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ENGINEERING EXCELLENCE Tunnels and Caverns

n ILFs capabilities
The rapid development of human settlements and the growing number of highdensity areas together with the need for modern infrastructure make it necessary to build more traffic routes and industrial plants underground to protect nature and the environment to the greatest possible extent. This avoids impacts created by additional buildings and structures above ground. ILF offers complete in-house engineering services for all specialist disciplines which are required for constructing and equipping underground structures from the initial project idea to the acceptance of the completed project. Underground structures are greatly affected by geological and hydrogeological conditions. Unfavourable circumstances With the design of the Arlberg tunnel one of the longest road tunnels in the world - ILF Consulting Engineers set new standards on equipment and operation of large road tunnels which have found their way into national and international guidelines and continue to be valid today.

Tunnels provide perspectives


which cannot be avoided due to the existing boundary conditions have a significant influence on the design of a project. On account of the companys long experience and comprehensive capabilities, ILF is able to provide feasible solutions even for such difficult projects. To further improve the economic efficiency of underground projects, ILF contributes substantially to advancing and optimising construction methods for structures below ground.

Construction methods for tunnels and caverns


n Tunnelling know-how n  ILF has extensive expertise and experience in the following construction methods
 Sequential excavation according to the principles of the New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM), shotcrete method or ADECO, permitting flexible responses to variable boundary conditions  TBM excavation using open TBM (TBM-O) and shield machines (EPB shield, slurryshield, mix-shield, etc.) as well as tunnel jacking and microtunnelling  Hybrid construction methods with a combination of mining and cut-andcover methods, e.g. top-down, or a combination of microtunnelling and sequential excavation  Special construction methods such as immersed tubes  Measures ahead of excavation to improve the ground conditions with regard to water ingress, stability, settlement, etc., by means of reinforcement, consolidation or freezing  hen selecting the construction method W the following is defined for tunnel linings:  Full hydrostatic load or water-pressure relieved  Water-proofing and drainage system  Single shell or dual shell  Cast-in-place concrete or prefabricated tunnel lining

n I  LF Consulting Engineers offer professional in-house analysis and design services for:
 Collection of geological and hydrogeological data  Geotechnical and geomechanical modelling  Numerical modelling and stability analyses  Geotechnical measurements  Planning of hydrogeological measures  Management of excavated material  Risk analyses, probabilistics  Solutions for special problems such as karst, swelling rock, settlement compensation, minimisation of calcification, reduction of vibrations  Construction supervision  Construction management  Project control  Claims management

A decisive factor for the success of a project is choosing a technically safe construction method and ensuring the greatest possible economic efficiency at the same time. ILF Consulting Engineers have the technical know-how and long-standing project experience to provide customers with professional advice on appropriate construction methods. ILF draws upon its experience gained from projects around the globe, making use of its knowledge of rock mass behaviour of the formations to be traversed, familiarity with the tunnelling equipment currently available on the market and its understanding of the most suitable construction material for tunnel linings.

Road tunnels
ILF Consulting Engineers have designed a large number of one-way tunnels for principal road networks and two-way tunnels for secondary road networks, as well as road tunnels as protection in avalanche and rockfall-prone areas, all of which in sum have a length of more than 400 km. ILF is able to offer its customers complete in-house project solutions by providing interdisciplinary services from geological analysis and tunnel design, to the design of mechanical and electrical facilities and the supervision of construction activities. This has positive effects, not only on the design of a tunnel in terms of quality, time and costs, but also guarantees integrated and intelligent solutions when dealing with individual problems or project stages. ILF places great emphasis on integrating portals and ventilation structures into their surrounding natural and human environments. Furthermore, the site for ventilation structures is chosen very carefully to minimise emission effects.

n S  pecial engineering services

for tunnel structures:


 Routing  Safety concept, safety analysis  Risk management  Cross-section design  Control room design for operation and safety  Evacuation simulation  Fire protection measures  Water pollution control facilities n M  echanical and electrical

services:
Ventilation Lighting Power supply Control and monitoring (SCADA) Telecontrol systems (radio) Firewater supply Signs and markings

Railway tunnels
ILF Consulting Engineers have designed tunnels for new high-capacity lines and existing lines, as well as underground railways and tramways with underground stations, with individual route lengths of up to 57 km and a total length of some 600 km. ILFs comprehensive design and supervision programme is complemented by special services. These include project-related safety-oriented reviews (SIOP) with special focus on the optimisation of investment costs, construction periods, structural, occupational and operational safety, durability, service ability, as well as operating and maintenance costs. As part of ILFs supervisory respon sibilities reviews were conducted, for instance, for the Gotthard Base Tunnel. In 1994, ILF was awarded the British Construction Industry Award for its outstanding engineering services for the Channel Tunnel from Dover to Calais. In 2000, ILF received the same award for the pursuit of architectural and engineering excellence in public transport for the Jubilee Line Extension Project of the London Underground.

n S  pecial engineering services

for tunnels and underground stations:


R  outing S  afety concept C  ross-section design M  echanical and electrical facilities for railways I nteroperability review (TSI) E  vacuation simulation F  ire protection measures A  erodynamics N  oise protection for portal areas W  ater pollution control facilities n M  echanical and electrical

services:
E  mergency ventilation system, air-conditioning S  afety and emergency lighting F  irewater supply S  lab track T  actile guidance systems S  igns and markings

Adits
Another focal point of ILF is the provision of engineering services for adits. Adits can have many different functions and may serve as exploratory tunnels or pilot tunnels for enlargements. They can also be used for material transport or intermediate access, as access and escape routes, as supply lines (water, gas, oil, etc.), as free-flow tunnels for water transmission lines or as headrace tunnels in hydropower plants. ILF has planned and designed 200 km of different types of adits with individual lengths of up to 20 km.

n S  pecial engineering services

for adits:
R  outing C  ross-section design I nvestigation programmes including evaluation H  ydraulic design S  teel lining, prestressing W  ater pollution control facilities n M  echanical and electrical

services:
V  entilation, air-conditioning D  oors, gates, shutters L  ighting F  irewater pipelines S  igns and markings

Shafts
Shafts are important components in many underground structures and these may have different functions. ILF mainly plans and designs shafts for material transport and intermediate access, access or escape routes, for supply lines (water, gas, oil, etc.) or pressure shafts for power plants. ILF has designed a total of 7,000 m of shaft structures with individual lengths of up to 800 m. The chosen excavation method is of special importance: T  op-down method R  aise boring A  limak method

n S  pecial engineering services

for shaft structures:


C  ross-section design S  haft inspection structures H  ydraulic design S  teel lining or prestressing n M  echanical and electrical

services:
V  entilation, air-conditioning Stairs, doors, shutters Lifts, cranes Lighting Signs and markings

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Caverns
ILFs underground portfolio is rounded off by caverns for lay-bys, ventilation stations, junctions and crossovers, for storage facilities (gas, oil, etc.) or for power plants. ILF has planned and designed spaces with a total excavation volume of 2 million m3 with spans of up to 40 m. For the excellent engineering services for the Channel Tunnel crossover cavern, ILF Consulting Engineers received the British Construction Industry Award 1991. The following boundary conditions made the project particularly difficult: O  verburden to the sea floor only 31 m W  ater pressure 7 bar C  ross-section dimensions 252 m2 E  xcavation via the service tunnel H  igh temperatures and dust generation

n S  pecial engineering services

for caverns:
C  ross-section design E  vacuation simulation S  tructures for operation and safety F  ire-protection measures n M  echanical and electrical

services:
V  entilation, air-conditioning D  oors, gates, shutters L  ighting S  igns and markings

Rehabilitation of underground structures


To meet the demands of modern intermodal infrastructure, numerous operators have decided to expand or rehabilitate existing underground structures. ILF covers the entire spectrum of design and advisory services, including the enlargement of railway tunnels to obtain wider kinematic envelopes, the renewal of railway tunnels, safety-related upgrade of railway tunnels, safety-related retrofitting of road tunnels, as well as the rehabilitation of road tunnels, railway tunnels and adits. ILF has planned the rehabilitation of 120 km of underground structures for its clients to date. Due to its comprehensive experience, ILF was commissioned by the International Union of Railways to compile a catalogue for the rehabilitation and modernisation of tunnel structures.

n E  ngineering services for

rehabilitation measures:
T  unnel inspection S  tability and serviceability review I nventory 3  -D as-built survey of tunnel surface S  afety concept and analysis O  ptimisation of cross-section C  ontrol room design for operation and safety E  vacuation simulation F  ire-protection measures

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Safety a n d risk management


n Focus on safety
One of the fields of expertise where ILF is well known in Europe is safety and risk management, especially for road and railway tunnels as well as underground railways. In recent years constructional safety measures and organisational requirements have become the central issues in permitting procedures. Triggered by catastrophic accidents such as the fires in the Montblanc and Tauern road tunnels and in Kaprun, safety issues have become the centre of public attention and play a decisive role in the design, construction and operation of modern infrastructure projects. In order to establish safety-specific design fundamentals and a sound decision-making basis, potential hazards and risks entailed in the operation or transport are systematically specified and quantified. This serves to establish the technical project requirements and to define equipment concepts and basic emergency response strategies. Prior to opening the facility to traffic, these concepts are further developed into detailed organisation charts and emergency response plans. ILFs capabilities are based on many years of professional know-how, comprehensive international project experience and close contact across Europe with the bodies entrusted with the further development of safety and risk management.

n I  LF Consulting Engineers offer professional analysis and design services:


H  azard and risk analyses Q  ualitative and quantitative risk analyses for operation and transport D  etailed analysis of safety-specific issues (e.g. collision studies for bridges) S  tudies of construction alternatives for safety measures Q  ualitative and quantitative risk analysis of impacts caused by the infrastructure project (e.g. environmental assets) E  vacuation simulations I nvestigation of possibilities to evacuate a large number of persons from complex structures under various boundary conditions D  efinition of construction and organisation measures accompanying the design process T  unnel safety concepts P  rior to construction permit: definition of structural requirements and preparation of emergency response plan for fire and rescue services P  rior to opening: definition of detailed requirements as regards equipment and operational organisation T  unnel safety schemes D  efinition of operational measures in an emergency E  mergency response plans for fire and rescue services

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ILF Beratende Ingenieure, Munich - Rev. 8

ILF Consulting Engineers (ILF) consists of several international and independent engineering and consulting companies. ILF offers international top-quality design and consulting services in the Oil & Gas, Energy & Climate Protection, Water & Environment, Transport & Structures sectors. Our clients rely on ILFs comprehensive capabilities and professional know-how that the company has acquired in more than 40 years.

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