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Industrial & Hospital Isoloc

Hardware & Installation Manual

Industrial & Hospital Isoloc Hardware & Installation Manual 1
Industrial & Hospital Isoloc Hardware & Installation Manual 1

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Industrial Isoloc

Industrial Isoloc Insulation monitor for medium and low voltage factory installations A major advance in avoiding

Insulation monitor for medium and low voltage factory installations

A major advance in avoiding circuit interruption on first earth fault

With advances in manufacturing techniques, the processes of manufacture become more and more a continuous line from one process to another. The continuity of the electrical supply to driving machinery is now of vital importance, since an unexpected failure of one of the supplies means a complete interruption of the whole process, often causing hours of down time before re-establishing the process once more.

Furthermore, it is advantageous to reduce the value of current in the earth fault to a few milli-amperes, and in this way afford good protection against damage to equipment at the point of fault, reduce fire risk, and avoid thermal stresses to bonding circuits.

The Isoloc system has been designed by Electrical Protection Company (Pty) Ltd, under licence to L’Industrie

Electrique de la Seine of France to avoid an automatic trip out on the occurrence of the first earth fault on an electrical system. Instead, reliable warning is given at an adjustable threshold of insulation failure. The plant is, however, able to continue to operate until a shut-down of the process can be planned, and the fault rectified. The system also ensures that the earth fault current is kept to a minimum.

Should, however, a second earth fault occur at the same time on another phase, the automatic trip-out of one or both faulty circuits is inevitable.

The Isoloc system comprises essentially three groups of equipment to serve the following functions:-

  • a) Earthing of the supply system.

  • b) Protection of the electrical system against over-voltages.

  • c) Continuous monitoring of the earth insulation of the system.

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Earthing of the Supply

Earthing of the Supply In the Isoloc system, the star point of the supply transformer is

In the Isoloc system, the star point of the supply transformer is not earthed solidly, but instead is earthed through the built-in impendence in the INSULATION MONITOR. Due to the high impendence, an earth fault is limited in current to a very low and safe value. It is therefore not necessary to trip out the faulty circuit automatically.

If there is only one transformer feeding the main switchboard, it is a simple matter to earth the star point through the INSULATION MONITOR which is mounted on the main switchboard. But when there are two or more transformers in parallel, and since it is bad practice to common the star points, the earthing is effected by creating an artificial star point. This is done by connecting three earthing reactors to the busbars in the main switchboard, and the star point thus created is earthed through the INSULATION MONITOR.

A Delta connection system is also earthed in the same way.

The special earthing reactors for this purpose are available as part of the system.

As the system, under earth fault conditions, behaves as an insulated neutral system, the ground capacitance of the whole system will feed capacitive current into the fault. Whilst on small systems, below 500kVA, this is not troublesome, on large systems, a PETERSEN COIL provided with adjustable tapping’s, is available if required for connecting in parallel with the impendence of the INSULATION MONITOR. The inductive current thus flowing into earth fault, due to the elevated star point, can be adjusted to neutralize the capacitive current of the system in the fault. The resultant fault current will usually be below 50 milliamperes.

Protection of the System against over-voltage

All reactors are carefully designed to have linear reactance over a very wide range of voltages to minimize the possibility of neutral inversion. But to protect against over-voltage of the system with respect to earth, which arises from external sources, or possibly due to an inter-winding fault in the power transformer a special OVER- VOLTAGE SUPPRESSOR AND SHORT CIRCUIT SWITCH is provided between the star point of each transformer and earth. This unit is usually mounted on the transformer tank, in a suitable enclosure.

This device comprises of a silicone carbide cell in series with a spark gap, designed to discharge transient over- voltages.

There is, in addition, and across this assembly, a heavy duty short circuit switch which is normally open and will permanently close if the over-voltage is of a sustained nature. Under this condition the system will operate with a solidly earthed star point, and the automatic protection will function as in the case of a solidly earth system.

A core-balance current transformer can also be provided in the circuiting, arranged to trip an earth fault relay on the H.T. panel. The short-circuiting switch can be reset to the open position by renewing the fused thermal element. Incidentally, a short-circuited switch will be alarmed as such by the INSULATION MONITOR.

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The characteristics of the available OVER-VOLTAGE AND SHORT CIRCUIT SWITCHES are detailed below: 4

The characteristics of the available OVER-VOLTAGE AND SHORT CIRCUIT SWITCHES are detailed below:

The characteristics of the available OVER-VOLTAGE AND SHORT CIRCUIT SWITCHES are detailed below: 4

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Insulation Monitor

Insulation Monitor This equipment is available in different forms to provide ease of adaption and fitting

This equipment is available in different forms to provide ease of adaption and fitting to suit any particular type of panel layout.

TYPE SF 446: Completely enclosed in a double insulated dust proof enclosure complete with ohm-meter, test button, control buttons and auxiliary relays.

TYPE SF 456: This unit comprises of two interior assemblies of the Type SF 446, but in one double insulted, dust proof enclosure. This unit is of particular use in a centralized motor control panel which has a primary supply at one voltage and a control supply at another voltage. The principle of operation is based on the Wheatstone Bridge system. With reference to Fig. 1, the three limbs of the Wheatstone Bridge comprise of two fixed

resistance’s and one variable graduated resistor. The fourth limb of the Bridge constitutes the earth insulation of

the system in series with an inductance of 150 H. a stabilized potential source powers the Bridge at a potential of

15 Volts D.C. The balance of the Bridge is measured by a polarized self resetting electro-magnetic relay to which is fitted the necessary visual and audible alarm contacts.

A read-out instrument graduated in kilo ohms is tapped off one of the fixed resistance’s to provide continuous reading of the system earth insulation.

Thus completely automatic supervision of the state of the system insulation is provided. The ohmmeter will indicate the value of the insulation, and show any deterioration. The calibrated potentiometer provides an adjustment of the threshold of the insulation at which the monitor will alarm. As the measuring system operates on D.C. it only responds to the resistive component of insulation. There is a slight time delay so that the monitor will not respond to transient faults and is self-resetting if the fault should again disappear.

The monitor is so designed that relays are energized in the no-fault condition, thus providing fail to safety characteristics. In the Type SF 446 and 456 there is a built-in relay which will introduce a lower star point to earth impendence, brought in at will by depressing a button, but only when the monitor is alarmed. At this higher fault current of approximately 1 ampere, it is easy to locate the faulty circuit by simple core balance means.

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FIG 1

FIG 1 Technical Data Energizing Voltage Source Bridge Voltage : 220 Volts approx. 15%, 50-60 Cycles
FIG 1 Technical Data Energizing Voltage Source Bridge Voltage : 220 Volts approx. 15%, 50-60 Cycles

Technical Data

Energizing Voltage Source

 

Bridge Voltage

: 220 Volts approx. 15%, 50-60 Cycles : 15 Volts D.C. Stabilized

Built-in Earthing Impendence

 

Maximum Voltage of System that can be Monitored

: 47,000 ohms inductive at 50 Cycles : 600 Volts A.C.

Ohmmeter Range

 

Adjustable Alarm Threshold

: 0-50 kilo ohms / infinity : 100 ohms to 5,000 ohms

Response Time

: 1-1.5 seconds

   

Alarm Contact Rating Alarm Voltage

: 2 N/O Contacts each 10 amps at 250 Volts A.C. : 220 Volts 50-60 Cycles

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Hospital Isoloc 315M

Insulation monitor and Earth Fault Limiter

Hospital Isoloc – 315M Insulation monitor and Earth Fault Limiter This compact insulation monitor has been

This compact insulation monitor has been designed for the use in the following situation to monitor:-

Hospitals

: Electricity supplies in operating theater and intensive care wards

Ships

: Shipboard and shore to ship L.V. supplies

Industries

: L.V. control circuit supplies in motor control centres

Hazardous Environment

: To limit earth fault current and monitor L.V. supplies

The Isoloc 315M insulation monitor and earth fault current limiter, when used in conjunction with and isolated supply, provides a most advanced form of protection against electric shock due to earth leakage currents.

Construction

The unit is assembled in a high impact strength insulated enclosure with a transparent cover. Secured by two screws.

The front panel carries the following components:-

  • 1. An ohmmeter graduated from 0 to 50 kilo ohms to infinity (0 to 550 kilo ohms to infinity also available). The instrument provides a constant indication of the insulation resistance of the system.

  • 2. A calibrated variable resistor for adjusting the threshold level of sensitivity from 100Ω to 5000Ω. The resistance of the fault is clearly visible through the transparent cover.

  • 3. A red signal lamp which lights when the alarm contacts are closed, and a green signal lamp which lights when the alarm contacts are open.

  • 4. A test button which, on being depressed, introduces and artificial fault, thus providing means for checking the alarm circuit.

Operation

Each electrical installation to be monitored is supplied through a double wound transformer either three phase or single phase. In case of the single phase transformer, the 220-250 Volt secondary winding is provided with a centre tap connection,

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The Isoloc 315 insulation monitor is connected between the star point of the three phase
  • The Isoloc 315 insulation monitor is connected between the star point of the three phase secondary winding (or centre tap of single phase secondary winding) and the system earth point.

  • The insulation resistance between all the conductors and apparatus connected to the isolated supply and system earth forms one arm of a Wheatstone bridge arrangement, the bridge being incorporated in the Isoloc unit. A current limiting inductance is also incorporated in this arm of the bridge. The protective inductance (‘L’ on the diagram) limits the earth fault current to between 1 and 5 milliamperes (depending on value of inductance chosen and system voltage), thus affording a large measure of protection to persons using electrical apparatus and to the apparatus itself in the event of a short circuit to earth on one phase. The measuring bridge is supplied from an internal stabilized D.C. source, thus providing constant voltage to the measuring circuit irrespective of supply voltage fluctuations.

  • A calibrated variable resistor connected in another arm of the bridge provides a means of adjusting the threshold level of operation of the alarm

  • A relay ‘R’ connection across the centre point of the bridge detects the point of balance and includes a temperature compensated transistorized trigger circuit which gives positive and precise operation even in the presence of vibrations.

  • This circuit is arranged so that relay ‘R’ is normally energized in the no fault condition and thus provides a “fail to safety” characteristic.

During normal operation without any earth fault, the bridge is out of balance. In the case of an earth fault on any part of the connected electrical system where the insulation resistance is reduced to a value equal to or less that

preset by the calibration threshold level control, the relay ‘R’ drops out to initiate the alarm system. In addition, a

graduated ohmmeter provides a continuous indication of the state of the insulation resistance to earth. Special protective devices in the interest of overall safety and reliability are incorporated as standard; for example, earth faults on d.c. side of a rectifier energized from any isolated supply are detected and the d.c. current limited.

Internal wiring shown as a functional representation only

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Application

Hospitals

Application Hospitals The increasing use of electrical and electronic apparatus in operating theatres and intensive care

The increasing use of electrical and electronic apparatus in operating theatres and intensive care wards has introduced additional hazards to patients.

With modern heart surgery where the myocardium is penetrated, our thinking in regard to ‘safe’ voltages and minimum body electrical resistance must of necessity change. Where, previously, we thought in terms of 25 Volts as safe voltage (being minimum current necessary to cause ventricular fibrillation 80 to 100 milliamperes, x minimum body resistance 300 ohms, for a current path hand to hand to leg), under conditions of heart surgery we have to consider a minimum resistance of 100 ohms and fibrillating current of 20 micro amps or a maximum safe voltage of 20 millivolts between exposed metal probes and frames of various electrical apparatus.

This would also apply in the case of externally energized pacemakers and probes embedded in a patient undergoing intensive care.

By using an isolation transformer to supply all electrical equipment used in surgery and intensive card wards, firstly, there is a limitation on the short circuit fault current in the theatre or intensive care ward and, secondly, the fault current distribution is localized.

The current limiting inductance inherent in the Isoloc 315M unit limits the fault current (even when complete insulation failure to earth occurs) to 1 to 2 milliamperes. By bonding the frames operating lamp, X-ray viewing box, operating table, portable electrical equipment, and the patient himself, to an equipotential earth bar it is ensured that even when an earth fault occurs on equipment during surgery the possibility of a dangerous potential occurring across the patient is eliminated.

In an intensive care ward, the patient, bed, examination lamp and frames of portable electrical equipment are similarly bonded to an equipotential “earth-bar”.

Electro-medical apparatus is often used to provide a life supporting function during an operation or in intensive care wards. The failure of supply to this apparatus could be fatal to the patient. Hence, the Isoloc 315M monitoring system with its current limiting feature, permits the supply to be maintained and safe even in the presence of an earth fault on the system.

The alarm circuitry of the Isoloc 315M monitor can be connected to and audible alarm, alarm cancellation switch, and flashing visual alarm in the sisters’ duty room. A flashing visual alarm may also be provided in the operating theatre and intensive care ward. Before an operation takes place all electrical equipment to be used during the operation is connected to the isolated supply and the Isoloc 315M monitor will indicate if there is an earth fault on any of this apparatus. By disconnecting the apparatus in turn until the alarm ceases (the monitor is self-resetting) one is able to locate the faulty equipment and arrange for a healthy replacement. Should an earth fault develop during an operation during intensive care, one is able to carry on safely with the procedure until it is convenient to arrange for replacement equipment.

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Ships

Ships Electrical safety on board ship is of the utmost importance. Because the vessel forms an

Electrical safety on board ship is of the utmost importance. Because the vessel forms an electrically conductive steel shell, and all services are enclosed therein, the possibility of dangerous electric currents flowing from

exposed metalwork to “earth” is even more real than in a land based installation.

Also, there is the ever present fire hazard due to earth leakage currents igniting inflammable fuel etc. it is for these reasons that Electrical Engineers are giving more and more attention to providing greater electrical safety where L.V. electrical systems are used in ships.

An Isoloc 315M earth fault limiter and insulation monitor is installed in each L.V. switchboard to monitor the electrical resistance to earth of each busbar system and electrical equipment connected tot his system.

As in the case of the hospital installation, the earth fault current is limited by means of an inductance to a few milliamperes, thus minimizing the fire risk. Audible and visual alarms may be arranged in convenient situations to draw the attention of electrical maintenance personnel to an earth fault on a particular busbar system.

Industries

The first shut-down of a continuous process plant due to and electrical fault is usually occasioned by an earth fault, and, invariably, an earth fault on the control circuitry as these circuits are usually more extensive than the power circuits, wandering as they do to limit switches, alarm lamps and control stations at remote parts of the plant. It is on these continuous process plants that the Isoloc monitoring system comes into it own, providing as it does, continuous monitoring of the system insulation and permitting the plant to continue safety with the first earth fault on the system.

Performance

Ships Electrical safety on board ship is of the utmost importance. Because the vessel forms an

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Strike Technologies, a division of Powertech SA (Pty) LIMITED Co. Reg No: 2007/015049/07 VAT No: 4200116657

Strike Technologies, a division of Powertech SA (Pty) LIMITED

Co. Reg No: 2007/015049/07

VAT No: 4200116657

Gauteng Office

59A Roan Crescent, Corporate Park North, Old Pretoria Rd, Midrand

1685

 

P O Box 1810 Halfway House

1685

Tel

+27 (0)11 635 8000

Fax

+27 (0)11 635 8180

Cape Town Branch

Unit 6B, Phumelela Park, Montague Drive, Montague Gardens Cape Town

Tel

+27 (0)21 528 3640

Fax

+27 (0)11 635 8180

www.strike.co.za

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