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# CHAPTER- 1

A STUDY OF BASIC HYPERGEOMETRIC FUNCTIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN PARTITION THEORY AND CONTINUED FRACTIONS

(A Historical Survey)
1.1 In this chapter we give a brief account of some of the researches carried out

in the field of generalized hypergeometric series. It shall not be our endeavour to give a complete chronological survey of all developments in this field but shall mention only those relevant to the present work. The following notations and definitions shall be used throughout this and subsequent chapters. Let

a n = a a + 1 ... a + n - 1 .
-1f a = 1 - af a
n

a 0 = 1,

-n

Fs

a, L M b, N
1 1

## a r;z a 2 , ..., a r ; z = r Fs b1 , ..., b s bs

L af O O M P af P QN Q
z
n

a1

a 2 n ... a r
n

n n

n=0

1 n b1

b 2 n ... b s

a z bg . 1 bg b
n r n n= 0 n s n

The r Fs series converses for z < 1 when r = s+1 and for all values of z, when
r s . When r > s+1, the series diverges for all z 0 . The later type of series

r > s + 1f have been the subject of detailed study by Mac Robert [1-10], Mejjer a

[1-11], Agarwal  and others. They have attempted to give a meaning to the Fsymbol in this case also. In 1.1(1) (ar) stands for the sequence of parameters a1 , a 2 ,..., a r . We may also have occasion to use symbol (ap,q) to mean the q-p+1 parameters a p , a p +1 ,..., a q . If p = 1 in it, we shall write (aq) instead of a 1 , q but when q = A, we shall simply denote it by (a). In the case when z = 1,
s +1

b g

## Fs (1) converges for Rl Sb s - Sa s+1 > 0 and when

z = -1 it converges for Rl Sb s - Sa s+1 + 1 > 0 . As usual, the argument z shall be omitted in the F-symbol when it is equal to unity. When r = s+1, the series 1.1(1) is called Saalschutzian if

S b s - S a s +1 = 1
Well-poised if

1 + a1 = b1 + a 1 =... = b s + a s+1
and nearly-poised if all but one of the pairs of parameters have the same sum, when unity is regarded as the first denominator parameter.

if b1 + a 2 = b 2 + a 3 =... = b s + a s+1 , so that the break-down in the equality of sums of pairs occurs with the first pair, regarding unity as the first denominator parameter, the series is called a nearly-poised series of first kind. If, however, the break-down occurs with the fast pair so that

1 + a 1 = b1 + a 2 =... = b s-1 + a s
the series is called a nearly-poised series of second kind. A further generalization of the ordinary hypergeometric series is provided in the form of bilateral hypergeometric series. Though a few scattered results for what we now call the ordinary bilateral hypergeometric series were given by Dougall  as long as 1907, Yeta systematic study of such series was made first by Bailey  in 1936. Dougall  obtained a formula which can be written as (2)

n =-

a c

n n

b d

n n

=G

c, L M c - a, N

d,

1 - a, 1 - b, c + d - a - b - 1;

d - a , c - b, d - b

O , P Q

where Rl [c+d-a-b-1] > 0 . If we take d = 1 in 1.1(2), it reduces to well known Gausss sum of
2

## F1 a , b,; c;1 (cf, slater [1;1.1.5]).

Bailey regarded series of the type 1.1(2) as hypergeometric series with unit argument which are infinite in both directions and called them bilateral
3

## hypergeometric series of the ordinary bilateral hypergeometric series as

(3)

a, a , L M b, b , N a hz c = b h c
p Hp 1 2 1 2
p n n =- p n

..., a p ; z ..., b p
n

L a h ; zO O c = H P P b h ; P c M Q M N Q
p p p p

where |z| =1, for convergence. Obviously, the bilateral series P H P can be expressed as the sum of two hypergeometric series of the type
p p -1

af Rl c Sb - Sa h > 0 for z = 1 and when z = -1, provided Rl c Sb - Sa h > 0 . When b = 1 , it evidently reduces to a series of the type F af z .
P +1
p p
p P P -1

## We call a bilateral series P H P well-poised if

a1 + b1 = a 2 + b 2 =... = a p + b p .

and nearly-poised if
a1 + b1 = a2 + b2 =... = a p -1 + bp-1.

i.e. the equality breaks for any one pair. It is sais to be Saalschutzian if
b1 + b 2 ... b p = 1 + a 1 + a 2 +...+ a p .

A further generalization of ordinary hypergeometric series has been provided with the help of following functions :

(4)

F1 a; b, b ; c; x, y =

m= 0 n= 0

m+ n

b n x m y n

m+ n

1m 1n

which exists for all real or complex values of a, b, b , c, x and y, except c a non-negative integer.

(5)

F2 a; b, b ; c, c; x, y =

m= 0 n =0

m+ n

b m b n x m y n , c n 1 m 1 n

which exists for all real or complex values of a,b, b ,c, c ,x and y, except c, c negative integers ;

(6)

F3 a , a ; b, b; c; x, y =

m=0 n= 0

a c

m+ n

b n x my n , 1m 1n
m

## which exists for all values of parameters except c a negative integer ;

(7)

F4 a; b; c, c; x, y =

m= 0 n= 0

a m+ n b m+ n x m y n , c m c n 1 m 1 n

which exists for all values of parameters except c, c negative integers. These series are called Appell series (cf. Slater [1;(8.1.3)-(8.1.6)]). All four Appell functions reduce to ordinary Gaus series 2 F1 x when y = 0. The first three function also reduces to ordinary 2 F1 x series when b is zero. Horn [1,2 and 3] systematically investigated all the, double hypergeometric functions of second order. Horns final list consisted of fourteen complete (nonconfluent) series and twenty distinct limiting form of them. This includes the four

Appell functions and the seven Humbert functions. The following list gives the complete functions exluding the Appell functions,
b m- n x m y n , 1n

G 1 a , b , b ; x , y =

m+ n

n- m

1m

G 2 a , a ; b , b ; x , y =

b n-m b 1m1n

m- n

xmyn

G 3 a , a ; x, y =

2 n- m

2 m- n

xmyn

1m 1n

H 1 a , b, c; d; x, y =

m- n

b
m

m+ n

c n x myn , 1m 1n

H 2 a , b, c, d; e; x, y =

m- n

b m c n d n xmy n , em 1m 1n

H 3 a , b; c; x, y =

b n xmyn , c m+ n 1 m 1 n
2 m+ n

H 4 a , b; c , d ; x , y =

a c

2 m+ n m

b n xmyn , d n 1m 1n

H 5 a , b; c; x, y =

2 m+ n

n- m

xmy n

1m 1n

H 6 a , b, c; x, y =

2 m- n

b n-m c n x myn 1m 1m b
m

and
H 7 a , b, c; d; x, y =

2 m- n

c n xmyn 1m 1n
n

A further extension of the Appell series was provided with the help of double hypergeometric function of higher order defined by (cf. Ragab )

(8)

L x h P c O L O M x h ; bg g ; b g g ; c t : t c g h; g xP M P M P FM = FM x, y P s yP d bg M P M d ; c b h ; c b h ; bg P N Q q ; q c b h; b M c hQ N
p p t t p t s s q q q q

x h bg g g gx y b c = d b hc b h 1 1 bg c
m p m+ n t m t n m= 0 n = 0 s m+ n q m q m

.
n

The concept of a double hypergeometric series can be extended to hypergeometric series of several variables, such series were first studied by Lauricella  in 1893. Lauricella defined the following four functions of n-variables :

(9)

## FA a; b1 , b 2 ...; b n ; c1 , c 2 ... c n ; x1 , x 2 ... x n

m1 = 0

...

m1 + m2 ...m n

b1 c2

m1 m2

b2

m2

... b n
1

mn

m m x1 x2 ... x m n
1 2

mn =0

c1

m1

... c n

mn

1 m 1 m ... 1 m
2

## where for convergence

x1 + x 2 +...+ x n < 1,
(10)

## FB a1 , a 2 ,... a n ; b1 , b 2 ... b n ; c; x1 , x 2 ..., x n

m1 = 0

...

a1

m1

... a n

mn

b1

m1
1

... b n
n

mn

mn =0

m1 + m2 + ... + m n

1 m ... 1 m

m x1 ... x m n ,
1 n

## x1 < 1; x 2 < 1,..., x n < 1,

(11)

FC a; b; c1 , c 2 ... c n ; x1 , x 2 ... x n

m1 = 0

...

m1 + m2 ...m n

m1 + m2 ...m n mn
1

m x1 ... x m n
1

mn =0

... c m
1

1 m ... 1 m

## where for convergence,

2 2 12 x1 + x1 < 1, 1 2 +... x n

(12)

FD a; b1 , b 2 ,..., b n ; c; x1 , x 2 ,..., x n

m1 = 0

...

m1 + m 2 ...m n

b1

m1 + ...

bn
1

mn
2

m x1 ... x m n
1

mn = 0

m1 + m 2 + ... + m n

1 m 1 m ... 1 m

## where for convergence,

x1 , x 2 ,... x n < 1.
8

If n, the number of variables, is 2, these four functions reduce to the Appell functions F2, F3, F4 and F1 respectively ; and if n = 1, all four functions become the Gausss function 2 F1 .

1.2

aq = 1 - q a

1 - qf c ha

## where q and a are real or complex numbers, so that q 1,

1- q h 1 - q f a. a c
a

A basic hypergeometric series is a series tion of qn for a fixed parameter q. Further assuming q < 1, let (1) (2)

## with C n +1 C n , a rational func-

a n = a; q n = 1 - a 1 - aq ... 1 - aq n -1
a
-n

a fa f c
,
n

a = 1, haf
0

-1f a =

n q n n +1 2

a f

an q a

(3)

a; q
and

= 1 - aq n ,
n=0

(4)

a; q

= a; q

aq n ; q

## then the generalized basic hypergeometric series is defined as :

r Fs

a, L M b, N
1 1

a 2 , ..., a r ; q , z a ; q, z = r Fs r b 2 , ..., b s bs
9

O P Q

L bg M bg N

O P Q

a 1; q q; q

n n

## a 2 ; q n ... a r ; q n z n b1; q n ... b s ; q

n

n=0

a ;q z bg = q ; q bg b ;q
r n n= 0 n s

.
n

The series r F s converges for max. z , q < 1. For r = s +1, the series 1.2(5) is called Saalschutzian when b1 , b 2 ... b s = qa 1a 2 ... a s+1 , Well-poised when

mr

## qa 1 = b1a1 =... = b s a s+1

and nearly-poised if all but one of the pairs of parameters have the same product. The series is called a nearly-poised series of the first or of the second kind according as the break-down in equality of products of pair of parameters occur in the first or last pair, when q is regarded as the first denominator parameter. A basic hypergeometric series reduces to an ordinary hypergeometric series when q 1. Also for brevity, we shall write , G a, L M b, N
1 1

a 2 , ... a r ; b 2 , ... b s

O or P Q

L a ;O bg M P b Q bg N
r s

for

G a1 G a 2 ... G a r G b1 G b 2 ... G b s

10

and a, L M b, N
1 1

a 2 , ... a r ; b 2 , ...
s

O or b P Q

L a ;O bg M P or b Q bg N
r s

a ;q bg b ;q bg
r s

for

n= 0

FB

a, L M b, N
1 1

## a 2 , ..., a A ; q , x b 2 , ... bB; l

L a g ; xO b O = F M P P b g ; lQ b Q N
A A B B

a 1; q

n -1f 2 a 2 ; q n ... a A ; q n x n q ln a n

b1 ; q

b 2 ; q n ... b B ; q

q; q

where for convergence |q| < 1 and z < when l N, or max. q , x < 1 when l = 0 , provided that no zero appears in the denominator. Very Well-poised basic hypergeometric series is written as :

m r

r +1

Fr

L a, M N
1

q a1 , - q a1 , - a 4 , a 1 , - a1 a 1q a 4

O P Q

## and in a compact notation

r +1

Wr a 1; a 4 , a 5 ,..., a r +1 ; q; z .

## Bailey  defined a generalized basic bilateral hypergeometric series as

11

(7)

PyP

a, L M b, N
1 1

a 2 , ..., a P ; z b 2 , ..., b p ;

L a ; zO O bg = y M P P b g b Q N Q
P P P P

n =-

a g ;q b b g ;q b
P P

n n

zn .

## b1b 2 ... b P a 1a 2 ... a P < z < 1.

The series of the type 1.2(7) can easily be written as the sum of two series and b P = q , it reduces to a series of type
P

P +1

FP -

F P -1 z .

af

## A bilateral P y P series is called Well-poised if

a1b1 = a 2 b 2 =... = a P b P .
and if the equality breaks-down for any one-pair, it will be called nearly-poised. It is said to be Saalschutzian if
b1 b 2 .... b P = qa 1a 2 ... a q .

The bilateral basic hypergeometric series shown by Bailey to have valuable application in proving numerous identities in combinatory analysis. He obtained the following sum of a well poised 6 y 6 namely. .

(8)

L q a, y M Na ,
6

- q a , b, c, d, e; a 2 q bcde - a , aq b , aq c , aq d , aq e ;

O P Q

12

L aq , M = M aq M , N b

q a, aq , c

aq aq aq aq aq aq , , , , , , q; bc bd be cd ce de aq aq q q q q a2q , , , , , , d e b c d e bcde

O P . P P Q

The formula (1.2) (8) has been proved to have extensive application in the theory of elliptic functions, combinatory analysis and deduction of Rogers-Ramanujan type identities. Ramanujan obtained the following bilateral summation formula
a; z O q ; q L = M P b b; q N Q

(9)

y1

b a;q q a;q

az; q z; q

q az ; q b az ; q

b a < z < 1.
Euler  showed that

(10)

n =-

- qe af
n

3n 2 + n 2

j = q; q

In an unpublished work gauss  pushed this work along. Among other results he proved that

(11)

n =-

af

nI F G Jx H - q 2 K = q , x, q x ; q .
n

This was found later by Jacobi  and is called triple product identity. The basic analogues of four Appell series [1.1(4)-1.1(7)] are defined as (cf. Slater [1;9.1])
13

(12)

F a , b, b; c; x, y =
1 m= 0 n = 0

a; q c; q

m+ n m+ n

b; q q; q

m m

b; q q; q

n n

xmyn ,

(13)

F 2 a ; b , b ; c , c ; x , y =

m= 0 n = 0

a ; q m + n b ; q m b ; q n xmyn , c; q m c; q n q; q m q; q n

(14)

F 3 a , a ; b, b ; c; x, y =

m= 0 n =0

a; q m a ; q n b; q m b ; q n m n x y , c; q m+ n q; q m q; q n

(15)

F 4 a , b; c, c; x, y =

m= 0 n = 0

a ; q m + n b; q c; q m c; q n q; q

m+ n m

q; q

xmyn .
n

## The generalized basic hypergeometric series of two variables is defined as,

(16)

a ; af b ; af b; L af M c ; af d ; af d ; af N

x, y

O P Q
m n m n n m n

a ;q b ; q af b ; q x y af af = c ;q d ; q af d ; q q; q q; q af af
m+ n m= 0 n = 0 m+ n m

One can easily define the abnormal basic hypergeometric series of two variables as :

(17)

a ; af b ; af b; L af M c ; af d ; af d ; af N

x, y

O P Q
m n m n 1 2 ima m -1f+ jn a n -1f+ kmn r q m , n n m

a ;q b ; q af b ; q x y af af = c ;q d ; q af d ; q q; q q; q af af
m+ n m= 0 n= 0 m+ n m

14

## q < 1, x < and y < when i, j, k N

or max. (|q|, |x|, |y|) < 1 when i = j = k = 0 In the special case when i = j = k = 0 1.2(17) reduces into 1.2(16). Analogously we can define the basic analogue of Lauricellas four functions [1.1(9)-1.1(12)]. These multiple basic hypergeometric series are special cases of the following q-extension of the generalized basic hypergeometric series in n-variables given by (cf. Math. Review 85 g: 33001, P.2900, July 1985)

m1 ,..., m n = 0

1 n 1 1 1 1 n

n mn

m +1g b ,
n

## m Ab where A b , q m ,..., q m , is a m ,..., m g m +1,..., m +1g is a rational function of q

1 2 n

multiple basic hypergeometric series, which is convergent for l i > 0 or x i < 1 when

l i = 0 (i = 1, 2, ...n ).

1.3

## very useful in the study of the theory of partitions.

1 nq = af (1) q; q f a where P af n stands for the number of partitions of n in which no part is greater

P
n=0

15

than m.

nq Paf
n=0

af

1 q; q

(2)

## where P n denotes the number of partitons of n.

af
n

d
n=0

n q =a - q; q f af

(3)

## where d m n is the number of partitions of n into distinct parts no greater than m.

af

nq daf
n=0

= - q; q

a f

(4)

where d(n) denotes the number of partitions of n into distinct parts. L.J. Rogers in 1894 established identities which were later discovered by Ramanujan in 1913, namely,

a
n=0

qn q; q

f c
n

1 q, q 4 ; q 5

h,

(5)

a
n=0

n +1 f q na 1 = 2 3 5 q; q n q ,q ;q

f c

h,

(6)

These identities have the following very elegant combinatorial interpretations: The number of partitions of n into parts with least difference 2 is equal to the number of partitions of n into parts 1 or 4(mod 5)

16

and The number of partitions of n into parts not less than 2 and with minimal difference 2 in equal to the number of partitions of n into parts 2 or 3 (mod 5), respectively. The simplest of the serveral proofs of [1.3.5] and [1.3.6] given by Rogers and they by Ramanujan depends on general formula

1+

n=0

af

1 - aq 2 n -1 a q a f
n 2n n 5 n -1 2

a; q f a L O a q =a a; q f M P q; q f q; q f a a N1 - a Q
n n2 n n n=0

(7)

## and Jacobis triple product identity

n =-

-1f q a
n

n2

z n = q 2 , zq , q z ; q 2 , q < 1

Identities [1.3.5] and [1.3.6] can be obtained from [1.3.7] by taking a = 1 and a=q, respectively and using [1.3.8]. In 1929, an interesting proof depending on the transformation [1.2(13).26] was given by G.N. Watson . Letting b,c,d, e in [1.2(B).26] we get :

aq; q f c 1 - aq h q ; qh a a c 1+ q; q f c aq ; q h a
2r -n r -1 r r =1 n +1 r r

2r

q2r

+ nr

R -1f q a f c q ; qh aq a | =a aq; q f S 1+ q; q f a | T
r r r +1 2 -n r r n r =1 r

nr

U | V | W

(9)

17

## For n , [1.3.9] reduces to [1.3.7]. Further, if we take bc = aq and d , e, n in [1.2(B).26] we find

3 n -1f 2 1 + -1 a n q n a 1 - aq 2 n n n =0

af

aq; q f a =a aq; q f h q; q f a
n n

(10)

n =-

-1f q a a
n

n 3 n -1 2

f = q; q ,

af

(11)

## again, taking bc = aq, d = q a , e, n and a = 1 in [1.2(B)26], we have;

q2;q2 a f 1+ q = 2
r r +1 2 r =1

c h, q; q h c

(12)

which is a classical identity due to Gauss. W.N. Bailey [4,5] combined Rogers method freely with the known summation formulae of basic hypergeometric series to obtain some general transformations leading to Rogers-Ramanujan identities as limiting cases. The fundamental theorem used by him was if

b n = u n- r v n+ r a r
r =0

and

g n = u n+ r v n - r d r
r =n

## where a r , d r , g r and ur are functions of r only then

18

a n g n = b nd n ,
n=0 n=0

provided that all the series, involved are either convergent or terminating. Similarly g n , by basic analogue of Gauss theorem one obtains the transformations :
x y , x z ; qg y, z; q f a a b x yzg , b a f b g b x, x yz ; q g b x y , x z ; qg
n=0

y, z; q n b n x yz

n =0

(13)

By giving different values to the sequence a n , Bailey obtained different identities from it. However, a systematic attempt was made not until 1951, to use the above theorem to obtain various identities, when L.J. Slater  obtained a number of general transformation by different values to a r , d r , Ur and Vr with the help of known basic bilateral q-series summation theorems. The most widely and fruitfully used summation theorem in this direction is

L q a, y M M Na ,
6

- q a , b, - a,

c,

d,

e ,

q;

a2q bcde

aq b , aq c , aq d , aq e

O P P Q
(14)

aq , aq bc , aq bd , aq be , aq cd , aq ce , aq de , q , q a ; q g b , aq b , aq c , aq d , aq e , q b , q c , q d , q e , qa bcde ; q h c
2

## 1- n f 3 2- n f 3 Putting b = q - n 3 , c = q a , d = qa and replacing 2 by q3 and then taking

a = q in [1.3.14] we get :

19

r= -n 3

n3

1- q h - c e; q h qa f q e;q h af c c = , q; q f q; q f c q e;q h e q; q f c q e ; qh a a a
6 r +1 r 3 r 9 r +1 2 3 2 3 r 4 n r 2 n + 3 r +1 n -3r r 2n n

(15)

Letting e , we find

r= -n 3

n3

1- q h qa f c 1 = q; q f q; q f q; q f a a a
6 r +1 r 6 r -1 n + 3 r +1 n -3r

(16)

2n

Since
6 r -1 f 6 r -1f 2 r +1fa 3 r +1 f qra 1 - q 6 r +1 = q r a 1 - q n + 3 r +1 - q a 1 - q n -3 r

## So we get from [1.3.16] on simplification

1 - qf a q; q fa q; q f a
n n +1 3 6 r -1f 6 r +1f q ra + q ra q; q n - 3r q; q n +3 r n +1 3 2 r +1fa 3 r +1f qa q ; q n + 3 r +1 q ; q n - 3 r -1

n +1

a
r =1

n3

f af

r =1

af af

r =1

af af
,
2n

2 r -1fa 3 r -1f qa q ; q n - 3 r +1 q ; q n + 3 r -1

af

1 q; q

(17)

Again taking

bn =

af

1 q; q

2n

2 n -1fa 3 n -1f a 3 n -1 = - q a

6 n -1f 6 n +1f a 3 n = q na + q na

3 n +1fa 2 n +1f a 3 n +1 = - q a

and

x = q, y = q 1 2 u , z = q 1 2 v in [1.3.13] we obtain :

20

q c
n=0

12

uq , vq ; q h hu v = c q; q f q , uv; q f a a u , q1 2 v ; q
2n 12 12 n n n
12

q u , q v ; qh c uq , vq ; q u c h
12 3n n=0 12 12 3n

3n

3n

R | qa S | T

n 6 n -1

## 2 n -1fa 3 n -1f 3 n -1 2 1 - vq 3n-1 2 q a f - 1 - uq

u-q v-q c h c h
2 n -1 2 3 n -1 2

h c

2 n +1fa 3 n +1f u - q 3 n +1 2 v - q 3 n +1 2 q a a f q 3 n +1 2 3 n +1 2 n 6 n +1

1 - uq 1 - vq c h c

h c

U | h V | W

(18)

## a 0 + a 2 + a 4 +... = b0 - b2 q - b 4q 2 + b6 q 5 + q 7 - b3q12 ...

where

(19)

a2n
and

q c =

12

u , q1 2 v ; q n u n v n q; q f a
2n

b2n

uq c =

12

, vq1 2 , q 1 2 u , q 1 2 v ; q
12

q , uv, uq c

, vq ; q

12

h
n

h
n

Giving different values to u and v in [1.3.18], different identities can be obtained. For example, for u = v = 0, we find

q; q f q ,q a a f =c
30 n= 0 2n

qn q; q

40

, q 16 ; q 30

q ,q ,q h- q c
2 30 4

26

; q 30 .

(20)

## Again taking u = 1, v = 1 and then replacing q by q2, [13.18] yields,

q ;q h c - q af =c q ,q q; q h c - q; q hc q ;q h c
2 2 n n2 4 42 2 n=0 2 4 n n

19

, q 23 ; q 42

q ,q ,q h+ q c
3 42 5

37

; q 42 .

........(21)
21

using similar technique, Slater  obtained a list of 130 identities with single and double products. Still there were gaps left out in her list of modular identities. In 1951, Bailey showed that the identities with double products, deduced in the works of Slater and Rogers, can be reduced to single product identities. He gave two such identities but was not able to give any general identity. He showed that (i) When the power 0/q in the product advances by n and n is multiple of 3, then

## two products can be reduced to a single one by using following result :

q; q f b - z, -q z ; qgc q z , qz ; q h a =c q , z q , q z ; q h+ zc q , z q ,q z ;q h
2 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 3

(22)

## Replacing q by q14 and z = q3 we get :

- q ,- q c
3

13

, q 14 ; q 14

q ,q hc
8

20

; q 28 = q 42 , q 19 , q 23 ; q 42

hc

q ,q h+ q c
3 5

37

, q 42 ; q 42 .
.....(23)

## Now, comparing [1.3.21] and (1.3.23), we have

q ;q h c -1f q a =c - q ,- q q; q h c - q; q hc q ;q h c
2 2 n n2 4 3 2 n=0 2 4 n n

11

, q 14 ; q 14

q ,q h+ c
8

20

, q 28 ; q 28

......(24) (ii) When the power of q in product advance by n and n is not a multiple of 3 then

we have :

22

- qz , -q z , q ; q h+ zc - q z ,- q z , q ; q h c =b - z ,- q z , q ; q g
2 3 2 4 4 3 2 2 4 4

(25)

## Recently, Jain and Verma  in 1982, used a quadratic transformation :

La , b , F M ab q , - ab q , N L a , b , c , = F M a , b , - cd , N
2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 4 3

c, - cd d2 ; - cdq

d; q; q

q2;

O P Q q O P Q
2

(26)

where a, b, c or d is of the form q - N , N being a non-negative integer to obtain a new form of q-analogue of Whipples transformation viz.

L a, FM M a, N
7

q a , -q a , c, - a , aq c ,

e,

-e,

-qn , q-n ; q;

aq e , - aq e , -aqn+1; aq n+1

a2q2n+2 e2c

O P P Q

a q ; q hc - aq e ; q hc a q e c ;q h e c = a q c ,a q e ;q h - aq; q f a c
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 n 2 2 2 2 2n 2 n 2 n 2n

2n

L ce q F M ecq N
2 4 3 2 2

-2 n -1 -2 n

a 2 , ce 2q -2 n a 2 , e 2 , q -2 n ; q 2 ; q 2 , a 2 , - e 2 q -2 n a , - e 2 q -2 n +1 a

O P Q

(27)

which yields an identity of method 13 for c . Verma and Jain  observing that all the transformations used by them or by others are either between two series with the same base or between two series one with base q and other different from q, developed transformations for terminating

23

basic hypergeometric series, using the general theory of bibasic hypergeometric series given by Agarwal and Verma [1,2] in 1967-68. From these transformations they obtained a number of new Rogers-Ramanujan type of identities related to the moduli 11, 13, 17, 19, 22, 23, 26 and 38 etc. Later, verma and Jain  extended their own transformations to obtain identities for moduli 33, 39, 51 and 57. In 1984, Prabha Rastogi  in her thesis approved for Ph.D. Degree of Lucknow University, Lucknow established some bibasic hypergeometric transformations, with the help of some known summation theorems. She made an attempt to fill up the gaps in the Slater s list [1951-52]. Recently, M.D. Hirschhorn , M.V. Subbarao  and other have made attempts to give partitions theoretic interpretations of certain identities due to Slater  One of the Hirschhorns theorem is The number of partitions of K

K = a 1 + a 2 + a 3 + ...
with a1 a 2 a 3 ... is equal to the number of partitions of K into parts congruent to 1,3,4,5,6,7,9,11,13,15,16,17 or 19 (mod 20) He used the folowing identity due to Slater  in order to establish the theorem [1.3.28].

24

a
r =0

qr q; q

f c
2r

1 q , q , q , q , q , q , q , q 13 , q 15 , q 16 , q 17 , q 19 , q 20
3 4 5 7 9 11

(29)

M.V. Subbarao  making use of an identity [Slater ;(94)] established an other theorem, viz., The number of partitions of n such that the parts in the first half of each partition have minimal difference 2, is equal to the number of partitions of n into parts 1,2,5,6,8,9 (mod 20).

1.4

## BASIC HYPERGEOMETRIC SERIES AND CONTINUED FRACTIONS :

In this first letter to Hardy (dated January 16,1913), Ramanujan stated several

## marvelous theorems on continued fractions, Two are of special interest to us:

1 e -2 p e -4 p e -6 p = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1+...

F5 + 5 G H 2

5 + 1 25p e , 2

I J K

(1)

1-

e p e -2 p e -3 p = 1 + 1 - 1+...

F5 - 5 G H 2

5 -1 p e5 , 2

I J K

(2)

of these (and related formula), Hardy says, in the article. The Indian Mathematician Ramanujan (Amer. Math. Monthly 44 (1937), P.144), [These formulas] defeated me completely. I had never seen anything in the least like them before. A single look at them is enough to show that they could only be written down

25

by a mathematician of the highest class. They must be true, if they were not true, no would have had the imagination to invent them. In the Lost Note book of Ramanujan, there are a number of continued fractions and their basic hypergeometric equivalents. One day unusual continued fraction of the Lost Note book is:
aq + lq bq + lq 2 aq 2 + lq 3 F a , b, l; q = 1 + ..., 1+ 1+ 1+

(3)

where

## - l a ; qg aqa f b a q; q fa - bq; q f fa a , b , l ; q f= - l a ; qg aq f q a f a b a q; q fa - bq; q f

n n n +1 2 n n= 0 n n n n= 0 n n

n n n +1 2

## Ramanujan deduced the following five corollaries of this viz.;

1 - q 2 n +1 1 q q2 + q q3 q4 + q2 ... = , 4 n+ 2 2 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ n= 0 1 - q

c c

h h

(4)

1 q q 2 - q q 3 q4 - q 2 n n +1 f 2 ... = - q n a 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ n= 0

af

(5)

1 - q 6 n +1 1 - q 6 n + 5 1 q + q 2 q 2 + q 4 q3 + q 6 ... = , 2 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ n= 0 1 - q 6 n+5

h c

(6)

1 - q 8 n +1 1 - q 8 n + 7 1 q2 + q q4 q6 + q3 ... = , 8 n+ 3 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1 - q 8 n +5 n= 0 1 - q

c c

h c h c

h h

(7)

26

1 q2 - q q4 - q2 q6 - q3 ... = 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+

1 - q af
n n=0 3n +2 n
2

1+ q h c
2 n +1

(8)

The oldest and the most famous theorem associated with Ramanujans career is the Roger s-Ramanijan Continued fraction :

q 2 , q3; q5 q q2 q3 C q = 1+ ... = , 1+ 1+ 1+ q, q 4 ; q5

af

c c

h h

(9)

which is also a special case of [1.4.3] for a = b = 0 and l = 1 . Adiga  established a new simple and self continued approach to prove the following identities.

## - l a ; q ga aq f q a f b a q; q fa - bq; q f - l a ; q gaf a qa f b a q; q fa - bq; q f

n n n=0 n n n n= 0 n n

n n +1 2

n n n +1 2

## 1 aq + lq bq + lq 2 aq n+1 + lq 2 n +1 bq n+1 + lq 2 n +2 = , 1+ 1+ 1+...+ 1+ 1+...

(10)

1 aq + lq aq + lq n = , 1 + 1 - aq + bq +... +1 - aq + bq n +...

(11)

1 b + lq b + lq n = , 1 - b + aq + 1 - b + aq 2 +... +1 - b + aq n +1 +...

(12)

27

=
and

## 1 lq - abq 2 lq n - abq 2 n , 1 + aq + 1 + q aq + b +... 1 + q n aq + b +...

a f

a f

(13)

1 ab ab a + c - a + b + cq -... - a + b + cq n -...
1 bc bc c - b + a + c - b + a q +... + c - b + a q n ...

(14)

[1.4.12] is due to Hirschhorn  who pointed out that it contains several identities of Carlitz  and Gordon  as special cases. B. Srivastava  has provided the generalization of continued fraction [1.4.3] of Ramanujan in the form :

## - l a ; q ga c; q f c - aq ch b q; q fa - bq; q f a aq + lq fb 1 - 1 cg 1 a bq + lq - l a ; q ga c; q fb - aq cg = 1 + b 1 + aq c + 1+... q; q fa - bq; q f a

2 n n n n=0 n n n n n n= 0 n n

aq c +

n +1

## + lq 2 n+1 1 - 1 cq n bq n+1 + lq 2 n+ 2 1 + aq c + 1+...

h c

(15)

B. Srivastava  transformed this identity in various forms, so that, in the limit many of the classical results involving continued fractions due to Ramanujan , Gordon  and Carltiz  are obtained. In particular, for c , this identity

28

gives Ramanujans continued fraction. (1.4.10). Denis  established the following result :

F1
2

a , b; q; Kq O L M P N g Q a , b; q; k O L FM P N g Q
1

## 1 1 - a 1 - b k abkq - g 1 - aq 1 - bq k abkq 3 - gq = , 1+ 1- k + 1+ 1- k + 1+...

a fa f a f

a fa f a f

(16)

where 2 F1 is the q-Gaussian hypergeometric series which includes the results due to B. Srivastava [1.2.1(3)] and Ramanujan (cf. Andrews [1.(14)]). Denis , Verma, Denis and Rao  established the following results, respectively

a , b, L M N e, aq , b, L F M N e,
3

F2
2

c; q; ef abc f c; q; f

O P Q ef abcq O P Q

1 h 1 - b 1 - c a 1 - e a 1 - f a h 1 - bq 1 - cq 1+ m+ 1+ m+

a fa f b g b ga fa f
a 1 - eq a 1 - fq a , 1+...

g b

g
a fa f
29

(17)

## where h = ef abc and m = 1 - a 1 - h ,

a , b, L M N e, aq , b, L F M N e,
3

F2
2

c; q; ef abc f c; q; f

O P Q= 1 + a g a g ef abcq O b + 1 + b + 1+... P Q
0 0 1 1 0 1

where
1 - aq h 1 - bq h 1 - cq h c c c a = , 1 - eq h 1 - eq h 1 - fq h c c c
i i i i 2i 2 i +1 i

bi =

1 - ef abcg b , 1 - fq h c
i

gi =

- 1 - eq i +1 a 1 - eq i +1 b 1 - eq i +1 c fq i
2 i +1 2 i +2 i

c h c h c h 1 - eq h 1 - eq h 1 - fq h c c c

Denis  and Bhagirathi  have obtained a number of results involving bilateral basic-hypergeometric series and continued fractions.

....................

30

CHAPTER-2

## CERTAIN TRANSFORMATION FORMULAE FOR HYPERGEOMET RIC SERIES

2.1

Introduction :
In this chapter, we shall make use of of the following Baileys transformation

if

b n = a r u n- r v n+ r
r =0

(1)

and

g n = d r + n ur vr +2 n ,
r =0

(2)

where a r , d r , u r and vr are any functions of r only, such that the series g n exists, then

a n g n = bnd n ,
n=0 n= 0

(3)

in order to establish certain transformation and summation formulae for hypergeometric functions. In order to obtain transformation and summation formulae, we shall be in need of the following known results:

7 6

1 L a, 1 + a, M FM 2 1 M N 2 a,

b,

c,

d,

1 + 2a - b - c - d + n, b + c + d - a,

1 + a - b, 1+ a - c, 1 + a - d,

O P P 1 + a + n;P Q
-n; 1
(4)

1 + a fa 1 + a - b - cf a 1 + a - b - df a 1 + a - c - df a , 1 + a - bfa 1 + a - cf a 1 + a - df a 1 + a - b - c - df a
n n n n n n n n

31

## provided that 1 + 2a = b + c + d + e - n. [Slater ; App III (III.13)]

a, b, L FM N 1 + a - b,
2

- n; 1 + a + n;

F1 I 1 + af 1 + a - b a H 2 K. 1O = 1 I P 1+ a a QF H 2 K1 + a - bf
n n n n

(5)

## [Slater ; App III (III.9)]

1 L a , 1 + M 2 a, FM 1 M N 2 a,
3

b, 1 + a - b,

O P 1 + af a P = . 1 + a - bf 1 + a + n;P a Q
- n; 1
n n

(6)

## [Slater ; App III(III.11)]

a, b, L FM N 1 + a - b,
2

- n; a + 2 b - n;

F 1 I - bf a - 2 bf 1 + a - b a a H2 K . 1O = 1 P F I -2bf 1 + a - bf a - b a Qa H K 2
n n n n n n

(7)

## [Slater ; App III(III.16)]

1 L a, 1 + a, M 2 FM 1 M N 2 a,
3

b, 1 + a - b,

O P a - 2 bf a - bf a P = . 1 + a - bfa -2 bf 1 + 2 b - n;P a Q
- n; 1
n n n n

(8)

## [Slater ; App III(III.17)]

32

1 L a , 1 + a, M 2 FM 1 M N 2 a,
3

b, 1 + a - b,

O P P 2 + 2 b - n;P Q
- n; 1
n n

1 1 F I - b - 1f a - 2 b - 1f a + - b a a H K 2 2 = . 1 1 F I 1 + a - bf a - - b a a H K-2b - 1f 2 2
n n n n

(9)

## [Slater ; App III(III.18)]

1 L a, 1 + a , M 2 FM 1 M N 2 a,
2

- n; 1 + a + n;

O P P =a 1 + af P Q

(10)

## [Slater ; (2.3.4.10)p.57]

1 G 1+ a - b G 1+ a a, b; -1 2 = . 2F 1 1 1 + a - b; G 1+ a G 1+ a - b 2

L M N

F a f O H P Q a fF H

I K I K

(11)

## [Slater ; App III(III.5)]

a, b; 1Oa 1 + a fa 1 + bf L = . M P 1 + a + bf n! N 1 + a - b; Q a
n n n

F1

## (12) [Slater ; (2.6.19)p.84]

1 + af a 1 + bf a 1 + cf a , n!afa d a + b + c - df
n n n n n

F2 a , b, c; d , a + b + c - d; 1 =

(13)

33

1 0

F a; ; z = 1 - z

a f

-a

F1 a , b; c; 1 =

af a f a fa f

## (15) [Slater ; App.III(III.3)]

L x, 3x + 4 + n, M FM 3 x + 1f , M N 2a
2

3 4 = 1 n 2 x + 4 n x + 2 m x + 3 3m , 3 1 + x n 3x + 4 n 1 n 2 x + 4 3m (16) x + 2; 2 - n;
n . 3
[Verma & Jain ;(1.5)p.1022]

O afa fa f a f P P a fa fafa f P Q

## provided that m is the greatest integer

F2

- n, L M N

x,

y;

- n - x, - n - y;

n n n m m m n m

(17)

## where m is the greatest integer

n . 2
[Verma & Jain ; (2.6) p. 1024]

3 2

- n, L M N

- n - x, 1 + x,

y; - n - y;

1fa 1 + x - yf a 1 + yf a O = P 1 + yfa 1 + xf a 1f , Qa
n m m n m m

(18)

## where m is the greatest integer

n . 2
[verma & Jain ;(2.7) p. 1024]

34

3F 2

- n, L M N

1 + x, 1 + y; 1 -1 n 1 + x + y n 1 + x m 1 + y = 1 - n - x , 1 - n - y; x n y n 1+ x + y m 1 m

1 a fa fa f a f af O , P Q afafa f af
m n

## ....(19) where m is the greatest integer

n . 2
[Verma & Jain ;(2.11)p.1025]

F2

- n, L M N

- n - 2 x, - n - x,

y; 2 y + 1;

n n m m n n m m

(20)

## where m is the greatest integer

n . 2
[Verma & Jain ;(2.13) p.1026]

F2

- n, L M N
n

- n - 2 x, 1 - n - x,

1 + y; 2 y + 1,

O P Q
m

n n m n n m m

(21)

## where m is the greatest integer

n . 2
[Verma & Jain ; (2.17) p.1026]

3F 2

- n, L M N

1 + n, 1 + x + y,

2 x + 2 y; x; 1 1 + 2 x;

1 1 + xf a 1 + yf afa O = P 1 + 2 xf a 1 + x + y f af 1 , Qa
n m m n m m

(22)

## where m is the greatest integer

n . 2
[Verma & Jain ; (2.26) p.1028]

F2

- n, L M N

1 + n + 2 x + 2 y , 1 + x; 1 + x + y, 1 + 2 x;
35

O P Q

-1fafa 1 1 + xf a 1 + yf a = 1 + 2 xfa 1 + x + yf af 1 a
n n m n m

(23)

## where m is the greatest integer

n . 2
[Verma & Jain ; (2.27) p.1028]

3F 2

- n, L M M N

2 + b + n + 2 x, x; 1 1 1 + b + x, 2 x + 2; 2

O P P Q
m 2m

n n m n n m m 2m

(24)

## where m is the greatest integer

n . 2
[Verma & Jain ; (3.3) p.1033]

2

(25)

## where m is the greatest integer

n . 2
[Verma & Jain ; (3.4) p.1033]

36

1 1 L n , x , M 2 2 FM M N x - 1,
3

1 + a + n, - n; x + 1,

O P 1 1 P + a; P 2 2 Q
1
m

n n m n n m m

(26)

## where m is the greatest integer

n . 2
[Verma & Jain ; (3.6) p.1033]

a L , M 3 FM M N
2

1 + a - n, 1 a + , 2 2

- n; a 1+ 2

3 1 4 =

1 I F O 1+ a af H 3 K, P P 1 + a f af 1 a P Q
n m n m

(27)

## where m is the greatest integer

n . 2
[Verma & Jain ; (4.6) p.1036]

3 2

a L , 1 + a + n, M 3 FM a M N 2,

1 n-m 3 1 1 n 1+ a 3 4 = 1 a 1+ a n 1 m + ; 2 2 - n;

F I O a f a f H K, P P a fa f P Q
m

(28)

## where m is the greatest integer

n . 2
[Verma & Jain ; (4.7) p.1036]

a a L , 1 + , M 3 2 FM a M N 2,
3

1 + a + n, - n; 1 a a + , 2+ 2 2 2

a 3 1n 2 4 = 1+ a

1 I F aI FI F O 1+ a 2+ af H K H H P 3 K 6K , P aI F aI F P 2+ 1 af H Q a fH 2K 6K
n m m n m n m

(29)

37

## where m is the greatest integer

n . 2
[Verma & Jain ; (4.9) p.1037]

2.2

Main Results:
In this chapter, we shall establish our main results.

(i)

Choosing
un = 1 + a - b - c - df a , 1 af
n n

vn =

1 + 2a - b - c - d f a 1 + af a
n

and

an

## F1Ib c d a 1 + a afafaf af H2 K = , 1 I F n! a a 1 + a - bfa 1 + a - cfa 1 + a - df H 2 K

n n n n n n n n n

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

## F1Ib c d a 1 + a afafaf af H2 K = 1 I F r! a a 1 + a - bfa 1 + a - cfa 1 + a - df H 2 K

r r r r r r =0 r r r r
n- r n+ r n- r n+ r

1 + a - b - df a 1 + 2a - b - df a 1f 1 + af a a

1 + a - b - c - d fa 1 + 2a - b - c - d f a n!a 1 + af
n n n

38

## F 1 I b c d 1 + 2a - b - c - d + nf a 1 + a afafafa af H2 K 1 I F r! a a 1 + a - bfa 1 + a - cfa 1 + a - df H 2 K

n r r r r r r r=0 r r r r

- nf a , b + c + d - nfa 1 + a + nf a
r r r

1 + a - b - c - d fa 1 + 2a - b - c - d f a n!a 1 + af
n n n

1 L a, 1+ a, M FM 2 1 M N 2 a,
7 6

b,

c,

d,

1+ 2a - b - c + n, b + c + d - n,

-n; 1+ a + n;

1+ a - b, 1+ a - c, 1+ a - d,

O P P P Q

## Now, using (2.1.4) we get :

1 + 2a - b - c - d fa 1 + a - b - cfa 1 + a - b - d fa 1 + a - c - df a . n!a 1 + a - b fa 1 + a - cfa 1 + a - df
n n n n n n n

bn =

Again, putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = 1 we get :

g n = 1.
r =0

1 + a - b - c - df a 1 + 2a - b - c - d f a r! 1 + af a
r r +2 n

r +2 n

1 + 2a - b - c - d f 1 + a - b - c - d fa 1 + 2a - b - c - d + 2 nf a a 1 + af r !a 1 + a + 2 nf a
2n r 2n r =0 r

1 + a - b - c - d, 1 + 2a - b - c - d f a L FM 1 + af a N
2n 2 1 2n

1 + 2a - b - c - d + 2 n; 1 1 + a + 2 n;

O . P Q

39

## Now , making use of (2.1.15) we have :

1 + 2a - b - c - d f G a a 1 + af Ga 2 b + 2c + 2d - 2a - 1f . b + c + df Ga b + c + df Ga b + c + d - af , a
2n 2n

gn =

## F1Ib c d a 1 + a afafaf af H2 K F 1 I n! a a 1 + a - bfa 1 + a - cfa 1 + a - df H 2 K

n n n n n n=0 n n n

1 + 2a - b - c - d f a b + c + df a
2n

2n

G1 + a G 2 b + 2 c + 2 d - 2 a - 1 G b + c + d Gb + c + d - a

n= 0

1 + 2a - b - c - d f a 1 + a - b - cf a 1 + a - b - df a 1 + a - c - df a , n! a 1 + a - bf a 1 + a - cf a 1 + a - df
n n n n n n n

G 1 + a G 2 b + 2c + 2d - 2a - 1 G b+c+d G b+c+d -a

a fa a fa

## 1 L a , 1 + a, b, c, d, M 2 FM 1 M N 2a, 1+a-b, 1+a-c, 1+a -d,

7 6

1 b c d b c d + a - - - , 1+ a - - - ; 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 b+c+d 1 b c d , + + + ; 2 2 2 2 2

O P P P Q

= 4 F3

1 + 2a - b - c - d , L M N

1 + a - b - c, 1 + a - b - d , 1 + a - c - d; 1 , 1 + a - b, 1 + a - c, 1 + a - d;

O P Q

## provided Rl (2b+2c+2d-2a) > 1.

40

(ii)

Choosing

un =

af

1 1 = , 1 n n! 1 1+ a

vn =
and

a f

an

## a b -1f afafa = n!a 1 + a - bf

n n

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

a b -1f afafa 1 1 = r !a 1 + a - bf af 1 1 + af a
n r r r r =0 r n-r

n+ r

1 n! 1 + a

1 + a - bfa 1 + a + nf f r !a
r r r n r=0 r

a b - nf afafa

bn =

1 n! 1 + a

a, b, L a f M N 1 + a - b,
3

F2

- n; 1 + a - n;

O P Q

## Now, using (2.1.5), we get

bn

1 F I 1+ a - b H2 K . = F 1 I 1 + a - bf n! 1 + a a H2 K
n n n

Again putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = a get :
41

b we afaf
n n

gn = a
r =0

1 1 b af af r! a 1 + af
r+n r+n

r +2 n

a af b af 1+ af a
n

2n

r=0

a + nf a b + nf a r !a 1 + a + 2nf
r r

a b afaf 1 + af a
n 2n

2 1

F a + n, b + n; 1 + a + 2n; 1 .

## Now, making use of (2.1.15) we have :

anbn G 1+ a G 1+ a - a - b , G 1 + a - a G 1+ a - b 1 + a - a n 1+ a - b n

gn =

a fa a fa

f afaf fa fa f

## provided Rl 1 + a - a - b >0. Putting b n , g n , a n and d n in (2.1.3), we finally get :

G 1+ a G 1+ a - a - b G 1+ a - a G 1+ a - b

a fa a fa

## a b a b -1 f afafafafaf 1 + a - bfa 1 + a - afa 1 + a - bf f n!a

n n n n n n=0 n n

1 F Ia b 1 + a - b afaf H2 K = F 1 I 1 + a - bf n! 1 + a a H2 K
n n n n=0 n

4F 3

a, b, L M N 1 + a - b,

a, b; 1 1 + a - a, 1 + a - b;

O P Q

1 a, b, 1 + a - b; 1 G 1+ a - a G 1+ a - b 2 = 3F2 , 1 G 1+ a G 1+ a - a - b 1 + a, 1 + a - b; 2

a fa a fa

f f

L M M M N

O P P P Q
f

## provided Rel 1 + a - a - b > 0 .

42

(iii)

Choosing

un =

af

1 1n 1 1+ a n ,

vn =
and

a f

an

F1Ib a 1 + a af af H2 K = 1 I F n! a a 1 + a - bf H 2 K
n n n n

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

F1Ib a 1 + a af af H2 K 1 1 = 1 I 1 1 + af F af a r! a a 1 + a - bf H 2 K
n r r r r =0 n-r r r r n r r r r

n+r

## F 1 I b - nfa a 1 + a afa -1f af H 1 2 K = F 1 I n!a 1 + af r! a a 1 + a - bfa 1 + a + nf H 2 K

n r =0 r r

bn

1 L a , 1 + a, M 1 2 = FM 1 n!a 1 + af M N 2 a,
4 3 n

b, 1 + a - b,

- n; - 1

O P . P 1+ a + n P Q

## Now, using (2.1.6), we get

43

bn =

1 . n! 1 + a - b n

Again putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = a get :

b we afaf
n n

gn = a
r =0

1 1 b af af r! a 1 + af
r+n r+n

r +2 n

a af b a + n fa b + nf af a 1 + af r !a 1 + a + 2nf a
n n r 2 n r=0 r

a b afaf 1 + af a
n 2n

n 2

F1 a + n, b + n; 1 + a + 2 n; 1

## Now, making use of (2.1.15) we have :

a b afaf Ga 1 + a f Ga 1 + a - a - bf 1 + a - afa 1 + a - bf G a 1 + a - afG a 1 + a - bf, a
n n n n

gn =

## F1Ib a b a 1 + a afafaf af H2 K Ga 1 + afGa 1 + a - a - bf 1 I Ga 1 + a - a f Ga 1 + a - bf F n! a a 1 + a - bfa 1 + a - afa 1 + a - bf H 2 K

n n n n n n= 0 n n n

n=0

a b afaf n!a 1 + a - bf
n n

44

1 a, 1 + a, b, a, b; 1 G 1+ a G 1 + a - a - b 2 5F4 1 G 1+ a - a G 1 + a - b a, 1 + a - b, 1 + a - a, 1 + a - b; 2

a fa a fa

f f

L M M M N

O P P P Q

= 2 F1 a , b; 1 + a - b; 1
Now, making use of (2.1.15) we finally get :

## 1 L O a , 1 + a , b , a , b ; 1 M 2 P FM P 1 a , 1 + a - b, 1 + a - a , 1 + a - b; P M N 2 Q Ga 1 + a - afGa 1 + a - bf Ga 1 + a - bfGa 1 + a - b - a - bf = , Ga 1 + afGa 1 + a - a - bf Ga 1 + a - b - afGa 1 + a - b - bf provided Rel a 1 + a - a - b f> 0 .

5 4

(iv)

Choosing
un = -2 bf a 1 af
n n

v n = 1,
and
a b afaf n!a 1 + a - bf
n n

an =

in (2.1.1) we get :

45

bn =
r =0

a b -2 bf afaf a . r !a 1 + a - bf af 1
r r r
n

n- r

.1

n- r

-2 b f a =
n

n!

r =0

a b - nf afafa r !a 1 + a - bfa 1 + 2 b - nf
r r r r

-2 bf a n!

n 3

F2 a , b, - n; 1 + a - b, 1 + 2 b - n; 1

## Now, using (2.1.7), we get

bn

F 1 I - bf a - 2 bf 1 + a - b a a H2 K . = 1 F I n!a 1 + a - bf a - b H K 2
n n n n n

Again, putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = z n we get :

gn = z

ri

r =0

-2 bf a z
r

r!

= z n 1 F0 -2 b; ...; z

g n = zn 1 - z

a f.
2b

## F 1 I - bf a - 2 bf 1 + a - b a a a b afaf H2 K z z a 1 - zf = n!a 1 1 + a - bf F I . n!a 1 + a - bf a - b H K 2

n n n 2b n n n n n=0 n n= 0 n n

.
1 - zf a
2b 2

F1 a , b; 1 + a - b; z
46

1 1 = 3 F2 a - 2 b, 1 + a - b, - b; 1 + a - b, a - b; z . 2 2

L M N

O P Q

(v)

Choosing
un = -2 bf a 1 af
n n

vn = 1
and

an

F1Ib a 1 + a af af H2 K . = 1 I F n! a a 1 + a - bf H 2 K
n n n n n

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

F1Ib a 1 + a af af -2 bf H 2 K .a = 1 I 1 F af r! a a 1 + a - bf H 2 K
n r r r r =0 r r n r r n r

n- r

.1

n-r

F 1 I b - nf a 1 + a afa af -2 bf a H2 K = . 1 I n! F r! a a 1 + a - bfa 1 + 2 b - nf H 2 K
r r =0 r r r

1 L a , 1 + a, -2 bf a M 2 = FM 1 n! M N 2 a,
n 4 3

b, 1 + a - b,

O P P 1 + 2 b - n;P Q
- n; 1

47

## Now, using (2.1.8), we get

a - 2 bf a - bf a . n !a 1 + a - bf
n n n

bn =

Again, putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = z n we get :

g n = z ri
r =0

-2 bf a z
r

r!

= z n 1 F0 -2 b; ...; z

g n = zn 1 - z

a f.
2b

## Putting b n , g n , a n and d n in (2.1.3), we finally get :

F1Ib a 1 + a af af H2 K za 1 - zf F 1 I n! a a 1 + a - bf H 2 K
n n n n n=0 n n

2b

=
n= 0

a - 2 bfa - bf a z n!a 1 + a - bf
n n n

1 L a, 1 + a, M 2 1 - zf F M a 1 M N 2 a,
2b 3 2

b; 1 + a - b;

O P = F a - 2 b, P P Q
2 1

- b; 1 + a - b; z .

(vi)

Choosing
un = -1 - 2 b f a , 1 af
n n

vn = 1
48

and

an

F1Ib a 1 + a af af H2 K . = 1 I F n! a a 1 + a - bf H 2 K
n n n n n

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

F1Ib a 1 + a af af -1 - 2 bf H 2 K .a = 1 I 1 F af r! a a 1 + a - bf H 2 K
n r r r r =0 n-r r r n r r n r

n- r

.1

F 1 I b - nf a 1 + a afa af -1 - 2 bf a H2 K = . 1 I n! F r! a a 1 + a - bfa 2 + 2 b - nf H 2 K
r r =0 r r r

1 L a , 1 + a, -1 - 2 bf a M 2 = FM 1 n! M N 2 a,
n 4 3

b, 1 + a - b,

O P P 1 + 2 b - n;P Q
- n; 1

## Now, using (2.1.9), we get

bn

1 1 F I - b - 1f a - 2 b - 1f + a-b a a H K . 2 2 = 1 1 F I n!a 1 + a - bf a - - b H K 2 2
n n n n

Again, putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = z n we get :

49

gn = z

ni

r =0

-1 - 2 bf a z
r

r!

g n = zn 1 - z

a f

1+ 2 b

## Putting b n , g n , a n and d n in (2.1.3), we finally get :

F1Ib a 1 + a af af H2 K za 1 - zf F 1 I n! a a 1 + a - bf H 2 K
n n n n n=0 n n n n

1+ 2 b

1 1 F I - b - 1f a - 2 b - 1f a + - b a a H K 2 2 = z 1 1 F I n!a 1 + a - bf a - - b H K 2 2
n n=0 n n

1 L a, 1 + a, M 2 1 - zf F M a 1 M N 2 a,
1+ 2 b 3 2

b; 1 + a - b;

O P P P Q
z

L a - 2 b - 1, M =FM M N
3 2

1 1 a + - b, 2 2 1 + a - b,

- b - 1; 1 1 a - - b; 2 2

O P P P Q

(vii) Choosing

un =

af

1 1n, 1 1+ a

vn =

a f

50

and

an

F 1 I -1f a 1+ a a af H2 K = 1 I F n! a H 2 K
n n n

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

F 1 I -1f a 1+ a a af H2 K 1 1 = 1 I 1 1 + af F af a r! a H 2 K
r n r r r =0 n-r r

n+ r

bn

1 L a , 1 + a, M 1 2 = FM 1 n !a 1 + af M N 2 a,
3 2 n

- n; 1 + a + n;

O P P P Q

## Now, using (2.1.10), we get

bn =

1 . n!

Again, putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = a have :

b we afaf
n n

gn = a
r =0

1 1 b af af r! a 1 + af
r+n r+n

r +2 n

a b afaf 1 + af a
n 2n

n 2

F1 a + n, b + n; 1 + a + 2 n; 1

## Now, making use of (2.1.15) we have :

51

gn =

anbn G 1+ a G 1+ a - a - b , G 1 + a - a G 1+ a - b 1 + a - a n 1+ a - b n

a fa a fa

f afaf fa fa f

provided Rel 1 - a - a - b > 0 . and either a or b is a negative integer. . Putting b n , g n , a n and d n in (2.1.3), we finally get :

F1Ia b a 1 + a afaf af H2 K G1 + a G1 + a - a - b F 1 I G1 + a - a G1 + a - b n! a a 1 + a - a fa 1 + a - bf H 2 K
n n n n n=0 n n n

=
n= 0

a b afaf
n

n!

1 L a , 1 + a, M 2 FM 1 M N 2 a,
3

a , b; 1 + a - a,

O P P 1 + a - b;P Q
1

G 1 + a - a G1 + a - b 2 F0 a , b; ...; G 1 + a G1 + a - a - b

## provided Rel 1 + a - a - b > 0

(viii) Choosing

un = 1 = vn
and

52

an =

a b afaf n!a 1 + a + bf
n n

in (2.1.1) we get :
a b afaf .11 . = F a, r !a 1 + a + bf
r r 2 1 r

bn =
r=0

b; 1 + a + b; 1 n

## Now, using (2.1.11) we get

1 + a fa 1 + bf a n!a 1 + a + bf .
n n n

bn =

Again, putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = z n we get :

g n = zr +n
r =0

zn gn = 1- z

a f
n

## Putting b n , g n , a n and d n in (2.1.3), we finally get :

a b 1 + a fa 1 + bf afaf a z = z n!a 1 + a + bf a 1 - zf n!a 1 + a - bf
n n n n n=0 n n=0 n

F1 a , b; 1 + a + b; z = 1 - z 2 F1 1 + a , 1 + b; 1 + a + b; z .

a f

(ix)

Choosing

un = 1 = vn
and

53

an =

## a b c afafaf n!a a + b + c - d faf d

n n n n

in (2.1.1) we get :
a b c afafaf .11 . r !a a + b + c - d faf d
r r r r r

bn =
r =0

= 3 F2

a , b, c; 1O L M a + b + c - df ; P N d, a Q
n

## Now using (2.1.13) we get :

1 + a fa 1 + bfa 1 + cf a n!af d a a + b + c - df
n n n n

bn =

provided bc + ca + ab = d - 1 a + b + c - d - 1 . Again putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = z n we have

a fa

g n = z n + r .11 .
r =0

= zn zr =
r =0

a f

zn 1- z

zn gn = 1- z

a f
n

## Putting b n , g n , a n and d n in (2.1.3), we finally get :

a b c 1 + a fa 1 + bfa 1 + cf afafaf a z = z n!afa d a + b + c - df a 1 - zf n!af d a a + b + c - df
n n n n n n n=0 n n n= 0 n n

54

3F 2

a , b, c; zO L M N d , a + b + c - d; P Q 1 + a , 1 + b, 1 + c; zO L =a 1 - zf F M , N d , a + b + c - d; P Q provided bc + ca + ab = a d - 1fa a + b + c - d - 1f .
3 2

(x)

Choosing

un =

af

1 1n,

v n = 3x + 4
and

a f

an

## x 3 4ga -1f afb = 3 3 IF 3 F I n! + x x+2 H H K 2 2 K 2

n n n n n

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

## x 3 4g -1f afb a 1 = . .a 3x + 4f 3 3 IF 3 F I 1 af r! + x x+2 H H K 2 2 K 2

n r r r r =0 n-r r r r

n+r

## 3x + 4f x 3 4g - nfa 3x + 4 + nf a afb a = 3 3 IF 3 n! F I r! + x x+2 H H K 2 2 K 2

n n r r r =0 r r

x, 3x + 4 + n, 3x + 4f a L FM n! N 3 2x + 3 2
n 3 2

- n; 34 3 2 x + 2;
55

O P Q

## Now using (2.1.16) we get :

2 x + 4fa x + 2f a x + 3f a 1 + xfaf 1 a 2 x + 4f a
n m n m 3m

bn =

3m

where m is the greatest inter n 3 . Again putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = z n we have
z r + n 3x + 4 gn = r! r =0

a f

r+2 n

z r 3x + 4 + 2 n = z 3x + 4 2 n r! r =0
n

a f

= z n 3x + 4

a f

2n 1

F0 3x + 4 + 2 n; ; z

## Now using (2.1.14) we get :

g n = 3x + 4 1 - zf a fz a
n 2n 3x +4 + 2 n

## Putting b n , g n , a n and d n in (2.1.3); we finally get :

x 3 4 ga -1f 3x + 4 f z afb a F 3 3I F 3 I 1 - zf x+ x + 2 n! a H H K 2 2K 2
n n n n=0 n n
n

n 2n 3x + 4+ 2 n

## 2 x + 4fa x + 2f a x + 3f z a = 1 a 1 + xf a 2 x + 4f af x 3 4ga -1f F afb 3 5 I F2 I x + JG J z G F H 3 3I H 2 2K 1 - zK n! x + H 2 2K

n m 3m n=0 m n 3m

2n

n=0

56

= 1- z

a f

3x + 4

n= 0

2 x + 4fa x + 2f a x + 3f a 1 + xfaf 1 a 2 x + 4f a
n m n m 3m

3m

zn ,

## where m is the greatest integer n 3 . (xi) Choosing

un = 1 + xfa 1 + yf a , 1 af
n n n

vn = 1
and
an x y -1f afafa =
n n n

n!

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

x y -1f a 1 + xf a 1 + yf afafa = . r! 1 af
n r r r n-r r =0 n- r

n- r

.1

x, y, 1 + xfa 1 + yf a L FM n! N - n - x,
n n 3 2

- n; 1 - n - y,

O P Q

## Now, using (2.1.17) we get :

1 + xf a 1 + yf a 1 + x + yf a , 1 a 1 + x + yf af
m m n m m

bn =

where m is the greatest inter n 2 . Again, putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = z n we have

g n = zr +n
r =0

1 1 + x r 1 + y r .1 r!

a fa f

57

zr 1 + x r 1 + y =z r! r =0
n

a fa f

g n = z n 2 F0 1 + x, 1 + y; ; z .

## Putting b n , g n , a n and d n in (2.1.3); we finally get : x y -1f z afafa

n n n n=0 n 2

n!

F0 1 + x, 1 + y; ; z

1 + x + yfa 1 + xf a 1 + yf z a = 1 a 1 + x + yf af
n m m n=0 m m

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . (xii) Choosing

un =

a f af a f

1 1+ y n 1 n 1+ x n ,

vn = 1
and

an

## y -1f afa = n!a 1 + xf

n

in (2.1.1) we get :

## y -1f 1 + yf afa a b = . .1 1 + xf r ! af 1 a 1 + xf a 1 + yf y - x - nfa - nf a afa = 1 + xf n! r !a 1 + xfa - n - yf a

n r r n- r n r =0 r n- r n-r
n r r r n r =0 r r

58

- n, 1 + yf a L FM 1 + xf n! N a
n 3 2 n

- n - x, y; 1 1 + x, - n - y,

O P Q

## Now, using (2.1.18) we get :

1 + yf a 1 + x + yf a , 1 a 1 + x + yf a 1 + xf af
m m m m n

bn =

where m is the greatest integer n 2 . Again putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking dn = a n we have

af

gn = a
r=0

1 + yf af r1! a 1 + xf a
n+ r

r +2 n r +2 n

1 + yf af a a F a + n, 1 + xf a
2n n 2 1 2n

1 + y + 2 n; 1 + x + 2 n; 1

gn

n 2n n n n

## provided Rl x - a - n > 0. Putting b n , g n , a n and d n in (2.1.3); we finally get :

n!a 1 + xf a 1 + x - a fa 1 - x + af
n 2n n n=0 n n

y 1 + yf af a afa

G 1+ x - a G x - y G 1+ x G x - a

1 + x - yf a 1 + yf af a a f a f a , 1 + xfa 1 + xf a 1f a fa f a
m m n n= 0 n m m

59

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 .

(xiii) Choosing
un = x y afaf , 1 af
n n n

vn = 1
and
an 1 + xfa 1 + yfa -1f a =
n n n

n!

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

1 + xfa 1 + y fa -1f af x af y a = . r! 1 af
n r r r n-r r =0 n- r

n- r

.1

-n x y afaf L FM n! N
n n 3 2

1 + x, 1 + y; 1 - n - x, 1 - n - y

O P Q

## Now, using (2.1.19) we get :

bn

-1fa 1 + x + yfa 1 + xf a 1 + yf a = , 1 a 1 + x + yf af
n n m m m m

where m is the greatest inter n 2 . Again, putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = 1 we have

g n = 1.
r =0

x y afaf .1.
r r

r!

60

g n = 2 F0 x, y; ;1 .
Putting b n , g n , a n and d n in (2.1.3); we finally get : 1 + x fa 1 + yfa -1f a
n n n=0 n 2

n!

F0 x, y; ;1

-1fa 1 + x + yfa 1 + xf a 1 + yf a = , 1 a 1 + x + yf af
n n m m n= 0 m m

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 .

(xiv) Choosing
un =

a f af a f

1 1+ x n 1 n 1 + 2x n ,

vn = 1
and

an

## y -1f afa = n!a 2 y + 1f

n n

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

y -1f 1 + xf afa a = 2 y + 1f r ! af 1 a 1 + 2 xf a
n r r n-r r =0 r n- r

n-r

- n, 1 + xf a L FM 1 + 2 xf n! N a
n 3 2 n

- n - 2 x, -n - x

y; 2y + 1

O P Q

## Now, using (2.1.20) we get :

61

bn =

1 + xf a 1 + yf a 1 + x + yf a , 1 a 1 + x + yf a 1 + 2 xfa 1 + 2 yf af
m m n m m n n

where m is the greatest inter n 2 . Again, putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking dn = a n we have

af

gn = a
r=0

1 + xf a .1 af r1! a 1 + 2 xf
r n+ r 2r

= a n 2 F1 a + n, 1 + x; 1 + 2 x; 1
Now, using (2.1.15) we get :
a a - 2 xf G a x - af Ga 1 + 2 xf afa , 1 - x + a f G af x Ga 1 + 2x - a f a
n n n

af

gn =

## provided Rel x - a - n > 0 Putting b n , g n , a n and d n in (2.1.3); we finally get :

n!a 2 y + 1fa 1 - x + af
n n n n=0 n

y a a - 2 xf afafa

G 1 + 2 xG x - a G xG 1 + 2 x - a

=
n= 0

n n m m n n m m

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . y, a - 2 x, L M N 2y + 1, a; -1 1 - x - a;

F2

O P Q

G xG 1 + 2 x - a a n 1 + x + y n 1 + x m 1 + y m G 1 + 2 xG x - a n = 0 1 + 2 x n 1 + 2 y n 1 + x + y m 1 m ,
62

afa f a f a f a fa fa f af

un =

af af a f ,
xn 1 1 n 1 + 2x
n

vn = 1
and

an

## 1 + yfa -1f a = n!a 2 y + 1f

n n

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

1 + y fa -1f 1 x a af = r !a 2 y + 1f af 1 a 1 + 2 xf
r r n-r r =0 r n- r

n- r

- n, x af L FM n!a 1 + 2 xf N
n 3 2 n

- n - 2 x,

1 + y;

1 - n - x, 2 y + 1;

O P Q

bn

n n n n n n m m

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 .

A g a i n , p u t t i n g t h e a b o v e v a l u e s o f u

## , vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = z n , we have:

63

g n = zr +n
r =0

x af r !a 1 + 2 xf
r r

g n = z n 1 F1 x; 1 + 2 x; z .

n n n=0 n n

1 1

F x; 1 + 2 x; z

## -1fa 1 + x + yfa 1 + xf a 1 + yf a = z , 1 + 2 xfa 1 + 2 yfa 1 + x + yf af 1 a

n m m n n=0 n n m m

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . (xvi) Choosing

un =

af

1 1n,

v n = 1 + 2x + 2 y
and

an

## x -1f afa = n!a 1 + x + yfa 1 + 2 xf

n n n

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

x -1f afa 1 = 1 + 2 x + 2 yf a r !a 1 + x + y fa 1 + 2 xf af 1
n r r r =0 r r n- r

n+ r

64

- n, 1 + 2 x + 2 yf a L FM n! N
n 3 2

1 + n + 2 x + 2 y, x; 1 1 + x + y, 1 + 2 x;

O P Q

## Now, using (2.1.22) we get :

1 + 2 x + 2 y fa 1 + xf a 1 + yf a , 1 + 2 xf a 1 + x + yf af 1 a
n m m n m m

bn =

where m is the greatest inter n 2 . Again putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = z n we have

g n = zr+n
r =0

1 1 + 2x + 2y r!

r +2 n

g n = z 1 + 2x + 2y
n

f a
2n r=0

zr 1 + 2x + 2y + 2n r!
1+ 2 x + 2 y + 2 n

= zn 1 + 2 x + 2 y

1 - zf f a
2n

## Putting b n , g n , a n and d n in (2.1.3); we finally get :

x -1fa 1 + 2 x + 2 yf afa z n!a 1 + x + yfa 1 + 2 xf 1 - zf a
n n n 2n n=0 n n

2n

= 1- z

a f

1+ 2 x + 2 y

n= 0

1 + 2 x + 2 yf a 1 + xf a 1 + yf a z 1 + 2 xfa 1 + x + yf af 1 a
n m m n m m

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . (xvii) Choosing

un =

af

1 1n

65

v n = 1 + 2x + 2 y
and

an

## 1 + xfa -1f a = n!a 1 + x + yfa 1 + 2 xf

n n n

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

1 + xfa -1f a 1 = . 1 + 2 x + 2 yf a r !a 1 + x + y fa 1 + 2 xf af 1
n r r r =0 r r n- r

n+ r

- n, 1 + 2 x + 2 yf a L FM n! N
n 3 2

1 + n + 2 x + 2 y, 1 + x; 1 1 + x + y, 1 + 2 x;

O P Q

## Now using (2.1.23) we get :

-1fa 1 + 2 x + 2 y fa 1 + x fa 1 + yf a , 1 + 2 xfa 1 + x + yf af 1 a
n n m n m m

bn =

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 .

A g a i n , p u t t i n g t h e a b o v e v a l u e s o f u

## , vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = z n we have

g n = zr+n
r =0

1 1 + 2x + 2y r!

r +2 n

g n = 1 + 2x + 2 y

2n

z n 1 F0 1 + 2 x + 2 y + 2 n; ; z

## Putting b n , g n , a n and d n in (2.1.3); we finally get :

1 + x fa -1fa 1 + 2 x + 2 yf a z n!a 1 + x + yfa 1 + 2 xf 1 - zf a
n n n 2n n=0 n n

2n

66

= 1- z

a f

1+ 2 x + 2 y

## -1fa 1 + 2 x + 2 yfa 1 + xf a 1 + yf z a , 1 + 2 xfa 1 + x + yf af 1 a

n n n m m n= 0 n m m

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . (xviii) Choosing

un =

af

1 1n

vn = 2 + b + 2x
and

f
n

an

x -1f afa = F 1 I 2 x + 2f n! 1 + b + x a H2 K
n n

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

## x -1f afa 1 = . 2 + b + 2 xf a 1 F I 1 af r! 1 + b + x a H 2 K2x + 2f

n r r r =0 n- r r r

n+ r

- n, L 2 + b + 2 xf a FM n! M N
n 3 2

2 + b + n + 2 x, x; 1 1 1 + b + x, 2 x + 2; 2

O P P Q

## Now, using (2.1.24) we get :

bn

3 bI F 1 I F 1 I F 2 + b + xf +x+ 1+ b 1+ x a H H H 2 K, 2 2K 2 K = 3 I F b xI F 1 + xfaf 1 + x 1+ + a H KH 2 2 K 2
n m m 2m n m m 2m

67

where m is the greatest integer n 2 . Again putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = z n we have

g n = zr + n
r =0

1 1 + b + 2x r!

r +2 n

g n = z n 1 F0 2 + b + 2 x + 2 n; ; z

2 + b + 2x

2n

## Now, using (2.1.14), we get

gn

2 + b + 2 xf z a = . 1 - zf a
n 2n 2 + b+ 2 x + 2 n

## 3 F I -1faf x +b+x a H K F 2 I 2 G n!a 2x + 2f 1 - zfJ a H K z

n n 2n n n=0 n

3 bI F bI F xI F 2 + b + xf +x+ 1+ 1+ z a H H H 2 2K 2K 2K =a 1 - zf , 3 I F 3 xI F 1 + xfaf 1 + x 1+ + a H KH 2 2 K 2
n 2+b+2 x n m m 2m n=0 n m m 2m

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . (xix) Choosing

un =

vn

af =a 2 + b + 2 xf

1 1n,

and

68

an

1 + xfa -1f a = F 1 I 2 + 2 xf n! 1 + b + x a H2 K
n n n

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

## 1 + xfa -1f a 1 = . 2 + b + 2 xf a 1 F I 1 af r! 1 + b + x a H 2 K2 + 2xf

n r r r =0 n- r r r

n+ r

- n, L 2 + b + 2 xf a = FM n! M N
n 3 2

2 + n + b + 2 x, 1 + x; 1 1 + b + x, 2 x + 2; 2

O P P Q

## Now, using (2.1.25) we get :

bn

3 b F IF1 I -1f + + x 1+ b a H KH 2 K, 2 2 = 3 I F 1 +x af H K 2
n m m m m

where m is the greatest integer n 2 . Again, putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = z n we have

g n = zr+ n
r =0

1 2 + b + 2x r!

r +2n

g n = zn 2 + b + 2x

2n

zr 2 + b + 2 x + 2n r , r! r =0

## Now, using (2.1.14) we get

g n = zn 2 + b + 2x

1 - zf f a
2n

2+ b + 2 x+ 2 n

69

## 3 b I F -1 1 + xf + + x afa H 2 2 K F2 I G J z n!a 2x + 2f 1 - zfK a H

n n 2n n n =0 n

3 bI F bI F -1f +x+ 1+ z a H H 2 2K 2K =a 1 - zf , 3 I F 1 +x af H K 2
n n 2+b+2 x n n n=0 m n

un =

af

1 1n,

vn = 1+ a
and

a f

an

## 1 1I F x x-1f af a H 2 2K = 1 1 I F n!a x - 1fa x + 1f + a H 2 2 K

n n n n n n

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

1 1I F x x-1f af a H 1 2 2K = . 1 + af a 1 1 I af 1 F r !a x - 1fa x + 1f + a H 2 2 K
r n r r r =0 n- r r r r

n+r

70

1 1 L x , x , 1 + af a M 2 2 = FM n! M N x - 1,
n 3 2

1 + a + n, x + 1,

- n;

O P 1 1 P + a P 2 2 Q
1

## Now, using (2.1.26) we get :

bn

1 1 I F 1IF 1 + a - xf 1 + a + a a H H 2 K 2 2 K = , 1 1 1 I F 1 + xfaf 1 + a- x a H 2 2 2 K
n m m n m m

where m is the greatest integer n 2 . Again, putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = z n we have

g n = zr +n
r =0

1 1+ a r!

a f
n

r +2 n

z r 1 + a + 2n g n = 1 + a 2n z r! r =0

a f

f
r

## Now, using (2.1.14) we get :

gn

1 + af z a = 1 - zf a

n 2n 1+ a + 2 n

## 1 1I F a I F -1faf x x1+ a H H 2 2K 2K F 2 I G J z n!a x - 1fa x + 1f 1 - zfK a H

n n 2n n n n=0 n n

71

1 1 I F1IF 1 + a + xf 1 + a + a z a H H 2 K 2 2 K =a 1 - zf , 1 a xI F 1 + xf af 1 + a H 2 2 2K
n 1+ a n m m n= 0 m m m

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . (xxi) Choosing

un =

af

1 1n,

vn = 1+ a
and

a f

an

a 3gb 3 4g -1f a b = 1 aI F aI F n! + 1+ H H 2 2K 2K
r n n n n

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

a 3g 3 4g -1f a b b 1 = . 1 + af a 1 1 I F a I af F 1 r! + a 1 + H H 2K 2 2 K
n r r r r =0 n- r r r

n+ r

a L , 1 + a + n, 1 + af a M 3 = FM 1 1 n! M N 2 ,+ 2 a ,
n 3 2

- n; a 1+ ; 2

34

O P P P Q

## Now, using (2.1.27) we get :

bn

aI F 1+ H 3K = 1 af
m m

72

## a Again, putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = b

F I G HJ Kwe
n

have :
gn =
r =0

F aI 1 1 + af G J a b K r! H
r+n 2n n 2 1 n

r +2 n

gn =

1 + a f af a a F a + n, b af

1 + a + 2 n; b + n; 1

## Now, using (2.1.15) we get

1 + af afa a b - a - 1f Gaf a b Ga b - a - a - 1f , b - a - a - 1f Ga b - af Ga b - a - 1f a provided Rl a b - a - a - 1 - n f> 0
2n n n n

gn =

## a 3gb 3 4g -1f a 1 + a f afa a b - a - 1f GbGb - a - a - 1 a b F 1 1 IF 1 I b - a - a - 1f Gb - aGb - a - 1 a n! + a 1 + a H H2 K 2 2 K

r n n 2n n n n=0 n n n

F aI a 1+ af H 3K, = b 1 afaf
n m n= 0 n m

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . (xxii) Choosing

un =

af

1 1n,

73

vn = 1+ a
and

a f

an

F aI a 3ga -1fb 3 4g 1 + b H 2K = aI F 1 aI F aI F n! + 2+ H H H 2K 2 2K 2K
n n n n n n n

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

aI F 1+ a 3g 3 4g -1f 1 a H 2K b b = . 1 + af a aI F 1 1 I af aI 1 F F r! + a 2+ H H H 2K 2K 2 2 K
n r r r n r =0 n+ r n- r r r n

a a L , 1 + , a f M 3 2 = FM a n! 2+ , M N 2 1+ a
n 4 3

1 + a + n, a , 2

- n; 1 1 + a; 2 2

34

O P P P Q

## Now, using (2.1.28) we get :

bn

F aI -1f 1 + a H 3K = 1 af
n-m m m

Again, putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = z n we have:

g n = zr +n
r =0

1 1+ a r!
n

a f
1 0

r +2 n

g n = 1+ a

a f z F 1 + a + 2 n;
2n

; z

74

g n = 1+ a

1 - zf a fz a
n 2n

1+ a + 2 n

## aI F 1 I F 3I F -1f 1+ a a H H 2 KH 3K 4K F 2 I G n!b a 2g 1 - zfJ a H K z

n n 2n n n n=0 n

F aI z -1f 1 + a H 3K , =a 1 - zf 1 af
n-m n 1+ a m n= 0 m

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . (xxiii) Choosing

un =

af

1 1n,

vn = 1+ a
and

a f

an

F aI b a 3g 1 + 3 4ga -1f b H 2K = 1 aI F aI F n! + 2+ H H 2 2K 2K
n n n n n

in (2.1.1) we get :

bn

a 3g 1 + a 2g 3 4ga -1f b b b 1 = 1 + af a 1 1 I F aI F 1 af r! + a 2 + H H 2K 2 2 K
n n r r r r =0 n-r r r

n+ r

75

a a L , 1 + , 1 + af a M 3 2 = FM a n! M N2,
n 4 3

1 + a + n, 1 1 + a, 2 2

- n; a 2+ ; 2

34

O P P P Q

## Now, using (2.1.29) we get :

bn

aI F aI F aI F 1+ 2+ H H H 2K 3K 6K = . aI aI F F 2+ 1 af H 2K H 6K
n m m m n m

Again, putting the above values of un, vn in (2.1.2) and taking d n = z n we have:

g n = zr +n
r =0

1 1+ a r!
n

a f
1 0

r +2 n

g n = 1+ a

a f z F 1 + a + 2 n;
2n

; z

## Now using (2.1.14) we get :

g n = 1+ a 1 - zf a fz a
n 2n 1+ a + 2 n

## Putting b n , g n , a n and d n in (2.1.3); we finally get :

aI F 1 I F 3I F 1+ a -1f a H H H 3K 2 K 4K a 1 + af z aI F n!b a 2g 2 + H 2K
n n n n n=0 2n n n

aI F aI F aI F 1+ 2+ H H H 2K 3K 6K =a 1 - zf z, F aI F aI 2+ 1f a H 2K H 6K
1+ a + 2 n n m m n n= 0 m n m

76

CHAPTER-3

## REDUCIBILITY OF DOUBLE HYPERGEOMET RIC SERIES

Introduction :
In this chapter, we shall make use of the following well known idenity :

B n, k = B k , n + k ,
n =0 k = 0 n= 0 k =0

af

(1)

in order to establish the reducibility of double hypergeometric series into single series. We shall be need of following known summations in our analysis :

3 2

- n, L M F M M N

x,

y;

- n - x, - n - y;

O 1 a 1 + x + yf a 1 + xf a 1 + yf af P = P 1 + xf a 1 + yf af 1 a 1 + x + yf , a P Q
n n n m m m n m

(2)

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . [Verma & Jain; (2.6)p.1024]

3 2

- n, L M F M M N

- n - x, 1 + x,

y; - n - y;

O 1 a 1 + x - yf a 1 + yf af P = , P 1 + yf a 1 + xf af 1 a P Q
n m m n m m

(3)

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . [Verma & Jain; (2.7)p.1024]

77

3 2

-n, L M F M M N

-n - x,

1+ y;

1- x - n, 1- n - y;

## O P - 1fa 1+ x + yfa 1+ yfa 1+ xf afa = , P x y 1 + x + y 1 afafa fa f P Q

n n n m m n n m m

(4)

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . [Verma & Jain; (2.11)p.1025]

- n, L M F M M N
2

- n - 2 x, - n - x,

y; 2 y + 1;

n n m m n n m m

(5)

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . [Verma & Jain; (2.13)p.1025]

- n, L F M M M N
2
n

- n - 2 x, 1 - n - x,

1 + y; 2y + 1

O P P P Q
m

n n m n n m m

(6)

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . [Verma & Jain; (2.17)p.1026]

- n, L M F M M N
2

1 + n + 2 x + 2 y, 1 + x + y,

x; 1 + 2x

O 1 1 + xf a 1 + yf afa P = , P 1 + 2 xf a 1 + x + yf af 1 a P Q
n m m n m m

(7)

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . [Verma & Jain; (2.26)p.1028]

78

- n, L M F M M N
2

1 + n + 2 x + 2 y, 1 + x + y,

1 + x; 1+ 2x

O P - 1 1 + xf a 1 + yf afafa = , (8) P 1 + 2 x 1 + x + y 1 a fa f af P Q
n n m m n m m

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . [Verma & Jain; (2.27)p.1028]

L - n, M FM M M N
2

2 + n + b + 2 x, 1+ 1 b + x, 2

x; 2x + 2

O P P P P Q
2m

## 3 bI F bI F 1 I F 1 2 + b + xf +x+ 1+ 1+ x afa H H H 2 2K 2K 2 K = , 3 I F b xI F 1 + xfa 2 + b + 2 xfaf 1 + x 1+ + a H KH 2 2 K 2

n n n m n n n m 2m

(9)

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . [Verma & Jain; (3.3)p.1033]

L - n, M F M M M N
2

2 + n + b + 2x, 1+ 1 b + x, 2

1 + x; 2 + 2x

O P P P P Q

3 b F I F bI - 1 + + x 1+ afaf H KH 2 K, 2 2 = 3 I F 2 + b + 2 xfaf 1 +x a H K 2
n n m m n m m

(10)

79

## [Verma & Jain; (3.4)p.1033]

1 1 L x , x , M 2 2 FM M M N x - 1,
3

1 + a - n, x + 1,

- n; 1 1 a+ 2 2

O P P P P Q

1 1 I F aI F 1 1 + a - xf 1 + + a afa H H 2K 2 2 K = , 1 1 xI F 1 + a fa 1 + xfaf 1 + aa H 2 2 2K
n n m m n n m m

(11)

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . [Verma & Jain; (3.6)p.1033]

a L , 1 + a + n, M 3 FM 1 a M N 2+ 2,
2

- n; a 1+ 2

34

O F aI P 1 1+ af H 3K, P = P 1 + a faf 1 Qa
n m n m

(12)

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . [Verma & Jain; (4.6)p.1036]

a L , 1 + a + n, M 3 FM a M N 2,
2

- n; 1 a + 2 2

34

O F aI P 1 af 1 1+ af H 3K, P = P 1 + a faf 1 Q a
n- m n m n m

(13)

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . [Verma & Jain; (4.7)p.1036]

80

a a L , 1 + , M 3 2 FM a M N 2,
3

1 + a + n, 1 1 + a, 2 2

- n; 2+ a 2

a a a 3 1n 1+ 2+ 2 n 3 m 6 4 = a a 1+ a n 2 + 1m 2 n 6

FI F O af HKH P P F P a f H Q

IF I KH K, I af FI (14) K HK
m m

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . [Verma & Jain; (4.9)p.1037]

a L a , 1 + , M 2 FM M 1 M N 2 a,
3

b,

- n;

1 + a - b, 1 + a + n

O P P 1 + af a = . P 1 + a b a f P Q
n n

(15)

## [Slater ; App.III(III.11)]

a, b, L M F M M N 1 + a - b,
2

- n; 1+ a + n

F1 I 1 + af 1 + a - b a O H 2 K. P = P 1 I F 1+ a a P QH 2 K1+ a - bf
n n n n

(16)

## [Slater ; App. III (III.9)]

a, b, L M F M M N 1 + a - b,
2

- n; 1 + 2b - n

n n n n n n

(17)

## [Slater ; App. III (III.16)]

a L a , 1 + , M 2 FM M 1 M N 2 a,
3

b,

- n;

1 + a - b, 1 + 2 b - n
81

O P P a - 2bfa -bf a = . P 1 + a b 2 b a fa f P Q
n n n n

(18)

## [Slater ; App.III(III.17)]

a L a , 1 + , M 2 FM M 1 M N 2 a,
3

b,

- n;

1 + a - b, 2 + 2 b - n

O P P P P Q

1 1 I F a - 2b - 1f a + - b a - b - 1f a H 2 2 K = . 1 1 I F 1 + a - bf a - - b a -2b - 1f a H 2 2 K
n n n n n n

(19)

## [Slater ; App.III(III.18)]

1 L a , 1 + a, M 2 FM M 1 M N 2 a,
4

b,

c,

- n;

1 + a - b , 1 + a - c 1 + a + n;

O P P P P Q
(20)

1 + a fa 1 + a - b - cf a . 1 + a - bf a 1 + a - cf a
n n n n

3 2

(21)

## [Slater ; (2.3.4.10)p.57]

82

1 L a, 1 + a, M 2 FM M 1 M N 2 a,
2

- n; 1+ a + n

O P 1 + af a P = 1 1 I F P + a P H 2 2 K Q
n n

(22)

## [Slater ; App. III (III.25)]

1 L a, M 2 FM M M N
3

1 1 + a, 2 2 1 b, 2

b + n,

- n;

1 1 b + , 1+ a 2 2

O P P b - af a = P b af P Q
n

(23)

## [Slater ; App. III (III.20)]

a L a , 1 + , M 2 FM M 1 M N 2 a,
3

b,

- n;

1 + a - b, 1 + 2 b - n

O P P a - 2 bf a - bf a = . P 1 + a - bfa -2 bf a P Q
n n n n

(24)

## [Slater ; App.III(III.17)]

a , b, L M F M M N c,
2

- n; 1 d

O c - af a c - bf a P = , P c c - a - bf afa P Q
n n n n

(25)

## provided that c + d = a + b - n + 1 [Slater ; App. III (III.2)]

83

3.2

Main Results :
In this chapter, we shall establish our main results :

(i)

## Summation (3.1.2) can be written as :

n

k !a - n - xf a - n - yf
k k k k=0 k

- nf af x af y a

## 1 1 + x + yfa 1 + xf a 1 + yf afa . 1 + xfa 1 + yfaf 1 a 1 + x + yf a

n n n m m m n m

(1)

Multiply both sides of (3.2.1) by Anzn and summing over n from 0 to , we have :
A nzn - n n=0 k =0 k ! - n - x
n

## x af y A z afa 1 1 + x + yf a 1 + xf a 1 + yf a f af = . (2) - n - yf 1 + xfa 1 + yfaf 1 a 1 + x + yf a fa a

n k k k n n n m m k k n =0 n n m m

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.2) we get :

A n + k z n 1 n+ k 1 + x n 1 + y n x k y k ! n! 1 + x n + k 1 + y n + k n=0 k =0

- zf af a fa faf afa a f a f
k

## afa fa f a f . a f a faf a f 1 + xf a 1 + yf a Now simplifying and replacing A by 1 af

= A nzn 1 n 1 + x + y n 1 + x m 1 + y 1+ x n 1+ y n 1 m 1+ x + y m n=0
m n+ k

(3)

n+k

n+ k

Bn+ k in (3.2.3) we

n+ k

get :

k ,n =0

Bn+ k z n 1 + x

1 + yf af x af y a - zf a fa
n n k k

k ! n!

Bn z n 1 + x + y n 1 + x m 1 + y m = , 1 m 1+ x + y m n =0

fa f a f af a f
84

(4)

## Taking Bn = 1 in (3.2.4) we get :

2

F0 1 + x, 1 + y; -; z 2 F0 x, y; -; z

zn 1 + x

n=0

1 + yf a 1 + x + yf a fa 1 1 + x + yf afa
m m n m

(5)

(ii)

## Summation (3.1.3) can be written as :

k !a 1 + xf a - n - yf
k k k =0 k

- nf a - n - x f af y 1 a 1 + x - yf a 1 + yf a af = 1 + yf a 1 + x f af 1 a
k n m k n m m

(6)

Multiply both sides of (3.2.6) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we have:
A n z n - n k - n - x k y k A n zn 1 n 1 + x - y m 1 + y m . k! 1 + x - n - y = 1 + y n 1+ x m 1 m n =0 k = 0 n= 0 k k
n

a fa faf a fa f

a fa f a f a fa f a f
k

(7)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.7) we get :

A n + k z n 1 n+ k 1 + y n 1 + x n+ k y k - z k ! n! 1 + x k 1 + y n + k 1 + x n n=0 k =0

af a fa f af a f a fa f a f
m

A nzn 1 n 1 + x - y m 1 + y = 1+ y n 1+ x m 1 m n=0

af a f a f . a f a f af a f af a f

(8)

## 1 + y n+ k Bn+ k in (3.2.8) we Now, simplifying and replacing A n+ k by 1 1 + x n+ k n+ k

get :

Bn + k z n 1 + y k ! n! 1 + x k ,n= 0

y - zf a fafa 1 + xf a fa
n k k n

85

Bn z n 1 + x - y
m n

n=0

1 + yf a fa . 1 a 1 + x fa 1 + xf af
n m m

(9)

## Taking Bn = 1 in (3.2.9) we get :

1 1

F 1 + y; 1 + x;

z 1F1 y; 1 + x;

-z

zn 1 + x - y n 1 + y m = . 1 m 1+ x n 1+ x m n=0

a fa f af a f a f

(10)

## (iii) Summation (3.1.4) can be written as:

-nfa - n - xfa 1 + yf afa - 1fa 1 + x + yfa 1 + xf a 1 + yf a = k!a 1 + xfa 1 - n - yf x y 1 + x + yf a 1f afafa
n n k k k n n m k=0 k k n n m m

(11)

Multiply both sides of (3.2.11) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we have:
A n zn - n k - n - x k 1 + y k! 1 + x 1 - n - y n=0 k =0 k k
n

a fa fa f a fa f
n n n n n m

A nzn -

n=0

1 1 + x + y fa 1 + xf a 1 + yf afafa . x y 1 + x + yf af 1 afafa
m m m

(12)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.12) we get :

A n + k z n 1 n+ k 1 + x n+ k y n 1 + y k - z k ! n! 1 + x k 1 + x n 1 + y n + k n=0 k =0

af a f afa f a f a f a fa f
n n n m n n m m

A n zn -

n=0

1 1 + x + y fa 1 + xf a 1 + yf afafa . x y 1 + x + yf af 1 afafa
m

(13)

86

## Now simplifying and replacing A n+ k

1 + yf a B by 1 + x 1 a f af
n+ k n+ k n

n+k

in (3.2.13) we get:

Bn + k z n y n 1 + y k - z k ! n! 1 + x 1 + x k ,n= 0 k n
n

afa fa f a fa f

Bn z n - 1 + x + y n 1 + x m 1 + y m = . 1+ x n x n 1+ x + y m 1 m n= 0
Taking Bn = 1 in (3.2.14) we get :
1 1

afa fa f a f a fafa f af

(14)

F y; 1 + x; z 1 F1 1 + y; 1 + x; - z
n

## - 1 + x + yfa 1 + xf a 1 + yf afa = , 1 + xfafa x 1 + x + y f af 1 a

n m m n= 0 n n m m

(15)

## (iv) Summation (3.1.5) can be written as :

k !a - n - xf a 2 y + 1f
k k k=0 k

- nf a - n - 2 x f af y 1 a 1 + x + yf a 1 + xf a 1 + yf a af = 1 + xf a 1 + 2 yf a 1 + x + y f af 1 a
k n n m m k n n m

(16)

Multiply both sides of (3.2.16) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we have:
A nzn - n - 2x k - n k y k! - n - x 2 y + 1 n=0 k =0 k k
n

a f a f af a fa f

A nzn 1 n 1 + x + y n 1 + x m 1 + y 1 + x n 1 + 2y n 1 + x + y m 1 m n=0

afa fa f a f . a f a fa f af
m

(17)

87

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.17) we get :

A n + k z n 1 n+ k 1 + 2 x n+ k 1 + x n y k - z k ! n! 1 + 2 x 1 + x 1 + 2 y n=0 k =0 n n+k k

af a f a faf a f a fa f a f
m

A nzn 1 n 1 + x + y n 1 + x m 1 + y = 1 + x n 1 + 2y n 1 + x + y m 1 m n=0

afa fa f a f . a f a fa f af
1 + xf a by 1 + 2 x 1 a f af
n+k n+ k n+k

(18)
Bn+ k in (3.2.18) we

## Now simplifying and replacing A n+ k get :

Bn + k z n 1 + x k , n = 0 k ! n! 1 + 2 x

y - zf a fafa 1 + 2 yf a fa
n k n k

=
n= 0

a fa f a f a fa fa f af

Bn z n 1 + x + y n 1 + x m 1 + y m . 1 + 2x n 1 + 2y n 1 + x + y m 1 m

(19)

## Taking Bn+k = 1 in (3.2.19) we get :

1 1

F 1 + x; 1 + 2 y; z 1F1 y; 1 + 2 y; - z

=
n= 0

a fa f a f a fa f a f af

zn 1 + x + y n 1 + x m 1 + y m , 1 + 2x n 1 + 2y n 1 + x + y m 1 m

(20)

(v)

## Summation (3.1.6) can be written as:

- nf a - n - 2 xf a 1 + y f af - af 1 a 1 + x + yf a 1 + xf a 1 + yf a = k !a 1 - n - xf a 2 y + 1f x 1 + 2 y fa 1 + x + y f af 1 afa
n n k k k n n m k=0 k k n n m m

(21)

## Multiply both sides of (3.2.21) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we

88

have:
A n zn - n k - n - 2 x k 1 + y k! 1 - n - x 2y + 1 n=0 k =0 k k
n

a fa fa f a fa f
n

A nzn - 1 n 1 + x + y n 1 + x m 1 + y = x n 1 + 2y n 1 + x + y m 1 m n=0

afafa fa f a f . afa fa f af
m

(22)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.22) we get :

A n+ k zn 1 n+ k x k ! n! x n=0 k =0
n

## 1 + 2 xf a 1 + yf a - zf af af a 1 + 2 xfa 1 + 2yf afa

n+ k n+ k k n n k

A nzn - 1 n 1 + x + y n 1 + y m 1 + x = x n 1 + 2y n 1 + x + y m 1 m n=0

afafa fa f a f . afa fa f af
m

(23)

## Now simplifying and replacing A n+ k by x

af a f
n+ k

1 1 + 2x

in (3.2.23) we get :

n+ k

Bn + k z n 1 + y k , n = 0 k ! n! 1 + 2 x n x
n

- zf a fa 1 + 2 yf a fafa
k k n

afa fa f a f = afafa fa fa f af
n=0

Bn z n - 1 + x + y n 1 + x m 1 + y m . x n x n 1 + 2y n 1 + 2x n 1 + x + y m 1 m

(24)

## Taking Bn + k = 1 in (3.2.24) we get :

zn 1 + y k - z k , n = 0 k ! n! 1 + 2 x n x n 1 + 2 y
k n

a fa f a fafa f

afa fa f a f , = 1 afafa fa fa f af
n= 0

zn - 1 + x + y n 1 + x m 1 + y x n x n 1 + 2 y n 1 + 2x n 1 + x + y

(25)

89

k=0

## - nf a 1 + n + 2 x + 2 yfaf x 1 1 + xf a 1 + yf a afa = k !a 1 + x + yf a 1 + 2 xf 1 + 2 xfa 1 + x + yf af 1 a

k k k n m m k k n m

(26)

Multiply both sides of (3.2.26) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we have:
A n zn - n k 1 + n + 2x + 2 y k x k! 1 + x + y k 1 + 2x k n=0 k =0
n

a fa f af a fa f
n m m n n m m

1 1 + xf a 1 + yf A z afa = . 1 + 2 xfa 1 + x + yf af 1 a
n n= 0

(27)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.27) we get :

A n + k z n 1 n+ k 1 + 2 x + 2 y + n n +2 k x k - z k ! n! 1 + x + y 1 + 2 x 1 + 2 x + 2 y n=0 k =0 k k n+ k

af a f afa f a f a fa f

A n zn 1 n 1 + x m 1 + y m . n= 0 1 + 2 x n 1 + x + y m 1 m

afa f a f a f a f af

(28)
1 + 2 x + 2 yf a 1 af
n+ k n+ k

## Now simplifying and replacing A n+ k by get :

Bn + k

in (3.2.28) we

Bn + k z n 1 + 2 x + 2 y n+ 2 k x k - z k ! n! 1 + x + y 1 + 2 x k ,n= 0 k k

a a

f af a f fa f

Bn z n 1 + 2 x + 2 y n 1 + x m 1 + y m = . 1 + 2x n 1 + x + y m 1 m n=0

a fa f a f a fa f af

(29)

## Taking Bn + k = 1 in (3.2.29) we get :

90

z n 1 + 2 x + 2 y n+ 2 k x k - z k ! n! 1 + x + y 1 + 2 x k , n =0 k k

f af a f a fa f
n m n m

zn 1 + 2 x + 2y

n=0

1 + xf a 1 + yf a fa , 1 + 2 x fa 1 + x + y f af 1 a
m m

(30)

## (vii) Summation (3.1.8) can be written as:

- nf a 1 + n + 2 x + 2 yf a 1 + xf - 1 1 + xf a 1 + yf a afafa = k !a 1 + x + yfa 1 + 2 xf 1 + 2 xfa 1 + x + yf af 1 a
n n k k k n m k=0 k k n m

m m

(31)

Multiply both sides of (3.2.31) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we have:
A n z n - n k 1 + n + 2x + 2y k 1 + x k! 1 + x + y k 1 + 2x k n = 0 k =0
n

a fa fa f a fa f
n m

A nzn - 1 n 1 + x m 1 + y = 1 + 2x n 1 + x + y m 1 m n=0

afafa f a f . a fa f af af a f a fa f a fa fa f
n m k

(32)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.32) we get :

A n+ k z n 1 n + k 1 + 2 x + 2 y n + 2 k 1 + x k - z k ! n! 1 + x + y 1 + 2 x 1 + 2 x + 2 y n=0 k= 0 k k n+k

A nzn - 1 n 1 + x m 1 + y = 1 m 1 + 2x n 1 + x + y m n=0

afafa f a f . af a fa f
1 + 2 x + 2 yf a by 1 af
n+ k n+ k

(33)
Bn + k

## Now simplifying and replacing A n+ k get :

91

in (3.2.33) we

Bn + k z n 1 + 2 x + 2 y n + 2 k 1 + x k ! n! 1 + x + y k 1 + 2 x k ,n= 0

a
n

- zf f a fa fa f
k k

B zn - 1 + 2x + 2y n 1 + x m 1 + y m = n . 1 + 2x n 1 + x + y m 1 m n=0

afa fa f a f a fa f a f

(34)

## Taking Bn + k = 1 in (3.2.34) we get :

zn 1 + 2x + 2y n+2 k 1 + x k - z k ! n! 1 + x + y 1 + 2 x k ,n= 0 k k
n

f a fa f a fa f

zn - 1 + 2x + 2y n 1 + x m 1 + y m = , 1 + 2x n 1 + x + y m 1 m n=0
where m is the greatest integer n 2 .

afa fa f a f a fa f a f

(35)

## (viii) Summation (3.1.9) can be written as:

k =0

- nf a 2 + n + 2 x + b f af x a F 1 I 2 x + 2f k! 1 + b + x a H2 K
k k k k

## 3 bI F bI F xI F 1 2 + b + xf +x+ 1+ 1+ afa H H H 2 2K 2K 2K = 3 I F b xI F 1 + xfa 2 + b + 2 xfaf 1 + x 1+ + a H KH 2 2 K 2

n n m m 2m n n m m 2m

(36)

Multiply both sides of (3.2.36) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we have:

A nzn - n

n=0 k =0

2 + n + 2 x + bf af x a fa F 1 I 2 x + 2f k! 1 + b + x a H2 K
k k k k

92

A nzn 1 n 2 + b + x
n

n=0

## 3 bI F bI F xI +x+ 1+ 1+ afa f F H H H 2 2K 2K 2K . 3 I F b xI F 1 + x fa 2 + b + 2 xfaf 1 + x 1+ + a H KH 2 2 K 2

n m m 2m n m m 2m

(37)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.37) we get :

A n + k z n 1 n + k 2 + b + 2 x n+ 2 k x k - z b n=0 k =0 k ! n! 1 + + x 2 + b + 2 x n + k 2 + 2 x 2 k

af a F Ia H K
n

f afa f f a f
k

A nzn 1 n 2 + b + x
n

n=0

m m 2m n m m 2m

(38)

## Now simplifying and replacing A n+ k by get :

2 + b + 2xf a 1 af
n+ k

n+ k

Bn + k

in (3.2.38) we

Bn + k z n 2 + b + 2 x n + 2 k x k - z 1 k ,n= 0 k ! n! 1 + b + x 2 + 2 x k 2 k

a F H

f afa f Ia f K
m

=
n =0

Bn z n 2 + b + x
n

3 b xI I F bI F + + x 1+ 1+ a fF H KH 2 KH 2 K . 2 2 3 I F b xI F 1 + xfaf 1 + x 1+ + a H KH 2 2 K 2
n m 2m m m 2m

(39)

## Taking Bn + k = 1 in (3.2.39) we get :

z n 2 + b + 2 x n +2 k x k - z 1 k ,n= 0 k ! n! 1 + b + x 2 + 2 x 2 k

a F H

f afa f Ia f K

93

zn 2 + b + x

n=0

3 b xI I F bI F + + x 1+ 1+ fF H KH 2 KH 2 K , 2 2 3 F I F b xI 1 + x faf 1 + x 1+ + a H KH 2 2 K 2
n m m 2m n m m 2m

(40)

## where m is the greatest integer n 2 . (ix) Summation (3.1.10) can be written as :

- nf a 2 + n + b + 2 xf a 1 + xf a F b I 2 + 2 xf k! 1 + + x a H2 K
k k k k

k=0

3 b F I F bI - 1 + + x 1+ afaf H KH 2 K 2 2 = 3 F I 2 + b + 2 xfaf 1 +x a H K 2
n n m m n m m

(41)

Multiply both sides of (3.2.41) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we have:
A n zn - n 2 + n + b + 2 xf a 1 + xf a fa F b I 2 + 2 xf k! 1 + + x a H2 K
k k k k

n=0 k =0

A nzn -

n=0

3 b F I F bI 1 + + x 1+ afaf H KH 2 K. 2 2 3 I F 2 + b + 2 xfaf 1 +x a H K 2
n n m m n m m

(42)

94

## A n+k zn 1 n+k 2 + b + 2 x n+2 k 1 + x k - z b n=0 k =0 k ! n! 1 + + x 2 + b + 2 x n + k 2 + 2 x 2 k

af a f a fa f F Ia f a f H K
n n m m

A nzn -

n=0

3 b F I F bI 1 + + x 1+ afaf H KH 2 K. 2 2 3 I F 2 + b + 2 xfaf 1 +x a H K 2
n m m

(43)

## Now simplifying and replacing A n+ k by get :

2 + b + 2xf a 1 af
n+ k

n+ k

Bn + k

in (3.2.43) we

Bn + k z n 2 + b + 2 x n +2 k 1 + x k - z 1 k ,n= 0 k ! n! 1 + b + x 2 + 2 x k 2 k

a F H
n

f a fa f Ia f K
m m

Bn z n -

n=0

3 b I F bI + + x 1+ af F H KH 2 K. 2 2 3 I F 1 +x af H K 2
m m

(44)

## Taking Bn + k = 1 in (3.2.44) we get :

z n 2 + b + 2 x n +2 k 1 + x k - z b k ,n =0 k ! n! 1 + + x 2 + 2 x k 2 k

f a fa f F Ia f H K
m m

=
n=0

zn -

3 b I F bI + + x 1+ af F H KH 2 K, 2 2 3 I F 1 +x af H 2 K
n m m

(45)

95

(x)

## Summation (3.1.11) can be written as:

1 1I F - nf af x x1 + a + nf a a H 2 2K 1 1 I F k !a x - 1f a x + 1f + a H 2 2 K
n k k k k=0 k k k

1 1 I F 1 IF 1 1 + a - xf 1 + a + a afa H H 2 K 2 2 K = 1 1 xI F 1 + a fa 1 + xfaf 1 + aa H 2 2 2K
n n m m n n m m

(46)

Multiply both sides of (3.2.46) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we have:

n = 0 k =0

A nzn - n

1 1I F x x1 + a + nf a faf a H 2 2K 1 1 I F k !a x - 1fa x + 1f + a H 2 2 K
k k k k k k

A nzn 1 n 1 + a - x
n

n=0

1 I F 1 1 I 1+ a + a afa f F H 2 KH 2 2 K . 1 1 xI F 1 + a fa 1 + xfaf 1 + aa H 2 2 2K
n m m n m m

(47)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.47) we get :

A n+k zn 1 n+k x
k

n=0 k =0

x 1I 1 + af a - zf af af F a H 2 2K 1 1 I F k ! n!a x - 1f a x + 1f + a a 1 + af H 2 2 K
k n+2 k k k n+ k k

96

A nzn 1 n 1 + a - x
n

n=0

1 I F 1 1 I 1+ a + a afa f F H 2 KH 2 2 K . 1 1 xI F 1 + a fa 1 + xfaf 1 + aa H 2 2 2K
n m m n m m

(48)

## Now simplifying and replacing A n + k by

1 + af a 1 af

n+ k

Bn+ k

in (3.2.48) we get :

n+ k

k ,n= 0

Bn + k z n x

1 1I x1 + af a - zf af F a H 2 2K 1 1 I F k ! n!a x - 1f a x + 1f + a H 2 2 K
k n+ 2 k k k k k

=
n= 0

Bn z n 1 + a - x
n

1 I F 1 aI 1+ a + a fF H 2 KH 2 2K . 1 1 xI F 1 + xfaf 1 + aa H 2 2 2K
n m m m m

(49)

## Taking Bn + k = 1 in (3.2.49) we get :

k ,n= 0

zn x

1 1I x1 + af a - zf af F a H 2 2K 1 1 I F k ! n!a x - 1fa x + 1f + a H 2 2 K
k n+ 2 k k k k k

=
n= 0

zn 1 + a - x
n

1 I F 1 aI 1+ a + a fF H 2 KH 2 2K , 1 1 xI F 1 + xfaf 1 + aa H 2 2 2K
n m m m m

(50)

97

## F aI 1 1+ af a 3ga 1 + a + nfa - nf b 3 4g H 3K b = 1 1 IF 1 I 1 + a faf 1 F a k! + a 1 + a H H2 K 2 2 K

n k n k k k m k=0 n m k k

(51)

Multiply both sides of (3.2.51) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we have:

A n zn 1 + a + n k - n k 3 4 1 1 1 n=0 k =0 k! + a 1 + a 2 2 k 2 k
n

a fa f b g F IF I H KH K
k

A nzn 1 n 1 +
n

n=0

aI af F H 3K. 1 + a faf 1 a
m m

(52)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.52) we get :

aI 3I F F A z af 1 1 + af a - zf a H H 3K 4K 1 1 I F 1 I F k ! n! + a 1 + a a H H 2 K1 + af 2 2 K
k n k n+ k n+ k n+2 k k n=0 k =0 n+ k k k

A nzn 1 n 1 +
n

n=0

aI af F H 3K 1 + a faf 1 a
m m

(53)
1 + af a 1 af Bn+ k

## Now simplifying and replacing A n + k by

n+ k

in (3.2.53) we get :

n+ k

98

k ,n= 0

aI 3 I F F B z 1 + af - z a 1 + a 3g H H4 K= B z b 3K 1 1 I F 1 I F 1 af k ! n! + a 1 + a H K H K 2 2 2
k n n+ k n+2 k n k n m n= 0 m k k

(54)

## Taking Bn + k = 1 in (3.2.54) we get :

aI 3 I F F z 1 + af - z a 1 + a 3g H H4 K= z b 3K , 1 1 IF 1 I F 1 af k ! n! + a 1 + a H H2 K 2 2 K
k n n+ 2 k n k m n =0 m k k

k ,n = 0

(55)

## F aI 1 1+ af af a 3ga 1 + a + nfa - n fb 3 4g H 3K b = aI F 1 1 I 1 + a faf 1 F a k! + a H H 2K 2 2 K

n- m n k n k k k m k=0 n m k k
M u l t i p l y b o t h s i d e s o f ( 3 . 2 . 5 6 ) b y A

(56)

have:

## A z a 3 k 1+ a + n k -n k 3 4 = n a 1 1 n=0 k=0 n=0 k! + a 2 k 2 2 k

n n k

a fa fb g bg FI F I H K H K

Anzn -

F aI 1f 1+ af a H 3K 1+ afa 1f a
n -m n m n m

(57)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.57) we get :

99

A n+ k

n=0 k =0

aI 3 I F F z af 1 1 + af - z a H H4 K 3K aI F 1 aI F k ! n! + 1 + af a H H 2K 2 2K
k n n+ k n+2 k k n+ k k k

A n z n -1

n=0

1 1 + a 3g a f afb 1 + a faf 1 a
n-m n m n m

(58)
1 + af a 1 af
n+ k

## Now simplifying and replacing A n + k by

Bn+ k

in (3.2.58) we get :

n+ k

k ,n= 0

Bn + k

aI 3 I F F z 1 + af - z a -1f b 1 + a 3g H H4 K= B z a 3K aI F 1 aI F 1 af k ! n! + H H 2K 2 2K
k n n+ 2 k n n-m k n m n=0 m k k

(59)

## Taking Bn + k = 1 in (3.2.59) we get :

k ,n= 0

aI F 1 + af a z a -1f b 1 + a 3g H 3K = , aI F 1 1 I 1 F af k ! n! + a H H 2K 2 2 K

zn

n+ 2 k

n-m

n =0

(60)

## (xiii) Summation (3.1.14) can be written as :

aI F aI F aI F aI a F a 3g 1 + 1 + a + nfa - nf b 3 4 g af 1 1+ 2+ b H H H H 2K 2K 3K 6K = aI F 1 1 I F aI a I (61) F F a I af F k! + a 2+ 1 + af 2 + 1 a H H H 2K H 2K H 2K 2 2 K 6K
k n k k k n k n m m k=0 n m k k k n m

Multiply both sides of (3.2.61) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we get:
100

A nzn

n=0 k =0

aI F aI F 1+ 1 + a + nf a - nfb 3 4g a H H 3K 2K aI F 1 1 I F aI F k! + a 2+ H H H 2K 2K 2 2 K
k k k k k k k k

A nzn 1 n

n=0

aI F aI F aI 1+ 2+ af F H H H 2K 3K 6K aI F a I af F 1 + af 2 + 1 a H 2K H 6K
n m m n m n m

(62)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.62) we get :

aI F aI 3 I F F z af 1 1+ 1 + a + nf - z a H H 2K H4 K 3K aI F 1 aI F F aI k ! n! + 1 + af 2 + a H H H 2K 2K 2 2K
k n n+ k n+2 k k k n+k k k k

A n+ k

n=0 k =0

A nzn 1 n

n=0

aI F aI F aI 1+ 2+ af F H H H 2K 3K 6K aI F a I af F 1 + af 2 + 1 a H 2K H 6K
n m m n m n m

(63)
1 + af a 1 af
k

## Now simplifying and replacing A n + k by

n+ k

Bn+ k

in (3.2.63) we get :

n+ k

k ,n= 0

Bn + k

aI F aI 3 I F F z 1+ 1 + af - z a H H 2K H4 K 3K aI F 1 aI F aI F k ! n! + 2+ H H H 2K 2 2K 2K
n n +2 k k k k k k

=
n= 0

Bn z n

aI F aI F aI F 1+ 2+ H H H 3K 3K 6K aI aI F F 2+ 1 af H 2K H 6K
n m m m n m

(64)

101

## Taking Bn + k = 1 in (3.2.64) we get :

aI F aI 3 I F F z 1+ 1 + af - z a H H 2K H4 K 3K aI F 1 aI F aI F k !n! + 2+ H H H 2K 2 2K 2K
k n n+2 k k k k k k

k ,n= 0

=
n =0

zn

aI F aI F aI F 1+ 2+ H H H 3K 3K 6K , aI aI F F 2+ 1 af H 2K H 6K
n m m m n m

(65)

## F a I afa a 1+ b - nf a -1f af 1 + af H a 2K = F aI 1 + a - bf a k! 1 + a - bfa 1 + a + nf a H 2K

k n k k k k n k=0 k k k
M u l t i p l y b o t h s i d e s o f ( 3 . 2 . 6 6 ) b y A

(66)

get:

A nzn a

n=0 k =0

## aI 1+ b - nfa -1f af F H 2 Kafa 1 I F k! a a 1 + a - bfa 1 + a + nf H 2 K

k k k k k k k

A nzn 1 + a n = n=0 1 + a - b n

a f a f

(67)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.67) we get :

102

A n+k zn 1 n+k a

n=0 k =0

aI 1+ b 1 + af a - zf af af F afa H 2K 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + a - b fa 1 + af H 2 K
k k n+ k k k n+ 2 k k

A nzn 1 + a n = n=0 1 + a - b n

a f a f

(68)

## Now simplifying and replacing A n + k by 1 n+k

af a f

1 1+ a

Bn + k in (3.2.68) we get :

n+ k

k , n =0

aI 1+ b - zf af F afa H 2K 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + a - bf a 1 + af H 2 K

Bn + k z n a

n+ 2 k

n=0

afa

Bn z n 1 n 1+ a - b

(69)

Taking Bn + k = 1 + a - b

n+k

in (3.2.69) we get :

## F 1 I b - zf a 1 + a afa f af H2 K =e 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + a - bfa 1 + af H 2 K a b in (3.2.69) we get : Again taking B = afaf

zn 1 + a - b

n+ k

k ,n= 0

(70)

n +2 k

k ,n= 0

zn a

F 1 I b - zf b af a 1 + a afa af af H2 K = F a, 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + a - bf a 1 + af H 2 K
k n+k n+ k k k k 2 1 k n+ 2 k k

b; 1 + a + - b; z .

(71)

103

## (xv) Summation (3.1.16) can be written as:

Fa I 1 + af 1 + - b a a b - nf afafa H2 K = k !a 1 + a + bf a 1 + a + nf F a I 1+ 1 + a - bf a H 2K
n n k k k n k=0 k k n n

(72)

Multiply both sides of (3.2.72) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we have:
A n zn a k b k - n k n=0 k =0 k ! 1 + a + c k 1 + a + n
n

af af a f a fa f
n

A nzn 1 + a

n=0

1 I 1+ a - b a fF H2 K 1 I F 1+ a a H 2 K1 + a - bf
n n n

(73)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.73) we get :

A n + k z n 1 n+ k a k b k 1 + a k ! n! 1 + a + b k 1 + a n=0 k =0

- zf af afafa f a a fa f
n+k n+ 2 k

A nzn 1 + a

n=0

a I 1+ - b a fF H2 K 1 I F 1+ a a H 2 K1 + a - bf
n n n n

(74)

## 1 Now simplifying and replacing A n+ k by 1 1+ a n+k

get :

af a f

Bn + k in (3.2.74) we

n+ k

Bn + k z n a k b k - z k , n = 0 k ! n! 1 + a + b k 1 + a

af afa f a fa f

n+2 k

104

## F I H K af a f 1 + a - bf in (3.2.75) we get : Taking B = a

1 Bn z n 1 + a - b 2 = 1 m 1+ a - b n n= 0
n

(75)

z n 1 + a - b n+ k a k b k - z k ! n! 1 + a + b 1 + a k ,n= 0 k n +2 k

f afafa f = a 1 - zf a fa f
k

1 b - a -1 2

(76)

## (xvi) Summation (3.1.17) can be written as :

F 1 I - bf a - 2 bf 1 + a - b a a a b - nf afafa H2 K = k !a 1 1 + a - b fa 1 + 2 b - nf F I -2 b f 1 + a - bf a - b a a H K 2
n n k k k n k=0 k k n n

(77)

Multiply both sides of (3.2.77) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we have:
A nzn a k b k - n k n=0 k =0 k ! 1 + a - b k 1 + 2b - n
n

af af a f a fa f
n

A nzn a - 2b

n=0

1 I - bf 1+ a - b a a fF H2 K 1 F I -2bf 1 + a - bf a - b a a H K 2
n n n n

(78)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.78) we get :

A n + k z n 1 n + k a k b k -2 b n z k k ! n ! 1 + a - b -2 b n=0 k =0 k n+ k

af af af a f a fa f

105

=
n= 0

A n zn a - 2 b

a I - bf 1+ - b a a fF H2 K 1 F I -2 bf 1 + a - bf a - b a a H K 2
n n n n n

(79)
-2 b f a 1 af

n+ k

## Bn+ k in (3.2.79) we get :

n+ k

Bn + k z n a k b k - 2 b n z k k ! n! 1 + a - b k k ,n= 0

af af a f a f
n

=
n= 0

Bn z n a - 2 b
n

1 I 1+ a - b a a fF H 2 K- bf 1 F I 1 1 + a - bf a - b afa H K 2
n n n

(80)

## Taking Bn + k = 1 Bn = 1 in (3.2.80) we get :

z a k b k -2 b n z = k ! n! 1 + a - b k k ,n= 0 n= 0

afafa f a f

z n a - 2b

1 I 1+ a - b a a fF H 2 K- bf 1 F I n!a 1 + a - bf a - b H K 2
n n n n

(81)

OR

1 - zf F a , a
2b 2 1

b; 1 + a - b;

L a - 2 b, M z= FM M N
3 2

1 1 + a - b, 2 1 + a - b,

- b; 1 a - b; 2

O P P P Q

## (xvii) Summation (3.1.18) can be written as:

F 1 I b - nf a 1 + a afa af a - 2 b fa - bf H2 K a = F 1 I 1 + a - bfa -2 bf a k! a a 1 + a - bf a 1 + 2 b - nf H 2 K
n k k k k n n k=0 n k k k

(82)

106

Multiply both sides of (3.2.82) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we have:

1 I 1 + a afa b - nf af F H 2 K F 1 I k! a a 1 + a - bfa 1 + 2 b - nf H 2 K
n

A n zn a

n = 0 k =0

A nzn a - 2b n - b n 1 + a - b n -2 b n n=0

a fa f a fa f

(83)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.83) we get :

A n + k z n 1 n+ k a

n=0 k =0

1 I 1 + a afa af af F H 2 Kb -2bf z 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + a - bf a -2 bf H 2 K
k k n k k n+k k

A nzn a - 2b n - b n 1 + a - b n -2 b n n=0

a fa f a fa f

(84)
-2 b f a 1 af
n+ k

## Bn+ k in (3.2.84) we get :

n+ k

k ,n= 0

Bn + k z n a

1 I 1 + a afa af F H 2 Kb -2bf z 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + a - bf H 2 K
k k n k k k

Bn z n a - 2 b n - b 1 n 1+ a - b n n= 0

a fa f af a f

(85)

## Taking Bn + k = 1 in (3.2.85) we get :

107

1 L a , 1 + a, M 2 1 - zf F M a 1 M N 2 a,
2b 3 2

b; 1 + a - b;

O P P P Q
(86)

= 2 F1 a - 2 b, - b; 1 + a - b; z .

## (xviii) Summation (3.1.19) can be written as:

F 1 I b - nf a 1 + a afa af H2 K F 1 I k! a a 1 + a - bf a 2 + 2 b - nf H 2 K
n k k k k k=0 k k n n

## 1 1 F I - b - 1f a - 2bf + a-b a a H K 2 2 = 1 1 F I -2b - 1f 1 + a - bf a - - b a a H K 2 2

n n n

(87)

Multiply both sides of (3.2.87) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we have:

1 I 1 + a afa b - nf af F H 2 K F 1 I k! a a 1 + a - bfa 2 + 2 b - nf H 2 K
n

A n zn a

n =0 k =0

1 1 I - b - 1f + a-b a a fF H K 2 2 = 1 1 F I -2b - 1f 1 + a - bf a - - b a a H K 2 2

A nzn a - 2b
n

n=0

(88)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.88) we get :

108

A n + k z n 1 n+ k a

n=0 k =0

1 I 1 + a afa af af F H 2 Kb -1 - 2bf z 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + a - b fa -1 - 2 bf H 2 K
k k n k k n+k k

A nzn a - 2b
n

n=0

(89)

n+ k

n+ k

## Bn+ k in (3.2.89) we get

n+ k

k ,n= 0

Bn + k z n a

1 I 1 + a afa af F H 2 Kb -1 - 2bf z 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + a - bf H 2 K
k k n k k k

Bn z n a - 2 b - 1 n
n

n=0

1 1 I - b - 1f a+ -b a a fF H K 2 2 1 1 I F 1 1 + a - bf a - - b afa H K 2 2
n n n

(90)

Taking Bn

## 1 1 F I a- -b H Kand z = 1 in (3.2.90) we get : 2 2 = - b - 1f a

n n

k ,n= 0

1 1 F I af F 1 I b -1 - 2 bf a- -b a 1 + a afa H K H2 K 2 2 1 I F k ! n!a - b - 1f a a 1 + a - bf H 2 K
n+k k k k n+ k k k

109

G 1+ a - b G =

3 aI + 2b fF H 2 2K , 1 1 I F Ga 2 + bf G + a H 2 2 K
provided Rl

(91)
3 aI F + 2b - J > 0. G H 2 2K

## F 1 I b c - nf a 1 + a afafa af H2 K F 1 I k! a a 1 + a - bfa 1 + a - cfa 1 + a + nf H 2 K

n k k k k k k=0 k k k

1 + a fa 1 + a - b - cf a 1 + a - bfa 1 + a - cf a
n n
u l t i p l y b o t h s i d e s o f

n n

( 3

. 2

. 9

have:

## 1 I 1 + a afaf b c a - nf af F H 2 K F 1 I k! a a 1 + a - bfa 1 + a - cfa 1 + a + nf H 2 K

n

A nzn a

n=0 k =0

A n zn 1 + a n 1 + a - b - c 1+ a - b n 1+ a - c n n= 0

a fa a fa

(93)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.93) we get :

A n + k z n 1 n+ k a

n=0 k =0

## 1 I 1 + a afafa - zf af af F H 2 Kb c 1 + af a 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + a - bfa 1 + a - cfa 1 + af H 2 K

k k k n+k k k k n+2 k k

110

=
n= 0

A n zn 1 + a

1 + a - b - cf a fa 1 + a - bfa 1 + a - cf a
n n n

(94)

## Now simplifying and replacing A n+ k by 1 + a get :

1 a f af
n+ k

Bn + k in (3.2.94) we

n+ k

k ,n= 0

1 I 1 + a afaf b c a - zf af F H 2 K 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + a - bf a 1 + a - cf a 1 + af H 2 K

Bn + k z n a

n+ 2 k

n=0

af a

Bn z n 1 + a - b - c n 1 n 1+ a - b n 1+ a - c
n

Taking Bn

n

(95)

k ,n= 0

## F 1 I b afa 1 + a - bf a 1 + a - cf z af a 1 + a af c - zf a H 2 K 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + a - bfa 1 + a - cfa 1 + af H 2 K

n n+ k n+ k k k k k k k n+ 2 k k

= 1- z

a f

c + a - b -1

(96)

## (xx) Summation (3.1.21) can be written as:

F 1 I - nf a 1+ a a af H 2 K =a 1 + af F 1 I k! a a 1 + a + nf H 2 K
n k k k k=0 k k
M u l t i p l y b o t h s i d e s o f ( 3 . 2 . 9 7 ) b

(97)

## zn and summing over n from o to , we

have:

111

A n zn a

n=0 k =0

1 I 1+ a a af F H 2 K- nf = A z a 1 + af 1 I F k! a a 1 + a + nf H 2 K
k k k n n= 0 n k k

(98)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.98) we get :

A n + k z n 1 n+ k a

n=0 k =0

1 I 1+ a a - zf af af F H 2 K1 + af a = A z a 1 + af 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + af H 2 K
k k n+k k n n= 0 n n +2 k k

(99)

## 1 Now simplifying and replacing A n+ k by 1 1+ a n+k

get :

af a f

Bn + k in (3.2.99) we

n+ k

k ,n= 0

Bn + k z n a

1 I 1+ a a af F H 2 K- zf = B z 1 I 1 F af k ! n! a a 1 + af H 2 K
k k n k n= 0 n n+ 2 k k

(100)

## 1 I 1+ a a - zf af F H 2 K =e 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + af H 2 K a in (3.2.100) we get : Again, taking B = af

zn a

k ,n= 0

(101)

n+2 k

k ,n= 0

F 1 I - zf a z af a 1+ a a af H 2 K =a 1 - zf 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + af H 2 K
n k n+ k k k n+2 k k

-a

(102)

112

## b , z = -1 in (3.2.100) and applying [Slater ;App. afaf

n n

k ,n= 0

F 1 I -1f a af b af a 1+ a a af H2 K 1 I F k ! n!a 1 + a - bf a a 1 + af H 2 K
n+ k n+ k k k n+ k k

n+ 2 k

1 G 1+ a - b G 1+ a 2 = . 1 G 1+ a - b G 1+ a 2

I a fF H K F Ia f H K

(103)

## (xxi) Summation (3.1.22) can be written as:

F 1 I - nf a a 1+ a a -1f af 1 + af H a 2 K = F 1 I 1 1 I F k! a a 1 + a + nf + a H H 2 K 2 2 K
k n k k k n k=0 k k n

(104)

Multiply both sides of (3.2.104) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we have:

1 k A n z n 1 + a - n k -1 A n zn 1 + a n 2 k = 1 1 1 n=0 k =0 n= 0 k! a 1 + a + n k + a 2 k 2 2 n
n

F I a fa f H K F Ia f HK

a f F I H K

(105)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.105) we get :

A n+k zn 1 n+k a

n=0 k =0

1 I 1+ a a af af F H 2 K1 + af 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + af H 2 K
k k n+2 k k

n+k

zk

A nzn 1 + a n = 1 1 n= 0 + a 2 2 n

a f F I H K

(106)

113

## 1 Now simplifying and replacing A n + k by 1 1+ a n+k

get :

af a f
n

Bn + k in (3.2.106) we

n+ k

## 1 I 1+ a z af F H 2 K = Bz (107) 1 I 1 1 I F F k ! n! a a 1 + af 1 + a af H H 2 K 2 2 K a b , z = 1 and applying [Slater ;App. III(III.3)] in (3.2.107) Taking B = afaf

Bn + k z n a

k ,n= 0

n= 0

n+ 2 k

we get :

k , n= 0

1 I F 1 1 F 1 I GF I a af b af a 1+ a af 1+ a G + a - a - b H K H 2 KH K 2 2 2 = , 1 I 1 1 1 1 F F I F I k! n! a a 1 + af G + a - a G + a -b H H KH K 2 K 2 2 2 2
n+k n+k k k n +2 k k

(108)

provided Rl

1 1 F I > 0. + a - a - bJ G H K 2 2

## (xxii) Summation (3.1.23) can be written as:

1 IF 1 1 I F a + a a b + n fa - nf b - af H H a 2 K 2 2 K = F 1 IF 1 1I b af k! b b+ 1 + af a H H 2 K 2 2K
n k k k k k=0 n k k k

(109)

Multiply both sides of (3.2.109) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we have:

A n zn

n=0 k =0

1 IF 1 1 I F a + a a b + nf a - nf A z a b - af H H 2 K 2 2 K = 1 IF 1 1I b F af k! b b+ 1 + af a H H 2 K 2 2K
k k n k k n n= 0 n k k k

(110)

114

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.110) we get :

A n + k z n 1 n+ k

n=0 k =0

1 IF 1 1 I a + a af b - zf af F a A z a b - af H H 2 K 2 2 K = bI F b 1I b F af k ! n! + 1 + a f af b a H H 2K 2 2K
k n+2 k n k k n n =0 k n+k n k k

(111)

## Now simplifying and replacing A n+ k by

b n + k Bn + k 1 n + k in (3.2.111) we get :

af

k , n =0

Bn + k z n

1 IF 1 1 I F a + a af b - zf a Bz a b - af H H 2 K 2 2 K = 1 IF 1 1I 1 F af k ! n! b b+ 1 + af a H K H K 2 2 2
k n+2 k n k k n n=0 n k k k

(112)

## Taking Bn = 1 in (3.2.112) we get :

k ,n= 0

zn

1 IF 1 1 I F a + a af b - zf a H H 2 K 2 2 K =a 1 - zf 1 IF 1 1I F k ! n! b b+ 1 + af a H H 2 K 2 2K
k n+2 k k k k k k

a -b

(113)

OR
a n b n -n n Again, taking Bn = c d b - a & z = 1 in (3.2.112) we get n n n

afaf a f afafa f
n+k k

k ,n= 0

1 IF 1 1 I F a af b a - nf a + a af b -1f af a H H 2 K 2 2 K 1 I F k ! n!af c af d b a 1 + a fa b - af H 2 K
n+ k n+k n+ 2 k k n+ k n+ k k n k

115

G c G c-a-b G c-a G c- b

af a f a fa f
provided c+d = a+b-n-1.

(114)

## (xxiii) Summation (3.1.24) can be written as:

F 1 I b - nf a 1 + a afa af a - 2 b fa - bf H2 K a = F 1 I 1 + a - bfa -2 bf a k! a a 1 + a - bf a 1 + 2 b - nf H 2 K
n k k k k n n k=0 n k k k
M u l t i p l y b o t h s i d e s o f ( 3 . 2 . 1 1 5 ) b y A

(115)

have:

n

A nzn a

n=0 k =0

n= 0

(116)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.116) we get :

A n + k z n 1 n+ k a

n=0 k =0

1 I + a af -2 bf z af af F H2 Kb a 1 I F k! n! a a 1 + a - bfa -2 bf H 2 K
k k n k k n+ k k

A nzn a - 2b n - b n = 1 + a - b n -2 b n n=0

a fa f a fa f

(117)
-2 b f a by af 1

n+ k

n+ k

116

## 1 I 1 + a af b a -2 bf z af F Bz a a - 2 bfa - bf H 2 K = 1 I 1 1 + a - bf F afa k ! n! a a 1 + a - bf H 2 K 1 + a - bf in (3.2.118) we get : Taking B = a

Bn + k z n a

k , n =0

n=0

(118)

k ,n= 0

F1Iba 1 + a - bf z af a 1 + a af -2 bf z a H 2 K 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + a - bf H 2 K
n n+ k k k n k k k

= 2 F0 a - 2 b, - b; -; z .

(119)

## F1Ib c d ea a 1 + a afafafaf - nf af H 2 K F 1 I k! a a 1 + a - bfa 1 + a - cfa 1 + a - d fa 1 + a - efa 1 + a + nf H 2 K

n k k k k k k k k=0 k k k k k

1 + a fa 1 + a - b - cfa 1 + a - b - df a 1 + a - c - df a 1 + a - b fa 1 + a - cfa 1 + a - d fa 1 + a - b - c - df a
n n n n n n

n n

(120)

Multiply both sides of (3.2.120) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we have:

n

A n zn a

n=0 k=0

117

A nzn 1 + a

n=0

n n n n n n n

(121)

## 1 I 1 + a af b afafafa c d e 1 + af a - zf af af F H 2 K F 1 I k ! n! a a 1 + a - bfa 1 + a - cfa 1 + a - df a 1 + a - ef a 1 + af H 2 K

A n+ k z n 1 n+ k a

n+k

n=0 k =0

n+ 2 k

A nzn 1 + a n 1 + a - b - c n 1 + a - b - d n 1 + a - c - d = 1+ a - b n 1+ a - c n 1+ a - d n 1+ a - b - c - d n n=0

a fa a fa

fa fa f a fa

(122)

## 1 Now simplifying and replacing A n + k by 1 1+ a n+k

get :

af a f
k k k

Bn + k in (3.2.122) we

n+ k

k ,n= 0

Bn + k z n a

n+2 k

## fa fa f afa f a f a f a f 1 + a - d fa 1 + a - b - c - d f in (3.2.123) we get : Taking B = a

=
n=0

Bn z n 1 + a - b - c n 1 + a - b - d n 1 + a - c - d n 1 n 1+ a - b n 1+ a - c k 1+ a - d k 1+ a - b - c - d
n n n

(123)

k ,n= 0

## F1Ib c d ea 1 + a - df a 1 + a - b - c - d f z af a 1 + a afafafaf - zf a H 2 K 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + a - bfa 1 + a - cfa 1 + a - d fa 1 + a - efa 1 + af H 2 K

n n+k n+ k k k k k k k k k k k n+ 2 k k

118

= 3 F2

1 + a - b - c, L M N

1 + a - b - d , 1 + a - c - d; z . 1 + a - b, 1 + a - c;

O P Q

(124)

## (xxv) Summation (3.1.26) can be written as :

k=0

a af b a - nf a c - af a c - bf af = k !af c af d c c - a - bf afa
k k k n k k n

n n

(125)

Multiply both sides of (3.2.125) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we have:
A nzn a k b k - n k! c d n=0 k =0 k k
n

c - a fa c - bf af af a f = A z a c c - a - bf af af afa
n k n n n =0 n n

(126)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.126) we get :

A n+ k zn 1 n+ k a k b k - z k ! n! c k d k n=0 k =0

c - a fa c - bf af afafa f = A z a c c - a - bf af af afa
k n n n n= 0 n n

(127)

## Bn + k Now simplifying and replacing A n + k by 1 in (3.2.127) we get : n+k

af
n

Bn + k z n a k b k - z k ! n! c d k ,n= 0 k k

c - a fa c - bf afafa f = B z a 1 c c - a - bf af af afafa
k n n n= 0 n n n

(128)

Taking Bn =

- nf af b a c - a - bf a c - a fa c - bf a
n n n n

in (3.2.128) we get :

k ,n= 0

- n - k f af b a c - a - bf z afafa a b - zf a c - af a c - bf k ! n!afaf c d a
n n+ k n+ k n+k k k n+ k n+ k k k

= 2 F1 - n, b; c; z .
119

(129)

OR Taking Bn = a
n

af in (3.2.128) we get :
n
k k k 3 2

k ,n= 0

a z afafa a b - zf af = F a, k ! n!afaf c d
n+k k k

c - a , c - b; c - a - b; z .

(130)

## (xxvi) Summation (3.1.27) can be written as:

1 1 F1Iba F I a 1 + a af - nf 1 + af + a-b af a H2 K H K 2 2 = F 1 I 1 1 I F k! a a 1 + a - bf a 1 + a + nf + a a 1 + a - bf H H 2 K 2 2 K
n k k k n k n k=0 k k n k n

(131)

Multiply both sides of (3.2.131) by Anzn and summing over n from o to , we have:

n

A nzn a

n=0 k= 0

n=0

(132)

## Now, applying the identity (3.1.1) in (3.2.132) we get :

A n+k zn 1 n+k a

n=0 k =0

aI 1+ b 1 + af a - zf af af F afa H 2K 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + a - b fa 1 + af H 2 K
k k n+ k k k n+ 2 k k

120

=
n= 0

A n zn 1 + a

1 1 I + a-b a fF H K 2 2 1 1 I F + a a 1 + a - bf H 2 2 K
n n n n

(133)

## Bn + k Now simplifying and replacing A n+ k by 1 1+ a n+ k

aI 1+ b - zf af F afa H 2K 1 I F k ! n! a a 1 + a - bf a 1 + af H 2 K

af a f
Bn z n

in (3.2.133) we get :

n+ k

Bn + k z n a

k , n =0

n+ 2 k

1 1 F I + a-b H K 2 2 = 1 1 I F 1 + a a 1 + a - bf af H 2 2 K
n n=0 n n

(134)

Taking

Bn

1 1 I F + a afaf a b H 2 2 K = 1 1 F I + a-b H K 2 2
n n n

## and using of [Slater ; (2.3.2.7)p.49] in

(3.2.134) we get :

k , n =0

zn

1 1 I F F 1 I b - zf + a a af b af a 1 + a afa af H H2 K 2 2 K 1 1 1 I F I F k ! n! + a - b a a 1 + a - bfa 1 + af H KH 2 2 2 K
n+ k n+ k n+ k k k k n+ k k n +2 k k

= 1- z

1 a, a f FL M 2 N
-a 2 1

1 1 4z + a - b; 1 + a - b; . 2 2 1 - z2

O P Q

(135)

where 4 z 1 - z 2 .

......................

121

CHAPTER-4

## CERTAIN TRANSFORMATIONS FOR BASIC HYPERGEOMET RIC SERIES

4.1

Introduction :
In this chapter, we shall make use of the following Baileys transformation: if

b n = a r u n - r v n+ r ,
r =0

(1)

and

g n = d r +n u r v2 n +r ,
r =0

(2)

where a r , d r , u r and v r are functions of r only such that the series for g n exists, then

a g = b d
n=0 n n n=0 n

(3)

In order to establish certain transformation and summation formulae for Basic Hypergeometric functions, we shall be in need of the following known results:

F2

a , b, L M N e,

q; q; f

## R U | | qO a a , b; q q - efa e - abq f| | = 1, S V P (4) aq e e bq a fa f L O e abq Q | , ; qP | M | q e Q| TN W

N +1 N N +1

provided ef = abq2.[1;(4.2)]

122

L a, q a , M F M M N a,
3

- q a , e; - a, aq e

q;

1 e

O P = P P Q
N

aq , eq; q N . q , aq e ; q N e N

(5)

## [1; App II(23)]

6 F5

L a, q a , M M N a,

-q a , - a,

b, c, d; aq aq aq , , b c d

q; q

O P P Q
N

aq , bq , cq , dq; q N q , aq b , aq c , aq d ; q

,
N

## (6) with a = bcd. [1;App. II. (25)].

F1

a , y; L M N ayq

q; q

O = P Q
N

aq , yq; q q , ayq; q

N N

## (7) [1; App. II (18)]

1 - ap q h a; p c; q c c ap O L 1 - a f q; q M; p P a c Q N
n k k k k k=0 k k

-k

ap; p

cq; q n c - n ap q; q n ;p c n
n

L O M N P Q
k

(8)

[8;App. II(34)]

## 1 - ap q h 1 - bp q h a , b; p c, a bc ; q q c c aq O ap L L O 1 - afa 1 - bfM q, ; qP , bcp; pP a M c Nb Q N Q

n k k k -k k k k =0 k k

123

cq , aq bc ; q ap q , aq b ; q n , bcp; p c
n

ap; bp; p

L M N

O P Q
n

(9)

## b ad O F I a, b; p L 1 - adp q h 1- p q c, ; qP q c M H d K N bc Q adq O adp bcp O F b IL L 1 - af 1 - M dq , ;qP ; ; pP a M H dK c d N b Q N Q

k k k -k 2 n k k k=0 k k

F ad I 1 - a fa 1 - b fa 1 - cf 1a G J H bc K = b IF c IF ad I F da 1 - ad f 1 11H dK H H dK bc K
2

2 n n 2 n n

(10)

## which is the m = 0 case of [14; eq. 12. P. 83].

4.2

Main Results :
In this chapter, we shall establish our main results:

Choosing
ur = vr = 1
and
dr = a; q e; q
r

L abq O ; qP M Ne Q
2 r

b; q r q r

124

in (4.1.2) we get

g n = d r + n u r v 2 n+ r
r =0

a; q e; q
n

L abq O L abq ; q P eq ; q M M Ne Q Ne
n r 2 r =0 n r n

b; q n q n

aq n ; q

bq n ; q r q r
n+2

;q

O P Q
r

a; q e; q
n

L aq , F M L abq O M M Ne ; qP Q N
n

b; q n q n
2

bq n , eq n ,

q; abq 2 + n e

q; q

O P , P Q

(4.2.1)

Now, using N case of (4.1.4) to sum the 3 F 2 series on the right hand side of (4.2.1) we get :

gn

O a, b; q L OU abq abq q IF ab I Re; q L F ;qP e, ;qP| 11- q | M M H eK He K | Ne Q N e Q| = S V aq IF bq I | L F e O abq O L e abq O L 11q M ;qP ;qP M , ; q Pa , b; q q | M H H eK eK | | q e q e N Q N Q TN Q W
2 2 n n n n n n n n

..(4.2.2) Substituting these values of g n and d n in (4.1.3) we get the following Master Result :

## R L O a, b; q L OU abq abq e; q M ; q P e, ; qP | | M | Ne Q N e Q| V a S L O L O e abq e abq L O | q M ;qP ; qP M , ; q Pa , b; q q | M | | q e q e N Q N Q TN Q W

2 2 n n n n=0 n n n n n n

125

## aq IF bq I F 11H H eK eK = b q IF abq I F 11H H eK e K

n= 0

a; q
n

e; q

, L abq O M Ne ; qP Q
2 n

b; q n q n

(4.2.3)

(i)

Now, Setting.
R; p r S; p r p r T; p r U; p
r

ar =

## where UT = RSp2. and

ur = vr = 1

in (4.1.1) we get :
n

b n = a r u n- r v n + r
r =0

=
r =0

R; p r S; p r p r T; p r U; p r

R, L M =F M N
3 2

S, T,

p; RSp 2 T

p; p

O P , P Q
n

provided UT = RSp2. Now, summing 3 F 2 series with the help of (4.1.4) we get :

bn

n 2 n

126

n=0

R; p n T; p n

## R U L O a, b; q L O abq abq e; q M ; q P e , ; q | | M P S; p p | e e | N Q N Q S V U; p | L e O abq O L e abq O L q M ; qP ; qP M , ; q Pa , b; q q | M | | q e q e N QN Q TN Q W

2 2 n n n n n n n n n n n

## R U | | 1 - R fa 1 - Sf Rp, Sp; p a; q b; q q a | | 1V S F L abq O T IF RSp IL RSp O | | e; q M ; q P 1 - J1 T, ; pP G M H TK | | NT Q T H pK W Ne Q

n n n n n=0 2 2 n n n

L R, M F M M M N
4

S, T,

## abq 2 p : p, q; e q 2 RSp e abq : , T q e p: e,

O P P P P Q

L R, M a , b; q F M L e abq O M , ;qP M q e N N Q M
5 4

S, T,

p:

e,

abq 2 p ; p, q; e q b

RSp 2 : a, T

O P P P P Q
O P P Q

## aq IF bq I F 11p - Tfa T - RSpfR L a a , b, H H | eK eK M = F S e, q IF abq I F | 11Rp - Tfa T - SpfT M a N H eK H eK

3 2

q; abq 2 e

q; q

127

Rp, L 1 - R fa 1 - Sf a F M F T IF RSp I M 1 - J1 G H TK N H pK
5 4

Sp, T,

p; a, b; 2 RSp abq 2 : e, T e

p, q;

U qO | | P , V P | Q | W
....(4.2.5)

## provided |p| and | q | < 1.

(ii)

Further, taking
X; p r p X ; p - p X ; p Y; p
r r

ar =

p; p

X; p - X; p
r

Xp O L ;p Y M Y P N Q
r

## and u r = v r = 1 in (4.1.1) we get :

bn =
r =0

X; p r p X ; p - p X ; p Y; p
r r

p; p

X; p - X; p
r

Xp O L ;p Y M Y P N Q
r

L X, M = F M M N
4 3

p X, -p X, X, - X,

Y; Xp Y

p;

1 Y

O P P P Q
n

## Now, summing 4 F 3 series with the help of (4.1.5) we get :

bn =

L M N

Xp; Yp; p n Xp p, ; p Yn Y n

O P Q

(4.2.6)

128

## Substituting these values of a n and b n in Master Result (4.2.3) we get :

L X, M F M M M N
5

p X, -p X, X, - X,

abq 2 1 ; p, q; e Yq Xp e abq : , Y q e Y: e,

O P P P P Q
O P P P P Q

L X, M a. b; q F M L e abq O M , ; qP M N q p N Q M
6 5

p X, -p X, X, - X,

Y:

abq 2 1 e, ; p, q; e Yq b

Xp : a, Y

## aq IF bq I F L 11Xp, H H eK eK M = F M q IF abq I F M 11H H eK e K N

4 3

Yp: a ,

b;

p; q;

Xp abq 2 : e, Y e

q Y .

O P P (4.2.7) P Q

(iii)

Again, taking
X; p r p X ; p - p X ; p Y; p r Z; p r U; p r p r
r r

ar =

p; p

X; p - X; p
r

Xp O Xp O L O L L ; p ;p M M M Z P U P N P Q N Q N Q Xp ;p Y
r r r

## and u r = v r = 1 in (4.1.1) we get :

bn =
r =0

X; p r p X ; p - p X ; p Y; p r Z; p r U; p r p r
r r

p; p

X; p - X; p
r

Xp O Xp O Xp O L L L ; pP ; pP ;p M M M Y Q Z Q U P N N N Q
r r r

129

L X, M = F M N
6 5

p X, -p X, X, - X,

Y, Xp , Y

Z, Xp , Z

U; Xp U

p; p

O P , P Q
n

provided X = YZU Now, summing 6 F 5 series with the help of (4.1.6) we get

bn =

L M N

O P Q

(4.2.7)

## Substituting these values of a n and b n in Master Result (4.2.3) we get :

L X, M F M M M N
7

p X, -p X, X, - X,

Y, Xp , Y

Z, Xp , Z

abq 2 p U: e, ; p, q; e q Xp e abq : , U q e

O P P P P Q

L e abq O , ; qP M q e N Q

a , b; q

L X, M F M M M N
8 7

p X, -p X, X, - X,

Y, Xp , Y

Z, Xp , Z

U:

e,

abq 2 p ; p, q; e q b

Xp : a, U

O P P P P Q
O P P Q

6 5

## Yp, Zp Up: a, b; Xp Xp Xp abq 2 , , : e, Y Z U e

p, q; q

....(4.2.8)

130

(iv)

Next, Setting
X; p r Y; p r p r p; p r XYp; p r

ar =

and

ur = vr = 1

in (4.1.1) we get:
X; p r Y; p r p r p; p r XYp; p r Y; XYp p; p

bn =
r =0

= 2 F1

X, L M N

O P Q
n

## Now summing 2 F1 series with the help of (4.1.7) we get

Xp, Yp; p p, XYp; p

bn =

n n

(4.2.9)

L X, M F M M M N
3

## abq 2 p Y: e, ; p, q; e q e abq XYp: , q e

O P P P P Q O P P Q

L X, F M L e abq O M , ; qP N M q e N Q
a , b; q
4 3

abq 2 p ; p, q; e q XYp: a , b Y: e,

131

4 3

Yp:

a,

XYp: e,

b; abq e

p, q; q

O P P Q(4.2.10)

## provided | X | < | Y | < 1.

(v)

Now, setting
1 - AP Q h A; P C; Q C c = AP O L 1 - A f Q; Q M ; P P a C Q N
r r r r r r
u

-r

ar

and

= vr = 1

in (4.1.1) we get :

bn

1 - AP Q h A; P C; Q C c = AP O L 1 - A f Q; Q M ; P P a C Q N
n r r r r r =0 r r

-r

Now, using (4.1.8) to sum the above series on the right hand side, we get :
CQ; Q n C - n AP Q; Q n ;P C n
n

bn =

AP; P

L O M N P Q

L C: M F M M M N
4

A: AP : C

APQ: A:

## abq 2 1 ; Q, P , PQ, q; e Cq e abq , q e e,

O P P P P Q

132

L C: M a , b; q F M abq O M L e, M M N e ;qP Q N
5 4

A: AP : C

APQ: e , A: a,

abq 2 ; e b

Q,

P;

PQ ;

q;

1 Cq

O P P P P Q

## aq IF bq I F L 11CQ: H H eK eK M = F M q IF abq I F M : 11H H eK e K N

4 3

AP: a ,

b;

Q, P, q;

AP abq 2 : e, C e

Q c ,

O P P (4.2.12) P Q

(vi)

Now, taking
A L O 1 - Ap q h 1 - Bp q h A , B; P M C, ;q P q c c BC Q N = Aq Ap L O L O 1 - A fa 1 - BfM q, ;q P , BCp; p P a M C NB Q N Q
r r 1 r -r 1 r 1 r 1 1 1 r r

ar

r 1

## and ur = vr = 1 in (4.1.1) we get :

bn

A L O 1 - Ap q h 1 - Bp q h A , B; P M C, ;q P q c c BC Q N = Aq Ap L O L O 1 - A fa 1 - BfM q, ;q P , BCp; p P a M C NB Q N Q
r n r 1 r -r 1 r 1 r r =0 1 1 1 r r

r 1

Now using (4.1.9) to sum the above series on the right hand side, we get :

bn

## Aq L O Cq , ;q P M N BC Q = Aq Ap L O L O q , ; q ; BCp ; p M M P C NB P Q N Q Ap, Bp; p

1 1 1 n 1 1 n 1 n n

(4.2.13)

## Substituting these values of a n and b n in Master Result (4.2.3) we get :

133

L A C, : M BC FM Aq M M N C:
7 1

## Bp abq2 p q1 A, B: Apq1: ; e, ; q1, p, pq1; ; q1 e q1 q Ap e abq , BCp: A: B: , C q e

O P P P P Q

L e abq O , ; qP M q e N Q

a , b; q

L A C, : M BC FM Aq M M N C:
7 1

A,

B:

Apq1: A:

Ap , BCp: C

O P P P P Q

L Cq , M F M M N
1 6 5

## Aq 1 : Ap, Bp: a , b; BC Aq 1 Ap abq 2 : , BCp: e, B C e

q 1 , p, q; q

O P P (4.2.14) P Q

## (viii) Now, Setting

B AD O F I A, B; P L 1 - ADp q h 1- p q C, ;q P q c M H K D BC N Q = ADq ADp BCp O F B IL O L 1 - Af 1 Dq , ;q P a M M H DK N B Q NC , D ; pP Q
r r 1 r -r 1 2 r 1 r 1 r 1 1 1 r r

ar

and ur = vr = 1

134

in (4.1.1) we get:

bn

## AD O F B p q I A, B; P L C, ;q P q c h M H K D BC N Q = B ADq ADp BCp F IL O L O 1 - Af 1 Dq , ;q P , ; pP a M M H DK N B Q NC D Q

n r 1 - ADp r q 1 1r -r 1 2 r 1 r 1 r r=0 1 1 1 r r

Now, using (4.1.10) to sum the above series on the right hand side, we get :

bn

2

## R L O AD Ap, Bp; p M Cq , q ;q P | | N BC Q S ADq ADp BCp O L O L | Dq , ; q , ; pP M P M B C D | N Q N Q T

2 n 1 1 1 n 1 1 1 n n

2

(4.2.15)

## Substituting these values of a n and b n in Master Result (4.2.3), we get :

L A, M F M ADp M M NC ,
8

BP : e, Dq 1 B e : D q

abq 2 p q1 ; p, q 1 , pq 1 , , q; e q1 q abq e
135

O P P P P Q

8 8

## AD 2 BP B: C, : ADpq 1: : e, BC Dq 1 BCp ADq 1 B : Dq 1 , : AD: : a, D B D

abq 2 p q1 ; p, q 1 , pq 1 , , q; e q1 q b

O P P Q

## F aq IF bq I AD I F 111 - A fa 1 - Bfa 1 - Cf 1a G J H H H eK eK BC K = q IF abq I B IF C IF AD I F F 11Da 1 - ADf 1 11H H H DK H H eK e K DK BC K

2

R L Ap , | M S F M AD M | p, | C T N
6 6

AD 2 Bp: Cq 1 , q 1: a , b; BC BC AD abq 2 p: Dq 1: q 1: e , D B e

p, q 1 , q; q

O P P P Q

## a , b, L B - ADfa C - ADfa D - BCfa 1 - Df a M F Da 1 - A fa 1 - Bfa 1 - Cf BC - AD h M c N e,

2 3 2

q; abq 2 e

q; q

U O | P . V P | Q W

(4.2.16)

......................

136

CHAPTER-5 CERTAIN RESULTS INVOLVING ORDINARY HYPERGEOM ETRIC SERIES AND CONTINUED FRACTIONS

5.1

Introduction :
In this chapter, we shall make use of the following result due to

F1
2

1

## a + 1fa c - b + 1fz a c + 2fa c + 3fa b + 2fa c - a + 2 fz a c + 3fa c + 4f a , 11-...

(1)

in order to establish certain results involving ordinary hypergeometric series and continued fractions. We shall also be in need of following recurrence relations for 2 F1 a , b; c, z due to Gauss.
c - 2a + a a - b fzr F a , b; c; z + aa 1 - zf F a + 1, m =a c - a f F a - 1, b; c; z , b - a f F a , b; c; z + a F a + 1, b; c; z a
2 1 2 1

b; c; z

2 1

(2)

2 1

= b 2 F1 a , b + 1; c; z ,

(3)

137

## c - a - bf F a, b; c; z + aa 1 - zf F a + 1, b; c; z a =a c - bf F a, b - 1; c; z , cm a +a b - cfzrF a , b; c; z + a c - a fa c - bfz F a , b; c + 1; = aca 1 - zf F a + 1, b; c; z , c - a - 1f F a , b ; c; z + a F a + 1, b ; c; z a =a c - 1f F a , b; c - 1; z , c - a - bf F a , b; c; z + ba 1 - zf F a , b + 1; c; z a =a c - a f F a - 1, b; c; z , b - a fa 1 - zf F a , b; c; z + a c - b f F a , b - 1; c; z a =a c - af F a -1, b; c; z , ca 1 - zf F a , b; c; z + a c - b fz F a , b; c + 1; z

2 1 2 1 2 1
1 2 1

(4)
z

2 1

(5)

2 1

(6)

2 1

2 1

2 1

(7)

2 1

2 1

2 1

(8)

2 1

2 1

= c 2 F1 a - 1, b; c; z ,
2 1 2 1

(9)

a -1+ a 1 + b - cfzr F a , b; c; z + a c - a f F a - 1, b; c; z m =a c - 1fa 1 - zf F a , b; c - 1; z , (10) c - 2b + a b - a fzr F a , b; c; z + ba 1 - zf F a , b + 1; c; z m =a c - bf F a , b - 1; c; z , (11) cm b+a a - cfzr F a , b; c; z + a c - a fa c - b fz F a , b; c + 1; z = bca 1 - zf F a , b + 1; c; z , (12)
2 1
2 1 2 1

2 1

2 1

2 1

2 1

138

c - b - 1f F a , b; c; z + b F a , b + 1; a =a c - 1f F a , b; c - 1; z , ca 1 - zf F a , b; c; z + a c - a fz F a , b;
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1

c; z
(13)

c + 1; z
(14)

(15)

(16)

5.2

Main Results:
In this section, we shall establish our main results :

(i)

(17)

139

140

(20)

(iii)

141

(22)

(iv)

Now, dividing

(23)

142

(24)

(v)

## from (5.1.12) we have :

Now, replacing b by b-1 in above result and then dividing throughout by , we get :

(25)

143

(26)

(vi)

## From (5.1.14) we have :

Now replacing b by b-1 in above result and then dividing throughout by , we get :

(27)

(28)

144

(29)

## (viii) From (5.1.4) we have :

Now, replacing b by b+1 in above result and then dividing throughout by , we get :

(30)

## Using (5.2.28) in (5.2.30) we get :

145

(31)

.....................

146

CHAPTER 6

## CERTAIN PARTITION THEOREMS

6.1

Introduction :
In this chapter, an attempt has been made to establish certain new partition

theorems similar to Rogers- Ramanujan theorems by adopting the pattern of Hirschorn , Subbarao , Subbarao and Agarwal  and Singh, S.N. . We consider the following identities due to Slater ;

(1) [Slater5;(83)P.160]

(2) [Slater5;(79)P.160]

(3) [Slater5;(84)P.161]

(4) [Slater5;(85)P.161]
147

(5) [Slater5;(86)P.161] We shall prove and establish the following partition theorems :

Theorem- 1
The number of partition of n into parts = 2, 3, 4, 5, 11, 12, 13 or 14 (mod 16) equals the number of n into even number of parts parts in the partition. , where 2K is the number of

Proof :
Let us consider a partition of n as (6) where So, Now, consider the following partition : ...

which is a partition of n-2k2 into at most 2k parts. It is generated by, and so the series gives the total

number of partitions of type (7) or total number of partitions of n type (6) due to 1-1 correspondence between partitions of type (6) and (7). Hence the theorem-1

148

## proved in view of the identity (6.1.1).

Theorem-2
The number of partitions of n into parts or 14 (mod 16)

equals the number of partitions of n into even number of parts, say 2k such that in the first half part of the partition each part partition each part . , and in the second half part of the

Proof :
Let us consider a partition of n as (6) where ... ... So, Now consider the following partition : and

which is a partitiion of n - 2k2 into at most 2k parts. It is generated by, and so the series gives the total

149

number of partition of type (9) or the total number of partitions of n of type (8) due to 1-1 correspondence between partitions of type (8) and (9). Hence the theorem 2, proved in view of the identity (6.1.1).

Theorem- 3
The number of partitions of n into parts = 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17 or 19 (mod 20) equals the number of partitions of n into even number of parts, 2k, such that in the first half part of the partition each part .

Proof :
Let us consider a partition of n as (10) where, ... ... So, Now consider the following partition : and

## which is a partitiion of n - k2 into at most 2k parts.

150

It is generated by,

## gives the total

number of partition of type (11) or the total number of partitions of n of type (10) due to 1-1 correspondence between partitions of type (10) and (11). Hence the theorem 3, proved in view of the identity (6.1.2).

Theorem- 4
The number of partitions of n into parts 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 or 15 (mod 16)

equals the number of partitions of n into even number of parts say, 2k+1, such that each part is .

Proof :
Let us consider a partition of n as (12) in which each part is ... So, Now consider the following partition : k.

which is a partitiion of n - k(2k+1) into at most (2k+1) parts. It is generated by, and so the series gives the total

151

number of partition of type (13) or the total number of partitions of type (12) due to 1-1 correspondence between partitions of type (12) and (13). Hence the theorem 4 proved in view of the identity (6.1.3).

Theorem- 5
The number of partitions of n into parts 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 or 15 (mod 16)

equals the number of partitions of n into even number of parts, 2k, such that in the first half part of the partition each part is k and in the second half part of the partition each part is .

Proof :
Let us consider a partition of n as (14) where ... and This gives that ....,

## Now, consider the following partition :

(15)

152

which is a partitiion of n - k(2k-1) into at most 2k parts. It is generated by, and so the series gives the total

number of partition of type (15) or the total number of partitions of n of type (14) due to 1-1 correspondence between partitions of type (14) and (15). Hence the theorem 5 proved in view of the identity (6.1.4).

Theorem- 6
The number of partitions of n into parts 1, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12 or 15 (mod 16)

equals the number of partitions of n into odd number of parts says 2k+1, such that in the first half part of the partition each part is partition each part is k and in the second half part of the

## . Partitions are taken in ascending order. .

Proof :
Let us consider a partition of n as (16) where ... and This gives that ....,

## Now, consider the following partition :

153

(17) which is a partitiion of n - 2k into at most 2k+1 parts. It is generated by, and so the series gives the total

number of partition of type (17) or the total number of partitions of n of type (16) due to 1-1 correspondence between partitions of type (16) and (17). Hence the theorem 6, proved in view of the identity (6.1.5).

.........................

154

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## On partial sums of mock-theta functions of

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order five and seven, J. Indian Math. Soc. 66 Nos. 1-4 (1966), 207-215.  Partial series of mock-theta functions found in the Lost notebook. J. Indian. Math. Soc. 66, Nos. 1-4 (1999), 217-225. Srivastava, K.N. and Bhonsle, B.R.  A note on orthogonal polynomials, The Mathematics Student, Vol. XII, No. (1973), 293-294. Stanton, D.  q-series and partition, Springer Verlag, New York, 1989. Subbarao, M.V.  Some Rogers-Ramanujan type partition theorem, Pacific J. Math. 120 (1985), 431435. Thakare, N.K. and Bhonsle, B.R.  On orthogonal polynomials related to the ultraspherical polynomials, proc. Nat. Acad. sci. India (II) 44 (A) (1974), 129-136. Thomae, J.  Reitrage Zue theories Durch die Heinesche Reich..., J. Reine Angew Math. 70 (1869), 258-281.  Les series Heine ennes superiures on les

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am grateful to Prof. R.Y. Denis, M.Sc., Ph.D., D.Sc. Department of Mathematics, Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, who has been a constant source of inspiration and encouragement t hroughout the entire period of my research work. I am also grateful to Dr. S.N. Singh, M.Sc., Ph.D., D.Sc. former Head, Department of Mahthematics, T.D.P.G. College, Jaunpur for his valuable suggestions and inspirations during my research work. I am also grateful to Dr. S.S. Gangwar, Former Head, Department of Mathematics, S.C. College, Ballia (U.P.) and other members of the Department for extending all facilities to carry out my research work. I express my gratitude to my parents and thanks to my wife Mrs. Yashmin and my brothers for their inspirations, blessings and encouragement during my research work.

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Finally, I offer my deepest and most sincere gratitude to Dr. Shafiullah, M.Sc., Ph.D., Reader & Head, Department of Mathematics, Shibli National College, Azamgarh (U .P.), Dr. Iftekhar Ahmed, Principal, Shibli National College, Azamgarh and other members of Maths Department who has been constant source of inspiration, encouragement and information throughout the entire period of my research work. I am also thankful to the Mr. Surendra Sonkar for his expert typing.

Place : Date :

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PREFACE
The present thesis entitled A Study of Basic Hypergeometric Functions And Their Applications

In Partition Theory And Continued Fractions embodies the researches carried out by me as a research scholar of Dr. Shafiullah, Reader & Head, Department of Mathematics, Shibli National College, Azamgarh (U.P.). The thesis consists of six chapters followed by a comprehensive bibliography. A shortened version of thesis incorporates in the following reach papers ; 1. 2. 3. 4. Certain transformation formulae for hypergeometric series. Reducibility of double hypergeometric series Certain transformations for Basic Hypergeometric series. Certain Results involving ordinary Hypergeometric series and continued fractions. 5. Certain Partition Theorems References to the work of the various authors have been cited in the body of the thesis through numerals in brackets which refer to the number in the bibliography e.g. Agarwal, R.P.  refers to the first paper of agarwal, R.P. mentioned in the bibliography.
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CERTIFICATE
Certified that Mr. Mohammad Shahjade research scholar in the Department of Mathematics, Shibli National College, Azamgarh has completed the research work on the topic A Study of Hypergeometric Functions And Their Applications In Partition Theory And Continued Fractions under my supervision. I recommend the present thesis for the award of Ph.D. Degree in Mathematics of V.B.S. Purvanchal University, Jaunpur.

## (Dr. Iftehkar Ahmed)

Principal Shibli National College Azamgarh (U.P.), India.

(Dr. Shafiullah)
Supervisor Reader & Head Department of Mathematics Shibli National College Azamgarh (U.P.), India.

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NODUES CERTIFICATE

Department of Mathematics, Shibli National College, Azamgarh, has no dues of the college. He is allowed to submit his Ph.D. thesis.

## Principal Shibli National College Azamgarh (U.P.), India

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CONTENTS

Chapter-1 A Study of Basic Hypergeometric Functions and Their Applications In Partition Theory And Continued Fractions. Chapter-2 Certain Transformation Formulae for Hypergeometric Series Chapter-3 Reducibility of Double Hypergeometric Series

1-30

31-76

77-121

Chapter-4 Certain Transformations for Basic Hypergeometric Series 122-136 Chapter-5 Certain Results Involving Ordinary Hypergeometric Series 137-146 and Continued Fractions. Chapter-6 Certain Partition Theorems. Bibliography 147-154 155-188

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