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Musique Persane Persian Music

kamantche

zarb

QUELQUES MOTS SUR LA MUSIQUE PERSANE Il est extrmement difficile de dcrire lesprit dune musique et le lien qui existe entre elle et lme du peuple qui la vit et la fait vivre. Si on pense quil suffit den dcortiquer le mcanisme, on ne fait que parcourir une partie du chemin qui, pour tre importante, nest pour autant totalement satisfaisante ni pour lauditeur profane, ni pour liniti.

A FEW WORDS ABOUT PERSIAN MUSIC. Its extremly difficult to describe the spirit of a music and the link that exists between it and the soul of the people that lives it and makes it live, If one thinks that it is enough to decorticate its mechanism, one only goes half way on the road, wich is, thoug important, not quite satisfying for the uninitiated listener, nor for the knowledgeable one.

Prsenter le shma analytique dune musique, et, par l-mme, sabriter derrire une connaissance thorique affirme, aide certainement lauditeur dans lapproche personnelle quil peut avoir durant lcoute, mais il faut ensuite trouver ce chemin plus dlicat o lon sengage parler de la sensibilit, du rapport affectif quun peuple entretient avec sa musique, et des sources auxquelles cette musique se nourrit quotidiennement. Cest seulement ainsi, en effet, que lon pourra mettre en vidence ses caractristiques. En Iran, la notion de musique traditionnelle a t emprunte la terminologie occidentale il y a seulement quelques dcennies, un persan parlant tout simplement de musique persane. Mme si lon croit pouvoir distinguer la musique savante de la musique populaire, du fait des liens intimes que la premire entretient par essence avec la posie classique et des structures complexes que cela implique, il ne faut pas oublier les relations troites que la seconde noue volontiers avec la littrature populaire et mme, parfois, avec la littrature classique. Ces termes, sils sont les plus aptes dfinir des tendances au sein de la musique dite traditionnelle persane restent donc approximatifs, puisque ces tendances - ou ces styles - pratiqus, depuis toujours mais surtout ces dernires annes, sont en perptuelle volution dans une relation dchange et dinfluence mutuels. Elles vont lune au devant de lautre par ces petites voies quouvrent devant elles la ou les littratures qui nourrissent la crativit de tout musicien.

Presenting the analytic pattern of a music, and in so doing sheltering oneself behind an asserted theorical knowledge, certainly helps the listener in a personal approach he can have while listening, but afterwards one has to find out the more delicate way on wich one binds oneself to talk about the sensitiveness, the affective relationship that a people has with its music, and the sources to wich this music feeds itself dayly. Indeed, thats the only way to display its characteristics. In Iran, the notion of traditional music has been borrowed from the western terminology. Only a couple of decades ago, a persian would simply talk about persian music. Even if one thinks it possible to distinguish scholarly music and popular music by the fact that the former has, by essence, close links with classical poetry and complex structures, one should not forget the tight relationship that the latter readily establishes with popular literature, and even sometimes classical literature. These terms, if they are the more apt to define tendancies within the so called traditional persian music, remain them approximate, since these tendancies - or these styles - in use, have always, but more so in the last few years, been in perpetued evolution in a relationship of mutual exchanges and influences. They go to meet one another through these small ways that the literature(s) that nurture every musicians creativity do open before them.

En ce qui concerne la musique savante (qui fait lobjet de ce disque), elle est fonde sur un systme appel radif, mis au point aprs de longues annes denseignement par les plus grands matres et notamment par Mirza Hossein Gholi au dbut de ce sicle. Ltude du radif (qui signifie tout simplement ordre est un travail de longue haleine qui consiste apprendre par coeur, paralllement la technique du jeu, un nombre considrable de thmes mlodiques ainsi que toutes les compositions des matres, dveloppant ainsi progressivement une solide mmoire musicale et une aptitude limprovisation. Le principe tant bien videmment de respecter lordre dans lequel ces mlodies ou squences mlodiques doivent imprativement tre joues pour rester dans lesprit de la musique persane, autrement dit la faon dont il faut dvelopper un mode. On peut donc parler du radif comme dun systme modal permettant de classer douze modes dont sept sont considrs comme principaux - dastgh - et les cinq autres comme drivs -vz-. Quil sagisse dun dastgh ou dun vz, le musicien peut, soit interprter le radif comme une oeuvre musicale part entire, et donc linterprter la note prs, soit choisir de sen inspirer, en ne dveloppant que quelques squences mlodiques gusheh - et laissant libre cours limagination, ceci en respectant toujours lesprit et la couleur du radif. Cest dans cette seconde perspective qua t ralis cet enregistrement.

As far as scholarly music (wich forms the subject of this record) is concerned, it is based on a system called radif put into shape after many years of teaching by the greatest masters, notably Mirza Hossein Gholi in the biginning of this century. The study of radif (wich simply means order) is a long and exacting labour which requires leaning by heart, along with playing technique, a large number of melodic themes and all the compositions of the masters, thus progressively developping a good musical memory and an aptitude for improvisation. The principle being, of course, to respect the order in wich these melodies or melodic sequences definitely have to be played to stay in the spirit of persian music, in other words, the way a mode has to be developed. The radif can then be considered as a modal system that allows to classify twelve modes, seven of which are considered major - dastgh - and the five remaining as derived - vz -. On both kind of modes, the musician can either perform the radif as a genuine musical work and then play it note for note, or choose to take his inspiration from it, only developing a few melodic sequences - gusheh - and giving free rein to his imagination, while still respecting the spirit and colour of the radif The latter trend is represented on this recording.

Dans la musique persane, llgance de lornementation destine prparer lenchanement de deux squences mlodiques est aussi importante que la beaut de limprovisation dveloppe tout au long de la mlodie elle-mme. Le silence galement tient une place essentielle. Le temps est vcu de faon trs particulire par le musicien iranien, qui sans cesse semble revenir en arrire, avanant en fait presque imperceptiblement, et crant ainsi cette sensation de temps suspendu qui emporte lauditeur vers un tat que lon appelle le hl o son esprit slve tandis que sa sensibilit spanouit, lemportant vers un bien-tre exquis. Les instruments - Le kamantcheh Le kamantcheh est lun des plus anciens instruments du monde, prenant ses origines du robab qui tait un instument cordes pinces. Cest un instrument trs populaire dans de nombreux pays du MoyenOrient. En persan kamantcheh signifie littralement petit arc, il est utilis aussi bien en solo que pour accompagner le chant. En Iran, Hossein-Khan EsmailZadeh et Bagher-Khan Rameshgar furent les grands matres de cet instrument au dbut de ce sicle. De nos jours ce titre revient incontestablement Ostd Bahari qui, au-del de ses connaissances et de sa grande valeur musicale, est un tre extrmement prcieux de part sa personnalit mme, toute de respect et damour pour lme humaine et la musique qui lexalte.

In persian music, elegance and ornementation, meant to prepare the linking of two melodic sequences, is as important as the beauty of the improvisation developed all through the actual melody. Silence also has an essential place. The iranian musician has a very particular way of living time. He always seems to go back, proceeding actually in an almost unperceivable way and thus creating this suspended time impression that carries the listener to a state called hl where in his mind soars while his feelings blossom out, carrying him towards an exquisite well-being. Instruments - The kamantcheh The Kamantcheh is one of the worlds oldest musical instruments and take its origin in the robab, a plucked strings instrument. It is very popular in many middle-eastern countries. In persian, Kamantcheh means literaly little bow, and it is used both for solo and to accompany singing. In Iran, Hossein-Khan EsmailZadeh and Bagher-Khan Rameshgar were the great masters of this instrument in the beginning of the century. Nowadays, this title undeniably goes te Ostd Bahari who, beyond his knowledge and great musical value, is a very precious human being by his very personality, replete with respect and love for the human soul and the music that exalts it.

Les musiciens Mahmoud Tabrizi-zadeh Comme souvent en Iran, Mahmoud Tabrizi- Zadeh commence son initiation musicale par le zarb, et cest vers lge de huit ans quil aborde ltude du violon et du santur auprs du matre Asghar Hosseini, il suit cet enseignement durant une dizaine dannes, puis perfectionne son style en rfrence dautres matres, Abandonnant le violon au profit du kamantcheh, il approfondit la technique des interprtes du dbut du sicle, mais s imprgne surtout de lesprit de Ostad Bahari. Depuis quil a quitt lIran, Mahmoud Tabrizi-Zadeh a port sa musique dans le monde entier (Europe, MoyenOrient, USA, Japon), il a galement travaill en tant que compositeur, pour le thtre et le cinma. As often in Iran, Mahmoud Tabrizi-Zadeh begins his musical initiation with the zarb and takes up to violin and santur at eight with master Ashgar Hosseini. He follows is teaching for ten years, then perfects his style by refering to others masters. He ultimately leaves the violin for the kamantcheh and studies thoroughly the technique of the performers of the beginning of the century, but he mostly become impregnated with the spirit of Ostd Bahari. Since he left Iran, Mahmoud Tabrizi-Zadeh has brought his music all through the world (Europe, Middle East, U.S.A., Japan), He also work as a composer for theatre and cinema.

Le zarb ou donbak est un instrument de percussion iranien. Le mot zarb signifie la frappe, la mesure, le temps; le terme donbak est une onomatope: don dsigne la frappe du milieu (le son le plus grave) et bak celle effectue sur le bord de linstrument. En forme de calice il est fait dune seule pice de bois (mrier ou noyer) et recouvert dune peau de chvre, il est jou avec les deux mains, la frappe est attaque par tous les doigts. The zarb or donbak is an iranian percussion instrument. The word zarb means strike, beat, time; the word donbak is an onomatopoeia: don is the strike in the middle (the lowest sound), bak is the strike on the rim of the instrument. Chalice shaped, it is made of a single piece of wood (mulberry or walnut) and taught with a goat skin. It is played with both hands and the beating is done with all the fingers. Djamchid Chemirani est n en 1942 Thran. Trs jeune il commence pratiquer le zarb chez le matre incontest Hossein Teherani (1911-1976), il lui arrivera ensuite souvent de remplacer celui-ci lors dmissions de la Radio Tlvision Iranienne. En 1961 il arrive Paris et commence une grande carrire internationale. Il sintgre des ensembles de musique mdivale mais travaille aussi dans le milieu de la musique contemporaine. Cependant sa vritable passion reste le jeu en soliste et laccompagnement de la musique traditionelle persane. Djamchid Chemirani was born in Teheran in ninety forty two. At an early age, he starts to practice on the zarb with the undisputed master Hossein Teherani. He subsequently often replaced him for TV or radio shows. In ninety sixty one he arrives in Paris and begins an international carrier. He joins medieval music ensembles but also works for contemporary music, But his real passion remains solo playing and accompanying traditional persian music.