 1hen /ollo1ed a/ter by 3e 3a2es e5il states 5anish and good states gro1"> then that pursuit Vpursuit o/ the truth; dhamma pariyesanW should be /ollo1ed a/ter0 ,nd also pursuit" & 2ing o/ gods" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 -/ this 1as said; it 1as said /or that reason0 M-t is thus" & 2ing o/ gods" that a bhi22hu 3ust conduct hi3sel/ to be endo1ed 1ith the 3oral restraint obligatory on hi30N -n this 3anner the Bhaga59 ans1ered the <uestion put by Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods0 Edi/ied" Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" appro5ed o/ the Bhaga59>s saying and too2 delight in it0 M*hus it is" & Bhaga59O *hus it is" & SugataO Con<uered are 3y doubts" gone is 3y uncertainty" ha5ing heard the Bhaga59>s ans1er to this <uestion0N !0 ,nd Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" appro5ing o/ the Bhaga59>s saying and delighted in it" put a /urther <uestion+ M,nd ho1" & :ord" 3ust a bhi22hu conduct hi3sel/ to be endo1ed 1ith restraint o/ his sense /acultiesKN MFor3" & 2ing o/ gods" perceptible by the eye" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 Sound" & 2ing o/ gods" perceptible by the ear" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 &dour" & 2ing o/ gods" perceptible by the nose" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 *aste" & 2ing o/ gods" perceptible by the tongue" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 *ouch" & 2ing o/ gods" perceptible by the body" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0 Eind;ob.ect" & 2ing o/ gods" perceptible by the 3ind" - declare to be t1o/old" as to be /ollo1ed a/ter and not to be /ollo1ed a/ter0N Chen this 1as said" Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" spo2e thus to the Bhaga59+ M*he 3eaning o/ 1hat 1as said in brie/ by the Bhaga59" & :ord" - understand in /ull thus+ , /or3" & :ord" perceptible by the eye" 1hich 3a2es e5il states gro1 and good states 5anish" should not be /ollo1ed a/ter; and again" & :ord" a /or3" perceptible by the eye; 1hich 3a2es e5il states 5anish and good states gro1" should be /ollo1ed a/ter0 , sound" & :ord" perceptible by the ear" 1hich 3a2es e5il states gro1 and good states 5anish should not be /ollo1ed a/ter( and again & :ord" a sound perceptible by the ear" 1hich 3a2es e5il states 5anish and good states gro1" should be /ollo1ed a/ter0 ,n odour" & :ord" perceptible by the nose" 1hich 3a2es e5il states gro1 and good states 5anish" should not be /ollo1ed a/ter" and again" & 1L

:ord" an odour" perceptible by the nose" 1hich 3a2es e5il states 5anish and good states gro1" should be /ollo1ed a/ter0 , taste" & :ord" perceptible by the tongue" 1hich 3a2es e5il states gro1 and good states 5anish" should not be /ollo1ed a/ter; and again" & :ord" a taste" perceptible by the tongue" 1hich 3a2es e5il states 5anish and good states gro1" should be /ollo1ed a/ter0 , touch" & :ord" perceptible by the body" 1hich 3a2es e5il states gro1 and good states 5anish" should not be /ollo1ed a/ter; and again" & :ord" a touch" perceptible by the body" 1hich 3a2es e5il states 5anish and good states gro1" should be /ollo1ed a/ter0 , 3ind;ob.ect" & :ord" perceptible by the 3ind" 1hich 3a2es e5il states gro1 and good states 5anish" should not be /ollo1ed a/ter; and again" & :ord" a 3ind;ob.ect" perceptible by the 3ind" 1hich 3a2es e5il states 5anish and good states gro1" should be /ollo1ed a/ter0 *hus do - understand the 3eaning in /ull" & :ord" o/ 1hat 1as said in brie/ by the Bhaga590 Con<uered are 3y doubts" gone is 3y uncertainty" ha5ing heard the Bhaga59>s ans1er to this <uestion0N $0 ,nd Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" appro5ing o/ the Bhaga59>s saying and delighting in it" put a /urther <uestion+ M4a5e" & :ord" all Sa3aAas and Br9h3aAas the sa3e doctrine" the sa3e 3oral code" the sa3e aspiration" the sa3e ai3KN
M

*hey ha5e not" & 2ing o/ gods0N

MBut 1hy" & :ord" ha5e they notKN MEany are the conditions o/ 3ind" & 2ing o/ gods" 5arious are the conditions o/ 3ind e6isting in this 1orld0 *o 1hate5er condition" out o/ these" the beings adhere" to that only they obstinately and tenaciously cling" 3aintaining" =&nly this is truth" anything else is /ollyO> *here/ore do not all Sa3aAas and Br9h3aAas ha5e the sa3e doctrine" the sa3e 3oral code" the sa3e aspiration" the sa3e ai30N MBut" & :ord" are all Sa3aAas and Br9h3aAas absolutely per/ect" absolutely secure" absolutely puri/ied" o/ absolutely highest achie5e3entsKN M*hey are not" & 2ing o/ gods0N MBut 1hy" & :ord" are they notKN M*hose Sama as and Brhma as" & 2ing o/ gods" 1ho ha5e achie5ed deli5erance through the destruction o/ cra5ing" they only are absolutely per/ect" absolutely secure" absolutely puri/ied" o/ absolutely highest achie5e3ent0 *here/ore are not all Sama as and Brhma as absolutely per/ect" absolutely secure" absolutely puri/ied" o/ absolutely highest achie5e3ent0N -n this 3anner it 1as that the Bhaga59 ans1ered the <uestion put by Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods0 Edi/ied" Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" appro5ed o/ the Bhaga59>s saying and too2 delight in it+ M*hus it is" & Bhaga59O *hus it is" & SugataO Con<uered are 3y doubts" gone is 3y uncertainty" ha5ing heard the Bhaga59>s ans1er to this <uestion0N Q0 ,nd Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" appro5ing o/ the Bhaga59>s saying and delighted in it" addressed the Bhaga59 and spo2e+ MPassion"12 & :ord" is disease" passion is a cancer" passion is a dart0 Passion drags a 3an about /ro3 one e6istence to another" so that he /inds hi3sel/ no1 up abo5e" then do1n belo10 *hese proble3s" & :ord" 1hich 1ere ran2ling in 3e /or a long ti3e" and to 1hich other Sa3aAas and Br9h3aAas ha5e lent no ear" these the Bhaga59 has sol5ed /or 3e" and has re3o5ed the dart o/ doubt and uncertainty0N

12

Ej 'dri5e" urge( is a synony3 o/ tah =cra5ing0>

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M*hen" & 2ing o/ gods" do you re3e3ber to ha5e as2ed these <uestions /ro3 other Sa3aAas and Br9h3aAasKN M- do re3e3ber" & :ord" to ha5e done so0N M,nd in 1hich 1ay did they e6plain the3 to you" & 2ing o/ godsK -/ this is not incon5enient to you" you 3ay spea20N M8ot" & :ord" is it incon5enient to 3e 1hen the Bhaga59 is present or others li2e hi30N M*hen" & 2ing o/ gods" you 3ay spea20N MCho3 - dee3ed to be Sa3aAas and Br9h3aAas" & :ord" 1ere her3its" li5ing solitary in the /orest0 *he3 - approached and put these <uestions0 But they 3ade no ans1er" but rather as2ed o/ 3e a counter;<uestion" =Chat is the na3e o/ the 5enerable oneK> *hus as2ed" - 3ade ans1er" =- a3" Sirs" Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods0> ,nd they 1ent on <uestioning 3e" =Pray" by 1hat deed did the 5enerable 2ing o/ gods rise to that stateK> ,nd - e6pounded to the3 the )ha33a" as it 1as heard and understood by 3e" and they 1ere satis/ied" e5en 1ith that little+ =Gerily" 1e ha5e seen Sa22a" the 2ing o/ godsO ,nd 1hat 1e as2ed o/ hi3 that he has ans1eredO> ,nd they actually beca3e 3y disciples" rather than ! the /ollo1er o/ the30 MBut -" & :ord" a3 the /ollo1er o/ the Bhaga590 , strea3;enterer 1L a3 -" deli5ered /ro3 do1n/all" assured" bound /or enlighten3ent0N M)o you re3e3ber" & 2ing o/ gods" e5er be/ore to ha5e e6perienced such a /eeling o/ satis/action and happinessKN M- do re3e3ber it" & :ord0N M,nd in 1hich 1ay" & 2ing o/ gods" do you re3e3ber itKN M&nce" & :ord" there too2 place a /ight bet1een gods and ,suras0 -n this /ight" & :ord" the gods 1ere 5ictorious" and the ,suras 1ere de/eated0 *he /ight being o5er" the battle being 1on" - thought to 3ysel/" =Chat there is o/ hea5enly po1er and 1hat there is o/ Asura;po1er" both 1ill no1 be en.oyed by the godsO> ,nd so" & :ord" that /eeling o/ satis/action and happiness 1as 3i6ed up 1ith thoughts o/ 1ar and battle" not leading to disenchant3ent" not leading to dispassion" not leading to cessation" not leading to higher 2no1ledge" not leading to enlighten3ent" not leading to 8ibb9na0 MBut this /eeling o/ satis/action and happiness" & :ord" - e6perience" ha5ing heard the )ha33a /ro3 the Bhaga59" is not 3i6ed up 1ith thoughts o/ 1ar and battle0 *his solely leads to disenchant3ent" to dispassion" to cessation" to inner cal3" to higher 2no1ledge" to enlighten3ent and to 8ibb9na0N 80 MBut" & 2ing o/ gods" 1hat reasons do you percei5e to announce the e6perience o/ such a /eeling o/ satis/action and happinessKN MSi6 reasons do - percei5e" & :ord+ Chile li5ing here itsel/" Born a god as - a3? Fresh potency o/ li/e - 1in0 *his - announce to you" & :ord0 *his is" & :ord" the /irst reason0

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Sotpanna?the /irst o/ the /our stages o/ sainthood0

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)eparted /ro3 the real3 o/ gods" 4ea5enly potency being spent" Eind/ully - choose the 1o3b -n 1hich to be reborn 3y 3ind delights0 *his is" & :ord" the second reason0 Hncon/used in understanding" )elighted in the Buddha>s :a1" Cisely shall - d1ell" Clearly co3prehending" 3ind/ul0 *his is" & :ord" the third reason0 ,nd i/" 1hile /aring along 1isely" Enlighten3ent should be 3y part" - then 1ould d1ell in per/ect 2no1ledge" ,nd thus achie5e the end0 *his is" & :ord" the /ourth reason0 &r i/" departed /ro3 the real3 o/ 3en" 4u3an potency being spent" ,gain - should beco3e a god+ Chie/est - 1ould be o/ all the 1orlds di5ine0 *his is" & :ord" the /i/th reason0 ,3ong the deities 3ost subli3e" ,3ong ,2aniXXha so glorious" - then 1ould spend the last turn o/ li/e; *hat abode too a1aits 3e0 *his is" :ord" the si6th reason0 *hese are" & :ord" the si6 reasons - percei5e to announce the e6perience o/ such a /eeling o/ satis/action and happiness0N 0 'Sa22aSs Song( MSee2ing the *ath9gata" - 1andered long" Ey 3ind in doubt" steeped in perple6ity" Cith proble3s none could sol5e0 *he Sa3aAas o/ lonely d1ellings" *heir co3pany - sought" sat near; Buddhas - i3agined the3 to be0 =Chat 3a2es 3en reach acco3plish3ent" Chat 3a2es the3 /ailK> *his - as2ed o/ the3; But neither 1ay nor 3ethod did they 2no10 ,nd 1hen they ca3e to understand *hat Sa22a o/ the gods it 1as Cho had appeared to the3"

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*hey e5en as2ed o/ 3e Chat s2ill brought 3e the /air result0 - taught the3 1hat - 2ne1" *he lore preser5ed a3ong the /ol2" ,nd they re.oiced and said" =G9sa5a it 1as 1e sa1O> But the Buddha - beheld todayO Con<ueror o5er )oubts+ Freed a3 - /ro3 /ear" -n /inding hi3 1ho truly 2no1sO #e3o5er o/ the dart o/ cra5ing" Enlightened" Ean 1ithout Co3pare+ 4i3 the hero great - 1orship" 4i3" the Kins3an o/ the SunO *he 1orship once - o//ered Brah39" *ogether 1ith the 3ighty gods" Ce o//er no1 to you" & :ord0 *he Enlightened &ne you are indeed" *eacher beyond co3pare+ *hroughout the 1orld o/ gods and 3en Rour e<ual none can /indON 100 ,nd Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" addressed PaIcasi2ha" the young @andhabba+ M&/ great ser5ice ha5e you been to 3e" 3y dear PaIcasi2ha" in so /ar as you /irst gained o5er the Bhaga59; gained o5er by you" 3y dear; 1e a/ter1ards dre1 near to see the Bhaga59" the ,rahant" Sa339 Sa3buddha0 - appoint you to your paternal heritage0 Rou shall be 2ing o5er the @andhabbas; and Baddha SJriya;5accas9" the sun 3aiden longed /or by you" - gi5e her to you0N ,nd Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" ha5ing touched the earth 1ith his hand" 3ade three ti3es this sole3n utterance+ M8a3o tassa Bhaga5ato" ,rahato" Sa339 Sa3buddhassaO 8a3o tassa Bhaga5ato" ,rahato" Sa339 Sa3buddhassaO 8a3o tassa Bhaga5ato" ,rahato" Sa339 Sa3buddhassaN 4onour to 4i3" the E6alted &ne" the Corthy" the Fully EnlightenedO 4onour to 4i3" the E6alted &ne" the Corthy" the Fully EnlightenedO 4onour to 4i3" the E6alted &ne" the Corthy" the Fully EnlightenedON ,nd 1hile this discourse had ta2en place" there arose in Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods" and also in another eighty thousand deities" the pure" spotless eye o/ the )ha33a+ "#a$ kici samudaya-dhamma$ sabba$ ta$ nirodha-dhammanti% ME5ery pheno3enon;o/;origin is a pheno3enon;o/;dissolution0N Such 1ere the <uestions 1hich Sa22a" the 2ing o/ gods 1as in5ited to as2 and 1ere ans1ered by the Bhaga590 *here/ore is this e6position called M*he Fuestions o/ Sa22a0N

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