Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 959

title: author: publisher: isbn10 | asin: print isbn13: ebook isbn13: language: subject publication date: lcc: ddc:

subject:

The New Men's Studies : A Selected and Annotated Interdisciplinary Bibliography August, Eugene R. Libraries Unlimited 1563080842 9781563080845 9780585211275 English Men--Bibliography, Men's studies--Bibliography. 1994 Z7164.M49A84 1994eb 016.30531 Men--Bibliography, Men's studies--Bibliography.

Page iii

The New Men's Studies


A Selected and Annotated Interdisciplinary Bibliography
Second Edition Eugene R. August Alumni Chair in the Humanities University of Dayton
1994 Libraries Unlimited, Inc. Englewood, Colorado

Page iv

To the memory of my father, Joseph L. August and my mother, Florence C. August

Copyright 1994 Eugene R. August All Rights Reserved Printed in the United States of America No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. LIBRARIES UNLIMITED, INC. P.O. Box 6633 Englewood, GO 80155-6633 1-800-237-6124 Project Editor: Kevin W. Perizzolo Copy Editor: Jason Cook Interior Book Design and Typesetting: Judy Gay Matthews Indexer: D. Aviva Rothschild Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data August, Eugene R., 1935The new men's studies: a selected and annotated interdisciplinary bibliography / Eugene R. August. 2nd ed. xx, 440 p. 1725 cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-56308-084-2 1. MenBibliography. 2. Men's studiesBibliography. I. Title. Z7164.M49A84 1994 [HQ1090] 016.30531dc20 94-32454

CIP

Page v

Contents
Acknowledgments Introduction ix xi

1Anthropology, Sociology: Cultural and Cross-Cultural 1 Studies Cross-References 2Autobiographical and Biographical Accounts Cross-References 13 16 24

3Awareness: General Discussions of Men's Issues and Topics, and Men's Awareness and Consciousness 26 Raising Cross-References 4Bibliographies A. Men's Studies Bibliographies B. Bibliographies in Related Areas Cross-References 5Boys: Education and Socialization of Males Cross-References 6Divorce and Custody Cross-References 7Erotica and Pornography Cross-References 8Feminism: Feminisms, Critiques of Feminism, Feminist Critiques Cross-References 52 54 54 55 60 61 67 70 76 77 79 80 88

9Health and Related Topics A. AIDS B. Men's Health, Circumcision, the Prostate, and Related Topics C. Vasectomy, Male Fertility, Contraception Cross-References

90 90 92 95 98

Page vi

10History: Historical Studies, Social History, History of Ideas Cross-References 11Humor Cross-References

99 111 114 118

12Literature and the Arts: Primary Works and Critical 119 Commentary A. Classic Literature: Pre-1900 B. Modern Literature: Twentieth Century C. The Arts: Film, Painting, Photography D. Critical Commentary on the Arts, Language, Literature Cross-References 13Male Midlife Transition Cross-References 14Males in Families A. Expectant Fathers, New Fathers B. Fathers, Fatherhood, Husbands, Married Men C. Divorced and Single Fathers, Stepfathers D. Other Family Roles Cross-References 15Masculinity: Masculinities, Masculine Gender Roles, Male Sex Roles, Biology, Physiology Cross-References 16Men's Rights Cross-References 119 125 137 138 152 154 159 160 160 165 192 198 201 205 218 221 225

17Men's Studies: Interdisciplinary Collections and Studies Cross-References 18Minority Males, Multicultural Studies Cross-References 19Patriarchy, Patriarchal Society Cross-References 20Psychology Cross-References

227 231 232 240 242 247 249 266

Page vii

21Sexuality

270

A. Heterosexuality: Heterosexualities, Impotence, 270 Male Sexual Health B. Homosexuality: Gay Men, Homosexualities Cross-References 279 299

22Single Men: Never Married, Divorced, Widowered 302 Cross-References 23Spirituality 304 305

A. Archetypal and Mythic Studies, Mythopoetic (or Mythopoeic) Men's Movement, Religious Concepts 305 of Masculinity B. Religion: Traditional Religions Cross-References 24Victims and Violence: Crime, Domestic Violence, False Accusations of Wrongdoing, Physical and Sexual Abuse, Prisons, Rape, Sexual Harassment Cross-References 315 320 323 336

25War and Peace: The Military, Military Conscription, 338 Resistance to War, Combat Cross-References 26Women and Men Cross-References 27Work and Play A. Careers, Employment, Unemployment B. Athletics, Sports Cross-References Author/Title Index 346 348 363 366 366 370 373 375

Subject Index

413

Page ix

Acknowledgments
In compiling this bibliography, I have incurred debts of thanks to many people, only some of whom can be acknowledged here: The University of Dayton Research Council, for a summer grant that enabled me to work full-time on this project; The staff of the Roesch Library at the University of Dayton, especially Robert L. Leach and Mary Ann Middendorp of the interlibrary loan department; Dr. Nicoletta C. Hary, associate director of technical services; and Jacqueline J. Johnston, acquisitions assistant; Dr. Paul J. Morman, dean of the College of Arts and Sciences; Dr. James P. Farrelly, chair of the Department of English, for numerous acts of encouragement and help during the course of this project; The students in my "Modern Men: Images and Realities" classes during the past 11 years, for insights and bibliographic help; James R. Rettig of the Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William and Mary, for his expertise and friendship; Carolyn A. Ludwig, for expert secretarial help; Kevin W. Perizzolo, my project editor at Libraries Unlimited, and Jason Cook, my copy editor, for expert editorial skills; Barbara August, my wife of 30 wonderful years, and our sons, Robert and James, for unfailing support.

Page xi

Introduction
Growth of the New Men's Studies
"An excellent case might be made, in short, for the establishment of gentlemen's studies programs at major universities." Alexander Welsh, book review in Victorian Studies 26 (1982): 85

Even while Alexander Welsh was making his whimsical suggestion about "gentlemen's studies" in 1982, a whole new kind of men's studies was already taking shape in the academic world. Since that time, this new men's studies has slowly but surely taken its place in universities throughout the United States, Canada, Europe, and elsewhere. Neither a fad nor a backlash, the new men's studies is the logical complement to women's studies and a necessary component of any balanced gender-related scholarship. Since the first edition of this bibliography appeared in 1985, the growth in men's studies has been steady and dramatic. The growth can be seen in the increasing number of men's studies courses offered at U.S. universities. From 1984 to 1993, the number of men's studies courses expanded from 30 to approximately 300. These courses are offered by various departments, usually sociology, psychology, history, and literature, but many of the new courses are interdisciplinary. At some universities, professors in women's studies have begun to include segments on men in their established courses. At this writing, no full-scale men's studies program is yet in place, but efforts to formulate such programs have begun on several campuses. Berkeley, California, now has a Center for Men's Studies, and a handful of U.S. universities appear to be making plans to create similar centers. Additional evidence comes from Canadian and European universities. Both McGill University in Montreal and the University of Windsor, for example, have created men's studies courses. Also, several universities in Great Britain offer men's courses, Finland's University of Tempere presents an introductory course in men's studies, and the Netherlands has a National Society for Men's Studies. In brief, the new men's studies is a growing presence on many North American and European campuses. Elsewhere in the academic world, the new men's studies is making itself felt. Panels and papers on men's studies have become regular features at many

educational conferences, and special issues of academic journals devoted to men's studies have appeared. Abandoning the tendency to

Page xii

devote gender-conscious research to women only, more and more scholars are beginning to study men under the rubric of "gender." A professional organization, the American Men's Studies Association, has been formed and has begun holding annual meetings. At least two journals are now devoted exclusively to men's studies: Journal of Men's Studies and Masculinities offer scholarly articles, reviews, bibliographies, as well as course and conference information. The most dramatic growth in men's studies can be seen primarily in the torrent of men's books that has been pouring forth from publishers since 1990. Before that time, the prevailing wisdom in publishing houses decreed that books about women would sell while those about men would not. However, when Robert Bly's Iron John stayed on best seller lists for nearly a year, the publishing logjam was broken. Other books like Sam Keen's Fire in the Belly and Robert Moore and Douglas Gillette's King Warrior Magician Lover also achieved best seller status, thereby confirming publishers' suspicions that the market for men's books was a healthy one. Since then the stream of scholarly and popular books about men has not slowed. Scope of the Present Bibliography
"Books about men are not books about men as men." Michael S. Kimmel, "How is it that men have no history?" Chronicle of Higher Education 8 December 1993:B5

This comparative abundance of men's books has dictated a major difference between the present edition of this bibliography and the first one. Whereas the first edition included nearly all men's studies books available in 1985, the sheer number of men's books presently available has required a more rigorous selection of titles. To include all the available titles would have doubled the size of the present bibliography. Titles have been selected by using the following criteria: 1. All contributions to men's studies judged to be truly significant or noteworthy have been included. Inevitably, however, some worthy books have been missed, but every effort was made to reduce their number to a minimum. 2. A representative sampling of works from all major academic disciplines has been made. 3. Selections have been chosen to illustrate a range of philosophical and

political viewpoints on men and men's issues.

Page xiii

4. Although works of a more advanced or scholarly nature were given preference in the selection process, many books aimed at more general audiences have been included to indicate trends in nonacademic views of males. 5. Although most entries from the earlier bibliography were brought over into the present edition, some dated items have been deleted, and all previous annotations have been revised when appropriate. As in the previous edition, The New Men's Studies includes only books written in English or available in English translation. In addition, books were required to meet one or more of the following criteria: 1. The book must be primarily about males as males. That is, it must not be primarily about another topic (such as the Vietnam War or the labor movement), however closely related that subject might be to men's lives. 2. The book must exhibit an awareness of the masculine gender role or roles. It should not contain unquestioned assumptions about the nature of masculinity. 3. The book must demonstrate an awareness of other works in men's studies and women's studies. Its contents should not assume that nothing of value has been written on males as a gendered subject. 4. The book must make some effort to transcend stereotypes of males and to present them as human beings in all their complexity and contradictions, with their triumphs and failures given equitable treatment. (See Political Content and "Misandry" below.) 5. The book must contribute significant insights into current conditions shaping men's lives, into the universal experience of being male, or into the question of whether or not such universals exist. 6. The book must explore topics or issues of importance to males as males, such as men's rights, men's health, or fatherhood. It must exhibit an understanding of differing views on the topic when disagreement exists.

Page xiv

In a few cases I have ignored some of the criteria rather than omit a book noteworthy for other reasons. Still, nearly all the books published after 1985 included in The New Men's Studies meet most of the above criteria. This fact marks another significant difference between this bibliography and the earlier edition in which many books met only one or two of the criteria. Clearly, an increasing number of writers are now conscious of men as a gendered subject, of men's issues, and of men's studies as a branch of academic inquiry. To a great extent, recent books about men are books about men as men. Rationales for Men's Studies
''Compared with what we know about the identity problems of women, we know relatively little about the American man's struggle with his identity." Joe L. Dubbert, A Man's Place: Masculinity in Transition (1979), 2

The rationales for women's studies are clear and compelling. As women entered the academic world in increasing numbers during the 1960s and 1970s, they discovered the need for a more gender-conscious and genderinclusive scholarship. It was obvious that traditional studies contained glaring omissions and distortions about women. Women's studies courses and programs emerged to correct this imbalance and to explore new areas of knowledge about women that had been untouched by standard disciplines. Women's studies educators pioneered the idea of a gender-conscious scholarship that questioned and qualified knowledge formulated largely by male scholars. They also introduced the concept of gender as a major academic and political consideration. Despite disagreements and controversies, few people in education nowadays would deny the necessity for and the importance of women's studies; few would deny the contribution of women's studies scholars to the concept of gendered knowledge. But an increasing number of scholars have questioned an assumption that underlay early rationales for women's studies. This is the assumption that traditional studies were already men's studies. Over time, many educators have recognized that the same traditional studies which contained omissions and distortions about women also contained omissions and distortions about men. Scholars in the past had been very selective about which males they studied and what they studied about them. Traditional scholarship studied a few things about a few men.

Traditional historians, for example, reported the public lives of a small minority of males at the top of the social scalethe princes, politicians, popes, presidents, generals, and so on. In standard historical accounts, the lives of the vast majority of males in any given society remained as much of a blank as the lives of nearly all women. As Peter N.

Page xv

Stearns has remarked in Be a Man! Males in Modern Society: "Feminist historians rightly point out that until recently most history dealt with men. But it did not deal with ordinary men, nor with the private spheres of male existence, with masculinity and its standards as focal concepts" (1990, 7). Similar problems existed in psychology. While Helene Deutsch's Psychology of Women was written over forty years ago, Herbert S. Strean in the introduction to Reuben Fine's The Forgotten Man notes that "it took psychoanalysts many more years to come up with a book on the psychology of men" (1987, xi). Many earlier theorists, although male, ignored many dimensions of the male psyche in both their theory and clinical practice. In sociological studies before the 1980s, many researchers equated "mother" with "parent" and gleaned most of their information about fathers through interviews with mothers. The widespread ignorance about fathers (now being corrected) was one of the clearest cases demonstrating the need for a new kind of men's studies. Moreover, traditional studies were not gender-conscious studies. Earlier scholars usually had little idea that "masculine" and "feminine" were anything but biological givens. In the foreword to Richard L. Meth and Robert S. Pasick's Men in Therapy, Ann Hartman notes that, "although psychological writing has been androcentric, it has also been gender blind. It has assumed a male perspective but has not really explored what it means to be a man any more than what it means to be a woman" (1990, vii). More recent scholars have recognized "masculine" and "feminine" as social scripts assigned to biological males and females. Such a view does not deny a biological role in the shaping of human behavior. In Constructing Brotherhood, Mary Ann Clawson wisely remarks: "To say that gender and class are socially constructed is not to say that they are randomly devised and infinitely variable" (1989, 245). But even if differing masculinities represent variations on a biological theme, gender-conscious scholars no longer accept any one cultural variation as a universal norm. Furthermore, many educators now critique gender scripts in the light of numerous other concerns, including the temperament of the individual, the needs of the society at large, and long-term considerations of individual health and personal growth. In short, the presence of gender-conscious content marks an essential difference between traditional studies and the new men's studies.

Finally, if traditional studies really represented men's studies, it would be easy to construct a men's studies program from already existing courses in any university's curriculum. Anyone who attempts such a task, however, soon discovers that the result is a patchwork of courses focusing primarily on males in a gender-unconscious way. The traditional "History of Western Civilization" course, for example, will feature more male names than female names, but it is unlikely to represent a gender-conscious examination of the private lives or inner experiences of most Western males. A collection of traditional courses passed off as a men's studies program would return educators to the

Page xvi

very point the new men's scholars are leaving behind to attain fuller understanding of males as human beings. In short, the notion that traditional studies were men's studies, in any currently significant sense, is untenable. Moreover, the time has now passed when colleges and universities could justify the presence on campus of women's studies programs without comparable men's studies programs. Male students pay the same tuition as female students. They deserve equal access to courses that examinecritically and compassionatelythe personal, social, and political aspects of men's lives. Political Content and Misandry
"There has been a veritable blitzkrieg on the male gender, what amounts to an outright demonization of men and a slander against masculinity." Robert Moore and Douglas Gillette, King Warrior Magician Lover (1990), 156

When appropriate, the annotations in this bibliography note, and sometimes comment on, political content in the books. In general, the annotations follow the political classifications in Kenneth Clatterbaugh's Contemporary Perspectives on Masculinity (1990), reordered as follows: 1. Conservatives hold to traditional forms of masculinity. Moral conservatives assess masculine behavior according to a universal, natural law. Biological conservatives (e.g., sociobiologists) locate masculine behaviors primarily in biology (16-36). 2. Mythopoetic or mythopoeic men, seek a spiritual redefinition of masculinity based on myths, archetypes, and, in some cases, mainstream religious beliefs (85-103). 3. Men's rights activists focus on legal discrimination against men and unfair social treatment of males (61-83). 4. Minority men focus on the special interests of groups such as black men or gay men (127-50). 5. Pro-feminist men, or anti-sexist men, accept one or another feminist critique ofpatriarchy, which is usually defined as "male-dominated society." Liberal profeminist men espouse an agenda of equal rights and responsibilities for males

and females. Radical pro-feminist men regard males as an oppressor class that derives power from patriarchy (37-60).

Page xvii

6. Socialist men seek human improvement by way of changing social structures. Marxist socialists focus on class differences, feminist socialists on gender differences (105-125). When appropriate, annotations also note the presence of misandry or anti-male sexism in the books listed. Misandry is defined by Patrick M. Arnold in Wildmen, Warriors, and Kings (1992, 52):
Misandry (mis'-an'-dre) n. hatred of men. 1: the attribution of negative qualities to the entire male gender. 2: the claim that masculinity is the source of human vices such as domination, violence, oppression, and racism. 3: a sexist assumption that (a) male genes, hormones, or physiology, or (b) male cultural nurturing produces war, rape, and physical abuse. 4: the assignment of blame solely to men for humanity's historic evils without including women's responsibility or giving men credit for civilization's achievements. 5: the assumption that any male person is probably dominating, oppressive, violent, sexually abusive, and spiritually immature.

A related term is androphobia, an irrational fear and loathing of men. Adjective forms are misandric and androphobic. Increasingly, writers are distinguishing between 1) legitimate criticisms of masculinity's negative aspects and 2) misandric portraits of males as inherently evil and of masculinity as entirely corrupt. Nevertheless, misandry and androphobia continue to be such acceptable forms of sexism in large segments of modern society that they often go unnoticed and unprotested. In the present annotations, misandry and androphobia are neither ignored nor tolerated. A Word About Words
"Because traditional scholarship and theology made men into pseudo-universal generic human beings, it excluded from consideration whatever was specific to men as men." James B. Nelson, The Intimate Connection: Male Sexuality, Masculine Spirituality (1988), 18

In addition to misandry, a few other words require comment. In recent times, heightened awareness of language's political implications has complicated the business of word choice. In the annotations, words have been selected for clarity, sensitivity, and wide acceptance. A sampling of some problematic terms and a brief rationale for the use of each follows. Feminism and related terms like feminist, women's liberation, and the women's

movement cover a range of opinions and attitudes, as do

Page xviii

masculinist, the men's movement, and men's liberation. Even those who recognize a common core of belief in these terms usually recognize a diversity amid the unity. Although every effort has been made to use such terms precisely, readers should be aware of the leeway of meaning in them. Gay is used interchangeably with homosexual. Although some activists prefer queer, gay appears to be more generally acceptable. Homophobic refers to an irrational fear and loathing of homosexual people. Its complement is heterophobic, an irrational fear and hatred of heterosexual people. Masculinities, the plural form, is sometimes used to indicate the widespread conviction that gender roles are constructed, at least in part, by cultures. Thus, there is no one masculinity but a series of masculinities that vary according to culture, time, place, class, religion, and other factors. Even those who affirm universal or ubiquitous elements of masculinity often acknowledge that these elements are shaped somewhat differently by different cultures, thereby creating masculinities in the sense of "variations of masculinity." Mythopoetic describes a branch of the men's movement that combines myth and poetry in a search for archetypal patterns of masculinity. Sometimes, mythopoeic (myth-making) is applied to this segment of the men's movement. The annotations generally use the more common form mythopoetic. Patriarchy is a word of many meanings, often carrying within it an entire worldview. In recent times, the term has become laden with negative overtones that suggest male oppression. In this usage, patriarchy is synonymous with "maledominated society," a concept that depicts the history of the sexes as the class warfare of the sexes. This use often conveys misandric stereotypes of males as an oppressor class of evil woman-haters. In contrast, the older sense ofpatriarchy as "father-involved or father-protected society" carries more favorable connotations and fosters an ideal of males as loving, responsible fathers. This sense ofpatriarchy is still in use, and an increasing number of writers are employing it as (to use Richard Louv's term) "political fatherlove." United States and U.S. are usually not used synonymously with America or American to signify a growing awareness that America and American refer more accurately to all the AmericasNorth, Central, and South.

In all vocabulary choices, an effort has been made to select terms that are precise and widely acceptable.

Page xix

Categories and Annotations


"Women's studies does more than question the female roleit tells women they have rights to what was the traditional male role. Nothing tells men they have rights to what was the traditional female rolerights to stay home full-time or part-time with the children while his wife supports him." Warren Farrell, The Myth of Male Power: Why Men Are the Disposable Sex (1993), 15

The present selection has been made from a list of nearly two thousand items gathered through several methods. Searches of bibliographies in periodicals such as the Journal of Men's Studies were the easiest and most rewarding method. Library subject headings and computer databases were searched. Searches of bibliographies in men's studies books were also helpful in providing additional titles. The classifications used in this bibliography are designed to create categories that are useful and manageable for scholars and general audiences. Often, the names of recognized academic disciplines have been used, such as history, literature, and psychology. Other categories reflect areas of interest as indicated by publishing trends of the past two decades, such as archetypal spirituality, awareness of men's issues and topics, and victimization and violence. Entries in The New Men's Studies follow The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed. (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1993). The author's last nameor, in the case of edited anthologies, the editor's last nameis used to list items alphabetically. The author's name is followed by the book's full title and subtitle, translator or editor, place of publication, publisher, publisher's subdivision, date of publication, and page numbers to the last relevant page. If the book has been reprinted, the place of publication, publisher, and date are given. If the book is available in paperback, the abbreviation "pa." is used. To provide researchers with access to a wider selection of books about men, each entry in The New Men's Studies indicates whether the cited book contains a bibliography. If so, the entry includes its page numbers. Considerable effort has been made to locate all reprintings of a book, although it is likely that some omissions occur. Price information for books has been omitted because, given the rapid fluctuations in prices, the entry would most likely consist of price misinformation. The ISBN has also been omitted because,

with the information provided here, it will be readily accessible to those who wish it. The citations note illustrations, appendixes, bibliographies, notes, and indexes. The page numbers of bibliographies are included as a research tool: in this way The New Men's Studies offers valuable openings into a much larger literature about men than is included here. Any classification of knowledge is necessarily a human construct. Categorizing works in men's studies is particularly difficult owing to

Page xx

the interdisciplinary nature of the area. For example, the burgeoning mythopoetic writings defy easy classification. Should they be listed as psychology, religion, autobiography, history, or cultural studies? Many mythopoetic writings combine most or all of these categories. Also, so much writing about males is now gender-conscious of masculinity that it is often difficult to determine how a given book should be classified. For example, the annotation for Peter N. Stearns's Be a Man! Males in Modern Society might have been included in the chapter on masculinity rather than in the chapter on history. To help readers cope with these ambiguities, cross-references have been provided at the end of each chapter.

Page 1

1 Anthropology, Sociology: Cultural and Cross-Cultural Studies


1. Allen, M. R. Male Cults and Secret Initiations in Melanesia. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1967. 140p. illus. bibliography, 123-36. index. Reprint, London and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1967. Citing numerous studies, Allen provides an overview of male initiation rites in a wide variety of Melanesian societies. He connects the degree of sexual polarity in these societies to the varying kin-based social structures, and he links their rites to sexual antagonism and social arrangements. Allen also assesses several leading anthropological and psychological theories concerning the male rites, including theories of male envy of females, oedipal rivalry between fathers and sons, and male fears of female contamination. 2. Bettelheim, Bruno. Symbolic Wounds: Puberty Rites and the Envious Male. Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1954. Rev. ed., New York: Collier, 1962. 194p. appendixes. index. pa. Questioning prevailing psychological and anthropological explanations of puberty rites, Bettelheim suggests that they represent an attempt by males to imitate female powers of procreation. Each sex envies the powers of the other sex to some extent; some puberty rituals spring from male awe of the female's ability to bear children. These rituals represent the male's attempt to assimilate her powers into himself; thus, the bleeding penis that results from circumcision resembles the menstruating vagina. Although myths suggest that circumcision is imposed and desired by women, Bettelheim warns against an oversimplified view of its origins. He examines numerous practices and ceremonies, including circumcision, self-mutilation, subincision, couvade, transvestism, and female mutilation. The author argues that the secrecy surrounding many of these rites derives from the men's need to suggest that their "business" is as important as the women's. Bettelheim concludes that less pressure on males "to fight and to strut" and greater freedom to express their creative and nurturing abilities would lessen vagina envy, would help males achieve greater closeness to females and to other males, and would heighten their positive wish to create

life rather than destroy it. The appendixes discuss infant circumcision in the Hebrew scriptures and puberty rites in Australia.

Page 2

3. Blotnick, Srully. Ambitious Men: Their Drives, Dreams, and Delusions. New York: Viking, 1987. 338p. appendix. index. In this study based on responses from 6,000 white-collar and blue-collar workers, Blotnick defines ambitious men as those who 1) want more than they have, 2) are wealthy, 3) are in a hurry to succeed, 4) have an open-ended quest that cannot be satisfied, and 5) are somewhat ruthless. Utilizing fictional characters, he constructs four composite types who are representative of ambitious white-collar men: 1) the Dreiser-like financier who wants money first, 2) the Gatsby type who seeks social success, 3) the self-reliant Hemingwayesque man, and 4) the more creative type who, like the novelist, can be reclusive and artistic. Blotnick follows his four composite males, finding that their ambitions can take a toll on themselves and their marriages. The best hope is for an ambitious man to become a "hybrid" type who, in the face of failure, can adopt a different and more successful coping strategy. Many readers will find the most intriguing parts of the book those that focus on younger women in business as the primary initiators of affairs, and the reasons why many working men have refused to take on a larger share of housework. The appendix describes the study's methodology. 4. Brandes, Stanley. Metaphors of Masculinity: Sex and Status in Andalusian Folklore. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1980. x, 236p. illus. bibliography, 215-17. index. pa. Brandes describes a rapidly disappearing culture in southern Spain where the sexes are still rigidly separated and where the males adopt an aggressivedefensive stance about their masculinity. Folkloreincluding public celebrations, speech, customs, jokes, pranks, riddles, skits, and religious devotiondefine a male's place in the social order and his relationship to females. Brandes points out both the disadvantages of these gender roles and the enriching aspects of the folklore that defines them. 5. Cohen, Albert K. Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gang. Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1955. 198p. notes. index. Reprint, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1956. In this study, Cohen explores social class and sex role strain as contributing factors to male juvenile delinquency. He also specifies what the juvenile gang

offers the boy that mainstream culture does not. 6. Dann, Graham. The Barbadian Male: Sexual Attitudes and Practice. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1987. x, 228p. appendixes. bibliography, 172-83. index. pa. Much research has been done on Caribbean women but little has been done on men. This study, commissioned by the International Planned Parenthood Federation, seeks to correct the imbalance and to question negative stereotypes of Caribbean males. Findings are based on 185 in-depth interviews with 18- to 40-year-old men. An estimated 75 percent of Barbadian males are born to unwed parents; 25 percent are raised by teen mothers. Father absence is common. Many boys receive minimal help from church, school, and home. Premarital sex is extensive. Most interviewed men were tolerant of women's liberation but not of homosexuality. Although they frowned on marital infidelity, affairs were frequent. The study examines fertility, the men's knowledge and use of family planning, and their awareness of overpopulation. The book closes with a chapter on trends and policy issues in family planning. Four appendixes contain information on methodology used in the study.

Page 3

7. Gilmore, David D. Manhood in the Making: Cultural Concepts of Masculinity. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press, 1990. xiii, 258p. bibliography, 233-48. index. pa. In this enormously influential study, Gilmore examines concepts of masculinity in numerous societies and discovers recurring (but not universal) motifs of a masculine ideal that is socially useful. These motifs are created both psychogenetically and culturally. Almost all manhood ideologies involve some testing as a way of subduing the child or boy within. They are neither practices to oppress women (as Marxist feminists argue) nor a compensation for castration fears (as Freudians argue). Rather, they are ways of ending the boy's childhood dependency on the mother and of differentiating the male from the feminine. Examining Mediterranean cultures, Gilmore discovers a masculine ideal that involves four characteristics: potency with a woman, providing for family, protecting the family, and a certain freedom or risk-taking quality. Males are also "foregrounded," that is, pushed into public performance of one sort or another. Gilmore then turns to Truk, where he finds similar patterns: males fight each other to win female attention and approval, and the machismo is socially useful because it leads the male to strive for economic rewards that support the family. Focusing next on the Mehinaku Indians of Brazil, Gilmore finds the foregrounding of males in public wrestling matches and a pressure on males to resist childish helplessness and feminine inwardness. Among the Samburu of Africa, manhood is achieved only after a 12-year initiation period involving circumcision, cattle stealing (incited by girls), and being a provider of meat and wealth. After an extended analysis of the Sambia, Gilmore devotes more general surveys to China, India, and Japan, with similar results. In contrast to all these societies, however, the author finds two societiesin Tahiti and in Semai (Malaysia)where machismo is relatively unknown and where (significantly) women, children, and men are frequently victimized by outsiders. Gilmore concludes that machismo behaviors have been cultivated by most societies because they are beneficial to those societies. 8. Godelier, Maurice. The Making of Great Men: Male Dominance and Power among the New Guinea Baruya. Translated by Rupert Swyer. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Paris: Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'homme, 1986. xv, 251p. illus. bibliography, 239-41. index. pa. Original

publication, as La production des grands hommes, Paris: Librairie Arthme Fayard, 1982. Godelier depicts the "classless" Baruya society of New Guinea as maledominated and female-subjugated, although most males are also subject to "great men" who gain their status either through inheritance or performance. To create great men, the society puts boys through a grueling 10-year initiation that at one time included fellatio. By comparison, women's initiation ceremonies are brief, though hardly painless. The author traces four kinds of great men: warriors, shamans, cassowary hunters, and salt makers. Godelier's depiction of the Baruya is rich in detail, but his shrill sermons on the evils of male power reduce the complexity of Baruya culture to misandric clichs. Denigrating the Baruya men with politically correct condescension, Godelier betrays the trust they placed in him when they gave him their secrets. 9. Gold, Martin. Status Forces in Delinquent Boys. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, 1963. xv, 229p. illustrations. appendixes. bibliography, 221-24. index. This social-psychological study examines why sons of lower-class families are more frequently delinquent than those of higher-class families. The author

Page 4

reviews the literature on delinquency and reports results of a study conducted in Flint, Michigan. He concludes tentatively, as a partial answer, that there are weaker family ties and greater provocations to delinquency among lower-status boys. 10. Herdt, Gilbert H. Guardians of the Flutes: Idioms of Masculinity. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981. xviii, 382p. illus. appendixes. bibliography, 355-68. notes. name and subject indexes. Reprint, New York: Morningside Books, Columbia University Press, 1987. pa. This anthropological study examines the lives of males among the Sambia (a pseudonym) people of the East Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Because of intertribal raids, this society requires a warrior class capable of meeting surprise attacks. To turn boys into fighting men, a long-term and sometimes brutal initiation process separates young males from females. In secret, fellatio is practiced in the belief that oral insemination of boys provides them with needed manhood. Surprisingly (at least to many Westerners), such homoerotic activity does not produce homosexuals in later life. Once a male is married and has fathered a child, he is expected to become fully heterosexual. Nearly all males do. Unsurprisingly, such a warrior culture prizes hypermasculine styles, inducts young males forcibly into its rites, despises femininity, and fosters hostility between the sexes. A myth of male parthenogenesis insists that males alone are responsible for creation, but is also evidence of the male's fear of femininity within himself. In a thought-provoking final chapter, Herdt stresses the society's crucial need to convert mother-suckled infants into fierce warriors through a process of masculinization that leaves all the males literally scarred. He also indicates the significance of the study to understanding men in other societies, including the United States. 11. Herdt, Gilbert H., ed. Rituals of Manhood: Male Initiation in Papua New Guinea. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982. xxvi, 367p. illus. bibliography after each chapter. notes. This collection of eight scholarly essays by 10 authors (plus an editor's preface) stresses repeatedly how some people of New Guinea regard female growth as automatic while believing that the process of ''growing" a man must comprise often violent social "hardening." Among the Bimin-Kuskusmin, a systematic brutalization of boys occurs. The Awa male initiations include beatings, nose

bleedings, penis cuttings, and induced vomiting. Among the Sambia, boys are coerced into fellatio as a way to make them into men. The bau, a ceremonial hunting lodge, is an alternative to initiation, but, among its rituals, anal insemination of boys is used to ensure male growth. The ritualized violence of the Ilahita Arapesh uses terror tactics to heighten the boys' ordeal. Although the Chambri ceremonies are decidedly more playful, even these include scarification of the male's body. Hostility toward women is often either explicit or implicit in these rituals, even though the women frequently collude in them. Terence E. Hays and Patricia H. Hays emphasize, in their account of men's and women's ceremonies among the Ndumba, that women's antagonism toward men is as great as that of men toward women. In the book's introduction, Roger M. Keesing raises important questions about the difficulty of rising above partial views of these rituals to a fuller one. In the final essay, Donald F. Tuzin questions what the response of anthropologists to the ceremonies should be. Significantly, he points out feelings of guilt, present in the initiators because of their participation in ritualized violence against those whom they love. The essays provide often shocking evidence of how boys are tortured into "manhood"; inevitably, they raise questions in the reader's mind about similarities elsewhere.

Page 5

12. Herdt, Gilbert. The Sambia: Ritual and Gender in New Guinea. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1987. 227p. illus. bibliography, 217-22. index. pa. Herdt's most recent and most personal account of the Sambia recapitulates and updates the author's earlier studies, supplying fuller details on matters such as initiation rituals. Children are initially indulged by the adults until around age seven, when the boys are roughly separated from the women and begin a 10- to 15-year ordeal of becoming a man. Beatings, nose bleedings, and fellatio are used to harden the boys into warrior men. The study suggests that the process of creating soldiers damages many of the males and fosters antagonism between the sexes. 13. Herzfeld, Michael. The Poetics of Manhood: Contest and Identity in a Cretan Mountain village. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985. xviii, 313p. illus. appendix. index. bibliography, 293-99. notes. pa. In the Cretan mountain village of Glendi (a fictitious name), the men engage in the "poetics" of manhood; that is, they act out a social dramaa performance of selfhoodthat establishes their male identity. The villagers respect a man who is "good at being a man." This drama involves considerable contest: the men engage in drinking, dancing, card playing, politics, and animal theft. Their risk taking expresses eghoismos, or aggressive self-regard, and adds simasia, or "meaning," to life. Glendi and other villages are organized around "patrigroups" whose agonistic pattern of interaction can be seen at the Glendi coffeehouses, which are male-only preserves. These patrigroups are quick to feud and to reconcile, and they have their own rituals of peacemaking. Paradoxically, among the shepherds of Glendi, animal theft is often a way of establishing friendship. Male contest is expressed in discourse (e.g., mandinadhes, or competitive couplets, in which one tries to top one's opponent). Gender differentiation is extensive in the village, and the patrigroups serve to keep the women in line. Politics often means disrespect for officialdom. Herzfeld notes that change is coming to the mountain village, with television, high school careers, and the decline of animal theft, which is now sometimes seen as a thing of the past. 14. Hewlett, Barry S. Intimate Fathers: The Nature and Context of Aka Pygmy Paternal Infant Care. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991. ix, 201p.

illus. bibliography, 177-94. index. The result of a 15-year study, this book challenges long-held assumptions about fathers and infants. Among the Aka Pygmy hunter-gatherers of central Africa, fathers spend more time in infant caregiving than in any other known society. On average, men spend almost half of their day holding, caring for, or within reach of infants. Their interaction with infants is gentle; their interaction with wives exhibits great reciprocity. Aka paternal behavior contradicts Western theories that males do not become interested in children younger than three or four years and that fathers always play more roughly with children than mothers do. Above all, Hewlett's findings contradict stereotypes that fathers are incapable of or inadequate at infant caregiving. Hewlett theorizes that, during 120,000 years of human evolution, greater reciprocity between males and females led to father-infant bonding. Drawing conclusions for modern Western parents, Hewlett argues that "quantity" time with children is extremely important and that males in father-involved families are less likely to seek dominance over females or to derogate femininity.

Page 6

15. Hogbin, [Herbert] Ian. The Island of Menstruating Men: Religion in Wogeo, New Guinea. Scranton, PA: Chandler, 1970. xiv, 203p. illus. bibliography, 19798. index. The author describes a society in which gashing the penis is used to produce "artificial menstruation," an act of purification. In this culture, the sexes exist in "balanced opposition," and adult males use elaborate secret rituals to separate boys from mothers and to enable them to grow into men. 16. Kaye, Lenard W., and Jeffrey S. Applegate. Men as Caregivers to the Elderly: Understanding and Aiding Unrecognized Family Support. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, D.C. Heath, 1990. xxv, 202p. appendixes. bibliography, 18794. index. Traditionally, women have been the caregivers to the elderly, but increasingly more men are performing this function. At least one-fourth (up to one-third in some settings) of the caregivers are now males. The authors describe why the patterns of caregiving are changing. Drawing upon a national survey that they formulated, they describe the typical male caregiver (white, over 60, married, and living with spouse), the patients these men care for (usually white, female, over 60), the tasks they perform well and those they feel uncomfortable with, and the handicaps that they face. Caregiving support groups can help men, but the female orientation of such groups and the concept of self-sufficient masculinity block many men from participating. In the final chapter, the authors make suggestions to help the men, who are often burdened with fulltime employment, strained finances, and unfamiliarity with "hands on" caregiving tasks. Of the three appendixes, two are concerned with statistical aspects of the study. The third (appendix B) provides practical recommendations for helping men to become involved with caregiver support groups; it also lists resources, guidebooks, and support organizations. 17. Komarovsky, Mirra. Dilemmas of Masculinity: A Study of College Youth. New York: W. W. Norton, 1976. xi, 274p. bibliography, 259-66. index. pa. An early example of gender-conscious men's studies, Dilemmas of Masculinity is distinguished by "its explicit focus upon those strains that the male experiences precisely because he is a male and not a female, living in a particular social milieu." Using a case-study method combining sociological and

psychological perspectives, Komarovsky studied 62 seniors in an eastern Ivy League men's college. Because the interviews were held from 1969 to 1970, an attempt was made to update the findings with more recent literature. Also, because the book focuses on role strain, the author warns against seeing the men as being more conflicted than they actually are. Findings include such matters as the men's attitudes toward masculinity and femininity (many men accepted as masculine several traits once labeled as feminine), and the discrepancy between some of the men's theoretical acceptance of women's equal participation in the work force and their own preference for more domestically oriented partnersapparently because the men sense the difficulties involved in a two-career family. Some men were uncomfortable with academically competitive or sexually aggressive women. The sexual revolution has left men more ashamed of being virgins than of being sexually experienced. Many of the men felt emotionally distant from their fathers, although conflict with their mothers was likely to produce more serious psychological effects upon them. The study found that, despite the alleged advantages of being male, nearly 50 percent of the men were anxious about their capability to play the masculine role. The penultimate chapter ("A Theoretical Summary") investigates six modes of sex role strain, illustrating

Page 7

each with reference to the study. The final chapter ("Afterword: The Author's Envoy") argues that the tendency of students to blame themselves rather than social structures for role strain does not bode well for the social reforms needed to facilitate role changes. Despite the authoritativeness of the study, some readers may be disappointed by the smallness and unrepresentativeness of the sample, by the dated nature of the evidence, and by a commentary that often shows greater sensitivity toward the dilemmas of femininity than those of masculinity. 18. Lee, Richard B., and Irven DeVore, with Jill Nash-Mitchell, eds. Man the Hunter. Chicago: Aldine, 1968. xvi, 415p. illus. bibliography, 353-92. notes. index. Originally presented at a 1966 University of Chicago symposium, the 30 papers (plus six discussion sessions) printed here examine present and past hunting societies, with occasional focus on how hunting shapes male behavior. The scholarly, anthropological essays explore such matters as ecology and economics in present-day hunting societies, social and territorial organization, marriage in Australia, demography and population, prehistoric huntergatherers, and the effect of hunting upon human evolution. 19. Leemon, Thomas A. The Rites of Passage in a Student Culture: A Study of the Dynamics of Transition. New York and London: Teachers College Press, Columbia University, 1972. xi, 215p. (Anthropology and Education Series.) illus, appendixes. bibliography, 203. Drawing upon Arnold van Gennep's concept of rites of passage, Leemon recounts the process by which a U.S. college fraternity in the spring of 1963 initiated a group of pledges into membership. As a privileged observer of the fraternity, the author traces the three stages of passageseparation, transition, and incorporationin the rituals, harassments, raids, celebrations, and interactions of members and pledges. 20. Lidz, Theodore, and Ruth Wilmanns Lidz. Oedipus in the Stone Age: A Psychoanalytic Study of Masculinization in Papua New Guinea. Madison, CT: International Universities Press, 1989. ix, 228p. bibliography, 201-2. illus. name and subject indexes.

The authors review the literature about male initiation rites in various tribes in Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya, contrasting the practices with those in Amazon tribes. The rites demonstrate the universal or near-universal awareness of the need to separate boys from mothers in order to make the boys into adult men. Using psychoanalytic theory, the authors suggest that bleeding is often a way of cleansing the boy of the mother's blood. In cultures where the mother's possession of the boy is prolonged and where the father is mostly absent, the rites of masculinization can be extreme and brutal, reflecting the tribe's awareness of the mother's power over the boy. In such cultures, misogyny among the men is likely to be high. In many tribes, however, the women cooperate with the men's take-over of the boys. In some cases, ritual fellatio and homosexual intercourse provide the boys with the semen that is believed necessary for them to become men. This semen becomes a substitute mother's milk to make the boys grow into adult males. The authors conclude that Freud's account of the boy's oedipal fear of castration is but one of many cultural scripts designed to deal with the break from the mother and the identification with the father. In the final chapter, the authors suggest that the increase of single-mother families and absent fathers in the West may produce more severe rituals to meet the need of separating sons from mothers.

Page 8

21. Malinowski, Bronislaw. The Father in Primitive Psychology. New York: W. W. Norton, 1927. vii, 95p. Reprint, 1966. pa. Studying the Trobriand Islanders, Malinowski uncovers a condition common among early societies: a belief that the mother is the sole parent of the child and that no connection exists between sexual intercourse and pregnancy. Children, it is believed, are returned spirits of the dead who are introduced into the mother's body during sleep by controlling spirits. Thus, the islanders have constructed what amounts to a "fatherless" society. Nevertheless, the fatheror, more exactly, the husband of the child's motherhas an important role in the society as provider, protector, and caretaker of children. So important is his role that the islanders consider it disgraceful for an unmarried woman to become pregnant: she has no husband to provide for her and the child. As the child grows older, the paternal role is taken over to some extent by other males, usually the mother's brother. Nevertheless, Malinowski presents intriguing evidence that the concept of fathering may precede even the awareness of paternity. 22. McClelland, David C., William N. Davis, Rudolf Kalin, and Eric Wanner. The Drinking Man. New York: Free Press, 1972. xiv, 402p. illus. appendixes. bibliography, 379-86. index. Most of this book describes experiments conducted over 10 years to determine motives for men's heavy drinking. Cross-cultural research is added to studies done on college campuses and in workingmen's bars. Although general readers will be put off by the sociological jargon throughout most of the volume, the authors happily revert to plain English for its crucial sections. Readers should not miss parts of chapter 13 (pp. 303-5, 309-15) and the final chapter. "Men drink primarily to feel stronger," McClelland concludes. The origins of excessive drinking are in the role that society assigns to men. Strong demands are made for male assertiveness, but society offers low support for the male role and provides few socialized outlets for exercising power and assertiveness. Among the solutions offered are for men and society to reduce the need for male power display, for men to find ways of acting out their aggression or to satisfy the power drive vicariously, for society to socialize the male power drive, and for men to succeed at their work. Readers may suspect that the authors have discovered the dynamics underlying not only excessive drinking by males but

also many other destructive male behaviors. 23. McGill, Michael E. The McGill Report on Male Intimacy. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1985. xvii, 300p. appendix. index. Drawing upon a questionnaire to which 1,383 people responded (737 men, 646 women), and interviews, this popularly written account tries to unravel the question of why males are not more intimate with women. Equating verbal disclosure with intimacy, McGill finds most men lacking in intimacy and most women craving it. Men have a narrow view of sex as intimacy; women have richer concepts of sex and intimacy. Sometimes men are more intimate with "other women" (e.g., mistresses, sisters, friends) than with wives. As husbands and fathers, however, many men are absent as far as intimacy-disclosure is concerned. Few U.S. men have close male friends. McGill locates the principal problem in competition and men's desire to retain power. Because mystery equals mastery, disclosure is weakening. Extolling the values of intimacydisclosure, McGill offers advice on how men can achieve it more fully and how women can pressure men into it. The appendix reprints the questionnaire and discusses interviews. Some readers may resent McGill's patronizing attitude toward men (e.g., he dismisses the reasons men give for not being open as "excuses," though some of the reasons

Page 9

are valid). Too often, the book seems less interested in helping men than in telling female readers how superior women are. 24. Raphael, Ray. The Men from the Boys: Rites of Passage in Male America. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1988. xvii, 228p. notes. pa. Examining the importance of male rites of passage found in nearly all earlier societies, Raphael argues that initiation rites both dramatize and facilitate the transition of boy to man. Because American society lacks such rites and an agreed-upon concept of masculinity, it poses special problems for males. In the absence of communal rites of passage, males create reasonable facsimiles for themselves. Such makeshift rites include military training, personally created challenges, sexual experiences, fraternity hazing, sports, and playing Super Dad. Drawing upon interviews with 150 men, Raphael describes these substitute rituals in detail. His final two chapters critique makeshift rites. If the aim of the rite is to help most or all males into adult roles, competitiveness (e.g., in sports) may create too many losers. The improvised rites may be so individualistic as to provide no re-entry for the male into the community. Such rites often lack a spiritual basis for designating manhood, and they may narrow greatly the male's repertory of behaviors. Raphael presents a picture of American males winging it on their own to achieve an acceptable concept of masculinity, with more-or-less success. 25. Sanday, Peggy Reeves. Female Power and Male Dominance: On the Origins of Sexual Inequality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. xvii, 295p. appendixes. bibliography, 275-83. notes. index. pa. Neither male dominance nor female subordination is a constance throughout history in different societies. Using cross-cultural research, Sanday surveys numerous cultures that represent a range in the distribution of power between the sexes. Attempting to answer why these variables occur, Sanday traces social scripts for female power and for male power. Factors affecting the balance of power include the connection made between gender and the gods, division of labor, whether the environment is seen as friend or a foe, beliefs that menstrual blood and sexual intercourse are dangerous, and whether the culture has a primarily inner or outer orientation. Male dominance, Sanday concludes, is a solution for confronting various forms of cultural stress, such as adaptation to environment, social conflict, invasion, migration, and food crises.

In Western societies, Judeo-Christian beliefs are highly male-oriented and thus foster male dominance, even in secular societies. 26. Scott, George Ryley. Phallic Worship. London: Luxor Press, 1966. xii, 234p. illus. appendix. bibliography, 221-26. index. Reprint, London: Panther Books, 1970. pa. Described as "a history of sex and sex rites in relation to the religions of all races from antiquity to present day," Scott's work surveys, in part 1, the emergence of phallic sun gods with the awareness of the male role in reproduction. He discusses sacred harlotry and male prostitution, serpent worship, and phallicism as part of witchcraft. Part 2 present a historical, geographic review of phallicism among early tribes, during biblical times, in ancient Greece and Rome, in Eastern and Western cultures, and (despite official disapproval) in Christian symbolism.

Page 10

27. Sexual Symbolism: A History of Phallic Worship. Vol. 1: Richard Payne Knight, A Discourse on the Worship of Priapus (1786). Vol. 2: Thomas Wright, The Worship of the Generative Powers (1866). New York: Julian Press, 2 vols. in one. 1957. vii, 217, 196p. illus. With an introduction by Ashley Montagu, this volume brings together two early studies of fertility worship, complete with original illustrations. When Knight's book on phallic worship was published in eighteenth-century England, public outrage forced him to withdraw it. A man ahead of his time, Knight examines with great acumen the sacred phallus in ancient societies, using a wide range of imagesamulets, sculptures, and so on. Wright provides something of a sequel to Knight's book, expanding the topic to include female generative worship. Focusing mainly on medieval folk traditions in Europe, Wright discusses sexual monuments, images, rituals, figurines, secret ceremonies, witchcraft, festivals, and so on. As Montagu writes of the two books, "To have them made once more available is a great boon to scholars and to students." 28. Stewart, Samuel M. Bad Boys and Tough Tattoos: A Social History of the Tattoo with Gangs, Sailors and Street-Corner Punks, 1950-1965. New York: Harrington Park Press, 1990. 204p. appendixes. index. pa. Getting tattooed has often been regarded as an assertion of masculine status. In this highly personal account, Stewart tells how he left a dead-end teaching job to become a tattoo artist in Chicago. When Alfred Kinsey suggested to Stewart that he keep a journal for exploring the sexual motivations for being tattooed, Stewart began collecting the data used in this account. He lists 29 motivations for being tattooed, ranging from herd instinct, narcissism, and exhibitionism to manhood initiation rite, an existential act, celebration, and guilt and punishment. Stewart tells plenty of tales about his clientele over the years, and he examines the history and art of tattooing, as well as literature on the subject. 29. Strage, Mark. The Durable Fig Leaf: A Historical, Cultural, Medical, Social, Literary, and Iconographic Account of Man's Relations with His Penis. New York: William Morrow, 1980. 317p. illus. notes. index. pa. Some of the earliest known cave paintings contain representations of the phallus, an indication that humanity's fascination with the penis has a long

history. Strage surveys several aspects of this fascination, beginning with the connection made by some animals and humans between the erect penis and dominance. Dysfunctioning of the penis, however, leads to male concerns about penis size, fears of insatiable women, and (according to some theorists) homosexuality. Strage describes the mechanism of erection and such matters as "premature ejaculation," "retarded ejaculation," impotence, aphrodisiacs, and the effects of drugs on the libido. Efforts to "improve" on nature include circumcision, subincision, and insertions. (Strage points to evidence that in recent times circumcision is most often encouraged by mothers, perhaps influenced by articles in women's magazines; fathers seem indifferent to the alleged benefits of circumcision.) Strage's consideration of the penis in visual arts ranges from prehistory, through the classical and medieval periods, and into the Renaissance and modern ages, with special emphasis on such figures as Aubrey Beardsley and Pablo Picasso. Reviewing the literature of the penis, Strage begins with Boccaccio and concludes with such twentieth-century writers as D. H. Lawrence and Norman Mailer. Strage's concluding chapter, "Not Very Hopeful," may be unduly pessimistic: his book contains abundant evidence that man's fascination with his penis has

Page 11

survived the worst that puritanical and fanatical societies could do to discourage it. 30. Vanggaard, Thorkil. Phalls: A Symbol and Its History in the Male World. Translated by the author. New York: International Universities Press, 1974. 231p. illus. notes. index. pa. Original publication, as Phalls, Copenhagen: Glydendal, 1969. This anthropological and historical study of representations of the phallus focuses on two aspects of phallic symbolism: its use through history to represent homoerotic relationships between heterosexual males and its use as an image of male aggression. Vanggaard discusses the communal sanctioning in ancient Greece of paiderastia, the homoerotic relationship between heterosexual men and boys. In this culture the phallus represented and transmitted to the boy the man's arete, his nobility and power. After examining phallic representations in ancient Scandinavia, the author indicates that the "submissive" role has often been permissible for boys but not for adult males. Hence, an erotic relationship between two adult male peers has been difficult to sustain. Anal rape has been used as a demonstration of male dominance; Vanggaard notes that even among male baboons the erect penis is used as a sign of aggression. In the second half of the book, the author discusses how homoerotic relationships were driven underground by Judeo-Christian morality, although medieval Catholicism regarded homosexuality as a serious sin only when linked to heresy (e.g., Manicheanism). Likewise, the witch cults of Renaissance times were probably heretical fertility cults. Ironically, while suppressing phallic cults, society sanctioned the codpiece as a familiar representation of male aggression and nobility. In modern times, Thomas Mann's Death in Venice traces the tragedy of what happens when "normal" homosexual tendencies are repressed. While becoming more tolerant of homosexuals, modern society still forbids "normal" homosexual expression in heterosexual males. 31. Weiss, Robert S. Staying the Course: The Emotional and Social Lives of Men Who Do Well at Work. New York: Free Press, 1990. xvii, 314p. appendix. bibliography, 295-300. notes. index. Reprint, New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1991. pa. Successful white men have had a bad rap in the United States. During the

fifties, they were depicted as gray-flannel organization men; from the sixties onward, they have been caricatured as powerful, exploitive oppressors. In this study, based upon interviews with 80 upper-middle-class white men between 35 and 50 years old, Weiss finds a more human reality. Despite pressures at work and home, these men try to be "good men"reliable, caring, and competent. Family support comes first with these men. Weiss observes: If a man loses his family through divorce, he loses only a bit of respect at work, but if he loses his job, he loses a good deal of standing within his family. Many of the men cope with crises by gathering information, sorting out the options, choosing one, and "compartmentalizing," that is, shutting off one part of life from another. Weiss also examines what unmanaged stress does to men and what happens when men bring stress home. The men's marriages usually function by division of labor and by the principle of one partner's helping out whenever the other is having difficulties. Fatherhood is deeply important to most of the men, but at home they sometimes face crises of child rearing, marital strife, and breakup. Although the man may be recognized as head of the family, he does not often get his own way; rather, "he is family head in that he represents the family in its dealings with the world." In the conclusion, Weiss speculates on whether or not the future will produce similarly reliable

Page 12

men. Men will continue to need work, husbands and wives will have to negotiate time for work and family, and both must operate in a spirit of willingness. 32. Wheelock, Jane. Husbands at Home: The Domestic Economy in a PostIndustrial Society. London and New York: Routledge, 1990. x, 178p. bibliography, 168-73. notes. index. pa. In this blend of sociology, social history, and economic theory, Wheelock focuses on 29 couples in "Wearside" in northeast England. Economically depressed, the area has seen a steep drop in men's jobs while women's employment has remained buoyant. As a result, many working-class couples have been forced into role reversal. Men in this situation have often been portrayed as recalcitrant Andy Capps. Wheelock found instead that the men adjusted to the change and took on the traditionally female work of child and house care. The couples had little choice and were not concerned about gender ideology. Wheelock has packed a good deal of economic and social scholarship into the volume, but lay readers will be most intrigued by the accounts from the couples themselves, which are moving illustrations of working men and women coping resourcefully with economically hard times. 33. Whyte, William H., Jr. The Organization Man. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1956. Reprint, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1957. pa. Reprint, Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, 1960. pa. Whyte's classic study of the 1950s depicts U.S. masculine individuality as emasculated by corporate-induced conformism. "False collectivization" pinpoints the group, rather than the individual, as the source of creativity in life. The negative results of this belief include the atrophy of intellect as business schools push out the older liberal arts from college curricula, the rule of corporate life by the "non-well-rounded" man, personnel departments that test prospective employees for homogeneity, the replacement of individual scientific geniuses by "teams" of mediocrities, and the transformation of suburbia into a bland wasteland of undifferentiated classlessness. The appendix tells readers how to cheat on personnel questionnaires. Like J. S. Mill's On Liberty, The Organization Man stands as a polemic against the conformist tendencies of mass society, but Whyte depicts the situation largely in terms of positive masculine quirkiness endangered by deadening "group-

think." 34. Wilmott, Peter. Adolescent Boys of East London. Rev. ed. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1969. 237p. appendixes. bibliography, 227-32. notes. index. pa. This readable study explores the process of growing up male in a working-class district of London. The material was gathered between 1959 and 1964 from conversations, formal interviews, and diaries. The study touches on boys' groups, their relationships with girls, and the family and kinship relationships. One finding: although frequently strained, the father-son relationship also contained much "understanding." The book also explores schools, work, and youth clubs. Although a chapter on delinquency reveals widespread theft, as well as outbursts of antisocial aggression, it discovers little sign of a "war of generations." The appendixes describe methodology and statistical findings. 35. Young, Frank W. Initiation Ceremonies: A Cross Cultural Study of Status Dramatization. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965. xiv, 199p. appendixes. bibliography, 178-92. index.

Page 13

Using data from studies of 54 societies, Young, in this advanced anthropological treatise, weighs the evidence for seeing male initiation ceremonies as a dramatization of sex-role recognition and male solidarity. Female initiation rites within the context of the family are also discussed. Cross-References See chapter 13, "Male Midlife Transition," chapter 15, "Masculinity," and chapter 18, "Minority Males, Multicultural Studies." 849. Anderson, Nels. The Hobo: The Sociology of the Homeless Man. 155. Bahr, Howard M., ed. Disaffiliated Men: Essays and Bibliography on Skid Row, Vagrancy, and Outsiders. 581. Beer, William R. Househusbands: Men and Housework in American Families. 476. Benson, Leonard. Fatherhood: A Sociological Perspective. 477. Biller, Henry B. Fathers and Families: Paternal Factors in Child Development. 906. Blumenthal, Monica D., Robert L. Kahn, Frank M. Andrews, and Kendra B. Head. Justifying Violence: Attitudes of American Men. 596. Bowl, Ric. Changing the Nature of Masculinity: A Task for Social Work? 781. Delph, Edward William. The Silent Community: Public Homosexual Encounters. 910. Drew, Dennis, and Jonathan Drake. Boys for Sale: A Sociological Study of Boy Prostitution. 653. Duneier, Mitchell. Slim's Table: Race, Respectability, and Masculinity. 93. Editors of Look. The Decline of the American Male. 865. Eliade, Mircea. Rites and Symbols of Initiation: The Mysteries of Birth and Rebirth. 176. Fine, Gary Alan. With the Boys: Little League Baseball and Preadolescent Culture. 602. Franklin, Clyde W., II. The Changing Definition of Masculinity.

654. Gary, Lawrence, ed. Black Men. 793. Greenberg, David F. The Construction of Homosexuality. 564. Greif, Geoffrey. The Daddy Track and the Single Father. 565. Greif, Geoffrey L. Single Fathers. 701.Hall, Nor. Broodmales: A Psychological Essay on Men in Childbirth. Introducing The Custom of Couvade (1929) by Warren R. Dawson. 1033. Halle, David. America's Working Man: Work, Home, and Politics among Blue-Collar Property Owners.

Page 14

1034. Halper, Jan. Quiet Desperation: The Truth About Successful Men. 502. Hanson, Shirley M.H., and Frederick W. Bozett, eds. Dimensions of Fatherhood. 746. Janus, Sam, Barbara Bess, and Carol Saltus. A Sexual Profile of Men in Power. 1035. Komarovsky, Mirra. The Unemployed Man and His Family: The Effect of Unemployment upon the Status of the Man in Fifty-nine Families. 511. Lamb, Michael E., ed. The Father's Role: Applied Perspectives. 512. Lamb, Michael E., ed. The Father's Role: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. 513. Lamb. Michael, ed. The Role of the Father in Child Development. 514. Lamb, Michael E., and Abraham Sagi, eds. Fatherhood and Family Policy. 1037. LeMasters, E. E. Blue-Collar Aristocrats: Life-Styles at a Working-Class Tavern. 806. Levine, Martin P., ed. Gay Men: The Sociology of Male Homosexuality. 519. Lewis, Charles, and Margaret O'Brien, eds. Reassessing Fatherhood: New Observations on Fathers and the Modern Family. 464. Lewis, Charlie. Becoming a Father. 521. Lewis, Robert A., and Robert E. Salt, eds. Men in Families. 659. Liebow, Elliot. Tally's Corner: A Study of Negro Streetcorner Men. 920. Lloyd, Robin. For Money or Love: Boy Prostitution in America. 525. Lynn, David B. The Father: His Role in Child Development. 526. Mackey, Wade C. Fathering Behaviors: The Dynamics of the Man-Child Bond. 1038. Matthiessen, Peter. Men's Lives. 528. McKee, Lorna, and Margaret O'Brien, eds. The Father Figure. 609. Mead, Margaret. Male and Female: A Study of the Sexes in a Changing World.

817. Mendola, Mary. The Mendola Report: A New Look at Gay Couples. 820. Murray, Stephen O., ed. Male Homosexuality in Central and South America. 611. Ong, Walter J. Fighting for Life: Contest, Sexuality, and Consciousness. 532. Ostrovsky, Everett S. Children Without Men. 574. Pannor, Reuben, Fred Massarik, and Byron Evans. The Unmarried Father: New Approaches for Helping Unmarried Young Parents. 1041. Parnes, Herbert S., and others. Retirement Among American Men. 535. Pedersen, Frank A., ed. The Father-Infant Relationship: Observational Studies in the Family Setting.

Page 15

131. Playboy Enterprises. The Playboy Report on American Men. 825. Plummer, Kenneth, ed. The Making of the Modern Homosexual. 536. Pruett, Kyle D. The Nurturing Father: Journey Toward the Complete Man. 537. Rapoport, Rhona, Robert N. Rapoport, and Ziona Strelitz, with Stephen Kew. Fathers, Mothers and Society: Towards New Alliances. 855. Rubinstein, Robert L. Singular Paths: Old Men Living Alone. 542. Russell, Graeme. The Changing Role of Fathers? 138. Shostak, Arthur B., and Garry McLouth, with Lynn Seng. Men and Abortion: Lessons, Losses, and Love. 930. Sonkin, Daniel Jay, Del Martin, and Lenore E. Auerbach Walker. The Male Batterer: A Treatment Approach. 932. Straus, Murray A., Richard J. Gelles, and Suzanne K. Steinmetz. Behind Closed Doors: Violence in the American Family. 933. Straus, Murray A., and Gerald T. Hotaling, eds. The Social Causes of Husband-Wife Violence. 454. Vaillant, George E. Adaptations to Life. 844. Williams, Walter L. The Spirit and the Flesh: Sexual Diversity in American Indian Culture. 843. Whitam, Frederick L., and Robin M. Mathy. Male Homosexuality in Four Societies: Brazil, Guatemala, the Philippines, and the United States. 670. Whyte, William Foote. Street Corner Society: The Social Structure of an Italian Slum. 671. Wilkinson, Doris Y., and Ronald L. Taylor, eds. The Black Male in America: Perspectives on His Status in Contemporary Society. 940. Wooden, Wayne S., and Jay Parker. Men Behind Bars: Sexual Exploitation in Prison.

Page 16

2 Autobiographical and Biographical Accounts


36. Bouton, Jim. Ball Four, Plus Ball Five. Rev. ed. New York: Stein and Day, 1981. xix, 457p. illus. appendixes. pa. Original publication, as Ball Four (edited by Leonard Schecter), 1970. Perhaps because of its unflattering look at baseball machismo, this book aroused hostility around the big leagues in 1970. In this account, baseball ''heroes" are depicted, warts and all, in an ironic narrative that often stresses their puerility. The latest edition of Ball Four contains information about Bouton's former teammates, the death of his editor and friend Leonard Schecter, Bouton's comeback in baseball, and his divorce and remarriage. 37. Brown, Claude. Manchild in the Promised Land. New York: Macmillan, 1965. 415p. Reprint, New York: New American Library, Signet, 1971. pa. Brown's harsh account of growing up in Harlem contains numerous insights into African-American machismo and what it does to both males and females. Throughout this story of fistfights, paternal beatings, crime, drugs, prostitution, and correctional institutions, Brown weaves the theme of the black boy's need to be seen as a "bad nigger." To be a man, a boy must fight; even his parents will force him to. In correctional facilities, the boys suspected of being gay must be consistently vicious or be degraded. On the streets, males are required to fight over money, women, and manhood. Especially in chapter 10, Brown outlines the code of black masculinity that could lead males to be cruel to women, to each other, and to themselves. 38. Clary, Mike. Daddy's Home. 1982. 2d ed. Miami, FL: Pickering Press, 1989. 255p. pa. When reporter Mike Clary and his wife Lillian Buchanan (a Ph.D. in counseling) had their first child, they did a role reversal. As "housespouse," Clary raised their daughter during her first two years. In Daddy's Home, Clary recounts his life as a "mother," complete with the feeling of being an outsider among men who worked and women who mothered. Nurturing his infant daughter, however, was an experience Clary would regret having missed. He says, to a

class of sociology students, that "as long as men are denied the chance to be househusbandsbecause it's considered unmasculinethey are being discriminated against as surely as are women refused entry to the top levels of business." In the second edition, Clary provides a preface updating his and his family's adjustments to his househusbanding.

Page 17

39. Covington, Jim. Confessions of a Single Father. New York: Pilgrim Press, 1982. viii, 181p. In a compelling narrative, Covington recalls his alcoholic father and dominating mother, his preparation for the ministry, his marriage, and the births of his daughter and son. Then came the social upheaval of the sixties. Covington's religious faith evaporated, his marriage disintegrated, and he found himself a single parent with custody of two children. The troubles and triumphs of this new role are interspersed with reflections on manhood in recent years. 40. Diamond, Jed. Inside Out: Becoming My Own Man. San Rafael, CA: Fifth Wave Press, 1983. 184p. illus. bibliography, 182-83. Set amid California's swinging scene, Diamond's vivid and frank autobiographical account depicts his father-absent childhood and his dependence upon media definitions of manhood. He describes disconcerting experiences with an open marriage, women liberationists, encounter groups, Synanon, Transactional Analysis, and LSD. Divorce, the breakup of other relationships, his role as a single parent, help from men's groups and men's awareness writings (particularly Herb Goldberg's), coming to terms with his parents, and a new relationship mark Diamond's odyssey to discover himself as a man. 41. Firestone, Ross, ed. The Man in Me: Versions of the Male Experience. New York: HarperPerennial, 1992. 370p. index. pa. Original publication, as A Book of Men: Visions of the Male Experience, New York: Stonehill, 1975. This collection contains over 100 brief excerpts, poems, and observations from famous twentieth-century men, mostly creative artists. "Each selection," the editor explains, "resonates with me with some sort of truth about what it means to be male." Items are divided into four categories: sons, lovers, husbands, and fathers. The men represented include C. G. Jung, Jack Kerouac, Havelock Ellis, Franz Kafka, Huey P. Newton, August Strindberg, Lenny Bruce, Bertrand Russell, and Dalton Trumbo. 42. Gibson, E. Lawrence. Get Off My Ship: Ensign Berg vs. the U.S. Navy. New York: Avon Books, 1978. x, 385p. illus. appendixes. bibliography, 369-77.

index. pa. Closely following the hearings in which Ensign Vernon E. Berg II contested his discharge from the Navy as a homosexual, this book provides insights into the workings of military justice and into military thinking about homosexuality. The illustrations of various participants in the hearings, including the author, are by Berg himself, and five appendixes provide additional information. Amid the tangle of legal issues looms the fact that, as one district court judge lamented, "the U.S. Supreme Court has been reversing any court that suggested that the Constitution applied to servicemen." 43. Greenburg, Dan. Scoring: A Sexual Memoir. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1972. 223p. Frank and funny, Greenburg recounts his sexual misadventures as a young man driven by the imperative to score. 44. Houston, James D. The Men in My Life and Other More or Less True Recollections of Kinship. Berkeley, CA: Creative Arts, 1987. 163p. notes. With humor and poignancy, Houston portrays men who have affected his life at crucial moments and thereby revealed something of the complexity, sadness, and resilience of male existence. The 13 vignettes include a hilariously

Page 18

feckless uncle and a expatriate German, a deserter from the Nazi army who mourns his brother killed in World War II. The crucial "moments" include Houston's discovery that football and fraternity life were not for him and his rediscovery of his father through country music. 45. Hoyland, John, ed. Fathers and Sons. London: Serpent's Tail, 1992. 207p. pa. Eight male writers provide deeply moving accounts of their fathers in this collection. In the introduction, Hoyland notes the pattern that seems to unify the sons' diverse recollections: The father is a teacher (about manhood and life), and his gigantic stature must be outgrown by the sons, who eventually rediscover a father they only partly knew. There are eight splendid writersPaul Atkinson, David Epstein, John Fowles, John Hoyland, Francis King, John McVicar, Christopher Rawlence, and David Simonwhose memoirs of their fathers combine the vividness of well-crafted narrative with that of a child's memory. 46. Kafka, Franz. Letter to His Father/Brief an Der Vater. Translated by Ernest Kaiser and Eithne Wilkins. New York: Schocken Books, 1953. 127p. pa. Written in November 1919, this angry and anguished letter to his father from the 36 year-old Kafka crystallizes in vivid detail a classic antagonism between father and son. "You asked me recently why I maintain that I am afraid of you," is the famous opening sentence, and the rest of the letter explains whyin terms of the father's insensitivity, his sarcastic belittling of his son, his oppressive intellectual and physical presence, his boasting, his crudeness, his displays of temper, and his aversion to the son's writings. Kafka also laments his "saintly" mother's failure to side sufficiently with him against the father, the roles of his sisters in the family conflicts, and the warping of his experiences of Judaism because of the father's behavior. As a result of this antagonism in the home, Kafka insists he has been rendered incapable of career or marriage. Characteristically, in the penultimate paragraph, Kafka imagines his father's "reply'' to the letterand a disconcertingly convincing reply it is. The Schocken edition includes both German text and English translation, as well as a brief publisher's note providing background. 47. Kantrowitz, Arnie. Under the Rainbow: Growing Up Gay. New York: William

Morrow, 1977. 255p. Kantrowitz's family was a "Freudian classic," complete with castrating Jewish mother and hapless father. His head filled with film fantasies, Kantrowitz goes off to college in Newark, discovers his gayhess, becomes a college teacher, comes out, and evolves into a gay activist in Greenwich Village. Told with humor and verve, Kantrowitz's story carries the reader through the gay awakening of the seventies. 48. Klein, Edward, and Don Erickson, eds. About Men: Reflections on the Male Experience. New York: Poseidon Press, 1987. 319p. When the New York Times began a regular Sunday feature called "About Men" on 5 June 1983, no one anticipated the outpouring of responses that it would engender. Eventually, the column developed into a sounding board for male experiences, evidently supplying a long-felt need among men to write about their inner lives. The editors of this volume have selected essays from 69 contributors, grouping the essays into 10 categories: family, love and marriage, children, men without women, friendship, work, play, war, the

Page 19

meaning of manhood, and aging. The essays are brief, and many are deeply moving. The "male experience" of the book's subtitle turns out to be a kaleidoscope of experiences. Essays include Paul Theroux's memorable denunciation of growing up male in America, Samuel G. Freedman' elegy to his mother, and Philip Taubman's second thoughts about being in the delivery room. A reading of this book will dispel forever any lingering stereotypes of men as an unfeeling, inexpressive sex. 49. Kopay, David, and Perry Deane Young. The David Kopay Story: An Extraordinary Self-Revelation. New York: Arbor House, 1977. xii, 247p. illus. Reprint, New York: Bantam Books, 1977. pa. A professional football player, Kopay created shockwaves in 1975 by publicly revealing his homosexuality. His story includes such details as the sexual repressiveness of his Catholic upbringing, his initial awareness of being homosexual, and the anguish of being a closet gay in a sport that prides itself on hypermasculinity. The book contains numerous insights into the relationship between sports and sexual identity. 50. Lee, John H. The Flying Boy: Healing the Wounded Man. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 1987, 1989. 111p. pa. When Lee discovered that he was a "flying boy" (i.e., a man who flew from one relationship to another), he attempted to uncover the roots of his malaise. An encounter with Robert Bly convinced him that he was a "soft male" who had rejected his masculinity and overvalued the feminine. Lee also had to confront his father, who had been alcoholic and abusive, as well as his manipulative mother. Throughout the story, Lee has difficulty committing to Laural, and this part of the story ends with their separation and Lee's continuing efforts to come to terms with his life. 51. Lee, John. The Flying Boy, Book II: The Journey Continues. 2d ed. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, 1991. x, 132p. pa. Original publication, as I Don't Want to Be Alone: For Men and Women Who Want to Heal Addictive Relationships, 1990. Lee updates his story by flashing back to an earlier relationship with Lucy, a "flying girl" who could not commit to the relationship. Through Lucy, Lee

explores those who enter into addictive relationships that they can neither end nor stabilize. Lee eventually realizes that he must let go of Lucy and begin healing. In the book's postscript, Lee notes that his relationship with Laural has not recommenced, but he looks forward to a future in which he will not be alone and will be able to love more fully. 52. Leiris, Michel. Manhood: A Journey from Childhood into the Fierce Order of Virility. Translated by Richard Howard. San Francisco: North Point Press, 1984. ix, 166p. appendix. bibliography, 165. notes. pa. Original publication, as L'ge d'homme, Paris: Librairie Gallimard, 1946. Beginning life as a shy, sensitive boy, Leiris records how he found himself in the grip of a fierce sexuality that allowed him no respite. Attached to his fond mother and slightly hostile to his bourgeois father, Leiris grew up in a world of art, especially opera. Soon his own volcanic sexuality began to mirror opera's high-powered emotions. Gradually his fantasies coalesced around two female figures painted by Lucas CranachLucrece, the victim-suicide, and Judith, the murdering-castrating femme fatale. Leiris's fantasy plays numerous variations on these two figures, eventually blending them into the figure

Page 20

of Cleopatra. The author recounts his dreams and traces his anxieties about castration, masturbation, impotence, and homosexuality. He also chronicles his sexual initiation, his doomed marriage to a woman named Kay, and his later sexual life. In the appendix, Leiris describes himself as a torero facing annihilation or mutilation in the bullring. 53. Martin, Albert. One Man, Hurt. New York: Macmillan, 1975. 278p. Reprint, New York: Ballantine Books, 1976. pa. This pain-filled retelling of a marital breakup reads like a powerful novel. At age 43, Albert Martin (a pseudonym) is a successful provider, a caring father of four sons, an enlightened Catholic, and a loving husbandright up to the moment on February 5, 1972, when his wife Jean tells him that she no longer loves him and wants a divorce. After months of painful marriage counseling and negotiations, Albert (and probably Jean too) only partly understands her reasons for wanting to leave. Although vaguely involved with a local minister and belatedly rebelling against her perfectionist mother, Jean seems rather to be motivated principally by the current adulation of self-fulfillment. According to Martin, marriage counseling itself, which exalts finding the self above salvaging the marriage, is part of the problem. Eventually, the divorce proceedings are less agonizing than the marital rift that preceded them and the emotional void that follows them. The story of marital collapse may be a familiar one these days, but Martin records a husband's experience of the ordeal with unusual eloquence and drama. 54. Mathias, Frank F. G.I. Jive: An Army Bandsman in World War II. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1982. xii, 227p. illus. index. In this well-written memoir, Mathias combines his skills as an historian with his memories and letters written home during World War II. A small-town boy from Kentucky, Mathias experienced boot camp at Fort Benning and was then swept into the war of the Pacific and the bloody struggle for the Philippines. "I did not think of myself as cannon fodder," Mathias writes, "but that is exactly what I was." What saved his life, most likely, was his ability to play sax. Assigned to an army band, he was able to view the war from a slightly less dangerous and slightly more detached vantage point. As historian, Mathias provides the big picture of the Pacific war, but his G.I. view of events also presents ''the war as it was, not as highly placed civilian and military officials

believed it to be." 55. McGrady, Mike. The Kitchen Sink Papers: My Life as a Househusband. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1975. 185p. Reprint, New York: New American Library, Signet, 1975. pa. At age 40, newspaper columnist Mike McGrady reversed roles for a year with his wife Corinne, who was starting her own business. He became the homemaker and full-time parent to their three children; she became responsible for paying the bills. With an eye for comic details and a knack for hilarious narrative, McGrady charts the reactions of friends and relatives, his successes and failures as a househusband, and his wife's exhilarations and exhaustions as a business person. At year's end, the McGradys became a twocareer family, complete with a family contract for sharing household chores and bill-paying responsibilities.

Page 21

56. McKuen, Rod. Finding My Father: One Man's Search for Identity. New York: Coward, McCann, and Geoghegan; Los Angeles: Cheval Books, 1976. 253p. illus. appendixes. This moving autobiography by the well-known actor-composer-poet is haunted by his search for the father he never knew. 57. Meggyesy, Dave. Out of Their League. Berkeley, CA: Ramparts Press, 1970. 263p. illus. Meggyesy depicts his life as a football player with emphasis on negative aspects of the game, including its dehumanizing impact, brutality, injuries, fraud, under-the-table payments, painkillers, drugs, racism, and sexism. 58. Michaelis, David. The Best of Friends: Profiles of Extraordinary Friendships. New York: William Morrow, 1983. 317p. illus. Miller describes seven male-male friendships that were not homosexual and were as important in shaping the individuals' lives as male-female love. The friendships described include those of businessmen Donold B. Lourie and George H. Love; the Japanese-American Isamu Noguchi and the New England Brahmin Buckminster Fuller; yachtsmen Duncan Spencer and George Cadwalader; John F. Kennedy and his closest friend K. LeMoyne Billings; mountaineers Dave Knowles and Rob Taylor; naval commanders Leonard F. Picotte and Michael B. Edwards; and actors John Belushi and Dan Aykroyd. As Michaelis indicates, close male friendships like those he describes are difficult in the twentieth century: "Rarely do we gauge a man in terms of his success as a friend." 59. Nichols, Beverley. Father Figure. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972. 215p. illus. Reprint, New York: Pocket Books, 1973. pa. This memoir at times approaches hysteria as it describes how Nichols on three occasions plotted to murder his maddening, alcoholic father. The scene is Edwardian and postwar England; the principal characters are Nichols's domineering and drunken father, his long-suffering mother, and Nichols himselfsensitive, precocious, and leaning toward homosexuality. Although Nichols's hatred of his father permeates the book, the memoir may have the

reverse effect of increasing readers' sympathies for the elder Nichols. The son's self-pity is extravagant, the "saintly" mother often appears to be a whining nonentity, and the fact that immediately after her death the father gave up drinking speaks volumes. 60. Painter, Hal. Mark, I Love You. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1967. 224p. illus. appendix. When his wife and daughter were killed in an automobile accident, Hal Painter left his son Mark temporarily in the custody of his in-laws, Dwight and Margaret Bannister of Iowa. A little more than a year later when Hal was about to remarry, he tried to reclaim his son. The rigidly conventional Bannisters, however, loathed Hal's mildly unconventional lifestyle and refused to yield Mark. Those who believe that a father has a legal right to custody of his child need to read on. The Iowa Supreme Court reversed a lower court decision to return Mark to his father, exhibiting fears that the Painter household "would be unstable, unconventional, arty, Bohemian, and probably intellectually stimulating." (The appendix contains the full text of the court's ruling.) Despite a nationwide storm of protest, the U.S. Supreme Court refused to consider the

Page 22

case. At the close of this moving account of frustration and love, Painter had lost custody of his son. 61. Richards, Rene, with John Ames. Second Serve: The Rene Richards Story. New York: Stein and Day, 1983. 373p. illus. This frank autobiography recounts the transformation of Richard Raskind into Renee Richards, the well-known tennis player and doctor. Fraught with perils to a young boy's sexual identity, the Raskind household included a domineering and man-hating mother, an ineffectual and absent father, and an older sister who alternated between attacking Richard and dressing him in her clothing. Eventually, Richard discovered a female personality (whom he named Rene) emerging within himself. This explicit narrative follows the struggle between Richard and Renee for ascendancy, the sex change operation that settled the matter, and Rene's trials and triumphs on the tennis courts. Aside from other interests, the book offers a textbook case of how not to raise a male child. 62. Roth, Philip. Patrimony: A True Story. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991. 238p. illus. pa. In this moving record of his father's last year of life, Roth allows readers to experience the sadness and spunk of Herman Roth as he copes with a brain tumor that slowly short circuits his physical and mental capacities. The son's reactions to his father's "patrimony" of being human form an important part of this poignant document. 63. Rubin, Michael, comp. Men Without Masks: Writings from the Journals of Modern Men. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980. xx, 312p. pa. This anthology contains samplings from the diaries of 30 men of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Selections are divided into six categories: sons; idealists; lovers, husbands, and fathers; working men; explorers; and aging, old, and dying men. A gold mine of insights into modern men's experiences, selections range from the journals of anguished sons (e.g., Richard Meinhertzhagen, Franz Kafka, and editor Rubin) to those of idealistic World War I soldiers killed in their youth (Otto Braun and Alan Seeger). Readers can glimpse the love lives of photographer Edward Weston and musician Ned Rorem, as well as the joys and trials of fatherhood as

experienced by David Steinberg and Josh Greenfield. Other selections portray the triumphs and trials of workas well as the costs of unemployment. Explorers include those like Richard E. Byrd and Tobias Schneebaum, who explore new lands, and those like Thomas Merton and Howard Nemerov, who explore unchartered regions of the soul. Interior exploration has not been considered "masculine," Rubin notes in the introduction, praising those who look behind the mask of masculinity to the human reality. "Though the women's movement has done much to break down myths and stereotypes about women in the interests of their complexity," he writes, ''it does not often recognize a similar complexity in men." 64. Seabrook, Jeremy. Mother and Son. New York: Pantheon Books, 1980. 191p. Original publication, London: Victor Gollancz, 1980. "This book is about the haunted and obsessive relationship with my mother which, for more than thirty years, was the most total and only real experience of my life." Thus begins Seabrook's account of growing up during the forties in Great Britain with a dominating, man-hating mother, a twin

Page 23

brother who seemed more of an opposite than a sibling, and a father who was alienated, ostracized, disliked, and belittledand who eventually deserted the family. Seabrook notes the psychosexual damage he sustained. An episode of transvestism and crushes on other boys hint of impending homosexuality, but the book ends abruptly with nothing certain determined. 65. Sifford, Darrell. Father and Son. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, Bridgebooks, 1982. 270p. A newspaper columnist, Sifford describes his midlife crisis, his decision to divorce his wife of 22 years, and the ensuing estrangement from his two sons. Despite some near tragedies, Sifford reconstructs a new life, remarries, and slowly achieves reconciliation with his sons. 66. Stafford, Linley M. One Man's Family: A Single Father and His Children. New York: Random House, 1978. 181p. Stafford recounts how he came to have custody of a teenage son and daughter. His ex-wife had custody of the children originally, but at age 11 the son begged Stafford tearfully to let him move into the father's cramped Manhattan apartment. Despite misgivings and the disastrous first weeks together, father and son became a two-party family. The process began anew, however, when Stafford's daughter also requested to live with her father and brother. Re-creating his experiences for the reader, Stafford provides a narrative that is as vivid and poignant as a good novel. Accompanying the story are his pithy comments on contemporary society, especially its attitudes toward fathers. 67. Steinberg, David. fatherjournal: Five Years of Awakening to Fatherhood. Albion, CA: Times Change Press, 1977. 91p. illus. pa. Reprint, New York: Monthly Review Press, 1977. pa. Dedicated "to all fathers who have been taught to turn away from their children, and the growing number of others who are turning back," this series of diary entries begins with the birth of David and Susan's child, Dylan Joshua, on April 1, 1971. Steinberg records his responses to fathering as he and Susan both work part-time, as he becomes a full-time worker and she becomes a fulltime parent, and then as they reverse rolesshe works full-time and he becomes

a househusband. In poems, songs, and photographs, Steinberg records his deep love for Dylan, but other entries record his moments of anger, frustration, and burnout. "Fathering is something I do well after all," Steinberg writes. "It's not a marketable skill, it's an important one to me.'' 68. Waller, Leslie. Hide in Plain Sight. New York: Delacorte Press, 1976. 275p. Reprint, New York: Dell, 1980. pa. Can U.S. government bureaucrats kidnap a father's children and keep their whereabouts unknown to him for eight years? Of course they can, as this fascinating retelling of the Tom Leonhard case demonstrates. When law enforcement agents in Buffalo wanted to convict some Mafia bosses, they offered mobster Paddy Calabrese protection, including a new life and identity, for his testimony against Mafia kingpins. The offer extended to Paddy's wife, Rochelle, and her four children. The problem was, however, that Rochelle's two oldest children were from a previous marriage. When she and Paddy disappeared with them, her ex-husband Tom Leonhard had no idea where they had gone. All he knew was that they were in the company of a man whose life was in danger from the Mafia. But none of the law enforcement people apparently

Page 24

gave a thought to Leonhard's plight; in their zeal to convict some Mafia kingpins, robbing a father of his children was a mere triviality. For eight years, Leonhard and his new wife fought a legal battle to recover knowledge of his children's whereabouts. Eventually, he won his case, but at the close of this account he had not yet received an adequate apology from the U.S. government. The author notes that similar cases of separating fathers from their children have already occurred. 69. Wright, Richard. Black Boy: A Record of Childhood and Youth. New York and Evanston, IL: Harper & Row, 1945. 285p. pa. Wright's wrenching account of his early years in the South reveals how poverty and racism can foster a cruel, embittered concept of masculinity in the humiliated, black "boy." Wright's childhood was warped by many things, including the absence of strong male role models and the superabundance of domineering female authority figures. Threatened also by a white world that denied his status as a man, Wright as "black boy" had to battle and connive relentlessly to maintain a modicum of masculine integrity. 70. X, Malcolm, with Alex Haley. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: Ballantine Books, 1965. xiv, 460p. pa. This world-famous autobiography of the charismatic, influential Afro-American activist depicts a search for black male pride. The son of a Baptist preacher and a mother who eventually lost touch with reality, Malcolm Little seemed destined to be a victim of racism, crime, drug abuse, and prison. His enemy was "the white man" who he perceived had denied his own manhood. While serving time, however, Little was converted to the disciplined messianic beliefs of Elijah Muhammad, a conversion that sparked his own intellectual, spiritual, and gender development as Malcolm X. Even while his rise to national fame created fissures within the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X discovered positive masculinity as husband, father, and leader of black people. His own pilgrimage to Mecca and the Middle East brought another phase of spiritual growth that tempered his black separatism and his blanket hatred of white people. This phase of renewal was tragically ended by his assassination on 21 February 1965. As a portrait of an ever striving, ever expanding life, The Autobiography of Malcolm X constitutes a memorable tribute to the Afro-American male's struggle to achieve manhood.

Cross-References 171. Abbott, Franklin, ed. Boyhood, Growing Up Male: A Multicultural Anthology. 71. Abbott, Franklin, ed. Men and Intimacy: Personal Accounts Exploring the Dilemmas of Modern Male Sexuality. 684. Baraff, Alvin. Men Talk: How Men Really Feel About Women, Sex, Relationships, and Themselves. 81. Bell, Donald H. Being a Man: The Paradox of Masculinity. 860. Black Elk. Black Elk Speaks: Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux. 779. Cowan, Thomas. Gay Men and Women Who Enriched the World.

Page 25

397. Crompton, Louis. Byron and Greek Love: Homophobia in NineteenthCentury England. 912. Eberle, Paul and Shirley. The Abuse of Innocence: The McMartin Preschool Trial. 562. Ferrara, Frank. On Being Father. 99. Filene, Peter, ed. Men in the Middle: Coping With the Problems of Work and Family in the Lives of Middle-Aged Men. 949. Goldman, Peter, Tony Fuller, and others. Charlie Company: What Vietnam Did to Us. 951. Greene, Bob. Homecoming: When the Soldiers Returned from Vietnam. 499. Hallowell, Christopher. Father to the Man: A Journal. 178. Hawley, Richard A. Boys Will Be Men: Masculinity in Troubled Times. 503. Hearn, Jeff. Birth and Afterbirth: A Materialist Account. 916. Hunter, Mic. Abused Boys: The Neglected Victims of Sexual Abuse. 507. Keyes, Ralph, ed. Sons on Fathers: A Book of Men's Writing. 408. Kirchhoff, Frederick. William Morris: The Construction of a Male Self, 1856-1872. 961. Kovic, Ron. Born on the Fourth of July. 707. Lenfest, David. Men Speak Out: In the Heart of Men's Recovery: Six Dialogues for, by and About Conscious Men. 810. Marotta, Toby. Sons of Harvard: Gay Men from the Class of 1967. 963. Norman, Michael. These Good Men: Friendships Forged from War. 534. Pedersen, Anne, and Peggy O'Mara, eds. Being a Father: Family, Work, and Self/Mothering Magazine. 588. Robertiello, Richard C. A Man in the Making: Grandfathers, Fathers, Sons. 831. Roscoe, Will. The Zuni Man-Woman. 833. Rowse, A. L. Homosexuals in History: A Study of Ambivalence in Society, Literature and the Arts.

619. Seidler, Victor J. Rediscovering Masculinity: Reason, Language and Sexuality. 470. Spacek, Tim. Fathers: There at the Birth. 931. Spiegel, Lawrence D. A Question of Innocence: A True Story of False Accusation. 187. Standing Bear, Luther. My Indian Boyhood. 668. Teague, Bob. Letters to a Black Boy. 937. Webb, Cathleen Crowell, and Marie Chapian. Forgive Me. 939. Weiss, Karel, ed. The Prison Experience: An Anthology.

Page 26

3 Awareness: General Discussions of Men's Issues and Topics, and Men's Awareness and Consciousness Raising
71. Abbott, Franklin, ed. Men and Intimacy: Personal Accounts Exploring the Dilemmas of Modern Male Sexuality. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press, 1990. 247p. illus. bibliography, 245-47. pa. This anthology collects 32 articles and four poems, plus an editor's introduction. Selections are grouped into three sections. Part I contains accounts from male victims of various forms of violence, including gay bashing, child sexual abuse, prison rape, circumcision, and racism. Writers often focus on how violence has affected men's ability to be intimate with others. Discussions of erotica and pornography present pro and con viewpoints. Essays in part 2 deal primarily with healing the aftereffects of violence. Topics include bisexual husbands, a father's awareness of his son's dawning sexuality, and several articles on gay relationships. In part 3, writers attempt to change what they regard as harmful social attitudes. Authors represented in the volume include Tom Cahill on prison rape, Robert Staples on black men, and Arthur Levine on the difficulties of gay dating. 72. Abbott, Franklin, ed. New Men, New Minds: Breaking Male Tradition: How Today's Men Are Changing the Traditional Roles of Masculinity. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press, 1987. 220p. bibliography, 219-20. pa. This collection of brief personal recollections, reflections, and poems examines ways in which many men are re-evaluating their lives and concepts of masculinity. The 49 brief selections are divided into four sections: "Fathers," "Stories" (i.e., autobiographical accounts), "Issues,'' and "Spirit and Soul." The opening essay, Joseph Pleck's poignant memoir of his overworked father sets the tone for much of the volume. The "stories" include accounts from gay men, a victim of male rape, and a retired man. Among the issues are homophobia, circumcision, and war veterans. The final section explores men's spirituality. Noteworthy selections include Robert E. Price's account of becoming a black "instant father" when he married the mother of two children, Ken Fremont-

Smith's report of how scars resulting from a childhood burn accident affected his life, Sam Julty's look at the poor state of men's health in the United States, and Keith Thompson's landmark interview with Robert Bly on the meaning of the Iron John story. 72a. Adams, Kathleen. Mightier Than the Sword: The Journal as a Path to Men's Self-Discovery. New York: Warner Books, 1994. xvi, 237p. bibliography, 23135. pa. Adams makes a convincing case for journal writing as a means of breaking through the inexpressiveness that has been bred into many men. She lists fourteen reasons for using journal writing as a teaching and therapeutic device. Among the reasons: journals help men to read their own minds, clarify and

Page 27

explore their feelings, focus and define their desires, retrieve and heal the past, and explore their spirituality. Providing examples from men's journals, Adams explains techniques that can facilitate and enrich men's journal keeping. To get men to lay down the sword of their anger and grief, Adams suggests they take up the pen of journal writing to explore such matters as their masculine identity, their wounds, their values, the meaning of fatherhood, the difference between positive and negative anger, and their dreams. Journal keeping can be a meditative art that deepens men's spirituality. The final section of the book contains guidelines for journal groups and a bibliography. Adams expounds an important therapeutic technique that can be also a powerful teaching device in men's studies courses. 73. Amneus, Daniel. The Garbage Generation: The Consequences of the Destruction of the Two-Parent Family and the Need to Stabilize It By Strengthening Its Weakest Link, the Father's Role. Alhambra, CA: Primrose Press, 1990. ix, 298p. notes. index. pa. A moral conservative, Amneus argues that the single-parent family is by and large dysfunctional, causing social and individual problems. Primarily, the lack of fathers causes these dysfunctional families. Taking issue with those feminists who exalt matriarchal prehistory as the golden age, Amneus sees femalecontrolled families as the source of numerous problems. Such families marginalize the father, and female promiscuity undercuts the male obligation to the family. A stable society requires people to resist those feminists who call for female sexual freedom but who simultaneously demand a continuation of male obligations. The patriarchal system puts male energy and sexuality to work for the good of the family, but it also requires female fidelity to ensure that the male will work for her and their children. Amneus distinguishes between "Sleeping Beauty" feminism (women are bored and unchallenged) and "Slaughtered Saints" feminism (women are the victims of male brutality). The latter feminism is largely a ploy to seize tax money to pay for female promiscuity and other ''freedoms." The patriarchal family provides the greatest security for women and children. Current divorce and custody practices, however, create mostly dysfunctional, female-headed households that subsist on money from either alienated ex-husbands or taxpayers. Granting custody to fathers would help solve the problem. Amneus differs with George Gilder's idea that women civilize men; rather, it is men who have had to regulate female

promiscuity. Social engineering to achieve sexual equality ignores "hypergamy": economically, women marry up, while men marry down. Fathers must continue to struggle for custody and other forms of father-rights. 74. Astrachan, Anthony. How Men Feel: Their Responses to Women's Demands for Equality and Power. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1986. xi, 444p. notes. index. Using interviews and published research, Astrachan finds that many men are feeling more pain than satisfaction from the latest wave of the women's movement. Beginning with the job discrimination faced by his ex-wife as a reporter for the Washington Post, Astrachan examines the problems that some women face in the job market, the military, blue-collar work, service industries, and the professions. He notes that male nurses and secretaries can face similar difficulties. Turning to the personal front, he finds gender warfare taking its toll on marriage, fatherhood, and sexuality. Astrachan examines the men's movement, dividing it into three segments: the feminist wing, the "no-guilt" movement, and the divorce-and-custody activists. He examines current novels, poetry, plays, comic strips, and ads for evidence of men's reactions to feminism. He discusses "backlash" to abortion rights and comparable worth schemes. Although the women's movement is encountering obstacles, the author concludes that it will continue to shape American lives.

Page 28

Some of Astrachan's interpretations of the book's wealth of information may be problematic. The discussion too-easily assumes a uniformity of belief among women, too-readily equates "feminist" with "women." Taking a pro-feminist stance, Astrachan asserts that men as a class exercise power over women, while at the same time insisting that most men do not have much power at all. Thus, he ends up insisting that men must share with women a power that most men do not possess. 75. Avedon, Burt. Ah, Men! What Do Men Want? A Panorama of the Male in CrisisHis Past Problems, Present Uncertainties, Future Goals. New York: A and W, 1980. 213p. illus. notes. For this potpourri of opinions on men in crisis, Avedon interviewed well-known peopleseventeen men (e.g., Art Buchwald, Bruce Jenner, Ashley Montague, Gore Vidal) and three women (Helen Gurley Brown, Gael Greene, Elizabeth Janeway). Their views appear in chapters on gender roles, sports, work, sex, feelings, homophobia, men's liberation, and related topics. 76. Baber, Asa. Naked at Gender Gap: A Man's View of the War Between the Sexes. New York: Birch Lane Press/Carol, 1992. xvi, 247p. Containing 73 essays originally published in Baber's widely read "Men" column in Playboy, this collection offers feisty views on such matters as male bashing in U.S. society, the alliance of fundamentalists and feminists that denigrates male sexuality, the absence of men's studies on college campuses, the discrimination against fathers in the awarding of custody, and the importance of hanging tough as a divorced father whose ex-wife makes visitation difficult. Above all, Baber stresses the importance of strong fathers. An early essay, "Calling All Blysters," sets the tone for the volume: Baber commends the followers of Robert Bly for clearing the air for a discussion of men's issues, but he faults them for avoiding controversy and ignoring the sexual politics of "feminazis." In contrast, Baber revels in controversy, skewering misandry with zest and wit. 77. Baker, Mark, ed. What Men Really Think: About Women, Love, Sex, Themselves. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992. 317p. Working from interviews with 100 men, Baker distills their comments on women, men, sex, love, physical education, homophobia, abortion, and dads.

Promised anonymity, the men provided outspoken, multifaceted responses and stories. From the interview excerpts, one senses that the battle of the sexes has reached an uneasy truce at best, that homophobia still thrives, and that father-hunger is widespread. Abortion seems to cause both men and women an unexpected sorrow. Above all, the men are angry about what U.S. society is doing to men. "If we're really in charge," snaps one man, "how come we got such a lousy job description?" 78. Barbeau, Clayton. Delivering the Male: Out of the Tough-Guy Trap into a Better Marriage. Minneapolis, MN: Winston Press, 1982. 136p. bibliography, 133-36. notes. pa. Reprint, New York: Harper & Row, 1982. pa. A readable and sympathetic attempt to extricate men from the pitfalls of outmoded masculine roles, this book opens with praise of the author's late wife Myra, who helped his liberation. A psychologist with a Catholic-Christian perspective, Barbeau argues that many men are in a more acute identity crisis than women are. Part of the problem is that older masculine roles no longer deliver on their promises. Citing writers like Marc Fasteau (entry 96) and Herb Goldberg (entry 103), Barbeau enumerates the penalties of more traditional

Page 29

male lifestyles. Pointing to the dehumanization that careers often inflict upon men, the author praises those men with the courage to choose simpler, more satisfying lives. A final chapter warns against the widespread passivity among U.S. men and urges a more passionate approach to growth through genderrole modification. 79. Baumli, Francis, ed. Men Freeing Men: Exploding the Myth of the Traditional Male. Jersey City, NJ: New Atlantis Press, 1985. xiv, 337p. index. pa. This rich collection of essays, stories, and poems is unique in presenting an intensive men's rights perspective on gender matters. Selections are divided into 14 sections: "The Process of Reclaiming Ourselves," "About Our Sexuality," "The Game of Dating," "Women in Our Lives,'' "Men with Men," "Work: Fulfillment or Desperation," "Finding Our Fathers," "Parenting: The Greatest Discovery," "When Daddy Can't Be Daddy Any More" (on divorce and custody), "Violence and the Male Victim," "The Sexist Draft," "Reclaiming the Body," "Men and Women's Issues," and "Making Changes." The anthology devotes space to an extensive range of men's rights issues, including the imbalance of power in dating situations, the joys and pitfalls of male-female relationships, male friendships, gay relationships, challenges and frustrations of the workplace, a range of fatherhood issues involving parenting and divorce, battered and murdered husbands, violence against males as entertainment, the male-only military obligation, men's health and related medical issues, the contradictions in many feminist agendas, getting men's issues out into the open, and the history of the men's movement. The male authors in this volume represent an unusually wide spectrum of experiences and backgrounds; a few female authors also contribute to the discussion. Many of the authors are remarkably outspoken, expressing male insights and anger that are too often censored by the mainstream media. 80. Bednarik, Karl. The Male in Crisis. Translated by Helen Sebba. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1970. xi, 194, xivp. notes. index. Reprint, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981. Original publication, as Die Krise des Mannes, Vienna: Fritz Molden Verlag, 1968. Bednarik sees males in crisis because modern bureaucratic and technological society prevents their being naturally active and autonomous. Evidence of crisis can be found in the "impotent anger" of alienated male violence and in the

"absurdist revolt" of beats, hippies, hooligans, and other disaffected males. Although favoring equal rights for men, Bednarik sees women's roles as fundamentally different from men's. Men are, he feels, women's natural defenders and protectors. The crisis of modern eros results from commercialization, and hence depersonalization, of sex, a process that allows aggression to contaminate sexual relations. Because male aggressiveness can no longer find legitimate expression in warfare (modern war has made heroism impossible and would result in catastrophic annihilation), conscious control must continually rechannel aggression into constructive or relatively harmless outlets. Because the state has undermined the authority of the father, the male need for exercising authority and autonomy can be recovered only by democratic processes that work upwards from the grassroots. 81. Bell, Donald H. Being a Man: The Paradox of Masculinity. Lexington, MA: Lewis, 1982. ix, 158p. notes. Reprint, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984. pa.

Page 30

Drawing upon his own experiences and those of men whom he interviewed, Bell explores the paradox of modern masculinity, caught between older traditions and newer lifestyles. In the first three chapters, Bell and his intervieweesall upper-middle-class white mendescribe their relationships with their fathers, their lack of close male friends beyond the school years, and their teen boy-girl relationships. The men tell how their marriages became casualties of the gender conflict of the seventies, and how they coped with "beginning again" after divorce. One chapter is devoted to work experiences, including unemployment and the tensions arising between a working wife and a nonworking husband. The experiences of fatherhoodincluding being present at birth, and being a divorced fatherare also explored. The final chapter draws conclusions about the present and raises question about what lies ahead for men. 82. Berkowitz, Bob, with Roger Gittines. What Men Won't Tell You: But What Women Need to Know. New York: William Morrow, 1990. 203p. An NBC correspondent, Berkowitz's informal style may give the impression that he is just kidding around. Actually, he has some perceptive information and practical advice for women trying to figure out men. Like Deborah Tannen (entry 429), Berkowitz understands that men and women sometimes seem to speak a different language; he interprets men's language (both verbal and behavioral) for bewildered women. Chapters in this book discuss such areas as sports, jobs, dating, the difference between flirting and dangerous teasing, sex, and commitment. Berkowitz's commentary is readable, friendly, and refreshingly candid. 83. Bradley, Mike, Lonnie Danchik, Marty Fager, and Tom Wodetzki. Unbecoming Men: A Men's Consciousness-Raising Group Writes on Oppression and Themselves. Washington, NJ: Times Change Press, 1971. 64p. illus. pa. This collection of 12 brief, personal essays was compiled by four members of a men's consciousness-raising group. The unsigned articles recall episodes (mostly painful) illustrating what growing up male in the white middle-class United States can be like. The final essay, written collectively by the four men, describes their consciousness-raising group, warts and all. 84.

Brenton, Myron. The American Male. New York: Cowan-McCann, 1966. 252p. notes. index. Reprint, Greenwich, CT: Fawcett Crest Books, Fawcett Publications, 1967. pa. One of the earliest, fullest, and most discerning analyses of the strains in modern masculinity, Brenton's book has retained its relevance well beyond the sixties. "At the present time in history, the American male is subject to an unprecedented number of pressures and tensions," the author writes, underlining his thesis: "Their effect is needlessly deleterious, because he's still trapped by the beliefs and value systems of the past." Brenton states and explores most of the themes that later writers on men's awareness would reiterate, including the attention given to women's concerns and the inattention to men's concerns; the seemingly active man who uses activity to mask his passivity in decision making and leadership; the new demands placed upon men to be emotionally closer, to interchange roles with women, and to be sexual superstars; the binds in which traditional roles place today's men; the "myth" of the good old days of patriarchy when men ruled supreme (Brenton argues convincingly that women privately had great resources for wielding power in so-called patriarchal societies); the father absence that results when males are unprepared by society to assume parental roles; and the "momism" and permissiveness that result from father absence.

Page 31

Brenton closes with a chapter pointing out new ways to manliness. He warns men to avoid the breadwinner trap, the overspecialization that renders a man vulnerable to adversity and change, and the "myth" that women are morally superior and that real men are destructively aggressive. Conversely, men need to recognize that masculinity can be expressed in personally and socially constructive ways. Especially welcome is Brenton's ability to discuss gender issues candidly without hostility towards either men or women. 85. Bucher, Glenn R., ed. Straight/White/Male. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1976. x, 149p. notes. pa. This collection of 10 essays and dialogues by six authors castigates straight white males for oppression of blacks, women, and homosexuals. While Bucher laments the insensitivity of heterosexual white male oppressors, other contributors manage to lay most of the world's evils at their door. Readers are advised to expect not an equitable assessment of men's lives and experiences, but an inundation of heated accusations, sweeping generalizations, and racist and sexist stereotyping of white males. 86. Byers, Kenneth F. Man in Transition: ... the roles he plays as father, son, friend and lover. La Mesa, CA: Journeys Together, 1989, 1990. iii, 161p. illus. bibliography, 160-61. pa. The discovery that his son had a serious drug problem triggered a major rethinking of life by Byers. Today's male experience, he believes, is totally different from anything in history. In a series of short essay on men's lives, Byers reflects on such matters as the roles of father, husband, and son. He also discusses "tools," or techniques for human growth, such as communication, unconditioned love, defining maleness, meditation, forgiveness, and surrender. Byers's meditations are colored by his life in the U.S. Southwest. 87. Cardelle, Frank D. Journey to Brotherhood: Awakening, Healing, and Connecting Men's Hearts. New York: Gardner Press, 1990. xxii, 299p. bibliography, 288-98. pa. A therapist, Cardelle addresses the need for men to move from older, more rigid concepts of masculinity to fuller, more affirming ones. He argues that

societies program males for aggression, filling them with bottled-up anger that can explode into violence. Men need to reject the concept of "supra men," face their fears and feelings, and cultivate brotherhood with each other. Using case histories, personal experiences, and cultural history, Cardelle offers self-help strategies to enable men to transform themselves. He envisions a new society of men and women as allies. 88. Connell, R. W. Gender and Power: Society, the Person and Sexual Politics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1987. xvii, 334p. bibliography 294316. notes. index. pa. This readable work of theory examines the strands of thought and practice that shape gender roles in modern society. Connell does not see men "equally oppressed" as women, although he admits that some men pay a high price for male social advantages. Gay men in particular have suffered considerable disadvantages. Connell surveys the historical and theoretical roots of current gender relations, examining numerous agents that shape gender, such as the family, the state, "the street," and so on. Discussing femininity and masculinity, he explores basic perspectives from sociology and psychology. In the final chapters, Connell considers sexual politics and future social developments. Although the discussion

Page 32

usually avoids narrow ideology, Connell can occasionally stoop, as when he accuses an author of gender insensitivity for using Man Makes Himself as a book titlein 1936. Readers may want to consult Warren Farrell's The Myth of Male Power (entry 96), which, in effect, represents a massive critique of Connell's view of gender and power. 89. Cooke, Chris, and others, eds. The Men's Survival Resource Book: On Being a Man in Today's World. Minneapolis, MN: M.S.R.B. Press, 1978. xii, 195p. illus. bibliographies after several chapters. pa. A potpourri of articles, self-evaluation quizzes, and lists of resources (mostly in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area), this handbook contains chapters dealing with a variety of men's topics, including career and play, health, birth control, sexuality, fathers and parenting, education and personal growth, circumcision, the prostate gland, venereal disease, and assertiveness training for nontraditional males. 90. Craig, Steve, ed. Men, Masculinity, and the Media. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1992. xii, 271p. (Research on Men and Masculinities Series, no. 1). bibliography, 233-54. notes. author and subject indexes. pa. Fifteen articles, plus a foreword by Michael Kimmel, examine images of masculinity in the media. Articles are grouped into five sections: past study of men and the media; case studies of media and masculinities; representations of men's relationships; men, media, and the gender order; and how men "read" media images of masculinity. Representative selections include Stan Denski and David Sholle's discussion of hypermasculinity in heavy metal rock, Norma Pecora's analysis of sexist and racist elements in Superman comics, and David Croteau and William Hoynes's argument that the news media are male dominated. The essays depict masculinities as socially constructed and the media as instruments reinforcing "masculinist hegemony" in "patriarchal capitalism." The radical pro-feminist agenda of the essays leaves several questions unaddressed. Most notably, one is left wondering whyif the media are agents of male poweris male bashing so common in the media? 91. Dolan, Edward F. Be Your Own Man: A Step-by-Step Guide to Thinking and Acting Independently. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984. ix, 146p.

index. pa. This self-help guide, aimed at male readers, touches on such matters as achieving independence, working and the family, guilt, judgments, and interpersonal relationships. 92. Druck, Ken, with James C. Simmons. The Secrets Men Keep. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1985. 216p. A clinical psychologist who conducts Alive and Male seminars, Druck offers insights and exercises to help men to break "the silence barrier," that is, to talk about the secrets they harbor. After exploring men's difficulties with expressing their feelings, Druck examines the need for men to contact their fathers and to resolve differences with them. Later chapters deal with male friendship, work stress, mother-son relationships, and life partners. 93. Editors of Look. The Decline of the American Male. New York: Random House, 1958. 66p. illus. This exercise in pop sociology represents the kind of criticism and advice that the U.S. man heard in the fifties. The three essays in the book depict him

Page 33

as henpecked, passive, tired, anxious, and impotent; the Robert Osborn cartoons caricature him as ludicrous. J. Robert Moskin, in "Why Do Women Dominate Him?" blames women: as wives, they place too many demands on husbands and drive them to early graves. George B. Leonard, Jr., in "Why Is He Afraid to Be Different?" depicts the U.S. male as obsessed with conformity to group standards. In "Why Does He Work So Hard?" William Attwood answers: the puritan ethic, the social expectation that men always be busy, the pressure of public opinion, the need to keep up a standard of living, the pushing by wives, the love of action for its own sake, and ambition. The book's view of men makes it easier to understand such subsequent phenomena as dropouts of the sixties, countercultures, the alleged male flight from commitment, and more recent discontents with traditional masculine gender roles. 94. Emerson, Gloria. Some American Men. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985. 317p. pa. In this winner of the National Book Award, Emerson writes: "It seems now as if all men were strangers until my late thirties when, as a New York Times reporter covering the war in Vietnam at its oldest, I saw huge numbers of American men as few women do: in unimaginable misery and peril." Clearly impatient with the cartoon figures of males perpetuated by U.S. media, Emerson sets out to draw portraits of several American men, in all their complexity, nobility, and weaknesses. With remarkable verbal skills, she depicts such men as entertainment magnate Peter Godoff, reporter Carey Winfrey, a heroic Dr. Gilbert Hunn working among the Cambodian killing fields, unemployed Ohio workers like Barry Whitfield and Michael Paslawski, Vietnam veteran Dan Loney whose daughter suffered the aftereffects of his exposure to Agent Orange, black Fitzroy Herbert who has survived persistent racism, and numerous others. Emerson's observations challenge current misandric clichs about men. Noting the pain experienced by unemployed women, Emerson also notes a differences between them and unemployed men: "The difference was that they did not see themselves as ruined women, suspect as females, people now exposed as profoundly defective." Her insights are captured with often breathtaking verbal precision. 95. Farrell, Warren. The Liberated Man: Beyond Masculinity; Freeing Men and

Their Relationships with Women. New York: Random House, 1974. Rev. ed. New York: Berkley Books, 1993. xxiv, 350p. appendix. bibliography, 327-28. notes. index. pa. When it first appeared in 1974, The Liberated Man established Farrell as one of the leading commentators on men's issues, a position he has maintained over the years. This new edition contains nearly all of the 1974 text, plus Farrell's reflections on his own growth since then. Part 1 of the 1974 text argues the case for men's liberation by citing the constrictive nature of masculine gender roles and the violence against men that is built into them. Part 2 cites 22 ways in which women's liberation abets men's liberation. Part 3 includes exchanges from consciousness-raising groups and points the way toward human education. In "Introduction 1993," Farrell notes how his earlier, liberal profeminist stance included misunderstandings of men. Over the years, he has evolved a more sympathetic insight into why men are the way they are. Acknowledging the many benefits bestowed on women and men by the women's movement, he laments its shadow sideits exiling of men as the enemy through woman-as-victim and man-as-perpetrator stereotyping. In a new introduction to part 3, Farrell provides suggestions for starting a men's group. This new edition provides an intriguing glimpse at the roots of Farrell's thought and its development over the years.

Page 34

96. Farrell, Warren. The Myth of Male Power: Why Men Are the Disposable Sex. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993. 446p. illus. bibliography, 426-28. notes. index. In this important analysis of gender issues, Farrell targets the belief in male power as the central distorting myth of modern times. The myth of male power has long poisoned male-female relationships. It now blocks women from assuming roles of responsible equality, and it deadens modern societies to the terrible inhumanities they routinely inflict upon males. Humanity is in transition from Stage I, where males assumed the role of the savior-servant who protected females, to Stage II, where both sexes must exercise equal rights and responsibilities. In part I of the book, Farrell argues that concepts like "power," "patriarchy," "male dominance," and "sexism" are actually code words for male sacrifice and disposability. Part 2 supports this argument with detailed analyses of such matters as enforced male military service, the disproportionate number of male suicides, shortened male life spans, greater instances of psychological disorders among males, males as the primary victims of violent crimes, and social indifference about what is happening to males. Part 3 discusses the government as substitute husband, how in recent times the state has enacted double-standard laws that protect female criminal behavior while criminalizing male behavior, how sexual harassment laws essentially harass males, and how male victims of domestic violence and rape are ignored by the ''protector" government-husband. Farrell concludes that the sexes can work out of the current spiral of gender antagonism by insisting upon female responsibility and by becoming more sensitive to the unrecognized violence done to males. 97. Farrell, Warren. Why Men Are the Way They Are: The Male-Female Dynamic. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1986. xxvii, 404p. illus. bibliography, 382-84. notes. indexes. Reprint, New York: Berkley Books, 1988. pa. Farrell debunks current clichs about males and proposes a more complex reality. Men are the way they are, he argues, largely because our society makes them that way. Attacking the assumption that "men have all the power," he notes the widespread tendency to ignore evidence of men's powerlessness and women's power. Focusing on one overlooked area of evidence, Farrell surveys ads in popular women's magazines that contain

subtexts urging women to use "beauty power" to seduce men. In the process, the ads encourage women to send mixed signals to men and thus to create rape situations. Significantly, the disguised nature of the strategy blinds women to their responsibility for helping to create these circumstances. Elaborating upon this theme, Farrell dissects "The New Sexism," the fashionable male bashing that encourages women to blame men and to deny their own culpability for the way things are. This sexism blocks women's selfunderstanding and hinders their ability to relate to men. Farrell argues that the sexual revolution came and went so fast because elements of U.S. society blocked it by demonizing men as worthless jerks and dangerous rapists. The current rift between men and women is benefiting neither sex, Farrell argues, and he offers advice for closing it. Throughout the book, Farrell challenges current shibboleths about men with insights that have made him an enormously influential writer on men's issues. 98. Fasteau, Marc Feigen. The Male Machine. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975. xv, 227p. notes. Reprint, New York: Dell, Delta, 1975. pa. In this widely read critique influenced by feminist thought, Fasteau touches upon nearly all the major dissatisfactions with the traditional masculine role: the stereotyped ideal of the male as a cool and efficient machine, the

Page 35

lack of friendships among adult men, the confusion of sex and violence, the obsession with sexual technique, the denigration of women as inferiors, the failure of fathers as caring parents, sports as a training ground for competition, the cutthroat nature of success-oriented careers, and the mystique of violence. Fasteau also explores how the cult of toughness affected U.S. foreign policy and the Watergate imbroglio. A final chapter offers the ideal of androgyny, which Fasteau sees as creating not a unisex sameness but a greater range of behaviors for both men and women. The book contains an introduction by Gloria Steinem. 99. Filene, Peter, ed. Men in the Middle: Coping with the Problems of Work and Family in the Lives of Middle-Aged Men. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981. xi, 193p. illus. notes. pa. In this collection of autobiographical essays, eight men try to answer the questions, "Where Do We Come From, Who Are We, Where Are We Going?"to borrow the title of a Gauguin painting that fascinates one of the men. The contributors are "men in the middle," that is, from the middle class, at midlife. Having imbibed the work ethic as youths, they all struggle to balance career and family. Bright, well educated, radicalized by the civil rights movement of the sixties, sensitized by the women's movement of the seventies, they await fuller men's liberation. "Why should women be allowed to shuck the feminine roles," Filene wonders in his essay, "and men be forced to stay with the masculine roles?'' Filene's introduction tells how the book took shape and comments on its themes. In a concluding chapter, he constructs a "conversation" from the contributors' most recent letters updating their stories and commenting on the others' essays. 100. Garfinkel, Perry. In a Man's World: Father, Son, Brother, Friend, and Other Roles Men Play. New York: New American Library, Mentor, 1985. xv, 208p. bibliography, 188-93. notes. index. pa. Reprint, Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 1993. pa. Drawing upon interviews, research, reading, and observation, Garfinkel surveys the changing landscape of masculinity. He finds that fathers and sons are usually locked in a tension-filled love relationship, but the importance of fathers for sons is very great. Fathers alone, however, cannot shape adult males; grandfathers and mentors often play formative roles for boys and young men.

Brothers, frequently locked in a bond that includes rivalry, can bring both painful competition and needed support to each other. Men also find male relationships in organizations, from Boy Scouts to male-only clubs and groups. Garfinkel surveys the changing images of heroic males in films and videos, arguing that older macho roles are yielding to more sensitive heroes. Male friendships are marked by scarcity and distance, and Garfinkel finds homophobia to be a blight on all men's lives. In the final chapter, Garfinkel concludes that males need each other, that they need to cherish one another, and that they must break down the barriers that separate them from other men. 101. Gerson, Kathleen. No Man's Land: Men's Changing Commitments to Family and Work. New York: Basic Books, HarperCollins, 1993. xvi, 366p. appendix. bibliography, 329-55. notes. index. "Suddenly men are a hot topic," Gerson notes at the start of this examination of men's current choices in career and family. Surveying current changes in masculine gender roles, the author notes that many men were and are ambivalent about the role of breadwinner. Often the birth of a child pushes a man into the role or drives him away from it. Drawing upon interviews with

Page 36

138 men between the ages of 28 and 45, Gerson traces the lives of men who took on breadwinning and those who made different choices, including individual autonomy, getting off the fast track, and committing to a nondomestic woman. Gerson examines the dilemmas of balancing autonomy and breadwinning and the dilemmas of fatherhood, especially after divorce. The last two chapters survey the historical reasons for current changes in gender roles and the politics of equality. Although Gerson is sometimes fixated on the alleged powers and privileges of men as a class, she often recognizes that not all men are powerful and some men are disadvantaged. 102. Gilder, George. Men and Marriage. Gretna, LA: Pelican, 1986. xix, 219p. notes. Original publication, as Sexual Suicide, New York: Quadrangle/New York Times, 1973. Reprint, New York: Bantam Books, 1975. pa. The new preface of this updated and expanded version of Sexual Suicide describes how plans to print a revised edition of the book were initially sabotaged by feminist editors and how the book's predictions about the decline of marriage and family have since materialized. An opening parable of the Princess and the Barbarian outlines Gilder's conservative view of the sexes: civilization exists only because males, whose sexual needs are briefly satisfied, have adapted to the long-term rhythms of women's sexuality, procreativity, and child nurturing. Most individuals achieve their fullest humanity within carefully defined sex roles, which are neither infinitely malleable nor immune from careless social and political tampering. Gilder castigates sexual liberals for ignorantly disrupting the harmonious interplay of male and female sex roles in monogamous marriage. The feminist drive for workplace careers creates a competitive situation in which young women and successful older men are the winners, but older women and young men are the losers. In all cases, marriage and children suffer. Among the disadvantaged, the breakdown of family leads to "ghetto revenge" in which the young men band together in gangs to terrorize society. Gilder also believes advocacy of gay lifestyles can easily seduce young men who fear they cannot meet the demands of adult masculinity. Gilder castigates coed schools, socialist "reforms" that have undermined marriage (in countries like Sweden), and advocates of women in combat. An afterword defends capitalism for reinforcing a social system that encourages the nuclear family. 103.

Goldberg, Herb. The Hazards of Being Male: Surviving the Myth of Masculine Privilege. Plainview, NY: Nash, 1976. 200p. notes. index. Reprint, New York: New American Library, 1977. 2d ed., New York: New American Library, Signet, 1987. pa. This landmark book debunks the idea that males are a favored sex, "a notion that is clung to despite the fact that every critical statistic in the area of longevity, disease, suicide, crime, accidents, childhood emotional disorders, alcoholism, and drug addiction shows a disproportionately higher male rate." Starting from the premise that U.S. men must unlock themselves from older, destructive patterns of life, Goldberg explores the negative aspects of being male in the United States. He argues that most men live in harness, drudging out their lives at onerous jobs and struggling to reconcile the conflicting demands of their roles as breadwinners, husbands, and fathers. Most men's roles begin and end in a series of impossible binds. Although sympathetic to the women's movement, he warns men against expecting it to liberate them; without undue intellectualization, men themselves must cultivate spontaneity, close male friendships, and the ability to regard women as equals. Significantly, he rejects guilt as a means of motivating men to change; he deplores

Page 37

the stereotyping in some feminist writings of men as oppressors. Supported by the author's experiences as a clinical psychologist and by his researches into the male condition, The Hazards of Being Male has been a seminal book of men's awareness. The 10th anniversary edition contains Goldberg's foreword reflecting on the book's impact upon men, his disappointment with the hostile reactions of many feminist writers, and his concern that male-female relationships are more fragile than ever. 104. Goldberg, Herb. The Inner Male: Overcoming Roadblocks to Intimacy. New York and Scarborough, Canada: New American Library, NAL Books, 1987. xiii, 296p. notes. Reprint, New York: New American Library, Signet, 1988. pa. Goldberg caustically analyzes the post-liberation scene before providing some suggestions for positive change. After a decade of liberation, many men and women find themselves in fragile, hostile relationships. The "magic lady," for example, is often a wounded bird who is paying back men for hurts in her past. Goldberg questions "the commitment obsession" and argues that the partner who leaves a dying relationship has done the necessary dirty work for two. Women "who love too much" are usually vengeance-seeking women who do not love at all. Goldberg praises impotence when it signals the man's deep awareness that his present relationship is wrong. He describes numerous types of men and women who, under the guise of liberation, are trapped in behaviors that guarantee relationship failure. Many ''liberated" women are ice queens who despise and blame men, and many "liberated" men are macho types disguised as the rescuing white knight. Men must rethink the business of expressing their emotions, avoid quick-fix "how to" solutions to problems, and find a middle ground that allows them to move forward with women toward more fulfilling relationships. 105. Goldberg, Herb. The New Male: From Self-Destruction to Self-Care. New York: William Morrow, 1979. 321p. notes. index. Reprint, New York: New American Library, Signet, 1980. pa. In this energetic exhortation, Goldberg sees the modern male in crisis, and offers advice on how to replace his self-destructive tendencies with positive changes that will include self-care, spontaneity, and personal fulfillment. The book's first section, analyzing the present male dilemma, depicts the modern U.S. male as a cardboard Goliath, compulsively proving his masculinity, running

from failure, and facing midlife burnout. In section 2, Goldberg explores how different kinds of women can place men in difficult binds. Particularly interesting is his account of the Actor-Reactor syndrome in which the male's role as initiating and responsible partner inevitably leads to accusations that he is an oppressor and exploiter, while the woman appears as an innocent victim. Conversely, Goldberg also analyzes how men's conflicting demands upon women can place women in similarly difficult binds. In section 3, he explores how men's timid reactions to the women's movement can result in their getting the worst of both sides of the liberation crunch. He castigates the willingness of present society to accept and perpetuate negative, sexist stereotypes of men; he advises men that the women's movement can save their livesbut only if they stop reacting with guilt-laden accommodation and start refashioning their lives to meet their own needs. The final section offers advice to help men emerge from the restrictions of past gender roles. It urges men to become aware of anti-male sexist vocabulary, to learn to feed themselves, to cultivate "buddyships," to avoid "earth mother" women, and to "custom make" their own lives.

Page 38

106. Goodman, Andrew, and Patricia Walby. A Book About Men. London: Quartet Books, 1975. 167p. notes. "The thesis of this book is that men need liberating as well as women," Goodman and Walby write in their introduction. The authors, each writing alternate chapters, touch informally on a variety of topics, including male bonding, the macho mystique, sex fantasies, and the "daily crucifixion" of work for most men. At times, the authors depict men as privileged oppressors, at other times, as victims of a malevolent social order. "The subject matter is extensive," the authors write, "and we are aware that we have made too many generalizations and skated over large areas of controversy, but the subject is in its infancy and hitherto undefined." 107. Greene, Thayer A.Modern Man in Search of Manhood. New York: Association Press, 1967. 128p. illus. notes. "Being a man has never been easy," Thayer begins, adding that the job is more difficult now than ever before. A college chaplain, parish minister, and psychotherapist, Greene notes that, although much has been written about men, less has been written for them or to them. Addressing himself primarily to young men between the ages of 18 and 30, he explores the changing roles of men in modern society. Although both biology and culture contribute to sexual identity, menstruation provides definite and regular affirmation of femininity. In contrast, males must constantly prove their masculine identity. Exploring conflicting images of masculinity contained in our culture, Greene believes that men can be easily trapped between roles and their real selves. Homophobia and the need to repress feelingseven anger and aggression, which are "inappropriate" for Christian gentlemenhamper men in their efforts to discover and nurture their "feminine" qualities. The penultimate chapter stresses the need for men to find the authentic self in solitude; the final chapter summarizes the book concisely. 108. Herzig, Alison Cragin, and Jane Lawrence Mali. Oh, Boy! Babies! Boston: Little, Brown, 1980. 106p. illus. pa. In 1978 an urban boys' school offered an elective minicourse in infant care that would include real infants. Ten boys signed up for the class. In this hilarious and heartwarming book, the text and the photographs (by Katrina Thomas)

show the boys learning to handle, dress, diaper, feed, bathe, and play safely with the infants. At first unsure of themselves, the boys quickly gained confidence and eagerly awaited the babies' appearance each Wednesday. Enthusiastic and resourceful, the boys ingeniously coped with a roomful of squalling, crawling babies. They also became greatly attached to the infants and to the idea of caring for them. The book, as Dr. Benjamin Spock writes, "reveals in touching form ... how human beings eventually turn into parents." 109. Hoch, Paul. White Hero, Black Beast: Racism, Sexism, and the Mask of Masculinity. London: Pluto Press, 1979. 191p. notes. index. pa. This examination of masculinity goes beyond the narrower limits suggested by its title. Part 1, a critique of feminists and male liberationists, notes their failure to ask why men behave as they do: males, as well as females, are shaped by historical and cultural forces beyond their control. Examining different facets of masculinity, Hoch explores theories of manhood as a social ritual and as a defense mechanism against impotence and homosexuality. A fascinating chapter containing allusions to folk art from classical myth to Star Wars outlines the myth of the white hero and the black beast. In this myth, heroic males must conquer a monster who represents some savage aspect of

Page 39

themselves. The racial implications of this account of white-black confrontation are significant. Drawing upon Freud's Totem and Taboo, Hoch also examines masculinity as a mask hiding patricidal impulses and incestuous desires. Part 2 explores the "fall" from classless to class-structured society. It also traces alternating ideals of Puritan and Playboy through Western history from Roman times to the present, culminating in the rise of manly individualism in a society of production and consumption. Despite the book's "pious hope" ending that promises vague renewal through a new socialist order, Hoch's observations repeatedly point to areas of needed investigation in men's studies. Equally important, his spirit of inquiryneither guilt-ridden nor chauvinisticrepresents a refreshing and vitalizing approach to men's studies. 110. Hodson, Phillip. Men ...: An Investigation into the Emotional Male. London: Ariel Books, British Broadcasting, 1984. 143p. bibliography, 143. pa. A British marriage counselor, Hodson sees modern males in crisis. Males are the fragile sex, they are emotionally blocked and incommunicative, and they are killing themselves with workaholism. They cannot enjoy sex because of performance pressures, and they need to control their aggressiveness. Good fathers are badly needed but are in short supply. The frequent citing of Dr. Joyce Brothers as an authority on modern men indicates the book's level of sophistication and may help to account for its predominantly patronizing view of males. 111. Hornstein, Harvey A. A Knight in Shining Armor: Understanding Men's Romantic Illusions. New York: William Morrow, 1991. 176p. bibliography, 16167. index. The counterpart of "The Cinderella Complex" described by Colette Dowling, "The Prince Charming Complex" afflicts many men. These men assume they must ensure that the damsel they have "rescued" lives happily ever after. Relationships suffering from the "manservant syndrome" go through a threeact scenario: the man serves the woman, seeking to make her every wish come true; they both experience disillusionment; and, finally, they end up with oppression and rage. The man is left frustrated; the woman feels controlled. Hornstein describes three kinds of "knights'': ministers, educators, and "Lance. lots" who dazzle women. Parents and society encourage boys to be girls' problem-solvers; consequently, capable women appear to men to block their

road to masculine achievement. Hornstein's advice to men is to be a man, but don't act like one. In particular, men need to talk to other men and to women about their difficulties. Hornstein's treatment of the subject is light and popular; the topic may deserve a more thorough, scholarly examination. 112. Hunter, Mark. The Passions of Men: Work and Love in the Age of Stress. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1988. 320p. index. A journalist with a capacity for seeing through media clichs about men, Hunter explores the painful paradoxes facing modern men. Work is killing men, he argues, and yet men without work often lose their direction. Drawing upon interviews and extensive reading, Hunter also utilizes his own experiences to offer stunning observations on the contemporary scene. Having lived through youthful radicalism and a relationship with a feminist woman` Hunter has developed into a shrewd observer of the work and gender scenes. Refusing to indulge in fashionable father bashing, Hunter, instead, deplores what younger people have done to their fathers and to patriarchy. Father hunger is less real than father hatred, he proclaims. The proof that the women's movement has succeeded can be found in the general unhappiness of both women

Page 40

and men. Radical feminism has degenerated from a struggle for gender equality into arrogant lesbian separatism. Males are still suffering from the Sidney Carton complex, the wish to sacrifice themselves for women whom they regard as their spiritual superiors. The personal can never be simply the political, Hunter argues, because the personal is concerned with individuals and the political with people in groups. Eminently readable, Hunter sounds a clarion wake-up call for men and women. 113. Karsk, Roger, and Bill Thomas. Working with Men's Groups: Exploration in Awareness. Columbia, MD: New Community Press, 1979. ix, 126p. appendix. bibliography after each chapter. pa. A useful tool for leaders or facilitators of men's groups, this book is aimed at men seeking to enhance personal awareness about alternatives for growth and change. The authors are not interested in examining men's alleged sexism or guilt; instead, they focus on the great unexplored territory of men's feelings about themselves, the sources of men's anger, male sexuality, and parenting. Formats for group sessions are provided, including materials needed, the amount of time to be allotted, desirable group size, objectives of the session, and procedures. Suggestions for outside reading and audiovisual materials are also included. An appendix lists national, specialized, and local support groups for men. 114. Kauth, Bill. A Circle of Men: The Original Manual for Men's Support Groups. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992. xvi, 141p. illus. bibliography, 132-39. pa. The cofounder of the New Warrior Training Adventure, Kauth offers a systematic program for starting several kinds of new men's groups and for sustaining existing ones. For the group organizer, Kauth offers a program for addressing questions about how to decide what the group's purpose is, how and where to find potential members, and how to choose members. In clear, direct prose, he offers extensive advice on how to run the initial eight meetings, how to introduce men and encourage speaking and listening, how to handle hassles, and how to move on to larger activities and challenges. Dealing with group dynamics, Kauth addresses such matters as using ritual, touching, and handling problems within the group. The book closes with three articles (by Kauth, Danaan Parry, and Gabriel Heilig) on pressing aspects of current masculinity. Information on the New Warrior Training Adventure men's

weekend is followed by an annotated bibliography of books and tapes. 115. Kay, Harvey. Male Survival: Masculinity Without Myth. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1974. 213p. index. Writing in popular style, Kay examines the crisis of modern masculinity. A practicing psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, he discusses genially and forthrightly various aspects of the masculine mystiquethe Superman syndrome, the Neanderthal ideal, the sexual athlete, the heroic imperative, the achiever complex, the playboy in paradise, the dominance drive, and the myth of male superiority. After explaining the biological, psychological, and societal components of masculinity, Kaye delves into the workaday world of the average man. He discusses the performance pressures put on heterosexual men, and he views with some reservation the homosexual "alternative" now being offered to them. Reviewing attacks upon the family and the demands for success placed upon men, Kaye offers a modest critique of the more extreme views of some women's liberationists. Changing male roles will not be easy, Kaye believes, but the possibility of improving conditions for many men makes the effort worthwhile.

Page 41

116. Kilgore, James E. The Intimate Man. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1984. 144p. pa. Within a Christian context, Kilgore explores the value of intimacy for men in modern times. Noting a male fear of intimacy as "feminine," he examines the male need for self-acceptance and sharing. Stressing the importance of male closeness with wives and children, he discusses his concept of God as loving father, and a boy's need for male models who verbalize their love. He argues that male chauvinism is often the result of mothers who teach their sons that other women want to lean on them. Discussing the continuing need for intimacy throughout the life cycle, Kilgore advises men not to repress their little-boy spontaneity. 117. Kriegel, Leonard. On Men and Manhood. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1979. x, 206p. bibliography, 201-6. notes. Crippled by disease when he was a boy, Kriegel learned early the positive virtues of courage and endurance. In this prose poem of recollections and observations, he hymns the positive values of old-fashioned masculinity as embodied in U.S. literature (especially Hemingway), sports, and certain screen images (John Wayne in Stagecoach, Marlon Brando in The Men). Kriegel has little patience with male liberationists who denigrate this masculinity or with the exaltation of androgyny, which he equates with unisexuality. Kriegel also discusses the gay rights movement and the new black masculinity. Knowing that his views are not trendy, he concludes with a chapter entitled "Waiting." 118. Kupers, Terry A.Revisioning Men's Lives: Gender, Intimacy, and Power. New York and London: Guilford Press, 1993. viii, 200p. bibliography, 185-97. index. pa. Men need to redefine their gender role to include power but not sexism, equality but not weakness. In this process of redefinition, men bucking the tide of traditional masculinity will find little support from men or women. But present-day masculinity is problematic: Men experience "pathological arrhythmicity," or periodic disruptions in their lives. Homophobia, which Kupers attributes to latent homosexuality, provokes men's discomfort with new masculine roles. For men and women, equitable roles, not identical ones, are preferable. Kupers finds pornography a stumbling block to male-female

equality, and he notes that father-son relationships are particularly conflicted. Men are reluctant to enter therapy, and they have few friends for support. Kupers divides the men's movement into two groups: the mythopoetic movement, which he finds laced with misogyny, and the pro-feminist wing, which he believes disregards men's suffering. Kupers concludes that men need to cultivate tolerance for different kinds of masculinities. 119. Lyon, Harold C., Jr., with Gabriel Saul Heilig. Tenderness Is Strength: From Machismo to Manhood. New York: Harper & Row, 1977. xii, 270p. index. "This book is a statement in behalf of men's liberation," Lyon writes. Concerned that women's liberation will exalt the macho hardness that has been a male ideal, he concludes: "The best thing that could happen to women's liberation would be men's liberation." Toughness may have been a virtue at one time in history when most men had to be protectors and enduring laborers, but now it presents a block to self-growth and a lethal trap for many men and some women. Lyon sees tenderness and strength less as opposites than as complements or as a continuum. He gathers up numerous strands of thought upon such matters as hypermasculinity, homophobia, diet, meditation, the

Page 42

courage to fear, laughter, fatherhood, brotherhood, and the need for tenderness at birth and at death. He occasionally refers to his experiences as a wartime child (told by his soldier father to be the man of the house), a West Point cadet, a Ranger-paratrooper Army officer, government official, teacher, university administrator, divorced and remarried husband-father, and therapist. Gabriel Saul Heilig contributes a chapter on his spiritual odyssey from confused striving to inner enlightenment. The foreword is by John Denver. 120 Maas, James. Speaking of Friends: The Variety of Man-to-Man Friendships. Berkely, CA: Shameless Hussy Press, 1985. xi, 143p. illus. pa. In this touching book, Maas interviews 28 San Francisco Bay Area men about friendships. The responses vary widely: some men see no need for male friendships, others find deep joy in them. In the introduction, Maas explains the need for male friends that led him to conduct the interviews. In the epilogue he reflects on the men's responses. The book features photographs by Sam Julty. 121. Mailer, Norman. The Prisoner of Sex. Boston: Little, Brown, 1971. 240p. notes. Reprint, New York: New American Library, Signet, 1971. pa. Oddly reminiscent of Virginia Woolf's A Room of One's Own, with its thirdperson ruminations, Mailer's The Prisoner of Sex reflects upon radical feminism in general and Kate Millett's Sexual Politics (entry 680) in particular. In an extended, meandering essay laced with sly wit, Mailer is perhaps at his best dissecting Millett's misreadings of Henry Miller and D. H. Lawrence. As usual, Mailer is provocatively outrageous: in the end, he endorses women's liberationso that women can be free to find the right man. 122. Men Against Patriarchy. Off Their Backs ... and on Our Own Two Feet. Philadelphia: New Society, 1983.29p. pa. This publication consists of three pro-feminist essays by men. In "More Power Than We Want: Masculine Sexuality and Violence," Bruce Kokopeli and George Lakey trace a sinister connection between "patriarchal" society and violence, suggesting androgyny as the solution. Peter Blood, Alan Tuttle, and George Lakey, in "Understanding and Fighting Sexism: A Call to Men," describe how sexism works against both sexes, how male guilt is not the answer, and how

change can be effected. Among the solutions are a change from capitalist to socialist economy and communal childrearing instead of the nuclear family. ''Overcoming Masculine Oppression in Mixed Groups," by Bill Moyer and Alan Tuttle, lists suggestions for replacing confrontational tactics with cooperative ones. 123. Miller, Stuart. Men and Friendship. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1983. xvii, 206p. bibliography, 199-206. Reprint, Los Angeles: J. P. Tarcher, 1992. pa. Rejecting a "cold" study of a much-neglected topic, Miller presents a "warm" view, using his own search for male friends as a springboard for larger considerations. Finding himself at midlife with a need for friends, Miller consciously set out to cultivate them, but with only partial success. Among the diary entries and personal letters, the author defines friendship as involving intimacy and "complicity," that is, a you-and-me-against-the-world understanding. He distinguishes between male bonding involving a group of men and friendship involving two individuals. Miller notes that many men put such a low priority on friendship that it has little chance to flourish in their lives.

Page 43

The closest friendships, Miller found, were often between gay men who were not lovers. Of the massive pressures allied against male friendship, the greatest is homophobia, which has reached extraordinary intensity in the twentieth century. In lieu of a conclusion, Miller offers some advice on achieving friendship despite the odds. 124. Moore, John H. But What About Men? After Women's Lib. Bath, England: Ashgrove Press, 1989. 243p. notes. index. pa. "Men badly need to liberate in themselves a new vision of themselves if they are to avoid obsolescence," writes the British author of this book. Women's liberation has altered the age-old pattern of gender roles, and males must discard the older roles of fighter and economic strongman. Population growth and environmental damage have rendered obsolete male roles as hunter, warrior, and predatory lover. The brain/mind is differentiated into a "feminine" left side and a "masculine" right side, but feminism has led many women to access the traditionally masculine side of the brain. The traditional dominance of male brain/mind is evident in "patriarchal," or male-dominated, religion. Only a new spiritual rebirth can rectify the imbalance. At present, marriage is on the rocks and the traditional hero is increasingly outmoded. Only a reconciliation between the conflicting masculine and feminine can produce further human spiritual growth. Moore's reflections alternate between the superficial and the perceptive. Overgeneralizations about men and women fly fast and thick in these ruminations, and Moore seems unaware of the mythopoetic and archetypal elements in recent men's spiritual writings. Still, he issues a compelling call for men to "start seriously reflecting on their image of themselvesnot in the eyes of women, but in their own.'' 125. Murphey, Cecil. Mantalk: Resources for Exploring Male Issues. Louisville, KY: Presbyterian, 1991. iv, 81p. illus. bibliographies after each chapter. notes. pa. This attractive handbook was sponsored by nine Christian ministry groups, including seven groups that minister specifically to men. The 20 brief chapters provide an overview of men's issues, including concepts of masculinity, growing up male, men at midlife, aging, sexuality, violence against women, child abuse, fathers and fathering, male friendships, employment, spirituality, and God language. The discussion is clear and sympathetic to men, although some oversimplification occurs. The author believes only men rape, quotes

sensational child abuse statistics uncritically, and ignores the spiritual dimension of the mythopoetic men's movement. But, for anyone ministering to men's physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs, Murphey's guide is a valuable primary source. The artwork is superb. 126. Naifeh, Steven, and Gregory White Smith. Why Can't Men Open Up? Overcoming Men's Fear of Intimacy. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1984. xii, 193p. bibliography, 181-93. index. Summarizing current views of men's difficulties in feeling and expressing their emotions, the authors explore the dimensions and causes of the problem. In the latter half of this popularly written book, they offer advice for the woman trying to reach intimacy with a closed man. After sketching in their own experiences, the authors stress the cultural roadblocks to male expressiveness, indicating that most males have been carefully taught to hold back emotionally and are penalized when they do not. Hormones are not the problem; fathers who teach male inexpressiveness often are. Many women also send mixed signals to men: some women who say they want their man to open up are

Page 44

frightened or repelled when he does. The mystique of the strong, silent male still flourishes in the post-John Wayne era. Men alone either cannot or will not transform themselves; women (who are better versed in expressiveness) will have to help them. Practical suggestions for women are provided, a casebook of closed male types is presented, and the authors conclude with personal reflections on what they have learned from their researches and interviews. 127. Nardi, Peter M., ed. Men's Friendships. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1992. viii, 246p. (Research on Men and Masculinities Series, no. 2). bibliography after each chapter. notes. index. pa. Several of the 12 essays in this volume reach similar conclusions: male-male friendships are often inhibited by current masculine gender roles; in other times and places, male friendships were often more expressive than they are now; marriage and family often replace male friends in a man's life; and male friendships must not be judged by feminine standards. Other essays discuss male-female friendships and gay male friendships. In an essay on American Indians and Asians, Walter L. Williams concludes that homophobia's first victim is male friendship. Discussing black men, Clyde W. Franklin II observes that underclass male friendships are often strong and supportive, but among upwardly mobile black men, friendship is often weaker. Nearly all the essays question stereotypes of males as devoid or incapable of same-sex friendships. 128. Nichols, Jack. Men's Liberation: A New Definition of Masculinity. 1975. Rev. ed., New York: Penguin Books, 1978, 1980. 333p. notes. pa. "In future decades," Nichols writes, "today's male role will be remembered as a straitjacket." Pinpointing the over-reliance upon rationalistic thought as the source of men's problems, Nichols extols Eastern philosophy, denigrates Western religion and thought, and urges men towards an androgyny that will incorporate both "masculine" and "feminine'' mental abilities. Chapters explore such topics as the loss of playfulness among men, the exaltation of "masculine" competition and violence, and the deadening effect upon men of a lifetime of failure in the workplace. The author praises liberated women, deplores manipulative ladies, and argues that the nuclear family, which restricts men sexually and emotionally, will be radically changed. The term "father," he says, has become synonymous with "financial functionary." Stressing the need for close male friendships and for expunging homophobia, Nichols sees in Walt

Whitman's Leaves of Grass (entry 336) the noblest expression of American men's liberation. 129. Olson, Ken. Hey, Man! Open Up and Live! New York: Fawcett Gold Medal, 1978. 251p. notes. pa. In upbeat style, Olson describes why men need to break out of their conditioning. He touches upon such matters as work, emotions, success and failure, the crisis of middle age, retiring, love and sex, and fathering. 129a. Ornstein, Yevrah, ed. From the Hearts of Men. Woodacre, CA: Harmonia, 1991. ix, 330p. notes. Reprint, New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1992. pa. Founding publisher of The Men's Journal, Ornstein has collected a wealth of essays, reflections, poems, interviews, stories, and excerpts from longer works. The controlling perspective of this anthology is that of the mythopoetic men's movement. Selections are divided into 15 chapters: "Fathers and sons"; "Sports"; "Men supporting men"; "The ills of macho man";

Page 45

"Competition"; "Bonding, loving, touching, sex"; "Beliefs, revelations, forgiveness''; "Mothers and sons"; "Steps along the path"; "Men and women"; "Music of the soul"; "Anger and violence"; "War"; "The new fathers"; and "Rites of passage." A number of the selections are by Ornstein himself. Also included is the complete text of Keith Thompson's seminal interview with Robert Bly, "What Men Really Want"; excerpts from Pat Conroy's The Prince of Tides (entry 339); a conversation with Bob Trowbridge; Jed Diamond on the myth of the dangerous dad; and John Macchietto's powerful account of the emotional scars of war. The collections closes with Starhawk's description of the horned god, presented here as an ideal image of masculinity. 130. Pace, Nathaniel. The Excess Male. Norfolk, VA: Donning, 1982. vii, 102p. bibliography, 101. pa. One presumes that this book is a satire in the vein of Jonathan Swift's "A Modest Proposal." Arguing that most human evils are the result of the roughly 50-50 male-female birth rate, the author modestly proposes that "an artificial control of male births be imposed, to insure that of every ten births, only one would be male." (Exactly how this control would be exercised is not made clear.) The author then explains that most of the world's woes are due to "excess" males. Within geographic locales, there are three classes: the privileged (women and children), the preferential males (leaders, executives, etc.), and the excess males (nine-tenths of the male population). These excess males struggle to become preferential males but do not succeed; they cause all sorts of problems fighting for the available women. The author praises (ironically, one presumes) war, alcoholism, and crime as great eliminators of excess males. He extols Stalin and the Ayatollah Khomeini but criticizes Hitler for eliminating women and children instead of just young men, as a good tyrant should. Despite its deadpan seriousness, The Excess Male may be a blistering satire on the modern habit of blaming all the world's evils on men and on the widespread acceptance of abuses visited by society upon them. The author is either insane or insanely comic. Readers should have a jolly time deciding for themselves. 131. Playboy Enterprises. The Playboy Report on American Men. Chicago: Playboy Enterprises, 1979. 59p. pa. This survey explores the values, attitudes, and goals of 1,990 men who were

interviewed extensively between December 6, 1976, and January 12, 1977. The survey discloses a rich diversity of male opinions, divided fairly evenly among four groups: traditionalists, conventionals, contemporaries, and innovators. Areas touched on include basic values, family, love and sex, marriage, and children, the outer man's appearance, religion and psychotherapy, attitudes toward drugs, money and possessions, work, politics, and leisure. Most of the men interviewed were hardly playboys: nearly 85 percent rated family life as very important for a satisfying life, while only 49 percent rated sex as similarly important. The Playboy survey offers sometimes surprising statistical information about U.S. men in the late seventies. 132. Reynaud, Emmanuel. Holy Virility: The Social Construction of Masculinity. Translated by Ros Schwartz. London: Pluto Press, 1983. vi, 119p. notes. pa. Original publication, as La Sainte Virilit, Paris: Editions Syros, 1981. A French male feminist, Reynaud explores familiar themes: men are a class of powerful oppressors (although they pay dearly for their alleged power), women are an oppressed class whose roles are shaped for them entirely by men

Page 46

(Reynaud never examines women's part in socializing children), and men use sex to confirm their power over women (although Reynaud has some interesting stories about females raping males). Some readers will find the book a stirring piece of consciousness raising, others a ludicrous collection of sexist clichs about men. 133. Roberts, Yvonne. Man Enough: Men of Thirty-five Speak Out. London: Chatto and Windus, Hogarth Press, 1984. 308p. pa. From interviews, Roberts constructs vignettes of 22 British men at ages 34 and 35. A feminist concerned that feminists have been unable to communicate effectively with men, Roberts selected her interviewees for sameness (age 35) and differences (the men range from a gay entertainer to a foulmouthed car salesman). At 35, the men are old enough to have been affected by the gender role tensions of recent times. Roberts constructs each man's portrait, relying heavily on the man's words. The result is a quilt of extraordinary diversity in which it is difficult to find common denominators that apply to all men. Roberts believes that feminism can liberate men, although a few of the interviewees had been badly hurt by feminists. 134. Ruitenbeek, Henrik M. The Male Myth. New York: Dell, 1967. 233p. illus. notes. pa. In 1967, Ruitenbeek was analyzing the crisis of U.S. men in terms that will strike many readers as still pertinent. The author sees men as being in an identity crisis, needing to evolve a new definition of masculinity in the face of economic and social changes. While modern technology has created a world in which men as providers are no longer essential and in which men are often alienated from their jobs, seeking masculine identity through work is perilous. Emancipated women, moreover, can support themselves if necessary. But, Ruitenbeek argues, the father's family role is crucial; absence of a father can hamper the development of both boys and girls. The increasing abdication of males from families may be due to an awareness that home life costs them more than it offers in satisfactions. Widespread homophobia hampers fatherson relationships. The demands that men provide sexual satisfaction to women may be causing an increase in impotency (or the reporting of it). This impotency, in some cases, may be an expression of hostility toward an aggressive woman by humiliating her and refusing to satisfy her. Widespread

passivity and homosexuality may also be negative reactions to hostility between the sexes. "For the future," Ruitenbeek writes, "the male faces this final question: Can he develop a new concept of his social role and adequate psychological support to confirm him in his conviction of his identity as a male?" While offering some modest suggestions (e.g., men must resist depersonalization, must accept family responsibilities, and must insist upon integration into family life), Ruitenbeek concludes, "We must not fool ourselves that the problems of contemporary American men can be solved by prescription; they only can be solved ultimately in the renewal of man and the rediscovery of his sense of dignity." 135. Sadker, David. Being a Man: A Unit of Instructional Activities on Male Role Stereotyping. Resource Center on Sex Roles in Education, National Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1977. v, 64p. illus. bibliography, 63-64. pa. High school teachers and others may find this publication useful for consciousness raising. "With so many women now striving for political, economic, and psychological equality with men," Sadker writes, "one might conclude that men

Page 47

enjoy a special and privileged place in our society, and that their roles and behaviors should be emulated. Such an assumption would be both misleading and simplistic." Section 1, "Background for Teachers," enumerates five "lessons" of the male stereotype: stifle it (repress emotions), choose your occupation (from the following list only), money makes the man, winning at any cost, and acting tough. Then, eight "costs'' of living out this stereotype are discussed: early pressures on boys, barriers between men, barriers between men and women, the separation of fathers from families, being locked into a job, being locked out of leisure activities and a satisfying retirement, physical disability and early death, and social and political machismo that endangers everyone. Section 2 presents a series of learning activities designed to counteract stereo-typed ideas about male behavior and attitudes. Sadker avoids come controversial issues that might well interest students: whether a male-only military obligation is sexist, who pays for dates, and so on. The bibliography lists works on female role stereotyping. The publication is offered for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC 20402; stock number 017-080-01777-6. 136. Schenk, Roy U.The Other Side of the Coin: Causes and Consequences of Men's Oppression. Madison, WI: Bioenergetics Press, 1982. 256p. appendixes. notes. pa. Arguing that men as well as women suffer oppression in modern society, Schenk locates the source of men's anger in socialization that depicts women as spiritually superior to men. Often fostered by mothers and female teachers, the idea of male moral inferiority is internalized by males and leads them to accept roles as cannon fodder in wartime, lifetime providers for families, and pursuers of females for sex. By encouraging male guilt to benefit females, women promote male anger against them. Schenk has little patience with profeminist males who perpetuate male guilt or with the stereotype of males as oppressors. He attacks the selective equality of militant feminists. To reduce male anger and violence against females will require reducing female violence against men's psyches. Finding evidence of the belief in female superiority in U.S. laws and customs, Schenk sees little hope for genuine sex equality until males are equally recognized as victims of gender oppression. 137. Seidler, Victor J., ed. The Achilles Heel Reader: Men, Sexual Politics and

Socialism. London and New York: Routledge, 1991. xiv, 216p. (Male Orders series). illus. notes. index. pa. Taken from material published between 1978 and 1984 in the British left-wing journal Achilles Heel, this collection of essays and poems reflects socialist, profeminist concerns of the time. Published by a working collective of socialist men, the journal responds to the radical feminist and gay movements by examining men's power, sexism, and oppression. Although the language is sometimes overburdened with Marxist jargon ("As men we oppress women, but this doesn't mean that we aren't ourselves oppressed, living within patriarchal capitalist society"), the writers more often attempt to speak personally about such matters as raising a child, the tensions of being gay, and the toll that the workplace takes on a man's life. The final essay, by Paul Atkinson, suggests that G. B. Shaw's attitude toward women in Candida may be less advanced than some have thought. In a postscript, Seidler suggests that, although the gender wars have moved on to new battlefields, the material from Achilles Heel still has value.

Page 48

138. Shostak, Arthur B., and Gary McLouth, with Lynn Seng. Men and Abortion: Lessons, Losses, and Love. New York: Praeger, 1984. xx, 334p. appendixes. notes. name and subject indexes. Each year, approximately 1,360,000 men are involved in an abortion experience, with 600,000 of them designated as "waiting room men" in abortion clinics. Moved by their personal experiences and dismayed by the lack of information about men in abortion situations, the authors have generated a study based upon responses from 1,000 "waiting room men," extended interviews, and research. Written for the general reader, Men and Abortion demonstrates that, contrary to popular belief, many men are profoundly affected by abortionindeed, they are haunted by it. Contrary to the fears of militant feminists, most men do not seek to dominate abortion decision making. Many men feel, however, that women are in control of contraception and that men are not therefore responsible for it. On the day of the abortion, men at clinics are usually ignored by an overworked staff and are left to face their stress alone. The authors explore the views of "waiting room men" who regard abortion as immoral, of repeaters (men who have been through more than one abortion), black males, pro-choice and anti-abortion activists, and counselors of males in abortion clinics. The legal implications of abortion are starkly depicted: the man has no rights at all in this matter, yet he is still obliged to support a child born to himeven though he wishes to have the fetus aborted and agrees to pay for the procedure. The pros and cons of spousal prenotification laws are reviewed. The final chapter provides suggestions for preventing or easing the trauma of abortionbefore conception, on "clinic day," and afterwards. The eight appendixes include such matters as an evaluation of the study's methodology by Joan Z. Spade, a look at men whose wives have undergone mastectomy, a copy of the questionnaire, and a list of the 30 cooperating clinics. 139. Skjei, Eric, and Richard Rabkin. The Male Ordeal: Role Crisis in a Changing World. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1981. 247p. bibliography, 246-47. notes. This book explores the negative effects on men of recent changes in women's roles. Focusing on men's difficulties as modern concepts of masculinity shift, the book draws upon interviews with 31 people (27 males, 4 females). Skjei and Rabkin found that men, far from being gender imperialists, were often

sensitive and vulnerable to women's changes, and that men were often needlessly hurt by "the new misandry" or anti-male hostility of some feminists. The authors accuse these ideologies of a "repressive radicalization" that attempts to defeat men as an enemy rather than enlist men as allies in the women's cause. This "reverse sexism," which seeks to punish men for alleged oppression of women, threatens to alienate the sexes at a time when each sex must include the other in its quest for selfhood. In speaking with interviewees, the authors found that men were more committed to monogamy than is usually believed, that they were neither gypsies nor tyrants in family life, and that they believed firmly in the value of being actively involved parents. The authors conclude that men need "to reclaim a sense of masculine dignity and pride, but to do so without making assumptions of any kind about women and their roles." 140. Snodgrass, Jon, ed. For Men Against Sexism: A Book of Readings. Albion, CA: Times Change Press, 1977. 238p. bibliography, 234-38. notes. pa. This collection of 32 radical items draws heavily upon Marxist feminism. Essays in part 1, "Women's Oppression," adhere to the party line that all men

Page 49

are oppressors and, thus, a humane consideration of men's concerns and issues is an impertinence. Male victims in modern society get short shrift in these discussions: the existence of male rape victims, for example, is denied when rape is defined as "a crime of violence against women." Leonard Schein argues that "All Men Are Misogynists," and John Stoltenberg calls for "a total repudiation of masculinity" (his emphasis). While writers exalt homosexual relationships, they excoriate heterosexual male bonding as a conspiracy of the "oppressors." Likewise, they denounce the men's liberation movement for focusing on the "oppressor's'' problems. The short part 2, "Gay, Class, and Racial Oppressions," explores issues of homosexuals, blue-collar workers, and third-world men. Polemics throughout this androphobic volume resound with vituperation, finger-pointing, revolutionary rhetoric, and wholesale denunciations of capitalism, patriarchy, and men. 141. Steinmann, Anne, and David J. Fox. The Male Dilemma: How to Survive the Sexual Revolution. New York: Jason Aronson, 1974. xv, 324p. appendixes. notes. index. Assessing the conflict between men and women in the late sixties and early seventies, the authors attempt to redress the imbalance of writings that stress women's issues and changes with a view that includes men's needs and changes. Addressed to general readers, the book seeks to provide greater understanding that will effect positive changes. In their research, the authors find contradictions of what men want for themselves and what they believe women want from them. Women exhibit similar conflicts. Moreover, communication between the sexes is often limited and thus misunderstood. Modern men are being asked to surrender privileges without a clear-cut idea of the gains such surrender would bring. Women, however, are uncertain whether or not they want "to have it all." The resulting confusions and hostilities often strain marriages and leave children conflicted. Surveying the biological and cultural sources of differences between the sexes, Steinmann and Fox conclude that only toward the end of human life does equality become a more easily achievable goal. Nevertheless, social norms are too restrictive for both males and females. Without advocating unisex child rearing, the authors suggest social changes to lessen misunderstanding and antagonism between men and women. The appendixes provide details of the authors' research inventories of masculine and feminine behavior.

142. Sutherland, Alistair, and Patrick Anderson, eds. Eros: An Anthology of Male Friendship. London: Anthony Blount, 1961. 433p. Reprint, New York: Citadel Press, 1963. The selections in this anthology illustrate the range of male friendships, from the nonsexual to the homoerotic to the homosexual. To illustrate the graduated spectrum in male-male friendships, the editors have deliberately cast a wide net. Historically, selections cover biblical times, ancient Greece and Rome, the Dark and Middle Ages in Europe, and the Renaissance through modern times. A chapter of accounts from "exotic" lands and a chapter of selections describing life at English boys' schools close the book. The authors include Plato, Virgil, Petronius, Michelangelo, Montaigne, Shakespeare, Tennyson, Verlaine, Gide, Proust, and D. H. Lawrence. 143. Thomas, David. Not Guilty: The Case in Defense of Men. New York: William Morrow, 1993. 255p. bibliography, 252-55. A British journalist, Thomas examines the wave of misandry currently sweeping the United States and Great Britain. The belief that men are an oppressor class has become a fundamentalist orthodoxy that fosters numerous

Page 50

legal and social injustices against men. The fiction of male power and female victimization needs to be modified by a clearer look at the whole of gender issues. With a sharp eye for spotting rigged statistics, Thomas debunks reports of rape epidemics on U.S. campuses. Examining manipulated logic and language, he explores skewed treatment of sexual harassment in the workplace as a male-only crime. Thomas presents convincing evidence both of the widespread existence of women's domestic violence and of the extraordinary efforts by some feminists and public figures to deny this evidence. Looking at the issue of child abuse, Thomas finds similar denial of women's perpetration of this abuse. Researchers seem eager to pursue an issue as long as they assume males are the villains, but they avoid exploring women as perpetrators. Thomas claims that, in the United States, man hating has become a source of big money and that judges and politicians are afraid to oppose misandric but well financed interest groups. Thomas is neither a misogynist nor an extremist; his occasional errors ("all rapists are men") are not in men's favor, and his writing is marked by friendly goodwill. The virulence and pervasiveness of modern misandry, however, lead him to conclude that men must form themselves into political action groups; otherwise, they will continue to be wronged with impunity. 144. Thompson, Keith, ed. To Be a Man: In Search of the Deep Masculine. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher, 1991. xxi, 294p. notes. pa. The mythopoetic men's movement was most likely engendered by Keith Thompson's seminal interview with Robert Bly published in the May 1982 issue of New Age. Three excerpts from that interview are published in this anthology, announcing themes that have since preoccupied men's awareness. The soft male, father hunger, and the myth of Iron John appear in early formulation in the Bly-Thompson interview. To Be a Man also shows how far the men's movement has come since 1982. Its rich selection of material ranges from the introspective to the political. In the introduction, Thompson argues that, even if all masculinities share some common ground, there is no single masculinity. His selections often illustrate differing views of masculinities. Cooper Thompson's attack on traditional masculinity is followed by Warren Farrell's defense of traditional masculinity, Chris Brazier's argument that men should embrace feminism is followed by Richard Haddad's argument that men should reject feminism, and Ernest Hemingway's celebration of bullfighting as

masculine ritual is followed by Christopher Matthews's rejection of bull fighting as an unmanly slaughter. Nearly 90 selectionsessays, short stories, poemsare grouped into nine sections: identity, male initiation, the male wound, body and sexuality, encounters with women and the feminine, father, work, male company, and aging. Contributors include big names of the men's movement: Bly, Farrell, Haddad, Aaron R. Kipnis, Michael Meade, Robert Moore and Douglas Gillette, Frederic Hayward, Shepherd Bliss, Samuel Osherson, James Hillman, Sam Keen, and others. Famous authors also appear: Ernest Hemingway, Pablo Neruda, Franz Kafka, D. H. Lawrence, C. G. Jung, Henry Miller, William Butler Yeats, Hermann Hesse, Raymond Chandler, Norman Mailer, Malcolm Muggeridge, James Dickey, Wendell Berry, Edmund Wilson, and Robert Frost. Selections also include excerpts from the works of respected men's studies scholars, including Ray Raphael, Stephen Grubman-Black, John S. Weltner, Eugene Monick, Robert S. Weiss, J. Glenn Gray, and Daniel J. Levinson. 145. Thornburg, Hershel D. Punt, Pop: A Male Sex Role Manual. Tucson, AZ: H.E.L.P. Books, 1977. 156p. illus. notes. index. pa.

Page 51

Emphasizing the need for men to change their attitudes, Thornburg has designed a self-help manual for male consciousness raising. Complete with quizzes to chart the reader's views, the book examines such matters as the breadwinner role, discrimination against women in employment, images of women in advertising, sex stereotyping in sports, and fathering. Some readers may find the book a helpful exercise in nonsexist training; others may regard it as simplistic and condescending to men. 146. Tolson, Andrew. The Limits of Masculinity: Male Identity and the Liberated Woman. New York: Harper & Row, 1979. 158p. bibliography, 147-52. index. pa. Original publication, London: Tavistock, 1977. Tolson provides a view of men's awareness in Britain as shaped by feminist and socialist thought. After tracing the influence of the women's liberation movement upon men, Tolson explores the socialization of boys by family, school, and peer group. Chapter 3 examines men at work in capitalistpatriarchal society. Employing excerpts from interviews, Tolson stresses the alienating effect of labor on working-class men, the frustrations involved in middle-class masculinity, and the contradictions of "progressive" men trying to reconcile their liberalism with traditional notions of masculinity. A final chapter recounts the experiences of Tolson's male consciousness-raising group: having accepted the ideas that men are a class of oppressors and that patriarchal society always works to men's advantage, the group had reached a dead end that rendered it politically impotent. Readers will have to decide whether Tolson's Marxist-feminist perspective clarifies or clouds his view of men and masculinity. 146a. Towery, Twyman L. Male Code: Rules Men Live and Love By. Lakewood, CO: Glenbridge, 1992. xiii, 233p. notes. Men's lives are tightly constricted by the male code of cool performance, inexpressiveness, and solitariness. The code takes its toll on men, Towery argues, saddling them with a shortened life span and emotional desiccation. In popular style aimed at a general audience of male and female readers, Towery discusses topics such as men's lack of friends, the hazards of growing up male, male-female miscommunications, men's money and parenting problems, and the pitfalls that men and women encounter when trying to age gracefully.

147. Vilar, Esther. The Manipulated Male. Rev. ed. Translated by Eva Borneman and Ursula Bender. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1972.184p. Original publication, as Der dressiert Mann (N.p.: Abelard-Schuman, 1972). Standing militant feminism on its head, Vilar argues that women have conspired successfully to enslave men: "Women let men work for them, think for them, and take on their responsibilitiesin fact, they exploit them." From infancy, males are trained by women to believe that supporting a woman is "masculine," that being taken care of is "feminine." Women have successfully used sex as a reward to manipulate males into supporting females; most women, according to Vilar, are not primarily interested in men sexually or personally but, rather, financially. Deliberately outrageous, Vilar's book is designed to provoke strong and divergent responses. Is it a hilarious put-on? a refreshing corrective? a misogynist diatribe? an eye-opening piece of consciousness raising? a cynical expos of women's parasitism? an ironic expos of men's gullibility? In this never-a-dull-moment polemic, the penultimate chapterin which Vilar dissects the U.S. women's liberation movementmakes for especially heady reading.

Page 52

Cross-References See chapter 15, "Masculinity," chapter 17, "Men's Studies," and chapter 23, "Spirituality." 861. Bly, Robert. Iron John: A Book About Men. 640. David, Deborah S., and Robert Brannon, eds. The Forty-nine Percent Majority: The Male Sex Role. 40. Diamond, Jed. Inside Out: Becoming My Own Man. 641. Doyle, James A. The Male Experience. 601. Fanning, Patrick, and Matthew McKay. Being a Man: A Guide to the New Masculinity. 603. Gaylin, Willard. The Male Ego. 604. Gerzon, Mark. A Choice of Heroes: The Changing Faces of American Manhood. 992. Jeffers, Susan. Opening Our Hearts to Men. 993. Kammer, Jack. Good Will Toward Men: Women Talk About Fairness and Respect as a Two-Way Street. 645. Kimmel, Michael S., and Michael A. Messner, eds. Men's Lives. 997. Kingma, Daphne Rose. The Men We Never Knew: Women's Role in the Evolution of a Gender. 997a. Kipnis, Aaron R., and Elizabeth Herron. Gender War, Gender Peace: The Quest for Love and Justice Between Women and Men. 869. Kipnis, Aaron R. Knights Without Armor: A Practical Guide for Men in Quest of Masculine Soul. 48. Klein, Edward, and Don Erickson, eds. About Men: Reflections on the Male Experience. 960. Klein, Robert. Wounded Men, Broken Promises. 226. Levine, Judith. My Enemy, My Love: Man-Hating and Ambivalence in Women's Lives.

310. Mead, Shepherd. Free the Male Man! The Manifesto of the Men's Liberation Movement ... 615. Pleck, Joseph H., and Jack Sawyer, eds. Men and Masculinity. 63. Rubin, Michael, ed. Men Without Masks: Writings from the Journals of Modern Men. 548. Shapiro, Jerrold Lee. The Measure of a Man: Becoming the Father You Wish Your Father Had Been. 620. Shapiro, Stephen A. Manhood: A New Definition. 724. Skovholt, Thomas M., Paul G. Schauble, and Richard Davis, eds. Counseling Men.

Page 53

725. Solomon, Kenneth, and Norman B. Levy, eds. Men in Transition: Theory and Therapy. 622. Stoltenberg, John. The End of Manhood: A Book for Men of Conscience. 623. Stoltenberg, John. Refusing to be a Man: Essays on Sex and Justice. 188. Thompson, Doug. As Boys Become Men: Learning New Male Roles. 696. Uhl, Michael, and Tod Ensign. GI Guinea Pigs: How the Pentagon Exposed Our Troops to Dangers More Deadly than War: Agent Orange and Atomic Radiation.

Page 54

4 Bibliographies
A. Men's Studies Bibliographies Emphasizing the interdisciplinary nature of men's studies, bibliographies in this section survey a range of men's studies in several academic disciplines. 148. American Association of Counseling and Development, Committee on Men. Men's Issues: A Bibliography. Alexandria, VA: American Association of Counseling and Development, 1987.86p. pa. Both books and articles are included in this unannotated, unnumbered bibliography. Items are grouped into 38 categories. Sample categories include black men, burnout and stress, changing roles of men, divorce and parenting, gender differences in counseling, grieving, homosexuality, love and sexuality, male clients, mother-son relationships, stereotypes, substance abuse, and working. 149. August, Eugene R., comp. Men's Studies: A Selected and Annotated Interdisciplinary Bibliography. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1985. xvii, 215p. author and title indexes. The first edition of the present bibliography lists 591 books and is divided into 21 sections: bibliographies, anthologies, men's awareness, autobiographical and biographical accounts, men's rights, divorce and custody, war and peace, women and men, masculinity, psychology, sexuality, homosexuality, men in families, single men, male midlife transition, literature, images of men, minorities, religion, and humor. Some sections are subdivided: for example, the section about men in families contains information on fathers, expectant fathers, divorced and single fathers, and other family roles. 150. Flood, Michael, comp. The Men's Bibliography: A Comprehensive Bibliography of Writing on Men and Masculinity. 2d ed. Canberra ACT, Australia: privately printed, 1993. 93p. index. pa. Compiled by an editor of XY: men, sex, politics magazine, this ring-bound

bibliography lists over 1,000 entries, both books and articles. Items are listed in 38 categories, including race and ethnicity, men's studies and men in academia, growing up male, histories of masculinity, men's bodies and biology, pornography, power and gender politics, fatherhood and parenting, law, child custody, men and feminism, men and the left, spirituality and mythopoetic writing, health, reproductive issues and technology, sport and leisure, masculinity in culture, and

Page 55

friendship. Some items are repeated in several categories. Items are not annotated, and some entries lack complete information. The perspective of the editor is pro-feminist: The "Men's Rights" category is co-titled "Backlash," and nearly all the entries in "The Best Reading on Men and Masculinity" have a radical pro-feminist slant. The bibliography's place of origin ensures inclusion of many Australian and British publications. Current information indicates that copies of the bibliography can be obtained by mailing $15 to The Men's Bibliography, P.O. Box 26, Ainslie ACT, 2602, AUSTRALIA. Fax [06] 247 9227. 151. Ford, David, and Jeff Hearn, comps. Studying Men and Masculinity: A Sourcebook of Literature and Materials. Bradford, England: University of Bradford, 1988. 39p. (University of Bradford Applied Social Science, Publication 1). pa. Emphasizing British publications that focus on masculinity as a social construction, this unannotated bibliography of books and articles is divided into 18 sections: general bibliographic sources; sexuality, health, and emotions; violence and competition; boys, childcare, and fatherhood; personality, socialization, and education; paid work; power, politics, and patriarchy; history; imaginative writing; religion and spirituality; anti-sexist and men against sexism literature; anti-sexist magazines and journals; anti-sexist education and other work with boys and men; other books and resources for play and learning; films; studying men and masculinity; anti-sexist men's studies and the critique of men; and other academic contacts. The brief introductions to each section reflect Marxist and feminist socialist viewpoints. 152. Grady, Kathleen E., Robert Brannon, and Joseph H. Pleck, comps. The Male Sex Role: A Selected and Annotated Bibliography. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; Rockville, MD: National Institute for Mental Health, 1979; sold by Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. x, 196p. author index. pa. This guide to more than 250 items, which are mostly from the social sciences, groups entries into 14 major divisions: general; attitudes about men and masculinity; the socialization of masculinity; paid employment; marriage; fatherhood; relationships with other men; antisocial behavior; some other traits associated with the male role; mental and physical health and the male role; physical and physiological factors in male behavior; male issues in institutions

(military service, athletics); and subcultural, cross-cultural, and historical comparisons. Items are annotated: "hard" research items are given a regular pattern (subjects, method, findings, comments), while a looser essay approach is used for more theoretical writings. B. Bibliographies in Related Areas Bibliographies in this section focus on one or more aspects of interdisciplinary men's studies. 153. Anderson, Martin, and Valerie Bloom, comps. Conscription: A Select and Annotated Bibliography. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University, 1976. xvii, 453p. title and author indexes. This precisely annotated bibliography lists approximately 1,385 items concerned with the military draft. Books, unpublished manuscripts, articles, pamphlets, reprints, speeches, and government documents have separate categories.

Page 56

The following subject headings are used: U.S. history; general history; general works (i.e., more comprehensive works dealing with conscription); all-volunteer armed forces; selective service; universal military training (i.e., conscription applying to all males); National Guard and Reserves; universal national service (i.e., a diversified form of conscription that would require both men and women to perform a variety of public service jobs); economics; law and the Constitution; philosophy (i.e., whether conscription is moral or immoral); conscientious objection; race; England; other foreign countries; miscellanea; and bibliographies. 154. Astin, Helen S., Allison Parelman, and Anne Fisher, comps. Sex Roles: A Research Bibliography. Washington, DC: Center for Human Services; Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health, 1975. viii, 362p. author and subject indexes. pa. This fully annotated bibliography of 456 items is divided into five sections: observations and measurement of sex differences, origins of sex differences and sex roles (biological, sociological, attitudes toward sex roles), manifestation of sex roles in institutional settings (e.g., family, work, law, politics), crosscultural overviews and historical accounts of the sexes, and general reviews and position papers on socialization and the development of sex roles. As might be expected, more material on women than on men appears. 155. Bahr, Howard M., ed. Disaffiliated Men: Essays and Bibliography on Skid Row, Vagrancy, and Outsiders. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1970. xiv, 428p. name and subject indexes. Focusing on men who have hit rock bottom, this bibliography has two principal purposes: first, to provide easy access to an extensive literature from several disciplines on men who are homeless or who suffer from chronic inebriation and other forms of disaffiliation; second, to enable researchers to relate this literature to the study of general social problems and processes. The bibliography is preceded by five essays exploring different areas of disaffiliation: "Sociology and the Homeless Man," by Theodore Caplow; "Societal Forces and the Unattached Male: An Historical Review," by James F. Rooney; 'Homelessness, Disaffiliation, and Retreatism," by Howard M. Bahr; "Survivorship and Social Isolation: The Case of the Aged Widower," by Felix M. Berardo; and "Dimensions of Religious Defection," by Armand L. Mauss. The

bibliography, annotated but unnumbered, is divided into 12 sections: skid row and its men; taverns and bars; the law; treatment, punishment, and rehabilitation for homelessness; treatment, punishment, and rehabilitation for alcoholism; drink and alcoholism; etiology and patterns; transiency among young persons; journalistic and literary accounts; employment and unemployment; voluntary associations; aging and disaffiliation; and anomie, isolation, and marginality. 156. Bowker, Lee H., comp. Prisons and Prisoners: A Bibliographic Guide. San Francisco: R and E, 1978. vii, 93p. pa. This bibliography is divided into four sections: books and articles on prison subcultures among incarcerated men, publications on female correctional subcultures, publications on correctional subcultures in institutions for boys, and background materials for the study of prisons and prisoners (this final section is coauthored by Joy Pollack). Each section is preceded by an introductory overview. Items are unannotated and unnumbered. 157. Bullough, Vern L., W. Dorr Legg, Barrett W. Elcano, and James Kepner, comps. An Annotated Bibliography of Homosexuality. 2 vols. New York:

Page 57

Garland, 1976. xxxvii, 405p. (Garland Reference Library of Social Science, vol. 22). appendixes. author indexes. These two volumes contain more than 12,794 items relating to homosexuality. Despite the title, annotations are nonexistent or minimal. In volume 1, the categories are bibliography; general studies; behavioral sciences (anthropology, history, psychology, sociology); education and children; medicine and biology; psychiatry; law and its enforcement; court cases; military; and religion and ethics. In volume 2, the categories are biography and autobiography; the homophile movement; periodicals (movement and other); and transvestism and transsexualism. Because so much writing about homosexuality has been done under pseudonyms, a list at the end of volume 2 that matches pen names to authors (if known) is most useful. (A similar listing in volume I is less clear and less complete.) Volume I contains an appendix of legal code indexing; volume 2 includes a brief history of the homophile movement, from 1948 to 1960, by Salvatore J. Licata. 158. Dynes, Wayne R., comp. Homosexuality: A Research Guide. New York and London: Garland, 1987. xviii, 853p. (Garland Reference Library of Social Science, vol. 313). subject and name indexes. This bibliography contains 4,858 annotated entries describing books and articles concerned with homosexuality. Entries are collected into 24 categories: general, women's studies, history and area studies, anthropology, travel, humanities, philosophy and religion, language, lifestyles, economics, education, politics, military, sociology, social work, psychology, psychiatry, family, boundary crossing, law, law enforcement, violence, medical, and biology. Each of these categories is further subdivided: "The AIDS crisis," for example, is listed under the main medical category. Entries include materials in languages other than English, as well as classic and historic works. 159. Franklin, H. Bruce, comp. American Prisoners and Ex-Prisoners: Their Writings: An Annotated Bibliography of Published Works, 1798-1981. Westport, CT: Lawrence Hill, 1982. vii, 53p. pa. This is a bibliography of prison narratives, autobiographical novels, poems, and political writings. The entries are unnumbered, and most are briefly annotated. 160.

Horner, Tom, comp. Homosexuality and the Judeo-Christian Tradition: An Annotated Bibliography. Metuchen, NJ, and London: American Theological Library Association, Scarecrow Press, 1981. ix, 131p. (ATLA Bibliography Series, no. 5). Spreading a wider net than its title might suggest, this bibliography collects 459 itemsbooks, articles and essays, pamphlets and papers, and bibliographies. Even works that make only a minor connection between homosexuality and the Judeo-Christian tradition are included. Nearly all items are annotated. The appendixes list biblical references to homosexuality and periodical publications of gay religious organizations. 161. Johnson, Carolyn, John Ferry, and Marjorie Kravitz, comps. Spouse Abuse: A Selected Bibliography. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, 1978. ix, 61p. (National Criminal Justice Reference Service). appendixes. index. pa.

Page 58

This bibliography contains 91 annotated items, a few of which deal with battered husbands. According to one study, three women are battered for every male; the battered husband, however, remains largely ignored in the literature and by the social agencies. The appendixes include a list of sources and a list of resource agencies. 162. Loeb, Catherine R., Susan E. Searing, and Esther Stineman, comps., with Meredith J. Ross. Women's Studies: A Recommended Core Bibliography, 19801985. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1987. xvi, 538p. appendix. author, title, and subject indexes. With 1,211 fully annotated entries, this bibliography updates Esther Stineman's 1979 bibliography of women's studies. Entries are divided into 19 categories, arranged alphabetically: anthropology, cross-cultural surveys, and international studies; art and material culture; autobiography, biography, diaries, memoirs, and letters; business, economics, and labor; education and pedagogy; history; law; literature; medicine, health, sexuality, and biology; politics and political theory; psychology; reference; religion and philosophy; science, mathematics, and technology; sociology and social issues; sports; women's movement and feminist theory; and periodicals. Entries sometimes refer to additional, unlisted works. Many items are of interest to men's studies scholars. As champions of feminism, the annotators are sometimes defensive about conservative women, men's rights advocates, and others who challenge feminist perspectives. 163. Parker, William, comp. Homosexuality: A Selective Bibliography of Over 3,000 Items. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1971. viii, 323p. appendix. subject and author indexes. Parker's unannotated bibliography is divided into 14 sections: books, pamphlets, theses and dissertations, articles in books, newspaper articles, articles in popular magazines, articles in religious journals, articles in legal journals, court cases involving consenting adults, articles in medical and scientific journals, articles in other specialized journals, articles in homophile publications, literary works, and miscellaneous worksmovies, television programs, and phonograph records. An appendix lists state laws applicable to homosexual acts by consenting adults. 164.

Parker, William, comp. Homosexuality Bibliography: Supplement, 1970-1975. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1977. v, 337p. appendixes. author and subject indexes. A supplement to Parker's 1971 bibliography, this listing of 3,136 items follows the same outline and format as its predecessor. The appendixes contain lists of motion pictures and television shows with a homosexual theme, audiovisual materials, and U.S. laws, as of I January 1976, applicable to homosexual acts by consenting adults. Parker has also published Homosexuality: Second Supplement, 1976-1982 (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1985). 165. Schlesinger, Benjamin. The One-Parent Family: Perspectives and Annotated Bibliography. 4th ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1978. x, 224p. appendixes. author index. Sections of this book are extremely valuable for students of men's studies. Six essays by Schlesinger precede the bibliography. The first essay ("Motherless Families: A Review") points to over I million U.S. single-parent families headed by fathers, explores research done on motherless families in several

Page 59

countries, and comments on common themes, social policies, and needed research. The other essays are ''Fatherless Separated Families," "Divorce and Children: A Review of the Literature," "The Crisis of Widowhood in the Family Circle," "The Unmarried Mother Who Keeps Her Child," and "Single-Parent Adoptions: A Review." The bibliography itself contains 750 annotated items divided into three period sections: 1930-1969, 1970-1974, and 1975-1978. All three sections are subdivided into subject categories. "One Parent Families" appears in all three sections; "Motherless Families" appears only in the third. Especially valuable is appendix I which contains a selected and annotated bibliography, prepared by Parents Without Partners, of 62 books for children and teens on single-parent families, death of a parent, divorce, and so on. Books portraying positive father-child relations are keyed. Appendix 2 contains a list of publishers' addresses. 166. Sell, Kenneth D., comp. Divorce in the 70s: A Subject Bibliography. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1981. viii, 191p. author, geographical, and subject indexes. Among the pertinent subjects in this bibliography of 4,760 items are alimony and maintenance, child custody, father absence, one-parent families, father custody, stepfathers, male alimony, and joint custody. 167. Stineman, Esther, comp., with Catherine Loeb. Women's Studies: A Recommended Core Bibliography. Littleton, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1979. 670p. author, title, and subject indexes. Although now superseded by the 1987 bibliography Women's Studies, compiled by Catherine R. Loeb and others (entry 162), this 1979 bibliography still contains valuable information in its 1,748 annotated items, many of which will interest scholars in men's studies. 168. Suvak, Daniel, comp. Memoirs of American Prisons: An Annotated Bibliography. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1979. viii, 227p. name-title and prison indexes. This bibliography, containing nearly 800 annotated items, includes memoirs from criminals, prisoners of conscience, and military prisoners. The vast majority of the writers are male. 169.

Weinberg, Martin S., and Alan P. Bell, comps. Homosexuality: An Annotated Bibliography. New York: Harper & Row, 1972. xiii, 550p. author and subject indexes. In this fully annotated guide to 1,265 items on homosexuality, which are mostly from the social sciences, items are grouped as follows: physiological considerations (etiology, treatments), psychological considerations (etiology, assessments, treatments), and sociological considerations, which include the homosexual community in its social and demographic aspects; homosexuality in history, non-Western societies, and special settings; societal attitudes towards homosexuality; and homosexuality and the law. Other bibliographies and dictionaries are listed in a final section. The bibliography excludes belles lettres (biographies, autobiographies, literary works) and items from popular magazines and newspapers. 170. Young, Ian, comp. The Male Homosexual in Literature: A Bibliography. 2d ed. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1982. x, 350p. appendixes. title index and title index of gay literary anthologies.

Page 60

In addition to listing more than 4,282 works of fiction, drama, poetry, and autobiography in which male homosexuality is a theme or in which male homosexual characters appear, this bibliography contains five essays: a short history of the gay novel, the poetry of male love, some notes on gay publishing (all by the compiler), homosexuality in drama (by Graham Jackson), and gay literature and censorship (by Rictor Norton). Cross-References 569. McCormick, Mona. Stepfathers: What the Literature Reveals: A Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography. 125. Murphey, Cecil. Mantalk: Resources for Exploring Male Issues.

Page 61

5 Boys: Education and Socialization of Males


171. Abbott, Franklin, ed. Boyhood, Growing Up Male: A Multicultural Anthology. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press, 1993. 297p. appendix. pa. Abbott has collected 45 reminiscences (memoirs and poems) that recall boyhood in a diversity of cultures. Many of the accounts, like Terry A. Kupers's "Schoolyard Fights," tell painful episodes of boys being molded into uncongenial roles. Others, like Shepherd Bliss's "My War Story," tell of youthful rebellion and adult reconciliation. Several of the writers, like John Silva in "Iyay," recall memorable adults who shaped their lives. Troubles with fathers recur in a number of entries, like Robert Bly's poem ''Snow Geese." Abbott has chosen multicultural accounts from Brazil, Africa, Sri Lanka, Malta, the Philippines, Nigeria, India, as well as the United States. Writers represent various religious and ethnic groups (e.g., Jews, Native Americans, Catholics). A few gay men are also included in the collection. The accounts are often powerfully moving snapshots of the hazards of growing up male. 172. Askew, Sue, and Carol Ross. Boys Don't Cry: Boys and Sexism in Education. Milton Keynes, England, and Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1988. xvi, 234p. (Gender and Education Series). name and subject indexes. bibliography, 221-28. pa. The authors amass considerable evidence showing that boys and girls learn and behave differently at school. They focus on aggressive boys' behavior that intimidates girls and quieter boys. In all-boys schools, the aggressive atmosphere may result in harassment of women teachers. In general, boys are more competitive and physical, and the authors believe that society encourages the more brutalizing aspects of this behavior. Using a "non-sexist" approach to the situation, the authors devise exercises to offset the boys' more violent propensities and social stereotypes of girls as passive nonachievers. Although the authors' goals are praiseworthy, the book contains disturbing signs of underlying misandry. The authors' ideology creates its own problems of sexism: committed to a radical feminist concept of males as an oppressor class

and females as a victimized class, they perpetuate stereotypes of boys as nasty imitators of what the authors see as the prevailing gender-class oppression. Askew and Ross see masculinity in entirely negative terms; they have little sympathy for boys' friendly rough-and-tumble play. Their ideology does not permit them to notice that girls frequently humiliate insufficiently "masculine" boys, that girls sometimes encourage boys to engage in aggressively violent behavior, or that some girls can be cruel to other girls. In this study, girls are always "nice" victims. The authors' classroom exercises seem designed to create "nice" boys who are ashamed of their masculinity.

Page 62

173. Carlson, Dale. Boys Have Feelings Too: Growing Up Male for Boys. New York: Atheneum, 1980. 167p. illus. bibliography, 167. In language addressed to teenage boys, Carlson warns that the "privilege" of being male in the United States carries a price tag: males must repress feelings, constantly prove their masculinity, never say "no" to pressures, enter areas of study that lead to money-making jobs, be responsible for supporting their wives and children, and die early as a result of these demands. Discussing what happens to males in the parental home, in school, after high school, and on the job, the author does not blink at the radical implications of her message. Males must reject pressures to succeed, for such pressures only make men into society's scapegoat, that is, someone to be blamed for everyone else's problems. Carlson also reviews religious and historical views of males, the use of men as cannon fodder in wars, and the rise of a men's movement in the United States. "The truth is that male liberation is a very simple idea," Carlson concludes. ''A man can be a man without being treated like a work slave, a replaceable robot with no human rights or feelings, a sacrifice on the altars of economic security, or an animal on a battlefield." 174. Chandos, John. Boys Together: English Public Schools, 1800-1864. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press, 1984. 412p. illus. appendix. bibliography, 370-90. notes. index. This extensively researched account of early-Victorian British public schools (read "private schools" in American English) draws largely negative conclusions about them. Focusing principally on Eton, Harrow, and Westminster schools, Chandos reports on the shock the boys felt coming to schools governed by heavy-handed masters and ruled by bullying older boys. The fagging system amounted to slavery. Drinking and violence to weaker boys were commonplace. Learning consisted mostly of construing classical verses. Flogging was frequent and severe. At times, the schoolboys rebelled aggressively. The moral reforms of Thomas Arnold, according to Chandos, only increased priggishness in the schools. Even the new order that changed the schools brought losses as well as gains. Chandos's study demonstrates once again that the privileges of education extended to boys were often a grueling ordeal of initiation into masculinity. "You're not at a girl's school," remarked the fierce Dr. Keate to a terrorized student. Most parents accepted the

brutalization of their sons on the grounds that it prepared them for manhood. 175. Eastman, Charles A. Indian Boyhood. New York: McClure, Phillips, 1902. Reprint, New York: Dover, 1971. 247p. illus. pa. Probably no other record of male Native American childhood and youth is as full as Eastman's account. Born a Lakota (Sioux) Indian, Eastman spent the first 15 years of his life, during the 1870s and 1880s, with his tribe. At first called by the name Hakadah (the pitiful last), because his mother died shortly after his birth, Eastman was rescued from neglect by his paternal grandmother. At four, he was renamed Ohiyesa (winner). Although Eastman's boyhood had its idyllic aspects, it was unmistakably a systematic training of the boy to be a warrior. Aside from skirmishes with white people, the Sioux were constantly raiding and being raided by neighboring tribes. Elders and peers of both sexes required boys to endure pain stoically. It was understood by the tribe that no young man would dare to seek a maiden in marriage until he had proven himself on the war path. At the age of 15, Eastman was reclaimed by his father, who had been imprisoned for his part in a raid on white people. During those years, the father had converted to Christianity. When he takes Ohiyesa away from the tribe at the end of this account, one has a sense

Page 63

of loss and gain: the boy has been removed from a world of natural innocence but one where violence probably would have taken his life early. 176. Fine, Gary Alan. With the Boys: Little League Baseball and Preadolescent Culture. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1987. xiii, 289p. appendixes. bibliography, 271-86. index. pa. In this sociological study, Fine reports on Little League teams in four cities, the involvement of adults in the teams, and the effects upon the boys. Little League baseball combines both work and play; indeed, it is a form of "dis-play" or public performance that foregrounds the boys, preparing them for adult masculine roles. Often a conscious effort is made to teach the boys certain behaviors, such as sportsmanship, appropriate emotional displays, toughness, self-control (especially control of anger), avoidance of crying or moping, handling pain, desire to win, looking professional, taking the game seriously, and being "hot and cool." Usually, the boys accept the task of being men and are eager to adopt a masculine gender role. Sexual and aggressive themes appear in the boys' behavior, including the insulting of peers, concern about sexual "reputation," racism, and gay-bashing talk. Preadolescent subcultures often have their own slang. The appendixes elaborate more personally on the study. In appendix 1, Fine concludes that, overall, Little League baseball has positive effects on the boys, providing athletic exercise, leadership skills, increased popularity, and greater father-son contact. Criticisms of Little League remain ''not proven" (i.e., problems surface in individual cases but not in general). In appendix 2, Fine describes how he reconciled two roles: observing the boys and interacting with the boys. Appendix 3 describes the settings and sources of the study. 177. Green, Richard. The "Sissy Boy Syndrome" and the Development of Homosexuality. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press, 1987. x, 416p. illus. bibliography, 399-409. notes. index. pa. This book is based upon a 15-year study of two groups of boys: 66 "feminine" boys and 56 "masculine" boys. (The author cautions that feminine and masculine are slippery and problematic terms.) Distinguishing anatomic identity from gender role behavior and from sexual orientation, Green further distinguishes among homosexuals, transsexuals, and transvestites. He identifies the elements of the sissy boy syndrome (a major characteristic is

alienation from other males) and argues that "childhood gender nonconformity" is closely related to adult homosexuality. After considering numerous scenarios and variables, the author is cautious about drawing cause-effect conclusions. A "good enough" mother and a father involved in caregiving, together, seem to reduce the likelihood of the sissy boy syndrome but do not appear to guarantee heterosexuality in boys. Father involvement has significant but not always predictable effects upon boys' development. Psychotherapy does little or nothing to alter sexual development. A study of twins indicates that the biological factor cannot completely explain the development of adult sexuality; socialization is important. The study suggests numerous possibilities about the development of male homosexuality but confirms few of them as isolated causes. 178. Hawley, Richard A. Boys Will Be Men: Masculinity in Troubled Times. Middlebury, VT: Paul S. Eriksson, 1993. xx, 188p. bibliography, 181-82. notes. index. Ron Powers's introduction presents Hawley as a man who has served for many years in a boys' preparatory school. Taking a dark view of current gender controversies, Hawley believes that innate sexual differences determine most gender differences. He critiques the oedipal obsessions of Freud and Horney

Page 64

for reducing masculinity to an overcompensation against femininity. The mythopoetic men are too self-conscious to create genuine male bonding. He retells the story of Percival as a myth of the boy formulating masculine identity through quest. The biblical story of David shows the golden boy becoming the flawed man, but a greatness shines through both his successes and his sins. The heart of this book, however, lies in Hawley's stories about his most memorable students. A gifted storyteller, Hawley tells of funny boys, helpless boys, evil boys, unworldly boys, boys who died young, and inspiring boys. The final chapter reaffirms the essence of masculinity in solitary questing. 179. Honey, J. R. de S. Tom Brown's Universe: The Development of the English Public School in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Quadrangle/New York Times, 1977. xv, 416p. bibliography, 408-10. notes. index. Original publication, London: Millington Books, 1977. This scholarly study of the nineteenth-century British public school (read "private school" in American English) indicates that even boys from the privileged classes enjoyed a decidedly mixed blessing in being sent to such a school, usually around eight years of age. Honey details the grinding studies, the bullying, the unsanitary conditions, the sexual immorality and exploitation, and the ruthless punishmentsespecially the ritual of the flogging block. Particularly interesting is the author's speculation that complacent parents knowingly sent their sons into these torments with the belief that they would "harden" the boys and thus prepare them for assuming the male role in society. 180. Kempler, Susan, Doreen Rappaport, and Michele Spirn. A Man Can Be .... New York: Human Sciences Press, 1981. 27p. illus. pa. This book is designed to show boys aged three to seven some of the possibilities of adult manhood. The photographs by Russell Dian show a white father and son in diverse moods and settings. At a playground, they meet a black father and son. With a light touch, the simple text depicts a range of male behaviors and emotions. The book affirms father-son role modeling. 181. Mahony, Pat. Schools for the Boys? Co-education Reassessed. London: Hutchinson, in association with the Explorations in Feminism Collective, 1985.

118p. illus. appendixes. bibliography, 113-18. notes. pa. The title is misleading. This short book is actually a hatred-filled, radical feminist diatribe arguing for separate schools for girls. The author contends that boys inhibit and harass girls, and (horrors!) that boys are sexually interested in girls. Mahony's loathing of boys, especially of their sexuality, borders on the pathological. The author is unwilling to consider that most girls are also sexually interested in boys and that some girls can be quite aggressive in pursuing them. The book's demand for girls-only schools seems to mask a lesbian separatist agenda. A graduate of the Dale Spender school of special pleading (entries 427, 647, 981), Mahony musters page after page of dubious arguments ending with the conclusion that patriarchy and capitalism are to blame for practically everything. There may be good arguments for single-sex schools, but this boy-hating tract does not contain them. 182. Miedzian, Myriam. Boys Will Be Boys: Breaking the Link Between Masculinity and Violence. New York: Doubleday, Anchor Books, 1991. xxviii, 355p. bibliography, 235-45. notes. index. pa. Recognizing that "the masculine mystique" of violence must not be confused with masculinity itself, Miedzian points out that males are the chief

Page 65

victims of violence. Drawing upon a wide range of research, she argues that biology is not destiny. Because more males than females are predisposed to aggressiveness, it is crucial for society to steer boys away from violent behavior. Distinguishing between aggression and violence, Miedzian argues that U.S. society encourages many boys to convert their predisposition for aggressiveness into violent behavior. A primary problem in the United States is father absence, which allows boys to indulge violent tendencies and diminishes examples of nurturant masculinity. Widespread anti-father attitudes only make the problem worse. Forcing boys into narrow, violent masculine roles encourages some boys to define themselves as homosexual. Miedzian examines school programs that encourage concepts of responsible fatherhood among boys, provide alternatives to fistfights and bullying, and take the glow out of war. She vigorously protests against the violence marketed by the entertainment industry, arguing that it pushes boys toward antisocial behavior. Although Miedzian at times minimizes the extent of female violence and downplays the involvement of women in war, her book is marked by an evenhandedness that usually avoids male shaming and exhibits a genuine desire to help boys. 183. Nerburn, Kent. Letters to My Son: Reflections on Becoming a Man. San Rafael, CA: New World Library, 1993. xviii, 212p. "We are born male. We must learn to be men," writes the author. To a son born at the father's midlife, Nerburn offers reflections on becoming a man. Knowing that if he does not offer guidance, others will, Nerburn urges his son not to confuse maleness with manhood. Maleness without moral courage is destructive, he says. Because work still significantly defines a man's sense of his manhood, he urges his son not to accept a job but to find a vocation, a worthy calling in life. Possessions, Nerburn says, finally possess us. Giving is the most satisfying part of having. Particularly interesting are Nerburn's reflections on war: Governments do not give men the choice of deciding whether a war is just or unjust. Total pacifism or compulsory military service are the only two choices. Nerburn urges his son to decide for himself whether or not to participate in a war, and then to stand by his conviction. Nerburn urges his son to seek greater respect for and equality with women. Sex must combine the earthy and the spiritual; otherwise, it becomes debased or atrophied. How people treat elders is a touchstone of morality, Nerburn says. Throughout the

volume, the author exhibits a wisdom and serenity that many fathers will envy. 184. Paley, Vivian Gussin. Boys and Girls: Superheroes in the Doll Corner. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1984. xii, 116p. pa. Understandably, this delightful book about kindergarten has become something of a classic. Recording a year of her pupils' activities, Paley notes, "Kindergarten is a triumph of sexual self-stereotyping." Allowing for minor lapses, the boys and girls relentlessly define themselves as separate. The boys fantasize superhero play in the building-block corner of the classroom, and the girls play at fairy tales in the doll corner. In general, the boys have more momentum; they seem forever in motion. The girls have greater coordination and are better at table play and finger painting. The boys are fascinated by Darth Vader, the girls by Barbie. "I have come to an unavoidable conclusion," Paley writes. "My curriculum has suited girls better than boys." Although initially more comfortable with the girls' more ordered play, Paley eventually develops an understanding of and a liking for the boys' more boisterous activities. "The boys and girls look at one another without rancor," she notes. "I, the teacher ... need not act as if the superheroes will pull down the classroom walls. Let the boys be robbers, then, or tough guys in space. It is the natural,

Page 66

universal, and essential play of little boys." Written with warmth, Paley's record is often hilarious in its depiction of the wonderful wackiness and wisdom of childhood. 185. Pomeroy, Wardell B. Boys and Sex. 3d ed. New York: Delacorte Press, 1991. xi, 205p. bibliography, 189-91. index. An updated edition of Pomeroy's concise, readable guide, this book provides boys with essential knowledge about sexual matters. A colleague of Kinsey, Pomeroy explains the book's purpose thusly: "For boys approaching or entering adolescence, I hope it will be a guide to what is happening or about to happen to them, and I hope, too, it dispels their guilt and fear about sexual behavior, leading them toward a well-adjusted sexual life as adults." After an introduction for parents and brief statement that all boys have a sex life, subsequent chapters consider the anatomy and physiology of sex, sex play before adolescence, masturbation, homosexuality, dating, petting, intercourse, and consequences of sex. Following a chapter of questions and answers, a brief afterword reiterates principal themes in the book. Whether readers find Pomeroy's attitude toward sexual behavior too permissive, sufficiently cautious, or too inhibiting, most are likely to find his explanations frank and clear. 186. Sexton, Patricia Cayo. The Feminized Male: Classrooms, White Collars and the Decline of Manliness. New York: Random House, 1969. 214p. appendix. notes. Reprint, New York: Random House, Vintage, 1970. pa. This controversial book argues that U.S. schools are inimical to boys and masculinity. The female presence in the classrooms, especially in the lower grades, is stifling in its pervasiveness, schools reward feminine behavior and proscribe masculine behavior, and the least masculine boys are most likely to succeed in school. These conclusions are based on a survey of school children from a fictionally named town and corrected by findings from a national survey. Sexton's solution to over-feminized schools is to move more men and masculine attitudes into the schools while moving more women and feminine attitudes into the power structure of societyin effect, to balance out the presence of the sexes throughout the social system. "Only as the strength of women in other institutions increases, will their stranglehold on home and school weaken," Sexton argues. "Men may then be removed as targets of female resentment."

187. Standing Bear, Luther. My Indian Boyhood. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1931. Reprint, Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, Bison Books, 1988. 190p. illus. pa. Written for white children, this memoir recalls Standing Bear's boyhood among the Lakota (Sioux) Indians in the present-day Dakotas. The boys' play trained them for hunting, trapping, and war parties. As the author reports, "To be a coward was unforgivable." Accepting fear and pain was mandatory. When Standing Bear cried after a nasty fall, a stepmother admonished him, "Be brave, son. You are not a girl." Later, his father told him, "Son, I am proud of you that you did not cry like a woman." Differentiating from the feminine was obligatory for boys. Fighting among indian tribes was common: the author's Indian name, "Plenty Kill," refers to his father's exploits on the warpath. For the most part, however, Standing Bear's account is idyllic. The memoir ends with the boy's first buffalo hunt. Soon after, Standing Bear was swept off to school among the whitesand to a far different life.

Page 67

188. Thompson, Doug. As Boys Become Men: Learning New Male Roles. Denver, CO: Institute for Equality in Education, University of Denver, 1980. vii, 72p. appendixes. bibliography, 55-58. pa. This curriculum guide for junior high school and high school classes presents classroom exercises for addressing male issues. In the preface, Thompson argues that sex equality is itself a male issue; living up to some standards of masculinity can be harmful for some boys. Each of the book's sections includes student objectives and background information for the teacher. The eight sections are: gender role stereotypes, masculine role stereotypes, media definitions of the masculine role, language, career and work choice preference, competitive athletics, fatherhood, and emotions and relationships. The appendixes include a bibliography, a listing of damaging effects of sex stereotyping on boys and men, a discussion of the masculine role stereotype, and an excerpt from Warren's Farrell's The Liberated Man (entry 95) on the gender significance of Super Bowl Sunday. Although some of the book's material is now dated (and some would say wrong-headed), teachers may still find it a useful stimulus to raising male issues in the classroom. 189. Weiner, Bernard, with Tom Baker, David Edeli, Heide M. Lindsmayer, Jim Thurston, Erik Weiner. Boy into Man: A Father's Guide to Initiation of Teenage Sons. San Francisco: Transformation Press, 1992. 70p. illus. pa. Concerned about the lack of initiation rituals that allow boys to experience a rite of passage into positive masculine adulthood, Weiner found himself creating a ceremony with help from neighbors and friends who recognized a similar gap in modern society. As plans progressed, the question of whether or not women (i.e., mothers) should participate in the ceremony created a temporary roadblock. But a compromise that allowed the women to participate from afar won acceptance. The 13- to 14-year-old boys looked forward to the ceremony with anticipation, but they also felt some uncertainty. Weiner describes how the men "summoned" the boys from schools and mothers, and how the weekend in the woods involved them in lessons of responsible manhood and good fellowship. The views of others involved in the experience (including those of some of the boys) are included in this book, which can be used as a guide to create similar ceremonies. Cross-References

See chapter 14, "Males in Families," and chapter 15, "Masculinity." 580. Arcana, Judith." Every Mother's Son. 381. Aymar, Brandt. The Young Male Figure: In Paintings, Sculptures, and Drawings from Ancient Egypt to the Present. 903. Bartollas, Clemens, Stuart J. Miller, and Simon Dinitz. Juvenile Victimization: The Institutionalization Paradox. 904. Biller, Henry B. Fathers and Families: Paternal Factors in Child Development. 905. Biller, Henry B., and Richard S. Solomon. Child Maltreatment and Paternal Deprivation: A Manifesto for Research, Prevention, and Treatment.

Page 68

907. Bolton, Frank G., Jr., Larry A. Morris, and Ann E. MacEachron. Males at Risk: The Other Side of Sexual Abuse. 37. Brown, Claude. Manchild in the Promised Land. 5. Cohen, Albert K. Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gang. 910. Drew, Dennis, and Jonathan Drake. Boys for Sale: A Sociological Study of Boy Prostitution. 1032. Glasstone, Richard. Dancing as a Career for Men. 9. Gold, Martin. Status Force in Delinquent Boys. 349. Golding, William. Lord of the Flies. 914. Grubman-Black, Stephen D. Broken Boys/Mending Men: Recovery from Childhood Sexual Abuse. 356. Hemingway, Ernest. The Nick Adams Stories. 10. Herdt, Gilbert H. Guardians of the Flutes: Idioms of Masculinity. 11. Herdt, Gilbert H., ed. Rituals of Manhood: Male Initiation in Papua New Guinea. 12. Herdt, Gilbert. The Sambia: Ritual and Gender in New Guinea. 108. Herzig, Alison Cragin, and Jane Lawrence Mali. Oh, Boy! Babies! 583. Herzog, Elizabeth, and Cecelia E. Sudia. Boys in Fatherless Families. 916. Hunter, Mic. Abused Boys: The Neglected Victims of Sexual Abuse. 405. Johnson, Wendell Stacy. Sons and Fathers: The Generational Link in Literature, 1780-1980. 280. Kett, Joseph F. Rites of Passage: Adolescence in America, 1790 to the Present. 507. Keyes, Ralph, ed. Sons on Fathers: A Book of Men's Writing. 585. Klein, Carole. Mothers and Sons. 919. Lew, Mike. Victims No Longer: Men Recovering from Incest and Other Sexual Child Abuse.

20. Lidz, Theodore, and Ruth Wilmanns Lidz. Oedipus in the Stone Age: A Psychoanalytic Study of Masculinization in Papua New Guinea. 920. Lloyd, Robin. For Money or Love: Boy Prostitution in America. 286. Macleod, David I. Building Character in the American Boy: The Boy Scouts, YMCA, and Their Forerunners, 1870-1920. 921. Miles, Rosalind. Love, Sex, Death and the Making of the Male. 587. Olsen, Paul. Sons and Mothers: Why Men Behave As They Do. 664. Poinsett, Alex. Young Black Males in Jeopardy: Risk Factors and Intervention Strategies. 922. Porter, Eugene. Treating the Young Male Victim of Sexual Assault: Issues and Intervention.

Page 69

420. Quigly, Isabel. The Heirs of Tom Brown: The English School Story. 24. Raphael, Ray. The Men from the Boys: Rites of Passage in Male America. 292. Rosenthal, Michael. The Character Factory: Baden-Powell and the Origins of the Boy Scout Movement. 135. Sadker, David. Being a Man: A Unit of Instructional Activities on Male Role Stereotyping. 929. Sonkin, Daniel Jay. Wounded Boys, Heroic Men: A Man's Guide to Recovering from Child Abuse. 378. White, Edmund. A Boy's Own Story. 34. Wilmott, Peter. Adolescent Boys of East London. 69. Wright, Richard. Black Boy: A Record of Childhood and Youth.

Page 70

6 Divorce and Custody


190. Athearn, Forden. How to Divorce Your Wife: The Man's Side of Divorce. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1976. 167p. appendixes. index. Like its title, the book is abrupt and direct. Athearn, a West Coast attorney, provides a how-to guide to the legal and emotional pitfalls of divorce, including such topics as what to do before telling your wife you want a divorce, the foolish and destructive reactions of some men whose wives file for divorce, the grounds for divorce, the trial, alimony, custody, child support, visitation, property division, and handling lawyers. Appendix A contains divorce information by state; appendix B is a glossary of legal terms. 191. Cassidy, Robert. What Every Man Should Know About Divorce. Washington, DC: New Republic Books, 1977. ix, 247p. appendixes. bibliography, 190-96. index. A veteran of the divorce wars, Cassidy offers advice to avoid the pitfalls of marital separation and to encourage growth amid the pain. He focuses upon the emotional turmoil that the divorcing man will face. Horror stories about what divorce courts have done lead into Cassidy's advice about fighting back. He offers information about finding an attorney, how the courts work, custody, visitation, children's reactions, and starting a new life. The appendixes include a guide to divorce laws by state, and a listing of divorce reform groups. The foreword is by Mel Krantzler. 192. Doppler, George. America Needs Total Divorce ReformNow! New York: Vantage Press, 1973. 125p. This denunciation of the American judicial system's handling of divorce focuses on men's concerns. Dealing primarily with divorce and custody proceedings in Pennsylvania, Doppler points to abuses in other states and issues a call for reform. He touches upon such matters as discrimination against men in the courts, how the law rewards wives for ending a marriage, how attorneys profit from marital breakups but not from reconciliation, the inequities involved in child support, how alimony and separate maintenance are forms of legalized

extortion, the abuse of fathers' visitation rights by ex-wives, and the inequities of property settlements. The author argues for mandatory counseling for separating couples, includes a petition to the United Nations for equal rights for fathers, and lists men's divorce organizations around the country. Doppler writes not as a dispassionate observer but as a militant reformer.

Page 71

193. Epstein, Joseph. Divorced in America: Marriage in an Age of Possibility. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1974. 339p. Reprint, New York: Penguin Books, 1981. pa. Epstein regards divorce as a painful joke, as this ironic narrative reveals. Interspersed with ghastly scenes from a divorce, the book reviews the tolls taken upon marriage by sexual liberation, female emancipation, and "growth" philosophies. Epstein provides a quick history of divorce and delves into the improbabilities of alimony. He concludes that divorce brings at least as much bondage as a bad marriage, that those who boost "creative divorce" are full of hot air, and that the nuclear family is really the only option for men and women. Throughout the book, Epstein provides a vivid account of divorce from a male viewpoint. 194. Franks, Maurice R. How to Avoid Alimony. New York: Saturday Review Press/E. P. Dutton, 1975. xiv, 173p. notes. index. Reprint, New York: New American Library, Signet, 1976. pa. Gleefully dedicated to the author's ex-wife and her attorney (who failed to get Franks to pay alimony), this book offers strategies for avoiding wife maintenance after divorce. Franks's principal tactic is to move the divorce case from the state courts, which regularly discriminate against males, to the federal courts, where such issues as equal rights and slavery can be raised. Franks cites constitutional and legal support for his belief that wife support is sexist and a form of male peonage, especially in this day of working wives. He opposes no-fault divorce as a means of allowing the wife who is at fault to soak her husband for property and maintenance. In snappy prose, Franks offers suggestions about how to find the right lawyer, how to lower unreasonable child support payments, what to do if your ex-wife has a live-in lover, and why premarital contracts are expedient. 195. Franks, Maurice R. Winning Custody. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1983. 192p. notes. index. pa. In this "no-holds barred guide for fathers," Franks provides jargon-free advice on the problems and strategies of winning custody. He estimates costs, offers suggestions for finding a good lawyer, and warns fathers to prepare for war. He discusses means of impressing judges favorably, and he explains the legal factors that will influence a custody decision. After attacking no-fault divorce

and the "tender years" mentality, Franks goes beyond courtroom practice to discuss the possibilities of tape-recording telephone conversations and of hiring detectives. He provides advice for fathers seeking to change custody or to enforce visitation rights, and he provides formulas for figuring child support. Suing malpracticing lawyers and removing bad judges are also explored. The penultimate chapter contains Franks's suggestions for what divorce and custody law ought to be, and the final chapter offers advice to divorced fathers who are thinking of remarrying. 196. Goldstein, Joseph, Anna Freud, and Albert J. Solnit. Beyond the Best Interests of the Child. Rev. ed. New York: Free Press, 1979. xiv, 203p. notes. index. pa. First published in 1973, this controversial book attempts to apply psychoanalytic theory to law cases in order to find "the least detrimental alternative" in placing a child after a family breakup. The authors argue that the child, whose sense of time is different from an adult's, needs continuity with a "psychological" parent; therefore, long delays in settling cases, joint custody, and disruptive visitations from a noncustodial parent are harmful to the child. In legal matters, the childnot just the parentsshould be legally represented. In an epilogue added to the latest edition, the authors attempt to

Page 72

answer objections raised by the first publication. The book's most controversial suggestions still involve visitation from a noncustodial parent: the authors argue that the custodial parent, not the courts, should determine whether or not visitation is beneficial to the child. Because most noncustodial parents are fathers, the book's guidelines seem especially inimical to them. The authors' discussion ignores the question of whether or not noncustodial parents without visitation rights must provide child support, and critics of the book argue that the authors have underestimated the value to the child of having contact with two parents, even when the parents are separated and somewhat hostile to each other. 196a. Horgan, Timothy J. Winning Your Divorce: A Man's Survival Guide. New York: Dutton, 1994. xi, 196p. appendixes. glossary, index. "Popular mythology and the feminist movement contend that the American legal system favors men," Horgan writes. "Nothing could be further from the truth." The divorce system is "out of control," and males are its principle victims. In this up-to-date guide to divorce and custody battles, Horgan employs clear, direct prose to guide men from the moment a divorce is imminent to recovering from its aftermath. He warns that the divorce process will be financially and emotionally draining. Men must be forever vigilant and must take an active role in everything from closing joint accounts to selecting a lawyer. They must be wary of divorce mediation, motions for temporary relief, and settlement conferences. Because prejudice against fathers still permeates the system, a man's bid for custody and visitation are likely to involve an uphill struggle. False accusations of child molestation should be expected. Horgan discusses alimony, the trial, and its aftereffects. The three appendixes contain a glossary of legal terms, a short list of fathers' rights organizations in the U.S., and a state-by-state summary of residency requirements and divorce grounds. 197. Kerpelman, Leonard. Divorce: A Guide for Men. South Bend, IN: Icarus Press, 1983. xi, 292p. index. Convinced that the judicial system is prejudiced against males in divorce cases, attorney Kerpelman provides hard-nosed advice for men contemplating divorce. Speaking bluntly, he says that anything less than militancy in conducing his case will ensure the man's defeat. Kerpelman has a low opinion of most lawyers' willingness and ability to handle the man's case. Judges are

even worse: most are "male chauvinists," that is, they believe that women should be protected and supported by males and that women are automatically more suited for parenting than men. Kerpelman tells male readers that they will need the support of a competent and active fathers' group; if the man cannot find such a group, he had better start one. Drawing upon the experiences of a Maryland Fathers' United for Equal Rights group, the author tells of its founding and of how it evolved tactics to pressure judges who regularly handed down blatantly anti-male decisions. "Mr. Nice Guy" will invariably lose, Kerpelman argues, advising men to be tough, angry, and militantbut never violentthroughout the divorce experience. 198. Kiefer, Louis. How to Win Custody. New York: Simon and Schuster, Cornerstone Library, 1982. xi, 308p. appendixes. index. pa. A divorced attorney who obtained custody of his children "not because of the legal system but in spite of it," Kiefer writes primarily for fathers (the traditional underdogs in custody cases), although his advice is useful for either parent (the book includes a chapter for the noncustodial mother). Kiefer's legal knowledge provides an unusually detailed account of the custodial tug-of-war, his courtroom experiences enable him to cite numerous (often hair-raising)

Page 73

cases, and his writing skills produce clear, jargon-free prose. Kiefer has few illusions about the legal system, his advice is both practical and blunt (''trust no one"), and his thorough coverage explores both the usual topics (how to locate a good lawyer) and the less familiar ones (how to nullify your spouse's "dirty tricks," making phone taps and taping conversations, the legalities of absconding with children, and how to locate "kidnapped" children). The six appendixes include a sample joint custody agreement, a list of deposition questions, questions for cross-examining a psychiatrist, and the texts of the Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction Act and the Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act of 1980. 199. Metz, Charles V. Divorce and Custody for Men: A Guide and Primer Designed Exclusively to Help Men Win Just Settlements. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1968. xvii, 147p. Metz, a pioneer in justice for divorced fathers, designed this primer to jolt about-to-be-divorced men out of their complacency; they must be prepared to fight viciously if they hope to win even the semblance of a just settlement. Loss of income, property, and children is among the prices that men pay for their ignorance of divorce law and practice, which are strongly biased in women's favor. Get mad, be prepared, file first, and fight to win, Metz advises. He takes a dim view of alimony, social workers, judges, attorneys, and visitation practices, arguing that men must organize to effect changes in divorce law and procedures. While some readers will see Metz's book as dated, others will note how little has changed since 1968. 200. Morgenbesser, Mel, and Nadine Nehls. Joint Custody: An Alternative for Divorcing Families. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1981. vii, 168p. illus. bibliography, 151-61. index. Calmly and equitably, the authors provide a history of child custody and a definition of current joint custody. After describing the effects of divorce upon children, they argue the benefitsand potential drawbacksof joint custody. Also included are suggestions on how to achieve joint custody, sample joint-custody agreements, interviews with parents sharing custody, and an overview of research on the topic. 201.

Myers, Michael F. Men and Divorce. New York: Guilford Press, 1989. xv, 286p. bibliography, 271-78. index. A Canadian therapist, Myers surveys, in part 1, the history of divorce, the clinical research on divorce, and the theories of why people marry and divorce. In part 2, he examines eight aspects of men and divorce: the not-yetseparated man, the newly separated man, divorce at various ages in the male life cycle, the phenomenon of divorcing men who take up with younger women, abandoned husbands, previously divorced men, gay men who are coming out through divorce, and divorced fathers and their children. Part 3 examines therapeutic interventions, discusses common themes in treatment (e.g., anger, dependency, sexuality, and grief), and explains patient-totherapist transference of feelings and therapist-to-patient countertransference. The final chapter surveys the future of men and divorce. Throughout the discussion, Myers's pro-feminist perspective creates a disturbing pattern of husband blaming and wife exonerating. Nearly every case history cited in the book depicts the divorce as due to the husband's "problems" that persist despite the wife's long-suffering endurance. Because the author has difficulty recognizing a dark side to some women's actions, his attitude toward male patients is often patronizing.

Page 74

202. Ricci, Isolina. Mom's House/Dad's House: Making Shared Custody Work. New York: Macmillan, 1980. xv, 270p. illus. appendixes. bibliography throughout notes and 264-66. notes. index. pa. Indicating that single-parent custody often does not work well, Ricci offers an extensive list of suggestions for separated couples to turn two houses into two homes for their children. She considers myriad complications that can arise, offers practical solutions, and, in the process, makes a case for shared custody as often being preferable to single-parent custody. 203. Roman, Mel, and William Haddad, with Susan Manso. The Disposable Parent: The Case for Joint Custody. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1978. 215p. notes. index. Reprint, New York: Penguin Books, 1979. pa. In this classic fathers' rights text, Roman and Haddad argue that the disposable parent is usually the father. With divorce, child custody goes to the mother in over 90 percent of contemporary cases. After an introduction describing their own divorces and those of other men, the authors explore, in chapter 1, the legal history of custody, concentrating upon the reversal in England and the United States from nineteenth-century practice (which regularly awarded custody to the father) to twentieth-century practice (which does just the opposite). In chapter 2, the authors argue that the present method of splitting the family between custodial and noncustodial parents does not work. Chapter 3 is devoted to what is known about fathers and fathering as well as the stereotypes that underlie many studies. Chapters 4 and 5 reply to arguments against joint custody and cite evidence for its feasibility. In chapter 6, the authors show why joint custody is seldom considered. In particular, they point to feminist ambivalence on the subject: while recognizing that single parenthood places heavy burden on women, some feminists have been reluctant to abandon the principal stronghold of female power, and some are guilty of misandric sexism, believing that men do not care about or cannot handle parenting. In the final chapter, the authors make suggestions for creating a social climate in which joint custody can work better. 204. Vail, Lauren O. Divorce: The Man's Complete Guide to Winning. New York: Simon and Schuster, Sovereign Books, 1979. viii, 280p. appendixes. bibliography, 246-51. notes. index.

"Definitely pro men," but not "against women," Vail's book takes a dim view of the legal system of domestic relations in the United States. Vail sees men victimized by their ignorance of the law, the bias against men in the courts, and the nice-guy psychology that makes men vulnerable to manipulation. Arguing that men must pursue their cases aggressively. Vail offers hard-nosed advice on such matters as preliminary do's and don'ts of divorce; finding a good lawyer; the grounds and proofs needed for divorce; what to expect of the legal system; support, property, and custody agreements; preparing for trial; and how to survive psychologically during and after the divorce. A clinical psychologist (but not a lawyer), Vail avoids legal jargon. The four appendixes contain advice on how to do your own legal research, a list of helpful readings, a list of men's rights organizations, and a glossary of legal terms. 205. Victor, Ira, and Win Ann Winkler. Fathers and Custody. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1977. xiii, 209p. appendixes. bibliography, 193-201. notes. index. "There is overwhelming evidence," the authors write, "that prejudice exists against fathers in a custody situation." This book considers the growing phenomenon of fathers with child custody, the difficulties they encounter in

Page 75

obtaining it, and the problems they face once they have it. After presenting case histories to demonstrate that a representative "father" does not exist, the authors explain why more men are seeking custody now than in the past. One reason is that the "feminine" bride who valued motherhood sometimes becomes the "feminist" wife who deplores it. Discussing women who "drop out" of marriage and fathers who ''cop out" of custody hassles, the authors observe that the principal victims in these situations are often the children. Despite changing attitudes, fathers seeking custody have an uphill battle. In discussing the ambiguous impact of the 1970s men's movement, the authors review division in its ranks between militants pushing for men's equal rights and profeminist males reiterating radical feminist accusations against men. The hostility of the women's movement toward awarding custody to fathers, except when the mother agrees to give it up, is also noted. The authors examine the increase of kidnapping among divorced parents, help for fathers with custody, and visitation problems. Despite the doomsaying of some authorities, the authors argue that joint custody and full custody for fathers canand often doeswork. In concluding chapters, they look briefly at dating, remarriage, and step-parenting, as well as a new emerging parental consciousness. The appendixes list divorced fathers groups, single-parent and child-help groups, and legal advice referral groups. 206. Warshak, Richard A. The Custody Revolution: The Father Factor and the Motherhood Mystique. New York: Poseidon Press, 1992. 272p. appendix. notes. index. Custody decisions in twentieth-century America have been distorted by the "motherhood mystique," that is, the belief that women, because of their nature, make better parents than men, and mothers are more important to children than fathers. This mystique overburdens mothers, exiles fathers, and shortchanges children. Warshak surveys recent scholarship that demonstrates the impact of the father on the child's infancy development, intelligence, academic achievement, motivation, maturity, moral development and self control, empathy and caring, and responsibility. Delinquency is closely linked with father absence. He notes the existence of single fathers who cope successfully with children. Mothers who give up custody are socially stigmatized for doing so. Many feminists, who would be expected to support equal parenting, have a double standard after divorce because of their

reluctance to relinquish a traditional stronghold of women's power. The present single-parent mode of custody is hurting children, especially boys, who often lose their father after divorce. Warshak cites studies indicating that, after divorceon balanceboys do better with fathers and girls do better with mothers. Thus, he argues that gender should be one factor to consider when custody is being decided. Exploring various forms of joint and split custody, he concludes that the pros of such custody arrangements usually outweigh the cons. He is critical of the "primary caregiver" criterion for granting custody, because the primary caregiver is not necessarily the better parent or the more important parent for the child to be with. Warshak urges a custody revolution because the present system is irreparably damaging many children. 207. Woody, Robert Henley. Getting Custody: Winning the Last Battle of the Marital War. New York: Macmillan, 1978. xii, 179p. appendixes. bibliography, 172-73. index. A clinical psychologist specializing in marriage problems, Woody offers legal suggestions and psychological advice (mostly for men) for waging and surviving custodial battles.

Page 76

Cross-References See chapter 14, "Males in Families: C. Divorced and Single Fathers, Stepfathers," and chapter 16, "Men's Rights." 340. Corman, Avery. Kramer Versus Kramer. 39. Covington, Jim. Confessions of a Single Father. 350. Goldman, William. Father's Day. 53. Martin, Albert. One Man, Hurt. 60. Painter, Hal. Mark, I Love You. 166. Sell, Kenneth D., comp. Divorce in the 70s: A Subject Bibliography. 66. Stafford, Linley M. One Man's Family: A Single Father and His Family.

Page 77

7 Erotica and Pornography


208. Christensen, F. M. Pornography: The Other Side. New York: Praeger, 1990. viii, 189p. bibliography, 177-83. notes. index. Christensen argues that pornography is not the problem; sexual repression is. He distinguishes among different kinds of "pornography," ranging from erotica to violent porn. He argues that most males are predisposed by biology to respond to erotic visual cues. In contrast, females tend to be more interested in "romance" and long-term commitments. What is called pornography, Christensen argues, is a legitimate way to meet a healthy, predominantly male need. Antisexual attitudes in Western society have been encouraged by Christianity and Islam, but these biases are neither innate nor healthy. Common charges against pornography are without merit. In a compelling chapter, "Pornography and Women," Christensen attacks the argument that explicit depictions of sex debase women, and he argues that some feminist attacks on pornography carry strong overtones of misandry. Focusing on violent porn, Christensen notes that such materials represent a small percentage of all pornography and that critics of violent porn generally are concerned only when females are victimized; these critics usually ignore violence done to men in standard entertainments. Those who regard sexual content as inherently degrading most often regard sex itself as degrading. The alleged ill effects of pornography have not been demonstrated; indeed, legalizing pornographic materials in countries like Denmark has lowered the number of sex crimes. The alleged link between pornography and rape is spurious, and legal efforts to repress pornography create more problems than they solve. Christensen offers intriguing reasons for considering "the other side'' of pornography. 209. Dworkin, Andrea. Pornography: Men Possessing Women. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1989. xl, 300p. bibliography, 239-85. notes. index. pa. Reprint, New York: Plume, 1989. pa. Pornography harms women, Dworkin argues, citing cases in which the use of pornography led to crimes against women. She defines pornography as

anything that depicts women as sexual objects or as subordinate to men. Not content with denouncing pornography and its producers and consumers, however, Dworkin sees pornography as part of a universal conspiracy of male power

Page 78

against females. Having made this dubious leap of logic, Dworkin goes on a rhetorical rampage condemning the entire male sex as unspeakably evil and masculinity as irretrievably corrupt. With this thesis, Dworkin is quick to interpret everything in terms of male brutalization of women. The penis is a weapon of oppression, and sexual intercourse is an act of violence. When boys transfer their gender identification from mother to father, they degrade the feminine. There is no distinction between erotica and pornography; both are manifestations of male power. The Marquis de Sade is a representative man whose fantasies are typical of male bestiality. Men regard women simply as sexual objects, and male use of force in sexual relations is the norm. Here and there, Dworkin acknowledges that some pornography is degrading to males, but as this idea does not fit her thesis of male omnipotence over women, it is given short shrift. "Male perceptions of women are askew, wild, inept," Dworkin writes, and the same might be said of her perceptions of males. If pornography consists of dehumanizing a class of people, Dworkin has written a pornographic book. 210. Kimmel, Michael S., ed. Men Confront Pornography. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1990. xi, 340p. notes. Noting that the radical feminist attack on pornography has been met with silence from men, Kimmel presents 31 discussions of pornography from male writers, representing differing reactions to the topic. In the introduction, Kimmel summarizes differing feminist responses to pornography: radical feminists see it as an assault upon women that reasserts male power, liberal feminists see it as a celebration of sexuality that women should encourage. Essays are divided into six sections: pornography and the construction of male sexuality; the politicization of pornography; the psychology of pornography; social science research on pornography; gay male pornography; and questions about what is to be done concerning pornography. Some writers (like David Steinberg) defend pornography as a needed response to sexual scarcity, to men's desire to be desired, and to the demeaning of male sexuality that permeates the society. Other writers (like John Stoltenberg) see pornography warping sexuality with notions of male supremacy. Writers explore connections (or lack of connections) between pornography and rape, pornography as addiction, how blacks respond to the pornography debate (not a major issue, according to Robert Staples), pornography as therapy, and how gay male

pornography raises some questions about feminist analyses of pornography. Authors include Phillip Lopate, Timothy Beneke, Philip Weiss, Harry Brod, Scott Tucker, and Bernie Zilbergeld. 211. Melton, J. Gordon, with Gary L. Ward. The Churches Speak On: Pornography: Official Statements from Religious Bodies and Ecumenical Organizations. Detroit: Gale Research, 1989. xxv, 267p. index. pa. Melton has collected documents issued by more than 30 religious organizations and denominations concerning pornography. The documents date from the 1930s through the 1980s. Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish groups are represented, as well as Shi'a and Sunni Islam and the Unitarian Universalist Association. Most documents condemn "pornography" (which is almost always defined in terms of male-oriented materials, rarely in terms of female-oriented, gay-oriented, or couple-oriented materials). The religious groups are especially concerned about pornography's negative impact upon women and children; they seldom express concern for its impact on males. Some of the documents deplore the censorship that the war on pornography often entails.

Page 79

212. Mura, David. A Male Grief: Notes on Pornography and Addiction. Minneapolis, MN: Thistle Series, Milkweed Editions, 1987.24p. pa. This brief monograph consists of a series of reflections on pornography as a male addiction. (Mura does not consider female addiction to romance pornography.) The reflections often consist of questionable generalizations; for example: "Like all addicts, the addict to pornography dreams then of ultimate power and control." Maybe yes, maybe no. Cross-References See chapter 21, "Sexuality." 71. Abbott, Franklin, ed. Men and Intimacy: Personal Accounts Exploring the Dilemmas of Modern Male Sexuality.

Page 80

8 Feminism: Feminisms, Critiques of Feminism, Feminist Critiques


213. Brown, Wendy. Manhood and Politics: A Feminist Reading in Political Theory. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1988. xiii, 231p. (New Feminist Perspectives Series). bibliography, 215-23. notes. index. pa. In this thoughtful analysis, Brown argues that politics has borne a masculine identity throughout history. Seeking freedom from constraint, masculinist politics tends to produce fetters. The bulk of Brown's study is devoted to three major figures of Western political theory. Rejecting Hannah Arendt's analysis of Aristotle as enthusiastic but flawed, Brown sees Aristotle's thought producing alienation of ruler from ruled and mind (male) from body (female). In Machiavelli, politics becomes a way for men to achieve manhood through ambition; yet the struggle of manly virt to conquer feminine fortuna creates a man-made jungle. Max Weber's account of politics arising from warrior consociations ends in politics stifling the life it supposedly protects. In the final chapters on "post masculinist" politics, Brown faults feminist thinkers for oversimplified notions of power and for demonizing men. "Not maleness but [some?] institutionalized ideals of manhood are the problem." Brown challenges feminists (and men?) to discover a new politic that will sustain life. 214. Collard, Andre, with Joyce Contrucci. Rape of the Wild: Man's Violence against Animals and the Earth. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1989. xvii, 187p. notes. index. pa. An example of radical ecofeminist writing, Collard's polemic is laced with sensitivity for women, animals, and plants, but with a toxic hatred for men. All sins against the ecosystem, in Collard's view, have been committed by men and their creationspatriarchy, capitalism, science, Western civilization, and Judeo-Christian religion. Special pleading pervades the book. Discussing the hunting and trapping of animals, Collard writes as if women in earlier cultures never trapped animals, never wore fur clothing, and never ate meat. Discussing the use of laboratory animals, she writes as if no women biologists or laboratory assistants ever experimented on animals. Men are to blame for

everything. Do some women love fur coats? That is because male advertisers have brainwashed them. Better yet, male advertisers have convinced men to give fur coats to women (and the men presumably force the women to wear them). Predictably, Collard waxes poetic over the mythical golden age of prehistoric matriarchal societies when mothers ruled over non-hierarchical communes. The introduction by Mary Daly seethes with her usual vitriolic misandry. The epilogue by Joyce Contrucci profiles the life of Collard, who died in 1986.

Page 81

215. Davidson, Nicholas. The Failure of Feminism. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1988. 392p. appendix. bibliography, 349-50. notes. index. This extensive analysis of U.S. feminism finds it fatally flawed by messianic ideology and naive assumptions. Although recognizing the need to redress social wrongs suffered by women as well as the positive victories achieved by feminism, Davidson finds the movement maimed by its hatred of men and masculinity, its paradoxical devaluing of the feminine, and its commitment to unisexism (i.e., a belief that the sexes are fundamentally the same). Davidson locates the origins of the current wave of U.S. feminism in the turbulence of the sixties, and he documents its depreciation of feminine values and roles in such works as The Feminine Mystique, Sexual Politics (entry 680), and The Female Eunuch. The Feminist Era, which he dates from 1969 to 1984, was punctuated by a series of failures. Ideologically, feminism narrowed itself to a belief that men have caused all the world's evils through "patriarchy" while women have remained an innocent, subjugated class. Feminism forced both women and men into inauthentic "New Woman" and "New Man" roles. Part 2 of the book argues that, by politicizing sex as power politics, feminists robbed heterosexual love of its joy and spontaneity. In public politics, feminists virtually ensured the defeat of the ERA, anti-pornography laws, day-care and comparable worth schemes, and the candidacy of Geraldine Ferraro. In part 3, Davidson locates the failures of feminist theory in cultural determinism that ignores biosocial gender differences. Part 4 looks beyond current feminism to new recognition of gender distinctiveness, the validation of feminine and masculine behaviors, and the abandonment of unisexism. In "An Open Letter to American Men," Davidson urges men to defend themselves from misandric attacks, champion authentic masculinity, and listen carefully to the feminine voice of women. The appendix offers advice on how to counter typical rhetorical tactics of messianic feminists. 216. Davidson, Nicholas, ed. Gender Sanity. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1989. ix, 260p. bibliography, 245-48. notes. index. The 17 essays in this volume present a conservative critique of feminist ideology and practice. The crux of the argument is found in three essays in part 4: Davidson's own attack on cultural determinism, Steven Goldberg's argument that biology predetermines patriarchal and male dominant social

structures, and Yves Christen's essay on "Sex Differences in the Human Brain." Other writers attack the negative effects of feminist ideology on women (in part 1), on men (in part 2), and on children (in part 3). The essays on men include Jack Kammer's observations on the ubiquitousness of male bashing, Jane Young and John Rossler's assessment of America's devaluation of fatherhood, and Frank Zepezauer's analysis of the trashing of masculinity in the arts. In part 5, five articles assail feminist distortions of truth. R. L. McNeely and Gloria Robinson-Simpson address domestic violence as a falsely framed issue, Carol Iannone examines distortions in feminist scholarship, and Margarita Levin surveys some peculiar feminist responses to "male" science. In the final essay, George Gilder decries "the myth of role revolution." As Davidson points out in his preface, the viewpoints expressed here have often been suppressed by the "lace curtain" of feminist censorship in publishing. 217. Fordham, Jim, with Andrea Fordham. The Assault on the Sexes. New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1977. 480p. illus. bibliography, 469-74. index. From a conservative perspective, the Fordhams take on feminist activists, "sexperts," the media, and others who assault traditional sex roles and the family. They deplore the trendy denigration of housewives and resent the assumption of some feminists that they speak for all women. The authors

Page 82

question the media's love affair with fiery feminist rhetoric and the obligatory daily quota of "feminist news." They question some feminist scholarship, in particular that in Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique and in Jessie Bernard's The Future of Marriage. They argue that feminist language (e.g., "sexism," "male chauvinist") does not describe reality but is used to manipulate unthinking responses. The authors insist that the push for "equality" and "options'' will actually enforce unisex standards and behaviors. The Fordhams support special privileges for women and reject equal military obligations for both sexes. They say they support equal pay for equal work but argue that men are paid more because they are legally responsible for supporting wives and families, a situation the authors presumably do not wish to see remedied. 218. Franks, Helen. Goodbye Tarzan: Men After Feminism. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1984. 231p. bibliography, 223-27. index. Interviewing 70 British men, ages 19-59, as well as groups of adolescent boys 15-18, Franks constructs a mosaic of male reactions to feminism. Actually, Franks uses snippets from the interviews to present her feminist views on matters such as masculinity, male bonding and homophobia, the constrictions of the breadwinner role, the "deprived father" after divorce, fatherhood, sons of feminist mothers, men's health, women at work, the men's movement, and future gender roles. Some readers may wish that Franks had let the men speak more than she does, and that she had generalized less about men and women. Her efforts to depict Warren Farrell's The Liberated Man (entry 95) and Herb Goldberg's Hazards of Being Male (entry 103) as anti-feminist tracts do not inspire confidence. 219. Freedman, C. H. Manhood Redux: Standing up to Feminism. Brooklyn, NY: Samson, 1985. viii, 294p. notes. pa. A conservative journalist, Freedman levels a host of charges at radical feminists. He accuses them of censorship in academia and in the publishing industry, of fostering hostility between the sexes, of intolerance toward nonfeminist women, and of ignoring inherent sex differences in their quest for a spurious equality. Freedman deplores the forced hiring of less qualified female police officers and the lowering of firefighter requirements in order to accommodate feminist demands. He feels that women cannot meet standards for combat soldiers. In a section devoted to men as the "oppressed" sex, he

denounces such matters as the male-only military obligation, job discrimination against men, the inequities of divorce settlements, the justice system's discrimination against males, and the legal scares by which women who kill men are exonerated. To muster resistance to radical feminism's hegemony, Freedman calls for abolition of women's professional sports (so that women athletes will have to compete with male athletes), support for women like Phyllis Schlafly (who engineered the stunning defeat of the ERA), and rejection of male feminists, who are despised by the female feminists they support. 220. Friedman, Scarlet, and Elizabeth Sarah, eds. On the Problem of Men: Two Feminist Conferences. London: Women's Press, 1982. ix, 262p. bibliographies at the end of some chapters. notes. pa. This collection of 20 radical feminist papers from two British conferences contains essays on such matters as family, sex, pornography, rape, fathers, male feminists, the men's movement, and raising sons. Whatever the topic, relations between the sexes are invariably reduced to Marxist formulations of male "oppression" and female "struggle."

Page 83

221. Gittelson, Natalie. Dominus: A Woman Looks at Men's Lives. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1978. ix, 291p. Reprint, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979. pa. Casting a skeptical eye on the women's liberation movement of the seventies and on male reaction to it, Gittelson draws upon "hundreds" of interviews in the United States and Europe to argue that "the so-called feminist revolution has transformed the consciousness of American men more dramatically, more decisivelyand perhaps more dangerouslythan the consciousness of women." Denied the opportunity to exercise dominus (masterly leadership), U.S. men have developed questionable substitutes, including "vaginal men" who disparage masculinity, nice guys who have attempted to placate militant feminists and who have become male chauvinists in the process, and callous macho types who overreact to the women's challenge. Nostalgic for men who can exercise dominus gracefully, Gittelson locates modern decadence in the narcissistic lives of materialistic singles, in the guilt mongering of some profeminist men, and in the relationships between super-men and wonder women in which caring means losing and freedom means loneliness. She sees black men as reveling in dominus at the very time when white men are jettisoning it; she notes the hostility that underlies some men's support for women's rights (for these men, equality is the best revenge). After exploring the status of European gender relationships and the battle of the sexes in corporate life, Gittelson writes movingly of male blue-collar workers facing angry wives and single parenthood. She is critical of gay liberation's attempt to become gay imperialism and of the antics of sexual liberation gurus. Acidly suave and eminently quotable, Gittelson presents a stimulating case for men to rethink their rejection of dominus. 222. Gordon, John. The Myth of the Monstrous Male, and Other Feminist Fables. New York: Playboy Press, 1982. xv, 253p. bibliography, 251-53. In this lively polemic, Gordon takes issue with some current trends of militant feminism. Describing himself as a feminist who supports equal rights and opportunities, Gordon goes on to offer a riposte to feminist tracts such as Susan Brownmiller's Against Our Will (entry 908), Marilyn French's The Women's Room, Kate Millett's Sexual Politics (entry 680), Adrienne Rich's Of Woman Born, Mary Daly's Gyn / Ecology, and Ashley Montagu's The Natural

Superiority of Women. He contends that the women's liberation movement has become sexually repressive, linking itself to the antisexual elements of earlier women's movements. He regards the men-are-oppressors stereotypes of some modern feminists as a variant of men-are-sexual-beasts stereotypes of older feminists. In the past, he argues, women pretended to be asexual creatures; they granted sex to the hungry male only in exchange for marriage, which included the male's commitment to lifetime financial support. The recent women's movement, which initially promised to liberate women from hypocritical bargaining, is now becoming reluctant to surrender the power that such bargaining confers on them. "As for men," Gordon concludes, "their need right now is not for the much-vaunted right to cry, but simply to get very damned angry at what is being said about them as a sex, and at the everywhere-manifest consequences of the propaganda." 223. Hagan, Kay Leigh, ed. Women Respond to the Men's Movement: A Feminist Collection. New York: Pandora, HarperCollins, 1992. xiv, 176p. illus. pa. The women of the title are radical feminists such as Margo Adair, Phyllis Chesler, and Starhawk. Their responses are contained in 18 short essays, plus

Page 84

an introduction by Gloria Steinem, a short story by Ursula K. Le Guin, and three cartoons by Nicole Hollander. The men's movement of the title is the mythopoetic movement, with Robert Bly's Iron John (entry 861) as the central text. Overwhelmingly, the responses are hostile and defensive. Criticism is directed against several aspects of the mythopoetic movement, including its belief in innate sexual differences, its injunction that boys break with the Mother and bond with the Father (most of the essays are hostile to fathers, fatherhood, and patriarchy), and its use of "warrior" imagery (several writers believe it encourages male violence against women). Because the writers regard males as a powerful, privileged class of oppressors, they feel threatened by what they fear is a return of male power. Several authors favor a men's movement, but only if it espouses radical feminism. Some essays are manhating (e.g., Jane Caputi and Gordene O. MacKenzie's diatribe against "cockocratic power"; Phyllis Chesler's harangue against fathers' rights). A few essays offer helpful suggestions (e.g., Zsuzsanna Emese Budapest contributes alternative rituals of male initiation; Myriam Miedzian provides practical suggestions for engaging fathers more closely in child rearing). 224. Jardine, Alice, and Paul Smith, eds. Men in Feminism. New York and London: Methuen, 1987. ix, 288p. notes. pa. This collection of 24 contributions grew out of a pair of conference seminars. Because female feminists in academia tend to regard males as an oppressor class and because they regard feminism as woman-centered activity, the question of where pro-feminist male academics fit into the movement is awkward. In the opening essay, Stephen Heath argues that men do not belong in feminism at all; their only proper response is admiration. Paul Smith, however, argues that pro-feminist males can support the cause and even contribute insights. Female feminist responses to such suggestions alternate between amusement and anger. Often, male feminists are suspected of trying to beat women at their own game, to be better feminists than women are. Elaine Showalter, for example, finds the film Tootsie to be sexist for just this reason: a male character assumes female guise and shows the women how to be good feminists. Showalter also berates Jonathan Culler for presuming to "read like a woman" and Terry Eagleton for trying to appropriate feminism for his own Marxist purposes. Nancy K. Miller berates Denis Donoghue for raising questions of excellence about women's writings. (Donoghue is not a male

feminist, and his contribution, "A Criticism of One's Own," is printed in a different type to underline its outcast status.) Rosi Braidotti believes men wish to appropriate the glow of women's status as victims. Much of the critical theory discussed in the volume is French: the names of Roland Barthes, Hlne Cixous, Michel Foucault, Luce Irigaray, and Jacques Lacan are frequently invoked, and an edited seminar with Jacques Derrida is included. In the final selection, the transcript of a dialogue, Jardine and Smith reflect on issues raised in the collection. For a discussion of male feminist criticism, readers should see entry 392. 225. Levin, Michael. Feminism and Freedom. New Brunswick, NJ, and Oxford, England: Transaction Books, 1987. xi, 336p. bibliography, 307-23. notes. index. pa. In this wholesale assault, Levin portrays feminism as a totalitarian belief system that uses government coercion to restrict people's freedoms. Denying biological innateness, feminism uses state power to enforce sexual "equality." Thus, "affirmative action" is state-sanctioned discrimination against white males, while "comparable worth" schemes are efforts to manipulate peoples' incomes through government intervention. In state-supported elementary

Page 85

education, feminist indoctrination distorts reality to fit a political agenda, while in the universities, feminist scholarship falsely designates women as a class and replaces an objective search for truth with political ends. With the help of the government, feminists have reduced academic freedom and have legitimized discrimination against males. Equal opportunity in sports programs discriminates against male athletes in order to create artificial victories for female athletes. Coercive manipulation of language stems from a feminist conviction that language creates reality rather than reflects it. Putting women into combat, Levin argues, disregards traditional practices that stem from innate sexual differences. At war with the family, feminism fosters divorce and the impoverishment of ex-wives, encourages abortion, and aligns itself with homosexuality. Levin concludes that feminist rage has developed from inadequate fathering, and that menhaving lost touch with their masculinityhave been tongue-tied in the face of feminist accusations. 226. Levine, Judith. My Enemy, My Love: Man-Hating and Ambivalence in Women's Lives. New York: Doubleday, 1992. xii, 416p. bibliography, 399-402. notes. index. A committed feminist, Levine is troubled by the amount and intensity of man hating among U.S. feminists, and among women in general. Virulent misandry is everywhere (except in the many dictionaries that either do not contain the word misandry or define it weakly as "dislike of men"). Misandry is a cultural phenomenon that tears women apart: they are often close to men (as fathers, brothers, lovers, husbands, sons, friends, coworkers, and so on), but they have learned to despise men as a class. Levine surveys the various stereotypes by which U.S. women now caricature men (e.g., the baby, the bumbler, the betrayer, the beast, etc.). While acknowledging some justice in some of these portraits, Levine is contemptuous of male-bashers: Jackie Collins, the author of numerous man-hating romances; conservative women like Phyllis Schlafly who distrust men too greatly to grant them legal freedoms; Phyllis Chesler, whose misandric manipulation of the facts is evident in Mothers on Trial; the "femiNazis" who rallied to the defense of Mary Beth Whitehead and characterized fathers as "sperm donors"; Susan Brownmiller, whose justification for the murder of Emmett Till in Against Our Will (entry 908) reeks of racism; and Catharine MacKinnon and Andrea Dworkin, whose anti-pornography ordinances barely mask their anti-male sexism. Levine traces misandry in the women's

movement of the 1960s and 1970s, and she argues that man hating is born of father absence. In the final chapters, Levine provides close-ups of women coping with the split in their lives induced by the ubiquitous misandry of U.S. society. 227. Lyndon, Neil. No More Sex War: The Failures of Feminism. London: SinclairStevenson, 1992. 250p. The publication of this book caused a stir in Great Britain as feminists rushed to defend the faith against Lyndon's attacks. A child of the sixties, Lyndon depicts current feminism as a backlash against the freedoms and the benefits that both sexes stood to gain by events of the sixties. Although the pill and abortion provided women and men with an opportunity for greater sexual freedom, feminists could not handle the social change and retreated into man-hating puritanism. In the process, they betrayed the social reforms that men and women were striving for. Lyndon traces the roots of this misandry to misapplied Marx, Engels, and Freud. In the writings of current feminists like Germaine Greer and Rosalind Miles (entry 921), Lyndon finds examples of Nazi attitudes towards men as well as phony statistical evidence. He sees the mass

Page 86

of this misandry directed against the father, whom feminists are determined to drive out of the family. He disavows any men's movement, however, arguing that society needs gender unity, not a male version of the feminist sex war. Although Lyndon makes no distinction among different feminist ideologies and does not always have his facts straight, his outspoken critique of some feminist attitudes and practices will strike a chord with many readers. 228. Marine, Gene. A Male Guide to Women's Liberation. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972. vi, 312p. bibliography, 275-303. notes. index. Reprint, New York: Avon-Discus, 1974. pa. For the confused male, Marine attempts to explain what the women's liberation movement of the late sixties and early seventies is all about. Although recognizing the excesses of some militant feminists, he regards the feminist cause as eminently just and reasonable. 229. Parturier, Franoise. Open Letter to Men. Translated by Joseph M. Bernstein. New York: Heineman, 1968. 173p. (Open Letter Series). pa. Radical French feminism, 1960s style, presents itself in a dialogue between the author and a fictional male persona, who presumably speaks for the entire male sex. Parturier is convinced that males devalue women's minds and have conspired throughout history to oppress them. Some changes in perspective from the 1960s are evident: the idea that women think differently from men, now a staple of some feminist scholarship, is denounced by Parturier as part of the male plot against women. Bombarded by the author's seemingly endless accusations about men's evil intentions, some male readers may note that Parturier makes equally hostile generalizations about gay males and lesbians. 230. Porter, David, ed. Between Men and Feminism. London and New York: Routledge, 1992. xiv, 186p. bibliographies and notes after some chapters. pa. Another entry in the ongoing skirmish over how pro-feminist males can relate to the dominant radical feminism of academia, this collection consists of an introduction and nine essays. In the introduction, Porter argues that, although men do not belong in feminism, they can occupy a space between feminism and current concepts of masculinity. This theme is reiterated in the opening essay by Joseph A. Boone. In the following essay, Naomi Segal raises a series

of questions about "good" versus "sexy" men, and how both sexes are presently confused by social changes that neither sex can fully assimilate. Andrea Spurling discusses the different styles of classroom behavior exhibited by Cambridge males and females. Joseph Bristow offers critiques of two canonical feminist texts, Kate Millett's Sexual Politics (entry 680) and Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick's Between Men (entry 425). From a gay male perspective, Gregory W. Bredbeck critiques leading ideas of French feminists Hlne Cixous and Luce Irigaray. John Forrester wonders about sexual perversion actually representing male normalcy. Other essays recount the formation and evolution of the Cambridge Men's Group, Martin Humphries's experiences as a gay male with the Achilles Heel anti-sexist collective, and Jeff Hearn's Marxist update of gender politics in the personal, political, and theoretical realms.

Page 87

230a. Roiphe, Katie. The Morning After: Sex, Fear, and Feminism on Campus. Boston: Little, Brown, 1993. xii, 180p. notes. The feminism that Roiphe learned at her mother's knee was all about women's liberation. The feminism that Roiphe encountered at Harvard and Princeton was about a nonexistent rape crisis, extravagant accusations of sexual harassment, and women as shrinking victims of male power and lust. A feminist herself, Roiphe deplores the bunker mentality of Take Back the Night rallies, the mixed messages of feminist students who dress to get men's attention and then denounce the attention as sexist, and the puritanical fervor of Catharine MacKinnon, whose antipornography crusade has all the earmarks of a modern day witch hunt. Dismayed by the pro-feminist men who have internalized radical feminist visions of males as beasts, Roiphe sees some forms of feminism as detrimental to women's advancement and as rooted in misandry. 231. Rowan, John. The Horned God: Feminism and Men as Wounding and Healing. London and New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987. xi, 155p. illus. bibliography, 143-50. index. In the first four chapters of this book, Rowan describes his wounded efforts to respond to the challenges of British radical feminism during the 1970s and 1980s. Because radical feminists had proclaimed men as the enemy and patriarchy as entirely oppressive to women, not even the most well-intentioned male feminist could do much that was not suspect to the sisterhood. While struggling against patriarchy, Rowan estranged his wife and neglected his children (an irony that, it seems, he does not fully appreciate). After numerous conferences, position papers, therapy sessions, and a divorce, Rowan discovered masculine spirituality. Healing began when he discovered that, in addition to "the bad penis" and "the nicey-nicey penis," there is "the good penis," that is, masculinity that might be acceptable to radical feminists. Rowan advocates Goddess worship in which men assume the role of the Horned God, consort and servant to the Goddess. Dionysus and Robin Goodfellow are familiar versions of the Horned God. Rowan rejects Robert Bly's wildman as insufficiently connected to women, and he describes initiation rites that may introduce men to the Horned God. Describing his new relationship with Sue Mickleburgh, Rowan celebrates hieros gamos, the sacred marriage of

the Goddess and her priest. 231a. Sommers, Christina Hoff. Who Stole Feminism? How Women Have Betrayed Women. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994. 320p. notes. index. Describing herself as a classical liberal feminist, Sommers laments the highjacking of the feminist movement by "gender feminists." Big name gender feminists include Gloria Steinem, Susan Faludi, Patricia Ireland, Marilyn French, and Catharine MacKinnon. While pretending to speak for all women, gender feminists are deeply alienated from most women. Gender feminists believe that they are at war with patriarchy, which they see as a political system that empowers men and victimizes women. In this gender war, the enemy is men, and the first casualty is truth. Sommers debunks the findings of several widely and uncritically reported "studies" that wildly exaggerated statistics of rape and domestic violence. Another piece of "advocacy research" ''proved" that U.S. schools are shortchanging girls. (If anything, the evidence indicates that schools are shortchanging boys, Sommers argues.) Taking advantage of academic tolerance, gender feminists have infiltrated higher education where they now terrorize anyone who disagrees with them. At the base of gender feminism lies a deep-seated misandry, which has been challenged only sporadically by academic administrators and professors. Sommers believes that neither women nor liberal, mainstream feminism benefits from the lies and misandry that gender feminists perpetuate.

Page 88

Cross-References See chapter 19, "Patriarchy, Patriarchal Society," and chapter 26, "Women and Men." 74. Astrachan, Anthony. How Men Feel: Their Responses to Women's Demands for Equality and Power. 76. Baber, Asa. Naked at Gender Gap: A Man's View of the War Between the Sexes. 389. Balbert, Peter. D. H. Lawrence and the Phallic Imagination: Essays on Sexual Identity and Feminist Misreading. 884. Bianchi, Eugene C., and Rosemary R. Reuther. From Machismo to Mutuality: Essays on Sexism and Woman-Man Liberation. 885. Bloesch, Donald G. Is the Bible Sexist? Beyond Feminism and Patriarchalism. 392. Boone, Joseph, and Michael Cadden, eds. Engendering Men: The Question of Male Feminist Criticism. 598. Chapman, Rowena, and Jonathan Rutherford, eds. Male Order: Unwrapping Masculinity. 396. Claridge, Laura, and Elizabeth Langland, eds. Out of Bounds: Male Writers and Gender(ed) Criticism. 981. Cline, Sally, and Dale Spender. Reflecting Men at Twice Their Natural Size. 1031. Cockburn, Cynthia. In the Way of Women: Men's Resistance to Sex Equality in Organizations. 889. Eller, Vernard. The Language of Canaan and the Grammar of Feminism. 945. Elshtain, Jean Bethke. Women and War. 95. Farrell, Warren. The Liberated Man. 96. Farrell, Warren. The Myth of Male Power: Why Men Are the Disposable Sex. 98. Fasteau, Marc Feigen. The Male Machine.

102. Gilder, George. Men and Marriage. 498. Green, Maureen. Fathering. 956. Jeffords, Susan. The Remasculinization of America: Gender and the Vietnam War. 993. Kammer, Jack. Good Will Toward Men: Women Talk About Fairness and Respect as a Two-Way Street. 407. Kiberd, Declan. Men and Feminism in Modern Literature. 282. Kimmel, Michael S., and Thomas E. Mosmiller, eds. Against the Tide: Profeminist Men in the United States, 1776-1990: A Documentary History.

Page 89

997. Kingma, Daphne Rose. The Men We Never Knew: Women's Role in the Evolution of a Gender. 121. Mailer, Norman. The Prisoner of Sex. 1045. Messner, Michael A., and Donald F. Sabo, eds. Sport, Men, and the Gender Order: Critical Feminist Perspectives. 680. Millett, Kate. Sexual Politics. 124. Moore, John H. But What About Men? After Women's Lib. 369. Reed, Ishmael. Reckless Eyeballing. 133. Roberts, Yvonne. Man Enough: Men of Thirty-five Speak Out. 927. Schechter, Susan. Women and Male Violence: The Visions and Struggles of the Battered Women's Movement. 618. Segal, Lynne. Slow Motion: Changing Masculinities, Changing Men. 928. Shupe, Anson, William A. Stacy, and Lonnie R. Hazlewood. Violent Men, Violent Couples: The Dynamics of Domestic Violence. 139. Skjei, Eric, and Richard Rabkin. The Male Ordeal: Role Crisis in a Changing World. 140. Snodgrass, Jon, ed. For Men Against Sexism: A Book of Readings. 647. Spender, Dale, ed. Men's Studies Modified: The Impact of Feminism on the Academic Disciplines. 667. Staples, Robert. Black Masculinity: The Black Man's Role in American Society. 623. Stoltenberg, John. Refusing to Be a Man: Essays on Sex and Justice. 295. Strauss, Sylvia. "Traitors to the Masculine Cause": The Men's Campaign for Women's Rights. 900. Tennis, Diane. Is God the Only Reliable Father? 143. Thomas, David. Not Guilty: The Case in Defense of Men. 146. Tolson, Andrew. The Limits of Masculinity: Male Identity and the Liberated Woman.

147. Vilar, Esther. The Manipulated Male. 1027. Walczak, Yvette. He and She: Men in the Eighties. 296. White, Kevin. The First Sexual Revolution: The Emergence of Male Heterosexuality in Modern America.

Page 90

9 Health and Related Topics


A. AIDS With males as its primary victims, AIDS requires attention in a men's studies bibliography. From the enormous amount of AIDS literature published during the last decade, this section lists a few books with special interest for men. 232. Coyle, Susan L., Robert F. Boruch, and Charles F. Turner, eds. Evaluating AIDS Prevention Programs. Expanded ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1991. xii, 376p. appendixes. bibliography after each chapter. index. pa. The product of a panel of scholars, this book examines a series of AIDS information and prevention programs asking three questions about them: what interventions were actually delivered? does the intervention make a difference? and what interventions or variations work better? Half of the volume is devoted to six appendixes examining methodologies and other matters. 233. Ford, Michael Thomas. 100 Questions and Answers About AIDS: A Guide for Young People. New York: New Discovery Books, Macmillan, 1992. 202p. (An Open Door Book). illus. glossary. index. In clear prose, Ford answers 100 questions about the nature of HIV and AIDS, facts and falsehoods concerning the disease, keeping safe from the disease, and testing and treatment for AIDS. Four interviews with people who contracted AIDS mark the four sections of the text. A resource guide of agencies and hotlines is included, as well as a glossary of terms. 234. Froman, Paul Kent. Pathways to Wellness: Strategies for Self-Empowerment in the Age of AIDS. New York: Penguin Books, Plume Book, 1990. 282p. bibliography, 281-82. pa. Aimed primarily (but not exclusively) at an audience of gay men, Froman offers advice on how to cope with the age of AIDS. For both those who have tested HIV positive and those who have not, he urges a strategy of wellness as

Page 91

opposed to destructive, victim thinking. Empowerment requires a victimectomy, that is, a release of negative emotions, self-hate, and helplessness. Forgiving, healing, positive thinking, loving othersall are coping strategies. Froman offers tools for creating wellness, for stress reduction, for problem solving, and for other life-affirming actions. 235. Fumento, Michael. The Myth of Heterosexual AIDS. New York: Basic Books, A New Republic Book, 1989. xv, 411p. appendix. notes. index. In the late 1980s, the notion arose that U.S. society would exhibit sufficient interest in AIDS only if people no longer thought of the virus as only a gay disease. Hence, some activists, journalists, and politicians began to push the idea of an imminent AIDS plague among heterosexuals. Fumento records how the scare stories spread nationwide, fueled by left- and right-wing overreactions, Hollywood, and media hype. The misinformation damaged the credibility of responsible AIDS awareness activists, did a great disservice to gays and drug users who were at high risk from AIDS, and created racist fears about the peoples of Africa and Haiti as the originators of an AIDS plague. Fumento provides evidence of the dismal mishandling of the AIDS problem. 236. Melton, J. Gordon. The Churches Speak On: AIDS: Official Statements from Religious Bodies and Ecumenical Organizations. Detroit: Gale Research, 1989. xxiii, 203p. index. pa. Melton has collected over 50 official statements about AIDS from the Roman Catholic Church, Protestant and Eastern Orthodox Churches, and Jewish Groups, as well as Buddhist, Mormon, Islamic, Unitarian-Universalist, NeoPaganism and New Age organizations. Although mainstream Christian and Jewish groups question such matters as sexual promiscuity and the use of condoms to prevent sexual diseases, nearly all express compassion for AIDS sufferers, and they call for dedication to ending the scourge. Nearly all reject the notion that AIDS is a plague from God, and they caution believers about cold-hearted responses to AIDS sufferers. 237. Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987. xxiii, 630p. notes. index. Reprint, New York: Penguin Books, 1988. pa.

When the first victims of AIDS appeared in the mid-1970s, the disease was simply baffling. By the early 1980s, however, it was clear to many people that a major epidemic was brewing. Swift and compassionate action might have contained the situation, but those in power preferred to ignore what many thought of as "gay cancer." After Rock Hudson died in October 1985, the United States was at last fully aware of AIDS as a killer disease. But by then it was too late. In this moving and panoramic nonfiction narrative of the delayed response to AIDS, Shilts presents the tragedy in personal and political terms. 238. Turner, Charles F., Heather G. Miller, and Lincoln E. Moses, eds. AIDS: Sexual Behavior and Intravenous Drug Use. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1989. xiii, 589p. appendixes. bibliography after each chapter. index. pa. Compiled by a national panel convened to study AIDS, this scholarly and clearly written book contains a wealth of information about the nature of HIV infection and its spread across the United States. In addition, the authors make recommendations to contain the AIDS epidemic, and they examine the barriers to future research and intervention. One appendix consolidates all the authors'

Page 92

recommendations into a single unit; the second provides supplementary data and tables about AIDS. The book also includes six background papers. Particularly interesting is Tom W. Smith's critique of the methodology used by Shere Hite in her 1987 study Women and Love: those who suspected Hite's accuracy will find their suspicions confirmed here. B. Men's Health, Circumcision, the Prostate, and Related Topics For additional materials on male sexual or reproductive health, readers should consult chapter 21, "Sexuality: A. Heterosexuality." 239. American Medical Association. Men: How to Understand Your Symptoms. Edited by Charles B. Clayman and Jeffrey R.M. Kunz. New York: Random House, 1986. 128p. illus. index. pa. In clear prose, this book describes symptoms and treatments of common male ailments. The discussion is organized around "pain sites" in the head, brain, eyes, ears, mouth, muscles, skin, heart, abdominal area, genitals, and so on. Drawings convey important information visually. The text provides a medication guide, with warnings about possible side-effects. The final section of the book is devoted to sexual and fertility problems. 240. Cant, Gilbert. Male Trouble: A New Focus on the Prostate. New York: Praeger, 1976. xiv, 146p. (A Frank E. Taylor Book). illus. index. Cant's book has four objectives: to acquaint lay readers with basic information about prostatic health and disease, to encourage men to seek medical attention at the first signs of disorder, to recommend routine rectal examinations earlier in life, and to indicate that, despite much surrounding mystery, prostatic troubles can often be treated effectively. Cant describes the urogenital system, the disorders that can involve the prostate, and the different treatments for them. He describes the effects of prostatic troubles on men and looks to future research for additional solutions. 241. Diagram Group. Man's Body: An Owner's Manual. New York: Paddington Press, 1976. (unpaged) ca. 250p. illus. index. Reprint, New York: Bantam Books, 1977. pa. This compendium of information and statistics about men's bodies contains

over 1,000 drawings, diagrams, and charts. The 12 sections of the book cover essential information about such matters as the development of the male body from conception to old age; life expectancy for males, including principal causes of death; illnesses; body care, especially of skin, hair, and teeth; the mind and body connection; physical fitness and exercise; food, including gaining and losing weight; drugs, alcohol, and smoking; male sex organs, potency, and sterility; sexuality, intercourse, contraception, homosexuality; and aging. The final section briefly describes the woman's body. The attractive format makes basic information about men's bodies available to a wide range of readers. 242. Editors of Men's Health Magazine. How a Man Stays Young. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1993. xiv, 300p. illus. index. pa. In clear, crisp prose, the authors offer upbeat advice on maintaining physical and mental health. They discuss such matters as diet, healthful

Page 93

recreations, male-male activities, and learning to argue therapeutically. Men are different from women, the editors insist unapologetically, and men need to pursue their well-being in manly ways. They praise the value of frequent sex, an aspirin every other day, and regular medical exams. They advise men to avoid excessive amounts of sun, alcohol, and high-cholesterol foods. Numerous other topics are covered, including sleep, grooming, exercise, and work habits. The final chapter provides answers to the most frequently asked questions received by Men's Health. 243. Friedman, Meyer, and Ray H. Rosenman. Type A Behavior and Your Heart. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1974. x, 274, xp. illus. index. Reprint, Greenwich, CT: Fawcett, 1978. pa. Heart disease respects neither class nor race, but in the past it has preyed particularly on U.S. men. Considering the sure and possible causes of this killer, the authors of this popular study focus on "Type A behavior," a pattern marked by stress, hurrying, and noncommunication. Other contributing causes are investigated, including cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, diet, and smoking. Exercise is no cure-all and may sometimes be contributory. In the closing chapters, Friedman and Rosenman provide guidelines for modifying Type A behavior. Although the connection between U.S. masculine gender roles and coronary disease is touched upon, readers may wish it had been probed more deeply. 244. Julty, Sam. Men's Bodies, Men's Selves. New York: Dell, Delta, 1979. 453p. illus. bibliography after each chapter. notes. pa. Described as "the complete guide to the health and well-being of men's bodies, minds, and spirits," Julty's book is aimed at men seeking to liberate themselves from the binds inherent in traditional masculinity. The 13 chapters include discussions of work, relationships with women, marriage and divorce, homosexuality, physical health, mental health, fathering, aging, sexuality, male genitalia, birth control and abortion, venereal disease, and rape. A storehouse of information, illustrated liberally with photographs and drawings, the text of this book is punctuated with editorials, autobiographical accounts, documents, definitions of unfamiliar terms, and other useful materials. Each chapter closes with an annotated list of suggested readings compiled by James Creane and a helpful listing of resources (e.g., newsletters, organizations, films, government

agencies) compiled by Paul Siudzinski. 245. Pesmen, Curtis, and the Editors of Esquire. How a Man Ages. New York: Ballantine Books, Ballantine/Esquire Press Book, 1984. xiii, 226p. illus. bibliography, 215-17. notes. index. pa. In clear, concise style, Pesmen describes the aging process in males and suggests ways to minimize its deleterious effects. Chapters are devoted to skin, hair, eyes, hearing, the mouth, bones and muscles, sexuality and sex organs, the heart, lungs and kidneys, the brain and memory, stamina and fitness, and nutrition and weight control. 246. Rous, Stephen N. The Prostate Book: Sound Advice on Symptoms and Treatment. Rev. ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1988. 273p. illus. glossary. Written for lay readers, this book describes the prostate and its normal function, the range of methods for diagnosing prostate problems, and infections and inflammations of the prostate. Separate chapters are devoted to prostate enlargement and prostatic cancer. Rous describes surgical and radiation therapy,

Page 94

telling what the patient can expect during each step of the treatment. A final chapter describes complications of prostate surgery. The book contains a glossary of medical terms. 247. Rowan, Robert L., and Paul J. Gillette. Your Prostate: What It Is, What It Does, and the Diseases That Affect It. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Co., 1973. xv, 147p. illus. appendix. index. For lay readers, the authors describe the male urogenital system and the prostate's part in it. They discuss disorders of the prostate (and disorders connected with it), as well as possible treatments of them. Topics include inflammation, growths, prostatitis, benign prostatic hypertrophy, cancer, trichomonas vaginalis, and premature ejaculation (which is sometimes related to problems in the prostate). A glossary of terms is included. 248. Siegel, Mary-Ellen. Dr. Greenberger's What Every Man Should Know About His Prostate. Rev. ed. New York: Walker, 1988. xvii, 186p. illus. appendixes. glossary. bibliography, 175-77. This updated version of the late Monroe E. Greenberger's What Every Man Should Know About His Prostate (1983) was written by Greenberger's daughter. In readable prose, Siegel describes the normal prostate and various methods of urological examination. She surveys infectious and non-infectious prostatitis. Three chapters discuss prostate enlargement, cancer, and treatments. A separate chapter is devoted to the beneficial influence of zinc and other vitamins on the prostate. The final chapter discusses social and sexual activity after prostate surgery. Four appendixes provide information on when to see a urologist, questions to ask the urologist, complicating drugs, and a reference guide to further information. A glossary of medical terms in included. 249. Ursin, Holger, Eivind Baade, and Seymour Levine, eds. Psychobiology of Stress: A Study of Coping Men. New York: Academic Press, 1978. xv, 236p. bibliography after each chapter. index. From 72 investigations of young men in the Norwegian Army Parachute School in 1974, 21 contributors to this study assess physiological and psychological effects upon males coping with stress.

250. Wagenvoord, James, ed. The Man's Book: A Complete Manual of Style. New York: Avon Books, 1978. 320p. illus. bibliography, 310-11. index. pa. This compendium of information and advice attractively treats care of the male body and mind (including such matters as exercising, handling stress, medications, diet, skin and hair care), clothing, and social life (including jobs, money, entertaining, travel, and love and sex). The readable text is interspersed with illustrations, charts, and humorous drawings. 251. Wallerstein, Edward. Circumcision: An American Health Fallacy. New York: Springer, 1980. xix, 281p. illus. appendixes. notes. subject and author indexes. (Focus on Men Series, no. 1). pa. Calling circumcision "a solution in search of a problem," Wallerstein raises important questions about the U.S. obsession with routine circumcision. About 85 percent of all U.S. male children are circumcised. While other Western countries have abandoned routine circumcision, only the United States continues the practice. He debunks past and present rationales for the operation, arguing that circumcision does not prevent masturbation, venereal

Page 95

disease, premature ejaculation, or anything else. The foreskin, he argues, serves as a useful protective shield and has an erotic function. Moreover, the circumcision operation can lead to complications, and the pain and trauma of infant circumcision (usually performed without anesthetic) may have unknown harmful effects upon the male psyche. For entirely irrational reasons, the practice of routine circumcision lingers on in the United States, long after the medical profession should have discouraged it. Three appendixes cover the details of the surgery, its frequency in U.S. history, and an almost unknown statement against routine circumcision issued in 1975 by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. 252. Young, Frank R. Yoga for Men Only. West Nyack, NY: Parker, 1969. x, 214p. illus. index. Revealing "well guarded Yoga secrets," Young describes how yoga exercises can overcome the "four Horsemen of the Mastabah" (the early grave): constant pull of gravity, faulty posture, weight-bearing, and ground resistance. The author makes extraordinary claims for Yoga, promising, among other things, greater sex appeal, self-mastery, personal energy, powerful muscles, and popularity. The book is punctuated with success stories (e.g., "How 49-YearOld Alfred, Who Was Avoided Generally, Swept People Off Their Feet By Relieving His Subchronic Aches and Pains''). Readers will have to decide for themselves whether Young's approach represents Oriental wisdom or a snakeoil pitch. C. Vasectomy, Male Fertility, Contraception 253. Carson, Rubin. The Coward's Guide to Vasectomy. Marina del Rey, CA: Schmidt and Hill, 1973. xiv, 174p. illus. appendix. Reprint, New York: Pinnacle Books, 1982. pa. Providing facts and fun for the fainthearted, Carson attempts to dispel male misgivings about vasectomy. He also devotes a chapter to female cowards considering their own sterilization. The appendix lists Planned Parenthood Centers, Zero Population Growth chapters, and information concerning the Association for Voluntary Sterilization. The text is abetted by Michael Be-dard's comic illustrations. 254.

Fleishman, Norman, and Peter L. Dixon. Vasectomy, Sex and Parenthood. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1973. xv, 128p. appendixes. bibliography, 12628. Stressing the need for population control, this book for lay readers includes a personal account of what it is like to undergo vasectomy, answers frequently asked questions about the operation, and raises questions that men should ask before having it. One chapter contains Diane Fleishman's account of the positive marital effects of her husband's vasectomy. The appendixes list vasectomy clinics in the United States, organizations concerned with vasectomy, and sperm banks. 255. Fried, John J. Vasectomy: The Truth and Consequences of the Newest Form of Birth ControlMale Sterilization. New York: Saturday Review Press, 1972. 148p. bibliography, 144-48. In contrast to cheerleaders for vasectomy, Fried raises questions about it. He discusses possible complications from the operation, as well as its

Page 96

possible effects upon the body's immune system. He stresses the irreversibility of vasectomy and its negative psychological consequences, especially when it is performed to save a rocky marriage or when the man's masculine identity is shaky. Readers will have to decide whether Fried is alarmist or soundly cautious. 256. Gillette, Paul J. Vasectomy: The Male Sterilization Operation. New York: Paperback Library, 1972. 235p. illus. appendixes. bibliography, 229-35. pa. Reprint as, The Vasectomy Information Manual, New York: Outerbridge and Lazard, 1972. A popular information guide, this book examines the need for population control, the question of what kind of men should consider vasectomy, an explanation of how conception occurs, and a description of a vasectomy operation. Aside from sterilization, vasectomy usually has either positive or nonexistent effects upon male sexuality. Gillette examines the legal implications and religious responses to vasectomy, medical views of the operation, and the methods of attempting to reverse it. A chapter is devoted to salpingectomy, the female sterilization operation. A question-and-answer section, personal accounts, and endorsements for the operation conclude the book. 257. Greenfield, Michael, and William M. Burrus. The Complete Reference Book on Vasectomy. New York: Avon Books, 1973. 253p. illus. appendixes. bibliography, 173-253. pa. Part I of this book answers questions raised by those considering vasectomy. Topics include a brief history of vasectomy, men who might not be good candidates for the operation, what the operation consists of, whether or not it is reversible ("don't count on it"), and whether or not it will affect masculinity ("it won't"). Part 2 consists of a married couple's accounts of how the husband's vasectomy improved their lives. In part 3, the authors provide information for men seeking a vasectomy, including questions raised by candidates for the operation. About half of the book consists of appendixes and a bibliography. The three appendixes list vasectomy clinics, genetic counseling facilities, and insurance information. An extensive annotated bibliography covers worldwide research on vasectomy. 258.

Kasirsky, Gilbert. Vasectomy, Manhood and Sex. New York: Springer, 1972. 128p. illus. appendixes. bibliography after each chapter. pa. This popularly written book answers principal questions about vasectomy, explains the reasons for having the operation, describes the surgical procedures, discusses its aftereffects and the possibilities of reversing the operation, and lists the ethical responses of major religious organizations. A chapter by Elaine Kasirsky presents her positive assessment of the operation, and the foreword by Helen Edey discusses the book's value for doctors and for men contemplating vasectomy. The appendixes show the instruments used in the operation and sample consent forms, discuss vasectomy around the world, and list places in the United States where men can obtain a vasectomy. 259. Lader, Lawrence, ed. Foolproof Birth Control: Male and Female Sterilization. Boston: Beacon Press, 1972. viii, 286p. illus. appendixes. index. This collection of forty-two brief essays on male and female sterilization considers such topics as reasons for having a vasectomy, accounts of the operation, its effects upon men's physical and mental health, the difficulty of reversing vasectomy, frozen-semen banks, costs, and overcoming obstructions to voluntary sterilization. Of the four appendixes, one lists vasectomy clinics in the United States.

Page 97

260. Mancini, R. E., and L. Martini, eds. Male Fertility and Sterility. London and New York: Academic Press, 1974. xvi, 588p. (Proceedings of the Serono Symposia, vol. 5). illus. bibliographies after each chapter. author index. Fifty percent of sterility in couples is due to male infertility. The 32 scholarly studies in this volume examine the various facets of andrologythe morphology, physiology, pathology, and clinical aspects of the male genital tractwith major emphasis on understanding and treating male infertility. 261. Rasp, Gerhard, ed. Schering Workshop on Contraception: The Masculine Gender (Berlin, November 29 to December 2, 1972). Oxford: Pergamon Press; Braunschweig: Vieweg, 1973. vii, 332p. (Advances in the Biosciences, 10). illus. bibliography after each chapter. index. This collection of 24 papers from a workshop on male contraception consists primarily of reports and speculations on biological and biochemical research with implication for development of additional forms of male contraception. Lay readers may be most interested in Alfred Jost's paper "Becoming a Male" ("becoming a male is a prolonged, uneasy, and risky venture: it is a kind of struggle against inherent trends toward femaleness"); Brigitta Linnr's feminist call for equality in society, in family, and in bed; and (above all) Caroline Merula Days and David Malcolm Potts's essay "Condoms and Things,'' which deals with worldwide male involvement in contraception. Days and Potts argue that family planning programs are geared for female contraception when "male methods of contraception have been and remain numerically the most important in nearly all countries." These male methods include coitus interruptus, condoms, and vasectomy. In addition, males often take responsibility for female birth control (e.g., seeing that the woman has a supply of birth control pills and takes them regularly). Days and Potts conclude: "Men are in the majority of family-planning users in nearly all countries." The book closes with a manifesto of desiderata for new forms of male contraception. 262. Rosenfeld, Louis J., and Marvin Grosswirth. The Truth About Vasectomy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1972. 156p. appendixes. notes. index. In language easily comprehensible to the layperson, the authors discuss the facts of vasectomy, weighing its pros and cons. After a brief question-andanswer chapter, the book quickly surveys the history of contraception, explains

the male reproductive system, and describes a vasectomy operation. The authors discuss the doctor's role in advising couples, the problems that a machismo-oriented man may encounter when considering a vasectomy, women's views of vasectomy, the usually positive aftereffects of the operation, and what can (and cannot) be done if the man changes his mind afterward. Among the options are surgery, semen banks, and adoption. The appendixes contain a sample vasectomy release form, a list of vasectomy clinics and hospitals in which vasectomy is performed as an outpatient procedure, and a short list of semen banks. 263. Troen, Philip, and Howard R. Nankin, eds. The Testis in Normal and Infertile Men. New York: Raven Press, 1977. xiv, 578p. illus. bibliography after each chapter. notes. index. This collection consists of 45 scholarly, technical papers, plus discussions from a 1976 conference in Pittsburgh.

Page 98

264. Zorgniotti, Adrian W., ed. Temperature and Environmental Effects on the Testis. New York and London: Plenum Press, 1991. xi, 335p. illus. appendixes. notes. index. list of participants. The 33 scholarly papers in this anthology represent the proceedings of a conference on temperature and environmental factors and the testis, held in December 1989, at the New York University School of Medicine. In the preface, Zorgniotti stresses that evidence presented at the conference demonstrates the centrality of temperature to testicular function and male fertility. Cross-References See chapter 21, "Sexuality: A. Heterosexuality." 592. Bahr, Robert. The Virility Factor: Masculinity Through Testosterone, the Male Sex Hormone. 601. Fanning, Patrick, and Matthew McKay. Being a Man: A Guide to the New Masculinity. 278. Haley, Bruce. The Healthy Body and Victorian Culture. 50. Lee, John H. The Flying Boy: Healing the Wounded Man. 51. Lee, John H. The Flying Boy, Book II: The Journey Continues. 707. Lenfest, David. Men Speak Out: In the Heart of the Men's Recovery: Six Dialogues for, by and About Conscious Men. 714. Nowinski, Joseph. Hungry Hearts: On Men, Intimacy, Self-Esteem, and Addiction. 969. Uhl, Michael, and Tod Ensign. GI Guinea Pigs: How the Pentagon Exposed Our Troops to Dangers More Deadly than War: Agent Orange and Atomic Radiation.

Page 99

10 History: Historical Studies, Social History, History of Ideas


265. Barker-Benfield, G. J. The Horrors of the Half-Known Life: Male Attitudes Toward Women and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. xiv, 352p. notes. index. Examining nineteenth-century attitudes of white, U.S. males, Barker-Benfield finds male pathology expressing itself toward women and sexuality in a conspiracy of subjugation and mutilation. A rigid division of sex roles on the frontier resulted in male energy and female endurance. Moreover, U.S. women had little choice but to marry; their "freedom" was merely a compulsion to accept bondage to men. Barker-Benfield discusses the displacement of midwives by male gynecologists as part of men's war against women. The gynecological surgery of J. Marion Sims is presented as typical of a male mania for ghoulish assaults on women's genitalia. Barker-Benfield examines the antimasturbatory fulminations of the Rev. John Todd and the vaginal operations of Dr. Augustus Kinsley Gardner. Generalizing from Todd and Gardner, the author concludes that all U.S. men were Nazis in their view of women. BarkerBenfield's research is filtered through a highly misandric lens. Card stacking is frequent. Gardner's account of the dissection of a live horse, for example, is interpreted (first) as an anti-female fantasy in which the horse represents women and (second) as a masochistic fantasy in which the horse represents Gardner. The book leaves one wondering whether some nineteenth-century views of women were any more grotesque than some twentieth-century views of men. 266. Brander, Michael. The Victorian Gentleman. London: Gordon Cremonesi, 1975. 215p. illus. bibliography, 206-11. index. In this richly illustrated book, Brander examines the life of the British Victorian gentleman from birth to adulthood. Separate chapters are devoted to childhood, schooling, and university life. Adult life is covered in chapters examining taste and manners, morality and sex, sensational trials and wartime experiences, travel at home and abroad, India and empire, and sports and

pastimes. Brander writes with sympathetic understanding of the masculine gender role. The text contains numerous photographs and illustrations, some in color.

Page 100

267. Cady, Edwin Harrison. The Gentleman in America: A Literary Study in American Culture. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1949. 232p. notes. index. Reprint, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1969. This readable, scholarly study traces the concept of the gentleman in American life and letters. Noting that gentlemanliness is as old as history, Cady explores the eighteenth-century British contrast between the rake and the Christian gentleman. In America, a similar distinction contrasted the "fine" gentleman and the religious one, as well as the born gentleman of class and the natural gentleman of democracy. A spectacular natural gentleman, John Adams had trouble reconciling his puritan pessimism with his democratic idealism. Exalting an aristoi of virtue and talent, Thomas Jefferson looked to education to bring it into existence. James Fenimore Cooper held up the ideal of the agrarian gentleman, although his most memorable fictional gentlemen are noble American Indians and the natural gentleman, Natty Bumpo. While Oliver Wendell Holmes praised the gentlemanliness of proper Bostonians, Ralph Waldo Emerson championed the self-reliance of the natural gentleman who was also something of a social activist. Influenced by Leo Tolstoy's writings, William Dean Howells exalted the gentleman as socialist. In a concluding chapter, Cady sees the shift to feminism as making chivalry irrelevant; the new goal for the gentleman, he says, is discovering a self-validating way of life and thought. 268. Carnes, Mark C., and Clyde Griffen, eds. Meanings for Manhood: Constructions of Masculinity in Victorian America. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1990. vi, 281p. notes. index. pa. Twelve essaysall solidly researched and thoughtfulmake up this anthology of gender history in nineteenth-century America. The essays focus only on white, middle-class males, a shortcoming that the editors readily acknowledge. The discussion of constructions of masculinity is divided into four sections: boyhood to adulthood, friendship and marriage, work and the workplace, and future research in men's history. The introduction and many of the essays indicate that men's history has already reached the point where revision of earlier work is in order. The editors criticize the tendency of some previous men's historians to over-generalize about males. Essays examine "boy culture," fraternal rituals, gender-defined forms of madness, the age's masculine social gospel, fraternal

love among male abolitionists, grounds for divorce as a means of defining masculinity, and the remasculinization of printers' work. In the penultimate essay, Clyde Griffen provides a fascinating synthesis that links the previous essays, questions earlier speculation about men's history, and points forward to needed future research. 269. Castronovo, David. The English Gentleman: Images and Ideals in Literature and Society. New York: Ungar, 1987. x, 171p. illus. bibliography, 149-57. notes. index. In this concise social and literary history, Castronovo surveys different types of British gentlemen as they appeared in history and in literature. Although the concept of the gentleman goes back to medieval times, Castronovo focuses primarily on the flowering of the ideal in the nineteenth century, stressing both its positive and negative aspects. He examines a wide range of authors, including Dickens, J. H. Newman, Thackeray, and Dinah Mulock. In the twentieth century, gentlemanly values and privileges have come under fire (as a look at the novels of E. M. Forster and D. H. Lawrence reveals), but they are by no means dead. Although informed, Castronovo's discussion of the British gentleman is not a gender-conscious one.

Page 101

270. Cawelti, John G. Apostles of the Self-Made Man. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965. xiv, 279p. illus. bibliography, 259-71. notes. index. Tracing the cult of the self-made man through nineteenth- and twentiethcentury America, Cawelti focuses upon three main sources of the myth: major figures like Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and Horatio Alger; success manuals and guides; and novels for adults and stories for children (almost always boys) in which the self-made man is a central figure. Contrasting with nineteenth-century celebrations of success in fiction and philosophy is twentieth-century ambivalence about success as a rat race rather than a dream. In addition to well-known authors like Twain, Howells, Dreiser, Fitzgerald, and Henry James, Cawelti examines the thought of John Dewey and of such popular advice givers as Norman Vincent Peale, Dale Carnegie, and Napoleon Hill. The connection between success and American masculinity, however, is not Cawelti's topic and must be inferred by the reader. 271. Clawson, Mary Ann. Constructing Brotherhood: Class, Gender, and Fraternalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989. ix, 270p. notes. index. Clawson traces the rise of U.S. fraternal orders from their European origins to their peak in the early twentieth century. Fraternalism, she notes, is a social and cultural form marked by idiom, ritual, proprietorship, and masculinity. The origins of U.S. fraternalism can be found in such early modern European organizations as guilds, journeymen's societies, and confraternities. A most powerful influence was the emergence of freemasonry in England during the seventeenth and eighteen centuries. Although U.S. workingmen joined fraternal orders, the mixed blue- and white-collar membership at first prevented them from becoming workers' organizations. Fraternal orders heightened gender separation. Many women, however, endorsed the idea of separate spheres, and the fraternal orders reinforced male-provider and female-beneficiary ideology. The presence of women's auxiliaries and lodges somewhat qualified the separatism of male lodges. The fraternal orders also excluded blacks and some immigrant groups. In the twentieth century, the decrease in gender separatism and other factors led to the decline of fraternal organizations, which are now (according to Clawson) anachronisms. 271a.

Darmon, Pierre. Damning the Innocent: A History of the Persecution of the Impotent in pre-Revolutionary France. Translated by Paul Keegan. New York: Viking Penguin, 1986. 234p. bibliography, 231-34. Original publication, as Le Tribunal de l'Impuissance (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1979). If a man could be convicted of impotence in seventeenth- and eighteenthcentury France, his marriage could be annulled and the legitimacy of his offspring could be questioned. This legal situation created a series of grotesque trials involving men who were impotent, hermaphroditic, or simply falsely accused. Efforts to establish a man's virility could be equally grotesque. As an example of legal and social requirements placed by past societies upon men, the trials have an inherent interest. The trouble with this account of them, however, is that Darmon's narrative is suffused with an intrusive anger that often seems misdirected. It is as if Darmon keeps posing in front of his material, asking the reader to notice what a righteously indignant soul he is. Someone else needs to reassess more coolly the sensational materials that Darmon presents here. 272. Dubbert, Joe L. A Man's Place: Masculinity in Transition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1979. xi, 323p. essay on sources, 307-15. notes. index. pa.

Page 102

Dubbert traces the evolution of masculinity in the United States from the early 1800s to the present, using a rich assortment of historic and literary documents. The introduction states the case for studying men and masculinity: "Compared with what we know about the identity problems of women, we know relatively little about the American male's struggle with his identity." The American masculine gender role is traced in detail, almost decade-by-decade, as it was shaped by the frontier, capitalism, the changing nature of work, religion, family roles, wars, the women's movement, sports, and numerous other factors. In the epilogue, Dubbert writes: "It has been my intention to suggest that men too have been trapped, that the identity and roles many men have assumed throughout American history have caused certain problems unique to male identity and fulfillment." The extensive notes contain a gold mine of primary materials for elucidating American masculinity. 273. Dudley, Edward, and Maximillian E. Novak, eds. The Wild Man Within: An Image in Western Thought from the Renaissance to Romanticism. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1972. xi, 333p. illus. notes. index. For anyone who thought that Robert Bly had invented the wild man (entry 861), this 1972 book will come as a revelation. The 11 scholarly essays describe the wild man image from ancient times through the Middle Ages and into the European discovery of the Americas, early U.S. colonial days, the Age of Reason, and the Romantic Age. Traditionally, the wild man has been raised by wolves or bears, lives in isolation, and has great physical strength and sexual appetite. He has haunted the Western imagination for centuries, appearing in various guises, from ancient mythical figures (like the cyclops) to King Kong, from Caliban in The Tempest to Cardenio in Don Quixote, from Papageno in The Magic Flute to the Yahoos in Gulliver's Travels, and from the noble savage of the Romantics to the Hunchback of Notre Dame. The editors indicate that the wild man often represents freedom from civilized control, the triumph of nature over art, and passion over abstract reasoning. This book details the rich heritage from which the current mythopoetic movement has drawn for the latest incarnation of the wild man as image of the deep masculine. For more on the wild man, see Timothy Husband, The Wild Man: Medieval Myth and Symbolism (entry 384). 274. Ferguson, Charles W. The Male Attitude. Boston: Little, Brown, 1966. xiv,

365p. notes. index. Miffed by books like Philip Wylie's Generation of Vipers, which blamed America's ills on Mom, Ferguson gallantly sets out to defend womanhood by denigrating manhood. The result is a debunking of U.S. history and culture in which nearly everything that went wrong (and apparently nearly everything did) is blamed on men. Sweeping generalizations about male evil and ineptness are used to reduce history to a tale of men's inhumanity to women and other men. 274a. Filene, Peter G. Him/Her/Self: Sex Roles in Modern America. 2d ed. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986. xvi, 323p. appendixes. bibliography, 239-51. notes. index. pa. Braiding together an account of masculine and feminine gender roles, Filene surveys U.S. history from the late Victorian era to the 1980s. Filene's narrative begins at the end of the Victorian era (1890-1919) with the "new women" (who rejected Victorian womanhood) and with the suffragists. In this latest edition of his book, Filene gives a fuller hearing to those who opposed women's new roles as disruptive to family and society. The temperance movement and "the purity

Page 103

movement" in part were expressions of women's resentment against the double standard that apparently gave men more freedom. World War I helped to solve a crisis in masculinity by defining military virtues as manly. In the Modern Era (1920-1985) the liberated flapper disappeared from the scene during the depression of the 1930s. Feminism was a luxury as men and women coped with economic hardships, with the crises of World War II, and with the war-delayed establishment of families during the fifties. In the sixties, however, gender discontents reappeared, as women became troubled by "the feminine mystique." The movement of large numbers of women into the work force spawned a new wave of the women's movement and a smaller men's movement to cope with the stresses of gender role changes. The children of the women's movement are now toting up their losses and gains. The book closes with excerpts from Paul Cowan and Rachel Brown in which they record their attempts to handle the conflicting demands of parenthood and career in the 1980s. 275. Fraser, John. America and the Patterns of Chivalry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982. x, 301p. notes. index. With dazzling erudition, Fraser traces the influence of chivalric ideals and practices upon numerous aspects of nineteenth- and twentieth-century American life. He examines such areas as U.S. politics, militarism, social life, literature, art, pop culture, radicalism, and education. In this study, however, the light thrown upon the U.S. masculine gender role is usually oblique. 276. Girouard, Mark. The Return to Camelot: Chivalry and the English Gentleman. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press, 1981. 312p. illus. notes. index. Although it is now officially dead, the chivalric ideal has been an important shaper of modern masculinity, and a residue of chivalric behavior is still expected from men. Girouard traces the rise and fall of the cult of chivalry in Victorian and Edwardian England, including its origins and its influence on manners, sports, politics, love, and war. Extensively illustrated, The Return to Camelot focuses (necessarily) on the upper classes but also examines how chivalry affected the middle-class ideal of the gentleman, the curricula of British public (i.e., private) schools, and the manly virtues of the Boy Scout movement. In the early twentieth century, however, the concept of heroic

combat trapped men in a rising tide of militarism that led them directly into the horrors of World War I trench warfare. Girouard depicts the absurdity, the nobility, andfinallythe tragedy of the neochivalric ideal. 277. Griswold, Robert L. Fatherhood in America: A History. New York: Basic Books, 1993. xi, 356p. notes. index. pa. The basic change in twentieth-century U.S. fatherhood has been from the breadwinner role to the "daddy track" caregiver. Nineteenth-century fatherhood was defined by breadwinning, according to Griswold. Marginalized workers and black fathers were vulnerable to unemployment and thus to psychic emasculation. Beginning with the later nineteenth century, the state took over many of the father's roles (e.g., educator). Immigrant fathers often saw a generation gap open up between them and their Americanized children. From 1920 to 1940, U.S. society called for a new fatherhood that was more companionable, but men's continuing breadwinner responsibilities often made such a role difficult to achieve. The economic depression of the 1930s devastated many fathers, and World War II took many of them away from homes. The suburban, white, middle-class father throve in the 1950s; but, since 1965, family roles have been under renegotiation as wives went out to work, husbands resisted

Page 104

housework and childcare, and increasing divorce separated many fathers from children. In a final chapter, Griswold surveys the current politics of fatherhood, including fathers' rights organizations, the "deadbeat dad" problem, the anger of some feminists, wildmen training, and the defense of the traditional family by conservatives. The major problem confronting U.S. families today is how to accommodate working mothers and caregiving fathers. 278. Haley, Bruce. The Healthy Body and Victorian Culture. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1978. 296p. notes. index. Haley demonstrates how British Victorian society linked healthiness with manliness until intellectuals pressed for fuller concepts of both terms. Among the eminent Victorians discussed in depth are Carlyle, Spencer, Newman, Kingsley, the Arnolds (father and son), Thomas Hughes, George Eliot, and George Meredith. 279. Hearn, Jeff. Men in the Public Eye: The Construction and Deconstruction of Public Men and Public Patriarchies. London and New York: Routledge, 1992. xii, 292p. (Critical Studies on Men and Masculinities Series, no. 4). bibliography, 254-75. notes. subject and name indexes. pa. Hearn examines "public patriarchies" in recent history, focusing on latenineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Britain. Public patriarchies are maledominated political and social structures, which Hearn believes are uniformly harmful. Hearn's elaborate Marxist-based theorizing leads into an extensive review of turn-of-the-century British history. Among the topics explored are the blurring of public and private spheres, the different concepts of patriarchy, and the rise of British feminism. Hearn concludes that all men's organizations, even pro-feminist ones, are suspect (men being the oppressors they are) and that the running of the world is best relegated to left-wing feminist organizations. 280. Kett, Joseph F. Rites of Passage: Adolescence in America, 1790 to the Present. New York: Basic Books, 1977. xiii, 327p. illus. notes. index. Kett has written a social history of adolescence in the United States, in particular of white, male adolescents. He divides American history into three periods. In part 1, the author explores the early republic, 1790-1840. He notes the contemporary indefiniteness about age and age groups, the fact that

adolescent sons were expected to work, the movement of young people from the farms to the chaotic new cities, the roles of schools and religious conversions in shaping young lives, and the mixture of oppression and freedom faced by youths. Part 2, 1840-1900, describes how Americans defined adolescence first in girls, then in boys. Kett examines youthful resistance to dead-end jobs, the emergence of formal professional education, the cults of physical fitness and muscular Christianity, and organizations like the YMCA. Part 3, 1900 to the present, depicts the "invention" of adolescence and the growth of institutions geared to molding it. Kett's study is based upon a wealth of primary sources listed in the copious notes. 281. Keuls, Eva C. The Reign of the Phallus: Sexual Politics in Ancient Athens. New York: Harper and Row, 1985. 452p. illus. bibliography, 421-34. notes. index. pa. In this thoroughly documented and profusely illustrated study, Keuls argues that ancient Athenian society was unique in its public display of the phallus, not as an emblem of male generation but of male power. Although

Page 105

Keuls recognizes the remarkable achievements of ancient Athens, she insists that another side of the city has not been explored. Male citizens sequestered their wives and daughters, minimized the female role in reproduction, erected phallic monuments everywhere in the city, sponsored houses of male and female prostitution, emphasized rape in mythology, and were notorious warmongers. Using evidence drawn from texts, vase paintings, statuary, and many other sources, Keuls reconstructs the roles of men and women, citizens and slaves, in fifth-century Athens. Keuls explores a multitude of topics, such as the barren goddess Athena as patron of the city, depictions of the penis in vase paintings, women's isolation at home and their participation in frenzied public rituals, the division of women into mothers and whores, the role of the concubine, pederasty (or boy love) among Athenian men, the war against the Amazons as an image of the male defeat of female power, and Greek tragedy as a dramatization of the war between the sexes. Concerning the never-solved mystery of who mutilated the city's phallic herms in 415 B.C., just before Athenians launched an ill-advised military expedition against Syracuse, Keuls argues that the women, disgusted with war, were the vandals. The book closes with a discussion of the Philoxenos' famous Alexander mosaic as an anti-war representation. Even for one remaining unconvinced, Keuls's analysis of the mosaiclike everything else in this bookis fascinating and thought provoking. 282. Kimmel, Michael S., and Thomas E. Mosmiller, eds. Against the Tide: Profeminist Men in the United States, 1776-1990: A Documentary History. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992. xxxi, 521p. illus. bibliography, 481-518. The editors write, "What this book documents ... is a history of men who have supported women's struggles since the founding of the nation." Rejecting the notion that all men have opposed women's rights movements, Kimmel and Mosmiller have assembled more than 130 selections from U.S. men who enlisted themselves in various feminist causes. (The extensive bibliography lists many more writings not included in the volume; the editors gathered over 1,000 pro-feminist documents by U.S. men.) The book's organization is both historical and thematic. Divided into three historical periods (1775-1848, 18501960, and 1961-1990), the selections are also grouped according to such concerns as education for women, economic independence, women in the trades, women in the professions, political equality, suffrage, social equality, marriage and divorce reform, "sex rights," birth control, and women's studies.

The introduction by Kimmel surveys the history of pro-feminist men. While celebrating men sensitive to women's rights, Kimmel is dismissive of men sensitive to men's rights. Moreover, the discussion never confronts the paradox that many men's pro-feminism was rooted in old-fashioned chivalry, a product of the patriarchal society that is alleged to have been so anti-female. 283. Kinmonth, Earl H. The Self-Made Man in Meiji Japanese Thought: From Samurai to Salary Man. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981. xi, 385p. illus. bibliography, 357-71. notes. index. Based upon three years of research in Japan, this hefty study uses a wealth of primary materials to trace the rise of the self-help ethic in late-nineteenthcentury Japan. This ethic helped to convert Japan into a nation of male overachievers. Kinmonth demonstrates how the notion of a self-made man was imported from late-Victorian England. The major text was Samuel Smiles's SelfHelp. Meshing neatly with Confucian samurai tradition, the notion of self-help fostered a generation of success-driven young men. With success defined as earning money, education was skewed to produce young men of "lofty ambition." Although some youths rebelled against the pressures of "rising in the world," self-help took on a

Page 106

patriotic tinge around the turn of the century and was used to support Japanese expansionism. Later, American influence was paramount: Andrew Carnegie became a heroic figure for young men to emulate, Orison Swett Marden's Pushing to the Front achieved great influence, and a journal named Success defined the male imperative. The dreams of most Japanese males, however, were frustrated because only a few men could achieve great wealth. Most men ended up as lowly "salary men." Although Kinmonth's study is not especially gender-conscious, it offers a fascinating glimpse of modern Japanese masculinity in the making. 284. Kirshner, Alan M. Masculinity in an Historical Perspective: Readings and Discussions. Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1977. iii, 173p. illus. pa. This book derives from the author's "A History of Masculinity" course at Ohlone College. Materials include lectures, edited discussions, and course reading materials on such topics as popular and scientific views of "cave men" masculinity, masculinity in the classical world, Judeo-Christian views of manliness, chivalry and courtly love, puritan and Victorian masculinity, LatinAmerican machismo, middle-class American masculinity, and new roles for men. 285. Kriegel, Leonard, ed. The Myth of American Manhood. New York: Dell, Laurel Editions, 1978. 412p. pa. This collection of 21 selectionsessays, short stories, excerpts from longer worksprovides views of U.S. masculinity from Cotton Mather's idealized portrait of William Bradford to Pete Hamill's 1976 essay "Farewell to Machismo." Kriegel's introduction provides historical and cultural perspectives, indicating that traditional masculinity is no longer fashionable and will change irretrievably. Nineteenth-century selections include writings of Melville, Twain, and Crane, as well as Grant's account of Lee's surrender. Twentieth-century selections include essays on boxing and baseball, Mailer's "The Time of Her Life" and "The White Negro," and Kriegel's essay on being handicapped, "Uncle Tom and Tiny Tim." 286. Macleod, David I. Building Character in the American Boy: The Boy Scouts,

YMCA, and Their Forerunners, 1870-1920. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983. xx, 404p. notes. index. This massive social history argues that character-building organizations for middle-class boys arose from middle-class concerns about transmitting values. Macleod acknowledges social worries about masculinity, the feminization of schools, masturbation, and women's changing roles, but he concludes that reaction to urban life was the primary impetus behind the creation of the YMCA boys departments, the Boy Scouts, and other groups. The notes reflect extensive research in primary sources. 287. Mangan, J. A., and James Walvin, eds. Manliness and Morality: Middle-Class Masculinity in Britain and America, 1800-1940. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1987. x, 278p. illus. bibliography, 261-65. notes. index. Reprint, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991. pa. "Nearly everything we know about human behaviour in the past concerns men," writes E. Anthony Rotundo in this collection, "and yet it is equallyand ironicallytrue that we know far more about womanhood and the female role than we know about masculinity or the man's role." The 12 scholarly essays in

Page 107

this anthology alternate between Britain and the United States, examining aspects of middle-class masculinity. Among the essays are Rotundo's definition of three U.S. masculine ideal types (the achiever, the Christian gentleman, and the primitive), Roberta J. Park's study of the biological view of the mind-body relationship and the resultant emphasis upon sports, and Jeffrey Richards's packed essay on close male friendships. Other essays examine Social Darwinism, the heroic ideal at Yale, Baden Powell and scouting, and the U.S. military and the cult of manliness. Contributors include John Springhall (on British attempts to export Christian manliness to working-class boys), Peter N. Stearns (on male anger), and John M. MacKenzie (on late-Victorian masculinity and imperialism). Period drawings and photographs illustrate the text. 288. Pleck, Elizabeth H., and Joseph H. Pleck, eds. The American Man. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1980. xii, 433p. notes. pa. This anthology consists of 16 previously printed essays on aspects of masculinity in American history. The editors' introduction stresses the need to review what is known about men and to place this information in a new, gender-conscious light. Dividing American history into four periodsagrarian patriarchy (1630-1820), the commercial age (1820-1860), the strenuous life (1861-1919), and companionate providing (1920-1965)the editors provide an overview of each period, preparing the way for the more narrowly focused essays that follow. These studies range from Robert Oaks's account of sodomy and buggery in seventeenth-century New England to Joseph H. Pleck's analysis of the men's movement. The contributors include Eugene D. Genovese on slave husbands and fathers, Jeffrey P. Hantover on the significance of the Boy Scout movement, Joe L. Dubbert on Progressivism and the masculinity crisis, Peter Gabriel Filene on men in World War I, Mirra Komarovsky on unemployed husbands during the depression of the 1930s, and Marc Fasteau on toughness in American foreign policy. Of special interest also are Blanche Glassman Hersh's account of nineteenth-century feminist marriages (which were not always made in heaven); Charles E. Rosenberg's wide-ranging assessment of sexuality, class, and role in nineteenth-century America; and Jon M. Kingsdale's view of the saloon as the ''poor man's club." 289. Pugh, David G. Sons of Liberty: The Masculine Mind in Nineteenth-Century America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983. xxii, 186p.(Contributions in

American Studies, 68). bibliography, 171-78. notes. index. Combining psychological, cultural, and historical insights, Pugh traces the American cult of masculinity from Jacksonian democracy, through the Gilded Age, and into the he-man literature of popular twentieth-century magazines. A chapter devoted to "the female foil" concludes that not all women were the passive victims depicted in some current assessments. 290. Rischin, Moses, ed. The American Gospel of Success: Individualism and Beyond. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1965. x, 431p. Rischin performs a valuable service by collecting 48 documents that define and proclaim the American gospel of success (for males). Although it is rarely spelled out in the texts themselves, the relation between the documents and the American man's gender role is obvious. Selections include a sermon by Cotton Mather, an excerpt from Benjamin Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanac, P. T. Barnum on the art of "money-getting," an abridged tale by Horatio Alger, and advice from Andrew Carnegie. The editor also includes a selection of scholarly works examining the gospel's effects upon big business, as well as writings depicting the fates of outsiders (e.g., minorities, the poor, the nonbelievers in the

Page 108

gospel). Other writings explore the means of excluding nonconformists from becoming members of the economic elect, the fate of the gospel in modern times, and the uneasy rapprochement between Christianity and the gospel of success. 291. Roper, Michael, and John Tosh, eds. Manful Assertions: Masculinities in Britain Since 1800. London and New York: Routledge, 1991. x, 221p. illus. bibliography, 212-13. index. pa. Nine essays explore key moments in British masculinities since the early Victorian age. The introduction by Roper and Tosh argues that masculinities are relational constructs that change over time. Social power, especially men's power over women, is an organizing principle of past masculinities. Just when it seems that Roper and Tosh are merely parroting the standard socialistfeminist views of men's power, they qualify those views significantly. Masculinity, they argue, cannot be equated with a proclivity for male dominance, and patriarchy is a troublesome term when used as shorthand for male oppression. The essays in the volume examine matters such as the corrosively strenuous masculinity of Thomas Carlyle, how the paternal strictness of Edward White Benson may have contributed to the homosexual leanings of his wife and sons, and the ideas of masculinity among artisans and in the Salvation Army. Other essays explore the psychosexual troubles of Lawrence of Arabia as colonial masculinity confronted postcolonial times, the concept of manliness in boys' story papers, and the British company man from 1945 to 1985. Peter M. Lewis's moving autobiographical account of the missing feminine in male institutions closes with these important words: "To change destructive male behaviour is a hard, but urgent task. Equally hard is to find a way of encouraging and celebrating the good in men." 292. Rosenthal, Michael. The Character Factory: Baden-Powell and the Origins of the Boy Scout Movement. New York: Pantheon Books, 1986. x, 335p. illus. bibliography, 318-29. notes. index. Rosenthal presents a cultural reading of Robert Baden-Powell's life and the youth movement in turn-of-the-century England. Viewing scouting as a response to the needs of an imperial nation, Rosenthal argues that scouting's efforts to cultivate moral and physical health among boys really served upperclass interests. Although the racist and anti-Semitic elements in Baden-Powell's

ideology are convincingly demonstrated, Rosenthal strains to find sinister class interest behind Baden-Powell's every idea. One suspects Baden-Powell deserves better than this Lytton Strachey-like debunking. The author does not focus on gender concerns, although scouting was clearly an attempt to fulfill a social need to initiate boys into adult masculinity. 293. Rotundo, E. Anthony. American Manhood: Transformations in Masculinity from the Revolution to the Modern Era. New York: Basic Books, 1993. xii, 382p. appendix. notes. index. Working on the premise that manhood has a history, Rotundo surveys concepts of masculinity among middle-class, New England white males during the nineteenth century. He contrasts Victorian males with their puritan and eighteenth-century forebears who exalted a "communal manhood" that stressed patriarchal duties and authority. In a major cultural change, this social masculinity gave way to a more self-assertive model during the nineteenth century. Following a life-cycle pattern, Rotundo describes boy culture as a time of differentiating from the feminine, a youth culture that stressed control of impulses, romantic friendships between young males, the protector-servant relationships that developed between brothers and sisters, young

Page 109

men's conflicting views of young women as angels or devils, and love and courtship (the young man had to take most of the emotional risks and he could not marry until he could support a family). Marriage led to the couple's subsequent intimacy or alienation. For men, work outside the home defined male identity and provided male companionship. Late in the nineteenth century, another major cultural shift favored a "passionate manhood" marked by physical fitness, sports, muscular Christianity, the military ideal, and a return to nature and the primitive. This masculinity exalted Social Darwinism, retention of boyhood qualities, and dislike of effeminate men. The epilogue is the book's most controversial and perhaps least satisfactory chapter: Rotundo attempts to survey twentieth-century U.S. masculinity, link the present-day mythopoetic men's movement with turn-of-the-century primitivism, and settle questions of male power and victimization. The appendix presents Rotundo's reasons for limiting the scope of his history. 294. Stearns, Peter N. Be a Man! Males in Modern Society. 2d ed. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1990. x, 300p. illus. bibliography, 291-95. notes. index. pa. Starting with a discussion of manhood as a social construct, Be a Man! (first published in 1979) surveys changes in the masculine gender role in Western Europe and North America from the industrial revolution to the present. Noting the dearth of literature on men in society, Stearns conducts a quick review of history from hunting and agricultural society to the preindustrial world of eighteenth-century Europe and America. Focusing on his principal subject, Stearns argues that industrialism fundamentally changed the traditional concepts of masculinity by changing the nature of labor and property and by moving work outside the home, thereby dividing labor more radically between the sexes. Working-class men were separated from their families, with the home becoming women's province. Middle-class men were split between the demands of work and family life, between the roles of aggressive competitor and nurturing husband-father. As the family's enforced breadwinner, a man was sometimes overwhelmed attempting to support a growing family. Stearns's account of manhood in the twentieth century reviews the impacts on men of World War I and the women's movement; he argues, however, that the feminist movement has not significantly affected most men, although the antimale hostility of some feminists threatens to deflect men from making changes that were already in progress. In the second edition, Stearns continues the

story through the 1980s, addressing the reaction against androgyny and the reaffirmation of more traditional masculine styles. Still, important gender innovations have occurred, especially the discovery (or rediscovery) of nurturant fatherhood. Stearns indicates that, along with greater sexual equality, an updated paternalism and fuller concepts of masculinity are needed and are perhaps evolving. 295. Strauss, Sylvia. "Traitors to the Masculine Cause": The Men's Campaign for Women's Rights. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982. xix, 292p. (Contributions in Women's Studies, no. 35). illus. bibliography, 273-79. index. Tracing the history of the Fathers of Feminism, Strauss provides a connected account of the most important men who aided the women's movement in nineteenth-century England and America. After exploring the roots of male feminism in eighteenth-century radicalism, Strauss focuses on such major figures as John Stuart Mill, George Bernard Shaw, and Frederick PethickLawrence, whose devotion to the cause led to his imprisonment,

Page 110

financial ruin, and eventual ostracism by Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst. The book also devotes considerable space to a host of other men, including William Godwin, Francis Place, William Thompson, Robert Owen, Charles Bradlaugh, John Humphrey Noyes, W. T. Stead, George Meredith, Richard Pankhurst, Henry Fawcett, Jacob Bright, Charles Dilke, Keir Hardie, and Floyd Dell. Organizations like the Men's Political Union for Women's Suffrage and the Men's League for Women's Suffrage are also studied. Strauss divides the male partisans into two camps: the domestic feminists who saw a woman's lot as tied to the home and who tried to ameliorate her situation there, and the philosophical feminists who worked for women's equal participation in public life as well. The latter group, believing that femininity was more democratic and compassionate than masculinity, hoped that including women in the political process would help humanize it. Strauss's narrative closes after World War I and the granting of suffrage, although she briefly traces some developments to the present and also comments on the ambiguous success of the recent women's liberation movement. Despite its subject, the book accords no positive traits to masculinity: terms like masculine and masculinity carry negative connotations and are identified with exploitive capitalism, power politics, and militarism. 296. White, Kevin. The First Sexual Revolution: The Emergence of Male Heterosexuality in Modern America. New York and London: New York University Press, 1992. xii, 263p. (The American Social Experience Series, no. 27). bibliography, 235-49. pa. notes. index. We know much about the New Woman "flapper" of the early twentiethcentury, but what about her boyfriend? White attempts to describe how primarily young, white, middle-class men responded to the breakup of Victorian codes. The "male flapper" actually inherited much of the respectful Christian gentleman ideal of late Victorianism, while the "underworld primitive" went in for manly sports and body building. But the outing of male heterosexuality soon commercialized sex itself and led to less desirable results. The New Woman was no longer protected by the moral control that Victorianism exercised over men. In working-class, dance-hall culture, women could be brutalized. In the middle class, young men were sexually liberated but clueless about how to handle dating and other new freedoms; they turned increasingly to films and popular literature for help. Resentment against women could flair

as men felt harassed by pressures and inequality; the term gold digger points to men's anger at having to foot the bills for women who were supposedly equal. Feminist egalitarian marriages usually foundered, although several notable exceptions are on record. In the concluding chapter, White glances gloomily at the 1970s through the 1990s. He sees some feminists engaging in a futile campaign against men and male sexuality, he suspects that the wild man is a throwback to Teddy Roosevelt primitivism, and he argues that the commercialization of sex and the loss of Victorian "character'' has brought out the worst in both sexes. 297. Wilkinson, Rupert. American Tough: The Tough-Guy Tradition and American Character. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1984. Rev. ed. New York: Perennial Library, Harper & Row, 1986. xiv, 221p. illus. notes. index. pa. In this encyclopedic survey of U.S. social history, Wilkinson depicts an almost infinite variety of the U.S. macho ideal in writings, films, illustrations, public figures, business people, and so on. The analysis is organized around three themes. First, U.S. "toughness" is contradictory. For example, aggressiveness and control, mind and muscle, and realism and moralism vie with

Page 111

each other as characteristics of U.S. toughness. Sometimes the tough guy represents the upper classes, sometimes the lower classes. Second, in U.S. capitalism, the economic tough guy is contrasted with the soft consumer. Third, Americans often frame the conflict between conformism and individuality as a tough-guy matter. Wilkinson compares and contrasts U.S. toughness with forms of masculinity from other cultures (e.g., Mexico, Canada, and Australia). The revised edition contains a new foreword and numerous illustrations emphasizing that some women (e.g., Calamity Jane and Mother Jones) exemplify U.S. toughness as ably as some men do. 298. Wyllie, Irvin G. The Self-Made Man in America: The Myth of Rags to Riches. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1954. ix, 210p. illus. bibliography, 197-205. notes. index. Reprint, New York: Free Press, 1966. pa. Few U.S. men can have escaped the influence of the gospel of success that flourished in the nineteenth century; despite its lingering decline in the twentieth century, it still flavors U.S. life. In this cult of the self-made man, the causes of triumph or failure were believed to lie in the man rather than in the environment. Thus, the rags-to-riches myth supposedly put a man's manhood to the test, a test that most men were destined to fail or to pass only modestly. In this readable survey, Wyllie traces the gospel of self-reliance from early American exemplars like Benjamin Franklin, through the rise of such major figures as Andrew Carnegie, to the gospel's gradual diminution during the twentieth century. The anti-idleness doctrine, which spurred many men to work harda badge of manlinesswas preached far and wide by Protestant clergymen, journalists, authors, lecturers, and educators. Wyllie finds that Social Darwinism had less influence in the U.S. than is usually believed. He shows how the self-help gospel was attacked from the right by those who exalted aristocratic culture and from the left by those who argued that social conditions, not personal attributes, determined financial success. Cross-References See chapter 15, "Masculinity." 768. Altman, Dennis. The Homosexualization of America: The Americanization of the Homosexual. 771. Brub, Allan. Coming Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and

Women in World War II. 773. Boswell, John. Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century. 394. Bristow, Joseph. Empire Boys: Adventures in a Man's World. 776. Bullough, Vern L. Homosexuality: A History. 777. Burg, B. R. Sodomy and the Perception of Evil: English Sea Rovers in the Seventeenth-Century Caribbean. 174. Chandos, John. Boys Together: English Public Schools, 1800-1864. 778. Chester, Lewis, David Leitch, and Colin Simpson. The Cleveland Street Affair.

Page 112

782. D'Emilio, John. Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities: The Making of a Homosexual Minority in the United States, 1940-1970. 784. Dover, K. J. Greek Homosexuality. 785. Duberman, Martin, Martha Vicinus, and George Chauncey, Jr., eds. Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past. 982. Ehrenreich, Barbara. The Hearts of Men: American Dreams and the Flight from Commitment. 692. Etheredge, Lloyd S. A World of Men: The Private Sources of American Foreign Policy. 946. Fields, Rick. The Code of the Warrior: In History, Myth, and Everyday Life. 947. Friedman, Leon. The Wise Minority. 790. Goodich, Michael. The Unmentionable Vice: Homosexuality in the Later Medieval Period. 1043. Gorn, Elliott J. The Manly Art: Bare-Knuckle Prize Fighting in America. 403. Green, Martin. The Adventurous Male: Chapters in the History of the White Male Mind. 793. Greenberg, David F. The Construction of Homosexuality. 794. Halperin, David M. One Hundred Years of Homosexuality, and Other Essays on Greek Love. 954. Hicken, Victor. The American Fighting Man. 797. Hinsch, Bret. Passions of the Cut Sleeve: The Male Homosexual Tradition in China. 179. Honey, J. R. de S. Tom Brown's Universe: The Development of the English Public School in the Nineteenth Century. 657. Howe, Irving, with Kenneth Libo. World of Our Fathers. 802. Katz, Jonathan. Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. 959. Keegan, John. The Face of Battle.

962. Laffin, John. Americans in Battle. 414. Leverenz, David. Manhood and the American Renaissance. 808. Licata, Salvatore J., and Robert P. Petersen, eds. Historical Perspectives on Homosexuality. 415. Lynn, Kenneth S. The Dream of Success: A Study of the Modern American Imagination. 809. Marotta, Toby. The Politics of Homosexuality. 681. Mount, Ferdinand. The Subversive Family: An Alternate History of Love and Marriage.

Page 113

964. O'Sullivan, John, and Alan M. Meckler. The Draft and Its Enemies: A Documentary History. 824. Plant, Richard. The Pink Triangle: The Nazi War Against Homosexuals. 420. Quigly, Isabel. The Heirs of Tom Brown: The English School Story. 828. Rector, Frank. The Nazi Extermination of Homosexuals. 833. Rowse, A. L. Homosexuals in History: A Study of Ambivalence in Society, Literature and the Arts. 666. Sochen, June, ed. The Black Man and the American Dream: Negro Aspirations in America, 1900-1930. 1042. Swados, Harvey, ed. The American Writer and the Great Depression. 971. Young, Peter. The Fighting Man: From Alexander the Great's Army to the Present Day.

Page 114

11 Humor
299. Berman, Edgar. The Compleat Chauvinist: A Survival Guide for the Bedeviled Male. New York: Macmillan, 1982. x, 219p. In prose laced with quips and puns, Berman twits militant feminists on such matters as work outside the home, menstruation, spouse battering, women in sports, affirmative action, and the ERA (which Berman enthusiastically supports as a boon to male chauvinists). Insisting that he is only anti-feminist and not misogynist, Berman (an M.D.) believes that hormones are destiny, and he praises the "feminine" woman. Readers will have to decide for themselves whether Berman's book represents an exercise in witty wisdom or ridiculous reactionism. 300. Burkett, Michael. The Dad Zone: Reports from the Tender, Bewildering, and Hilarious World of Fatherhood. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993. 223p. illus. As the father of a boy and a girl, Burkett seems to have seen it all. He reports his derailings from the daddy track in warm and wildly funny essays. Not to be missed are the dead goldfish that Jesus swiped, nighttime conversations, translations from "child-speak," and how to get food inside a baby in 23 easy steps. 301. Chapple, Steve. Conversations with Mr. Baby: A Celebration of New Life. New York: Arcade, 1992. ix, 177p. illus. Look who's talking now. Chapple holds imaginary conversations with his unborn/newborn son, who responds with some precocious retorts. The conversations are a way of working around the fears and frustrations of parenthood and childhood, and a way of emphasizing the joys and wonder of life. Illustrations are by Skip Morrow. 302. Cosby, Bill. Fatherhood. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Dolphin Book, 1986. vi, 178p. pa.

In real life, America's favorite television father is the father of five childrenand he has the zany anecdotes to prove it. The famous Cosby wit ripples through these adventures in fathering, recalling children whose only lines of conversation were "I don't know" and "Mine! Mine! Mine!" The book is a jubilant hymn to the perplexities and joys of fatherhood. In both the introduction and the afterword, Dr. Alvin F. Poussaint cites the importance of good fathering and offers some advice for achieving it.

Page 115

303. Everitt, David, and Harold Schechter. The Manly Handbook. New York: Berkley Books, 1982. 134p. illus. pa. Written so a "real man" can understand it, the text of this hilarious spoof of U.S. machismo is supplemented by wickedly funny photographs featuring the likes of Humphrey Bogart, John Wayne, and (of course) George C. Scott as General Patton. 304. Feirstein, Bruce. Real Men Don't Eat Quiche. New York; Pocket Books, 1982. 93p. pa. A bestseller that spawned numerous spin-offs, this "guidebook to all that is truly masculine" parodies the macho pose, both working-class and corporate style. Cartoons by Lee Lorenz punctuate brief chapters on such matters as the Real Man's vocabulary, great moments in Real Men's history, and so on. Like many parodies, Real Men hovers between ridicule of and affection for its subject. 305. Friedman, Bruce. The Lonely Guy's Book of Life. New York: McGraw-Hill Book, 1978. xiv, 206p. illus. The walking wounded of modern life, the lonely guys are here provided with whimsical advice on such matters as apartment living, cooking, grooming ("clothes left overnight in Woolite tend to rot away when you're wearing them at parties"), running, eating alone in restaurants, illness, psychiatric counseling, and sex. Victor Juhasz supplies the comic illustrations. 306. Gannon, Frank. All About Man. Atlanta: Longstreet Press, 1993. 131p. illus. Gannon retells the history of MAN (which he insists upon capitalizing), from his origins to his extinction. Along the way, we learn about early MAN, sex (Gannon assures male readers that they should not feel diminished if they have not had sex with 20,000 women, as Wilt Chamberlain declared), mythology, language, Iron Men (who complain about their wounds while beating drums in the woods), Real Men, and Cool Men. In the final chapter, Gannon contemplates his own death, realizing that MAN is mortal. 307. Gingold, Alfred. Fire in the John. New York: St. Martin's Press, Cader Books, a

Thomas Dunne book, 1991. 160p. illus. appendix. pa. Billed as a book about and for "the Manly Man in the Age of Sissification," this send-up of drum-and-chant masculinity makes merriment with the mythopoetic journeys charted by Captain Bly. Part 1 deplores the current glorification in some circles of "soft men." Part 2 takes the reader through 12 steps to true manhood. Part 3 celebrates the "brave new guy" of trendy myths. The appendix retells a lost tale of the Brothers Grimm. Many of the book's photographs have wickedly funny cutlines. 308. Jones, Julia Runk, and Milo Trump. Livingston's Field Guide to North American Males. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Dolphin Books, 1984. 124p. illus. notes. index. pa. In this daffy guide to North American males, the authors provide species and subspecies descriptions, including accounts of plumage (clothing), feathering (hairstyles), songs (identifying comments), habitat, range, nests, courtship and mating practices, and tracks ("little tell-tale signs males leave behind, such as cigarette butts, beer cans, business cards and dandruff"). Species include The Machoman (homo hardhat), The Good Ol' Boy (homo buddy), The

Page 116

Slob (homo porkus), The Jock (homo sweatsocks), The Golden Throated Tanner (homo coke), and The Sweet Young Thing (homo cookie). The comical photographs of the species "in their natural habitats" are by Alan Rabold. Not to be overlooked are the zany footnotes. 309. King, Florence. He: An Irreverent Look at the American Male. New York: Stein and Day, 1978. x, 204p. King describes herself as being neither a Total Woman nor a women's liberationist. (The most readable section of Ms magazine, she notes, is the "No Comment" department.) With a sharp eye and ear, King skewers the foibles of U.S. malesand females. After regaling readers with salty recollections of her teenage sexual experiments in the fifties, King goes on to characterize various types of males in the seventies. Not to be missed is her send-up of the male feminist, whom she dubs Jonathan Stuart Mill. Ever trendy, Jonathan has lost interest in black causes and is now (he says with a straight face) "into women." King also exposes the literary sins of recent male writers, and she portrays the new misogynists, who got that way (she confesses) partly from too many encounters with strident feminists. Although she professes a passion for polished Alistair Cooke types, one suspects that in reality they would be too tepid for her. Despite her "irreverent look at the American male," King clearly enjoys him, foibles and all. 310. Mead, Shepherd. Free the Male Man! The Manifesto of the Men's Liberation Movement, Examining the Urgent Need to Free Malekind and Re-establish the Equality, Both Economic and Sexual, of the Two Sexes, Containing Explicit Sexual Instructions, Diagrams, and Battle Plans for the Coming Masculist Revolution. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972. 155p. illus. Examining the comic side of the hazards of being male, Mead provides a laughable, consciousness-raising book about men's issues. John Huehnergarth's cartoons add to the fun. 311. Myer, Andy. The Liberated Father's Handbook. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1983. vii, 87p. illus. pa. Myer provides the text and the illustrationsboth are hilariousfor this comic guide for the pregnant father. Chapters cover such topics as visiting the

gynecologist ("No Man's Land"), surviving the baby shower, assembling the crib, handling labor and delivery, late-night feedings, the diaper dilemma ("Winning the Poo"), and traveling with baby ("The Longest Mile"). 312. O'Neill, Hugh. Daddy Cool: How to Ride a Seesaw with Dignity, Wear a Donald Duck Hat with Style, and Sing "Bingo Was His Name-O" with Panache. New York: Warner Books, 1988. iv, 133p. illus. pa. For dads who are attempting to maintain a modicum of Clint Eastwood cool amid family mayhem, O'Neill offers advice on keeping things under control. Beneath the comedy lies some valuable advice on how to be a good father. The illustrations by Peters Day show Dad chilling out in raincoat and sunglasses even in the most compromising situations. 313. Schoenberg, Fred. Middle Age Rage ... and Other Male Indignities. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987. 128p. illus. Schoenberg makes merry with the debacle of middle age. He tells men how to recognize the symptoms and what not to do about them. Forget exercise

Page 117

and diet, for instance. There is positive advice: get new glasses, make sure your fly is zippered, and don't get caught staring at younger women. Remember to keep the Sabbath holy: pro-football and a few beers bring a man closer to God and restore his health. The comic illustrations are by Rob Edwards. 314. Schoenstein, Ralph. Yes, My Darling Daughters: Adventures in Fathering. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1976. 133p. Reprint, New York: Avon Books, 1977. pa. In comic style that will remind some readers of Jean Kerr's early family writings, Schoenstein recounts his wacky adventures as the father of two daughters. 315. Stewart, D. L. Father Knows BestSometimes. New York: Warner Books, 1986. 212p. illus. pa. Fatherhood isn't anything like what the Robert Young television series led us to believe, Stewart reports. In wonderfully wacky fashion, Stewart tells how, as the father of four in suburban Ohio, he tries to cope with such crises as sending off a nubile daughter to college, being hounded by a son who has just reached driving age, and attending parent-teacher conferences. The deliciously comic stories are accompanied by Ted Pitts's illustrations. 316. Stewart, D. L. Fathers Are People Too. Dayton, OH: Journal Herald, 1980. 122p. illus. Reprint, Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1983. pa. Stewart, perhaps America's funniest writer on fatherhood, recounts fourteen of his hilarious misadventures as the father of four. Lovers of laughter should not miss Stewart's accounts of chaperoning a cub scout troop around New York City, taking a son fishing (and actually catching a fish), a night with the kids at a roller-skating rink, and the ordeal of having a teen party in the basement. Illustrations are by Ted Pitts. 317. Stewart, D. L. Stepfathers Are People Too. Dayton, OH: Dayton Daily News, 1991. 195p. illus. pa. Stepfathers are the relief pitchers of family life, Stewart notes. Divorced and remarried, Stewart finds himself the stepfather of two as well as the father of

four. Without missing a beat, he retells side-splitting stories of a "blended" family that is more like a tag-team wrestling match among siblings. Not to be missed are Stewart's run-ins with his fiendishly clever stepcat. The book's comedy is modified by a touching tribute to one of Stewart's stepsons who died in an accident, and by Stewart's admiration for all those who conscientiously take on the duties of step-parenting. Illustrations are by Frank Pauer. 318. Stuart, Jan. Guide to Being a Man in a Woman's World: How to be "Macho" Without Offending Anyone. New York: Shapolsky Publishers, 1989. xvii, 171p. illus. It seems that somebody was uneasy about this book. In addition to its rather colorless title, it is prefaced with a warning that "this book was not written to offend anyone." While not politically correct, Stuart's comedy is not meanspirited either. Instead, it takes a savvy and evenhanded look at growing up male in today's world. A representative chapter title is "Why Dating Is the Worst Experience of Your Life." Because Stuart is an authority on men's skin care, several straight chapters on that topic are inserted, somewhat incongruously, near the end.

Page 118

Cross-References 494. Gilbert, Sara D. What's A Father For? A Father's Guide to the Pleasures and Problems of Parenthood with Advice from the Experts. 853. Gordon, William J., and Steven D. Price. The Second-Time Single Man's Survival Handbook. 43. Greenburg, Dan. Scoring: A Sexual Memoir. 44. Houston, James D. The Men in My Life and Other More or Less True Recollections of Kinship. 55. McGrady, Mike. The Kitchen Sink Papers: My Life as a Househusband.

Page 119

12 Literature and the Arts: Primary Works and Critical Commentary


A. Classic Literature: Pre-1900 319. Apuleius. The Golden Ass. Translated by Jack Lindsay. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1960. 255p. notes. pa. Dating from the second century A.D., The Golden Ass tells the adventures of young Lucius, who is accidentally transformed into an ass when a witch's magic spell goes awry. Stolen by thieves, Lucius embarks on a series of tribulations that, on a symbolic level, mark his initiation into full manhood. Interspersed with Lucius' story are several tales, including the enduring story of Psyche and Amor (Cupid). Angered by Psyche's beauty, the goddess Venus seeks revenge against Psyche, whose search for her true love, Cupid-Amor, is a variant of Lucius' quest to discover human masculinity. Eventually, Lucius is redeemed by the goddess Isis and achieves adult manhood. The tale can be interpreted as an extended version of what Robert Bly in Iron John (entry 861) calls "the descent to ashes" aspect of male initiation. A comprehensive Jungian reading of the tale can be found in Marie-Louise von Franz's The Golden Ass of Apuleius: The Liberation of the Feminine in Man (entry 729). Clearly, the tale contains a gold mine of archetypal material depicting male individuation. 320. Besant, Walter. The Revolt of Man. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1882. 358p. Besant's half-comic, half-serious novel deserves to be better known than it is, especially for its prophetic depiction of England after the Great Transition. Women exercise political and social dominance, the monarchy has been abolished, the state is a matriarchal theocracy worshipping The Perfect Woman, and the men are kept in guilty subjection by such devices as public hysteria over wife beating. At last, a young nobleman, coached by his female professor of ancient and modern history, leads a revolt of the men. Despite some late-Victorian outlandishness, the novel manages to be both pertinent and perceptive.

321. Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. 1899, 1902. Reprint (3d ed.), edited by Robert Kimbrough. New York: W. W. Norton, Norton Critical Editions, 1988. xvii, 420p. illus. appendixes. notes. bibliography, 419-20. pa.

Page 120

The basis for the film Apocalypse Now, Conrad's tale of a journey up the Congo river in the late nineteenth century offers a glimpse into the corrupt nature of men. The literal story concerns Marlow, the story's principal narrator, who leaves England and Belgium to captain a steamboat in the Belgian Congo. Once in Africa, Marlow witnesses the Europeans' brutal treatment of natives, their murderous intrigues, and their greed. He heads upriver to rescue Kurtz, an agent who has been left at an inland post, and discovers in Kurtz a terrifying mirror image of the male heart of darkness. At one level, Conrad's short novel presents a sordid picture of European colonialism at its worst. At another level, it suggests that beneath the veneer of civilization lies a ''horror" of male barbarism. The men in the novel are savages at heart; the women (like Marlow's aunt and Kurtz's fiance) are simplemindedly naive. The Norton edition contains plentiful materials on biography, historical backgrounds, critical commentaries, and interpretations. 322. Crane, Stephen. The Red Badge of Courage. 1895. Reprint (2d ed.), edited by Sculley Bradley, Richmond Croom Beatty, E. Hudson Long, and Donald Pizer, New York: W. W. Norton, Norton Critical Editions, 1976. viii, 364p. appendixes. bibliography, 361-64. notes. pa. Vividly depicting a young soldier's first taste of battle during the American Civil War, The Red Badge of Courage shows how Henry Fieming's growing sense of valor is linked with his growing sense of manhood. Having fled in combat and having abandoned a soldier in distress, Henry returns to the war, fiercely engages in battle, and even becomes a "heroic" standard-bearer. At the end, he is able to beat down his shameful memories and quietly bask in his newfound masculinity: "He felt a quiet manhood, nonassertive but of sturdy and strong blood. ... He was a man." But Crane's pervasive irony has left some readers wondering whether Henry has achieved genuine manhood or tragically internalized a destructive definition of masculinity. The Norton edition includes textual notes, background materials, and critical essays. 323. Dickens, Charles. Dombey and Son. 1848. Reprint, edited by Peter Fairclough, New York: Penguin Books, 1970. 992p. illus. appendix. bibliography, 37. notes. pa. Perhaps the most profound of Dickens's portraits of fatherhood corrupted by monetary concerns, Dombey and Son isironicallythe name of a business

"house" rather than a description of a father-son relationship. A wealthy businessman, Mr. Dombey regards his daughter Florence as insignificant because she cannot succeed to the firm. He regards his fragile son Paul more as a business successor and a bid for immortality. When Paul dies, the novel suggests that lack of paternal love is partly responsible. The widowered Mr. Dombey then "buys" a new wife, Edith, from the marriage market. Repelled by what she has done, Edith proceeds to make life miserable for Mr. Dombey, herself, and young Florence. When his financial world collapses, Mr. Dombey at last awakens to the "feminine" qualities of love and care embodied in his daughter. In this novel, the most attractive father figure is the warm-hearted Captain Cuttles, and hesignificantlyhas no business acumen whatsoever. Another kindly father, Mr. Toodles, is a poor workingman. In dramatic terms, Dombey and Son depicts the incompatibility of cutthroat capitalism and loving fatherhood. The Penguin edition contains the original illustrations of the novel by Hablot K. Brown (known as "Phiz") and an introduction by Raymond Williams.

Page 121

324. Dostoevsky, Fyodor. The Brothers Karamazov. 1879-1880. Reprint, translated by Constance Garnett, revised by Ralph E. Matlaw, New York: W. W. Norton, 1976. xiii, 887p. appendixes. bibliography, 887. notes. pa. Dostoevsky's crowning achievement as a novelist, this work is, among other things, a psychological thriller that explores the heart of darknessand lightin fathers and in sons. When the depraved Fyodor Karamazov is murdered, the killer could be any one of his four sons: the passionate Dmitri, who has been locked in an oedipal struggle with his father for the attentions of the earthmother Grushenka; the intellectual Ivan, who has come to the conclusion that God has disappeared and that therefore "all is permitted"; the Christ-like Alyosha, whose steps are haunted by a dark "double" named Rakitin; or the diabolical Smerdyakov, who is apparently the son of Fyodor and a retarded woman whom he has wronged. While the sensual Fyodor and the saintly Father Zosima represent opposite extremes of father figures, the four brothers are volatile compounds of passion, intellect, mystical love, and demonic hate. The women in the novel are equally tempestuous, especially the hot-blooded Grushenka and the highly strung Katerina. Perhaps no other novel has portrayed so vividly the range of men's spiritual possibilities and the fury of their hidden torments. The Norton edition includes backgrounds and sources of the novel, as well as essays by such authors as Harry Slochower on the book's incest theme, D. H. Lawrence and Albert Camus on the Grand Inquisitor section, and Ralph E. Matlaw on the novel's religious myth and symbol. 325. Epic of Gilgamesh, The. Rev. ed. Translated and edited by N. K. Sandars. New York: Penguin Books, 1972. 128p. illus. appendixes. glossary. notes. pa. One of the oldest of recorded narratives, The Epic of Gilgamesh is cited increasingly by men's studies scholars in a variety of contexts. Dating back to the third millennium B.C. and recorded on clay tablets found in the Middle East, The Epic of Gilgamesh tells of the legendary king of Uruk whose arrogance threatens his people and offends the gods. The Babylonian deities fashion a double of Gilgamesh, a wild man named Enkidu. After a fearsome struggle, the two men become intimate friends, and together they defeat the giant, Humbaba. When the goddess Ishtar makes sexual overtures to Gilgamesh and is rejected, she afflicts Enkidu with a fatal illness. Grieving for his dead friend, Gilgamesh sets out to find Utnapishtim, a Babylonian Noah

who had survived the great flood and who holds the secret of immortal life. On Gilgamesh's return journey from Utnapishtim, a snake steals the flower of immortality from him, and Gilgamesh returns in sorrow to Uruk to await death. This plot outline only hints at the story's richness. Some scholars see in Enkidu the first wild man. The relationship between Gilgamesh and Enkidu has become the subject of endless speculation. Gilgamesh's rejection of Ishtar may represent patriarchal rejection of mother-goddess supremacy. Because Sandar's translation retells the story as an uninterrupted narrative, most lay readers will find it easily accessible. Sandars also provides a 60-page introduction to the epic, a map of the Middle East, a glossary of names, and an appendix listing sources of the story. Those seeking a translation closer to the fragmentary story contained on the tablets should consult The Epic of Gilgamesh, translated by Maureen Gallery Kovacs (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1985). 326. Hardy, Thomas. Jude the Obscure. 1896. Reprint, edited by C. H. Sisson, New York: Penguin Books, 1978. 511p. illus. glossary of dialect and unfamiliar words. notes. pa.

Page 122

Hardy's last and bleakest novel, Jude the Obscure tells the tale of a poor boy whose dreams of attending Christminster University (i.e., Oxford University) are cruelly shattered by class prejudice and his own sexual needs. Those who imagine that, in the past, universities were closed only to women will be in for a rude awakening: only a small minority of males was eligible for higher education in Jude Fawley's day. To make matters worse, Jude finds himself trapped between the sexually frigid Sue Bridehead, who is all nervous intellect and restless liberation, and the sensual Arabella Donn, who is all amoral earthiness. The two female characters may represent Hardy's grim view of modern women. As D. H. Lawrence noted, the plot of Jude the Obscure is that of Tess of the D'Urbervilles with the genders of the main characters changed. While numerous critics have insisted that Tess depicts the oppression of women, few have had the courage to suggest that Jude depicts the tragic fate of modern men. 327. Homer. The Iliad. Translated by Robert Fitzgerald. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1974. 595p. illus. notes. pa. This grim and glorious epic represents perhaps the earliest and most electrifying account of combat warfare and its effect upon men. Retelling an episode from the legendary Trojan War, the poem focuses on the Akhaian warrior Akhilleus (Achilles) whose quarrel with King Agamemnon leads to Akhilleus' angry withdrawal from battle. During his absence, his friend Patroklos is killed by the Trojan hero Hektor, an act that sends an infuriated Akhilleus back into battle. His mania for revenge knows no bounds, even after he has killed Hektor. Only when Hektor's father, the pathetic King Priam, quietly asks Akhilleus for the return of his son's body does the hero's fury subside into a tragic sense of men's lot. Although The Iliad is crowded with vivid characters both human and divine, Akhilleus is at its center. Is he a macho soldier-killer obsessed with military slaughter and triumph? Is he a deluded young man who has taken the only path to masculine glory that his culture exalts? Is he a tragic figure who comes to realize the futility of the male hero's way of life? After nearly 3,000 years, The Iliad still raises these and other disturbing questions about the nature of war and male identity, about freedom and necessity in human fate, and about the relationship between combat and men's behaviors. The Robert Fitzgerald translation has received numerous accolades for its vigor, clarity, and ingenuity. The more recent

translation by Robert Fagles (New York: Viking Penguin, 1991) has also been acclaimed widely. 328. Homer. The Odyssey. Translated by Robert Fitzgerald. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1961. 474p. illus. appendix. Reprint, Garden City, NY: DoubledayAnchor, 1963. pa. Reprint, New York: Random House-Vintage, 1990. pa. This epic of perilous journey and homecoming has enthralled the Western mind for nearly 3,000 years. Having spent 10 years fighting the Trojan War, Odysseus incurs the wrath of the sea god Poseidon, who prevents his return to his homeland of Ithaka for another 10 years. Wandering the Mediterranean Sea, Odysseus encounters numerous adventures before facing a final challengea group of lawless suitors who have invaded his household. These young men are pressuring his wife Penelope to marry, and they have murderous designs on her son by Odysseus, Telemakhos. Aided by the goddess Athene, Odysseus slays the suitors and reestablishes himself within his family and his kingdom. In doing so, he forges a new masculine identity by reclaiming his roles as husband, father, son, and king. Although Odysseus' fabulous voyages

Page 123

are exciting and memorable, the poem also celebrates the stability of the twoparent family and responsible fatherhood. In this way, The Odyssey can be seen as the epic of patriarchy (defined as father-involved society). Modern readers may also see the tale as a parable of a man's midlife search for meaning. A far different kind of hero than Akhilleus, Odysseus speaks from the heart when he says that "the best thing in the world [is] a strong house held in serenity / where man and wife agree." Robert Fitzgerald's lively verse translation has been praised greatly by scholars and general readers alike. 329. Ihara Saikaku. The Great Mirror of Male Love. Translated by Paul Gordon Schalow. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1990. ix, 37 lp. illus. notes. bibliography, 357-61. index. pa. This collection of 44 short stories represents a complete translation of Nanshoku okagami (1687) by Ihara Saikaku (1642-1693). Schalow, in the introduction, describes love between adult males and adolescent boys in seventeenth-century Japan. The first group of stories, dealing with samurai warriors, usually involves intense relationships, violence, bloodshed, misogyny, and tragic results. The second group, dealing with kabuki actors, is more sentimental. Many of the stories are tinged with a sadness at the fleeting nature of beauty. The illustrations resemble those of Yoshida Hambi (fl. 16601700). 330. Pearl: A New Verse Translation. Translated by Marie Borroff. New York: W. W. Norton, 1977. xxii, 40p. pa. Dating from late-fourteenth-century England, this exquisite poem is many things, including a father's lament for his dead daughter. It thus refutes those who assert that before modern times, parentsespecially fatherswere emotionally detached from their young children and regarded them as hardly human. The poem shows that fathers can deeply mourn the death of a young child. Readers who prefer to tackle the poem in the original Middle English should see Pearl, edited by E. V. Gordon (New York: Oxford University Press, 1953). 331. Shakespeare, William. As You Like It: With Reader's Guide. Edited by Frank S. Zepezauer. New York: Amsco School Publications, 1991. 287p. notes. pa.

Shakespeare's gender-bender comedy features a young woman who assumes a male disguise and then begins instructing her male lover on how to court a woman. Rosalind, one of Shakespeare's most appealing heroines, also finds that her male disguise has made her the object of another woman's affections. But the tangled love affairs get sorted out in the end. Although aimed at highschool audiences, this edition of the play features such clear print and commentary that general readers also will find them helpful. Predictably, Rosalind has been a favorite with some feminist critics who argue that men need a woman to clean up their act. But Zepezauer's commentary is notably evenhanded: "In her disguise as a man, Rosalind has been able to poke fun at men. But she has also used it as a means by which she could be candid about the less attractive inclinations of her own sex." And what man can resist an inward cheer when Rosalind reprimands the haughty Phebe for slighting her honest lover, Silvius: "Down on your knees, / And thank heaven, fasting, for a good man's love." 332. Shaw, George Bernard. Arms and the Man: A Pleasant Play. 1884. Reprint, New York: Penguin Books, 1955. 78p. pa.

Page 124

The sparkling wit of Shaw's dialogue is deadly serious about several matters, including how men are socialized to become soldiers, how men and women manipulate each other into playing frustrating gender roles, how society associates masculinity with combat aggressiveness, and how people glamorize war. This improbable, antiromantic comedy concerns a young Bulgarian woman who rescues a fleeing Swiss mercenary by hiding him in her bedroom. But that is just the start of the zany plot twists that Shaw uses to puncture cultural balloons about sex roles, war, and honor. 333. Strindberg, August. The Father. 1887. Reprint, in Pre-Inferno Plays: The Father, Lady Julie, Creditors, The Stronger, The Bond. Translated by Walter Johnson, Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1970. x, 243p. illus. bibliography, 237-40. notes. Reprint, New York: W. W. Norton, 1976. pa. Strindberg is the grandfather of men's awareness. His 1887 drama The Father depicts a struggle between the Captain and his wife Laura over the future of their daughter. Representative of the older paternal order, the Captain seems strong but is really vulnerable to his dependency upon women, his little-boy need for mothering, his chivalry, his overdependence on reason, and his willingness to believe suggestions that deny his paternity. In a stunning echo of Shylock's famous speech in The Merchant of Venice, the Captain denounces misandry as a form of bigotry on the same order as anti-Semitism and racism. Walter Johnson's translations are both readable and actable. Among the other plays in this collection, The Bond (1892) dramatizes a furious custody battle that makes Kramer Versus Kramer look like a tea party. 334. Strindberg, August. Getting Married. 1884, 1886. Reprint, translated by Mary Sandbach, New York: Viking Press, 1972. 384p. notes. The publication in 1884 of part 1 of Getting Married gave such offense to Swedish feminists and right-wing pietists that Strindberg found himself facing prosecution for blasphemy. The whole improbable stow of Strindberg's ordeal is recounted in Sandbach's introduction to this translation of 30 short stories embellished with polemical prefaces. A favorite target of part 1 is Ibsen's play A Doll's House, which Strindberg dissects as a sham in his preface and assaults further in a short stow titled "A Doll's House." Other stories in part 1 deal with the hazards faced by men in marriage. Typical of Strindberg's views, in "Love and the Price of Grain" the hapless young hero finds that he must pay and pay

and pay again for the privilege of being married. Part 2, published in 1886 afar Strindberg had been acquitted of blasphemy charges, shows him defiantly unrepentant. After declaring in the preface that women ruthlessly manipulate men, he dramatizes the point unflinchingly in such stories as "The BreadWinner." Whether one regards Strindberg as an outrageous misogynist or as the grandfather of men's liberation, it is difficult to disagree with Sandbach's conclusion that "he alone among contemporary Swedish writers refused to be castrated or muzzled." 335. Twain, Mark [Samuel Langhorne Clemens]. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. 1884. Reprint, (2d ed.) edited by Sculley Bradley, Richmond Croom Beatty, E. Hudson Long, and Thomas Cooley, New York: W. W. Norton, Norton Critical Editions, 1977. xi, 452p. appendixes. bibliography, 451-52. notes. pa. One of the great reads of American literature, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is also a hymn to male bonding, to the friendship between man and boy in a hostile world, and to the goodwill that can exist between black and white males. Persecuted by his brutal father, Huck Finn flees downriver on a raft with an escaped slave, Jim. As their adventures multiply, Huck

Page 125

becomes increasingly aware of Jim's compassionate humanity, and, in one of the book's most memorable scenes, he decides to violate his "conscience" and to help Jim become a free man. Although some readers have misinterpreted the story as racist and others are disappointed with the last quarter of the novel when Tom Sawyer steals the spotlight from Huck and Jim, most readers are deeply moved by the eloquence and humor of the novel's great middle section: Huck and Jim drift down the Mississippi, discovering their brotherhood. Like other Norton Critical Editions, this one contains useful background materials and critical essays. 336. Whitman, Walt. Leaves of Grass. 1855-1891. Reprint (rev. ed.), edited by Sculley Bradley and Harold W. Blodgett, New York: W. W. Norton, Norton Critical Editions, 1973. lx, 1008p. appendixes. illus. bibliography, 995-97. notes. index of titles. pa. Whitman's hymn to life is regarded by some critics as the great American poem of male liberation. In particular, the "Calamus" and "Drum-Taps" sections contain celebrations of male comradeship that anticipate modern efforts to reestablish male emotional closeness. This edition contains textual variants, Whitman's critical writings, and modern literary studies. B. Modern Literature: Twentieth Century 337. Bly, Robert, James Hillman, and Michael Meade, eds. The Rag and Bone Shop of the Heart: Poems for Men. New York: HarperCollins, 1992. xxi, 536p. index of poets and first lines. pa. Americans live in a "poetically underdeveloped nation," the editors note in the introduction to this large, spirit-enriching collection of poems from around the world. The anthology reflects the editors' social and personal agendas. Sections include "Approach to Wildness" (celebrations of the wild man in men); "Fathers' Prayers for Sons and Daughters"; "War"; "I Know the Earth, and I Am Sad'' (poems celebrating the earth and lamenting its desecration); "The House of Fathers and Titans"; "Language"; "Making a Hole in Denial" (poems acknowledging the shadow side of reality); "Loving the Community and Work"; "The Nave Male" (the male who is intoxicated with the feminine and believes he can take over women's sufferings); "The Second Layer: Anger, Hatred, Outrage" (poems that express rage); "Earthly Love"; "The Cultivated Heart"

(the ideal of masculinity); "Mother and Great Mother" (poems about mother as person and myth); "The Spindrift Gaze Toward Paradise" (poems of heavenly vision); "Zaniness"; and "Loving the World Anyway." Brief introductions to each section provide a context for reading the poems. A wide range of authors are represented (e.g., Robert Frost, Gerard Manley Hopkins, D. H. Lawrence, Rainer Maria Rilke, Csar Vallejo, William Butler Yeats). The selections crystallize male experience with an intensity that only great poetry can achieve. 338. Butler, Samuel. The Way of All Flesh. London: Grant Richards, 1903. Reprint, as Ernest Pontifex, or The Way of All Flesh: A Story of English Domestic Life, edited by Daniel F. Howard, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Riverside Editions, 1964. xxviii, 365p. appendixes. bibliography, xxv-xxvi. notes. pa. This savagely ironic novel exposes the chasm that widened between British middle-class fathers and sons in late-Victorian England. In Theobald Pontifex, Butler drew a memorable caricature of the authoritarian clergyman

Page 126

father whose son Ernest is predictably warped and rebellious. Howard uses Butler's manuscript for the text of this edition. 339. Conroy, Pat. The Prince of Tides. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1986. 567p. Reprint, New York: Bantam Books, 1987. pa. Conroy's novel focuses on Tom Wingo, the troubled product of a troubled family. A native of South Carolina, Wingo flies to New York City to help psychiatrist Susan Lowenstein unravel the secrets that led to his sister Savannah's latest attempted suicide. In the process, Tom's past also unravels. Among the revelations is Tom's inability to face his being raped as a child. "I did not know a boy could be raped," Tom says. His mother is a purveyor of denial, misinformation, and southern-belle misandry; his father is a frequently absent, abusive misogynist. Left with numerous gender problems to sort out, Tom becomes entangled in the life of Dr. Lowenstein, who has her own share of family problems. Tom Wingo speaks for many men when he says, "There's only one thing difficult about being a man, Doctor. Only one thing. They don't teach us how to love." 340. Corman, Avery. Kramer Versus Kramer. New York: Random House, 1977. Reprint, New York: New American Library, Signet, 1978. 234p. illus. pa. Reprint, New York: Ivy Books, 1988. 247p. pa. This noveland the Academy Award-winning film based on itdeeply touched a large segment of the U.S. public and thus became something of a cultural landmark indicating an altered attitude toward divorced fathers. From one point of view, the novel can be seen as a modern continuation of Henrik Ibsen's A Doll's House which closes with the middle-class wife walking out on husband and children. Kramer Versus Kramer centers upon Ted Kramer, a hustling advertising salesman, whose wife Joanna walks out on him and their four-year-old son Billy. In the process of coping with the situation, Ted and Billy forge closer emotional bonds than would have been possible otherwise. But after 18 months, Joanna returns, seeking custody of Billy. Following a wrenching trial, she wins custody because of traditional court prejudice favoring the mother as primary parent. The novel's ending, in which Joanna decides to relinquish Billy to Ted, may strike some readers as wishful thinking. 341.

Dickey, James. Deliverance. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970. 278p. Reprint, New York: Dell, 1971. pa. When four suburban men escape from their tacky, banal lives for a weekend of white-water canoeing and hunting in the wilds, the outing becomes a journey into the heart of male darkness. Set upon by two depraved mountain men, the four are swept into a maelstrom of violence that includes male rape and killings. Disturbingly, the novel suggests that some men, secretly bored with "feminized" civilization, yearn to light out for a wilder territory where they can engage in savage male-only rituals of challenge, death, and survival. 342. Dreiser, Theodore. An American Tragedy. 2 vols. New York: Boni and Liveright, 1925. 429, 406p. Reprint, New York: New American Library, 1973. pa. In this large, richly detailed novel, the U.S. male's dream of success becomes his downfall. Arriving in a small, upstate New York town after a brush with the law in Kansas, poor boy Clyde Griffiths becomes caught between two women: the gentle factory worker, Roberta Alden, who shares his dreams of rising in the social scale, and the shallow socialite, Sondra Finchley, who

Page 127

personifies all the empty glamour that Clyde worships. Roberta becomes pregnant just as Clyde seems about to win Sondra. In his desperation he contemplates murdering Roberta, but when their boat overturns on a lake, her drowning is partly contrived and partly accidental. Nevertheless, Clyde is convicted of murdering her, and he dies in the electric chair. Instead of a Horatio Alger success story, Dreiser depicts a young man destroyed by the American dream. 343. Duberman, Martin. Male Armor: Selected Plays, 1968-1974. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1975. xv, 352p. pa. This collection contains seven plays: Metaphors, The Colonial Dudes, The Guttman Ordinary Scale, The Recorder, The Electric Map, Payments, and Elagabalus. As Duberman explains in the introduction, the plays reverberate with the question, "What does it mean to be a `man'?" and with the concept of male armor, that is, the rigid shell of masculinity that some men construct to confront the world. 343a. Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. New York: Random House, 1947. Reprint, 1992. xviii, 572p. A richly textured novel that has achieved the status of modern classic, Invisible Man records the journey of a black Everyman in twentieth-century U.S. society. In the South, the unnamed narrator as a youth is brutalized and patronized by white men before he is sent off to a black college, where he is betrayed by the college president. As he heads north to Harlem, it begins to dawn on the narrator that he is an invisible man because no onewhite or blackwants to see him as a unique individual. In Harlem he continues to run afoul of people and organizations that are blind to his "visibility." During an urban riot, he confronts his violent alter ego, a black revolutionary named Ras the Destroyer. At the end of the action, the narrator has become a "running man," fleeing from destructive forces but clutching his selfhood like the briefcase he carries. Significantly, the narrator avoids the castration he dreams about: At the end of the novel, he is running, but he is a running man. 344. Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1925. 182p. pa.

For many readers, Fitzgerald's enormously successful novel dramatizes how the U.S. male has been destroyed by the American dream of success. Unlike Willy Loman in Death of a Salesman (entry 366), Gatsby attains great wealth, but only to discover how hollow this success is. Believing in all the Horatio Alger myths, young Jimmy Gatz transforms himself into wealthy Jay Gatsby and wins his dream woman, Daisy Buchanan. But Daisy is as shallow as Gatsby's dream of success. In the end, she returns to her husband Tom and his "old money," leaving Gatsby to be destroyed by the catastrophe that she and Tom have created. 345. Fitzgerald, F. Scott. Tender Is the Night. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1933. 315p. pa. Reprint (rev. ed.), in Three Novels of F. Scott Fitzgerald, edited by Malcolm Cowley and Edmund Wilson, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953. appendix. notes. pa. This Fitzgerald novel traces the rise and fall of Dick Diver, a likable and promising psychiatrist whose character and career are eroded by the emptiness of life among the wealthy in Europe. Like Gatsby, Diver is broken by a misguided attraction for glamorous wealth, represented in this novel by the

Page 128

beautiful but mentally unstable Nicole Warren. Diver's story can also be read as an account of a man unsuccessfully negotiating a midlife crisis. It is punctuated by insights into such matters as the ephemeral attraction between younger women and older men, midlife awareness of death, the harmful nature of many modern male-female relationships, and the greater survival skills of women. The 1953 edition incorporates Fitzgerald's considerable revisions of the earlier text. 346. Forster, E. M. A Passage to India. 1924. Reprint, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich/Harvest, 1984. 316p. pa. Forster's brilliantly complex novel is set during the British occupation of India, early in the twentieth century. In the presence of prejudice and distrust, the male friendship between the Indian, Dr. Aziz, and the British schoolmaster, Cyril Fielding, holds out the possibility of brotherhood between East and West. The bond is cruelly tested, however, when Dr. Aziz is accused of sexually molesting a British woman, Adela Quested, while they are visiting the mysterious Marabar Caves. The friendship is eventually healed, although the novel ends with the two friends' separatinga hint that the times are not yet ripe for full rapprochement between Eastern and Western men. For the most part, literary critics have been too timid to explore the significance of the false rape charge in the novel's overall structure, but Forster vividly depicts the vulnerability of males, especially minority males, to accusations of sexual impropriety. 347. Garca Mrquez, Gabriel. Chronicle of a Death Foretold. Translated by Gregory Rabassa. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982. Reprint, New York: Ballantine Books, 1984. 145p. illus. pa. Original publication, as Crnica de una muerte anunciada (Bogot, Columbia: Editorial La Oveja Negra., 1981). Few stories capture the dark side of Latin American machismo as memorably as this superbly ironic tale set in a small Caribbean town. When Angela Vicario is rejected by her new bridegroom because she is not a virgin, the male code of honor requires her twin brothers, Pedro and Pablo, to revenge the family honor by murdering her alleged lover, Santiago Nasar. Nearly everyone in town knows that Nasar's murder is imminent, but no one prevents it. The brothers want to be stopped, but community silence forces them to act. If they do not, they will no longer be considered men. Thus, the entire society imposes machismo upon

men, even those men who loathe its violent requirements. 348. Gold, Herbert. Fathers: A Novel in the Form of a Memoir. New York: Random House, 1966. 309p. Reprint, New York: Random House, 1968. Reprint, Berkeley, CA: Creative Arts, 1980. pa. Reprint, New York: Arbor House, 1983. pa. This novel tells the story of Sam Gold, a Jew who left Russia as a boy during Czarist persecutions and who came to the United States early in the twentieth century. Gold not only dramatizes his father's experiences but also tells a representative story about many men's struggle to succeed in the new land. When the novel ends in the mid-1960s, Sam is a vigorous 80-year-old survivor. As the divorced father of two daughters, his son Herb has a deepened appreciation of Sam's achievement. The novel closes with an "Epilogue and a Beginning" that recalls the figure of The Crippler. To prevent their sons from being conscripted into the brutalities of the Czarist armies, nineteenth-century Russian Jews had them deliberately maimed by a "crippler." This storyand the novel-memoir itselfare parables of the price males must often pay to survive.

Page 129

349. Golding, William. Lord of the Flies. New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, 1955. 243p. Reprint, New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, Capricorn Books, 1959. pa. Reprint, New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, 1962. pa. When a group of British boys is marooned on a tropical island, the scene seems to be set for an idyllic adventure story. Instead, the situation becomes a nightmare as the boys degenerate into brutal savagery. Golding's terrifying suspense novel is also an electrifying parable of unchecked male aggression destroying civilized values and creating the threat of total annihilation. That no girls are present on the island may suggest that evil lurks in the hearts of males only. The 1959 reprint contains a biographical and critical note by E. L. Epstein. The 1962 reprint contains an introduction by E. M. Forster. 350. Goldman, William. Father's Day. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971. 215p. In this funny-sad novel, a divorced father (whose Walter Mitty-like imagination works overtime) attempts to reach out to his vulnerable, six-year-old daughter, only to leave her scarred, literally and figuratively, by their encounter. 351. Gosse, Edmund. Father and Son: A Study of Two Temperaments. London: Heinemann, 1907. vi, 373p. Reprint, edited by William Irvine, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Riverside Editions, 1965. pa. In this famous autobiographical novel, Gosse crystallizes the plight of the midVictorian father who rejects science when he cannot reconcile it with religious faith, and the late-Victorian son who rejects his father's faith when he cannot reconcile it with life. Exacerbated by the conflict between Darwinian agnosticism and evangelical piety, the estrangement between well-meaning father and dutiful son is raised by Gosse's art to a representative and poignant tale of generational incompatibility. 352. Guest, Judith. Ordinary People. New York: Viking Press, 1976. 263p. Reprint, New York: Ballantine Books, 1977. pa. With an extraordinary ability to get inside her male characters, Guest writes a hymn to father-son bonding in this novel that served as the basis for a splendid

film directed by Robert Redford. For young Conrad Jarrett, the usual teenage problems are compounded by his older brother's accidental drowning and by his own attempted suicide. His parents reverse the usual role expectations: his mother Beth has locked herself away from feelings because they are too painful to cope with, while his father Calvin has begun to break out of the provider's usual detachment to establish emotional connections with those around him. Also influencing Conrad is a memorably frank and understanding psychiatrist named Berger. Guest's narrative conveys a vivid sense of "felt life" right up to what was once one of the most unusual and moving climactic love scenes in modern fiction, a scene in which father and son manage to say to each other "I love you." 353. Gurian, Michael. The Odyssey of Telemachus: A Novel in Prose and Poetry. San Francisco: Swallow Song Press, 1990. 87p. appendix. pa. Convinced that an important episode has been lost from The Odyssey (entry 328), Gurian sets out to close the gap. This episode describes how Odysseus' son Telemachus discovers his identity as an adult male. Told in prose and verse, the story becomes a vision quest, "a journey which mirrors,

Page 130

revises, expands and modernizes Homer's, especially in its appeal to gender influences on Telemachus." The young man's masculine maturity is shaped by Athena, the goddess of wisdom, as much as by the men whom Telemachus encounters, including his father. Gurian's idea is intriguing, but Homer is a tough act to follow poetically. (See entry 866.) 354. Heller, Joseph. Something Happened. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1974. 565p. Reprint, New York: Ballantine Books, 1975. pa. In a lengthy interior monologue, Bob Slocum explores the messy emotional upheavals of his midlife crisis. At work he is clawing his way through the corporate jungle. At home he is alienated from his wife (who drinks during the day) and his teenage daughter (who alternately hates and loves him). One son is hopelessly retarded; the other is lovable and distressingly vulnerable. Slocum makes it through his various crises, but only at the cost of destroying the little boy within himself, an act dramatized when he smothers his vulnerable son to end the boy's suffering. Drawing together Slocum's memories, his fantasies, and his participation in the callous pettiness of the office and in the emotional sparring at home, the novel provides lightning glimpses into the lives of many modern men. 355. Hemingway, Ernest. Men Without Women. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1927. 232p. pa. According to Leslie Fiedler, all of Hemingway's fiction concerns men without women. In this collection of 14 short stories, the Hemingway heroes struggle to affirm positive masculine values in the face of almost inevitable defeat. In addition to several Nick Adams stories, the selection includes "The Undefeated," "White Elephants," and "Fifty Grand." 356. Hemingway, Ernest. The Nick Adams Stories. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1972. 268p. pa. Reprint, New York: Bantam Books, 1973. pa. Philip Young notes that the somewhat autobiographical Nick Adams "is the Hemingway hero, the first one." This collection brings together 24 short stories, including eight previously unpublished sketches, recounting Nick's early life. Nick is first seen as a frightened boy fishing with his father in the Michigan woods, then as a youth tramping around the country. Later, he is seen as a

young soldier wounded amid the carnage of World War I, as a shattered veteran returning home, as a young writer perfecting his art, and finally as a father guiding his own son in the ways of men. Many of the earlier stories are initiation episodes in which Nick encounters the violence inherent in birth and death. Like many Hemingway heroes, the wounded Nick becomes a lonely hero, stoically sensitive, serious, honest, courageous in his own way, and strangely vulnerable. He also remains alienated from mainstream society and from most women. He validates his manhood by capably performing such tasks as fishing, hunting, and (above all) writing honestly. This collection includes "The Killers," "Big Two-Hearted River," and ''Fathers and Sons." 357. Hemingway, Ernest. The Old Man and the Sea. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1952. 140p. pa. In this hymn to manly courage and endurance, Hemingway exalts his philosophy of manhood to the status of religion. The story's protagonist is an aging Cuban fisherman engaged in a life-and-death struggle with a marlin longer than the old man's fishing skiff. Battling his failing bodily powers as dauntlessly as he battles the marlin and the sharks that appear on the scene,

Page 131

the old man states the book's theme thusly: "A man can be destroyed but not defeated." 358. Kopit, Arthur. Oh Dad, Poor Dad, Mamma's Hung You in the Closet and I'm Feeling So Sad: A Pseudoclassical Tragifarce in a Bastard French Tradition. New York: Hill and Wang, 1960.89p. illus. Reprint, New York: Pocket Books, 1966. pa. This bizarre tragifarce features the quintessential castrating mother, Madame Rosepettle, who travels about with the stuffed corpse of her late husband whom she did to death. Also included in her entourage are two Venus-flytraps, a piranha, and her 17-year-old son Jonathan, whom she has so smothered with her "love" that he remains a stuttering child. When Jonathan literally smothers a young woman who tries to make love to him, the mother-son legacy becomes all too apparent. As the title indicates, the play caricatures the plight of the U.S. father and son as victims of an all-powerful Mom. 359. Lawrence, D. H. Lady Chatterley's Lover. Florence, Italy: Giuseppe Orioli, 1928. Reprint, New York: Grove Press, 1957. 384p. pa. Lawrence's hymn to phallic tenderness still drives some people into a frenzy. For decades the novel was banned as obscene; now some academics denounce it as politically incorrect. The story centers upon Lady Connie Chatterley, whose husband, Sir Clifford, has been rendered impotent by a World War I wound. Symbolically, Sir Clifford represents the impotent British aristocracy and the sterility of much twentieth-century masculinity. Lady Chatterley finds herself surrounded by men who treat women "as equals" but who do not really like them, much less respond to them with full human sexuality. The women are not much better, if Mrs. Ivy Bolton, Sir Clifford's nurse, is any indication: while mothering men, she despises them and seeks power over them. Connie's life changes when she begins an affair with Oliver Mellors, the gamekeeper of her husband's estate. Hedged in by England's industrial blight and an embittered ex-wife, Mellors retains enough primal manliness to rouse Connie Chatterley to sexual love. Despite the worst that law and custom can do to them, the couple, at the end of the novel, are determined to find a new life together. Although many modern readers will hold the few brief scenes of lovemaking to be lyrical, the episodes were once condemned as pornographic and are now denounced as phallocentric. Far from

degrading sexual love, however, Lawrence exalts it as something sacred. Far from degrading women or men, he rejects a sexless view of people as an insult to their humanity. The famous Grove Press edition contains an introduction by Mark Schorer and extracts from the 1959 legal decision that allowed the novel to be distributed in the United States. 360. Lawrence, D. H. Sons and Lovers. London: Duckworth, 1913. vii, 423p. Reprint, as Sons and Lovers: Text, Background, and Criticism, edited by Julian Moynahan, Viking Critical Library, New York: Viking Press, Penguin, 1968. xiii, 622p. illus. appendixes. bibliography, 619-22. pa. Set in a nineteenth-century Nottinghamshire mining town, this somewhat autobiographical novel dramatizes important insights into the plight of workingmen in industrial countries and into the psychosexual binds of young men who grow up in a mother-dominated household. In part 1, the drudgery of working in the mines transforms the joyously spontaneous Walter Morel into an irritable, drink-soaked authoritarian who is alienated from his family yet pitifully dependent on wife and home. Part 2 concentrates upon the son, Paul Morel, as he tries to break away from his mother's possessive love. His task is

Page 132

complicated by his inability to identify with his father and by his prolonged yet sexually inadequate affair with the daughter of a neighboring farm family. Paul drifts into another affair with Clara Dawes, an older and more dominating woman (like his mother), but he eventually relinquishes her to her estranged husband (who resembles Paul's father). Even though Paul has symbolically resolved his oedipal tensions and even though his mother dies, the question of whether Paul will ever be free of her domination is left unresolved at the novel's end. The Viking critical edition includes a wealth of autobiographical and social background material, literary assessments, and psychoanalytical studies, including Freud's "The Most Prevalent Form of Degradation in Erotic Life." 361. Lawrence, D. H. Women in Love. New York: privately printed for subscribers only, 1920. 356p. Reprint, London: M. Secker, 1921. Reprint, New York: Penguin Books, 1976. pa. This novel, which Lawrence considered his best, is "about" many things, including men in lovewith women and with other men. In the relationship between Rupert Birkin and Gerald Crich, Lawrence vividly portrays men's hunger forand resistance toclose male friendships that are not homosexual but that are a form of love. 362. Lopate, Phillip. Bachelorhood: Tales of the Metropolis. Boston: Little, Brown, 1981. xvi, 286p. This polished collection of personal essays, reminiscences, poems, anecdotes, and vignettes reflects numerous aspects of the author's bachelor life in New York City. Writing as a bachelor observer of life, Lopate offers wry and poignant "tales of the metropolis," including accounts of relationships that did not work out, reflections on bachelorhood as a state of life, a poetic look at an extrovert couple making the most of a second marriage, a brief portrait of a gay couple, an assessment of pornography and the men who patronize the 42-Street establishments, and an essay on the literature of bachelorhood. 363. Mailer, Norman. An American Dream. New York: Dial Press, 1965. 271p. Reprint, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1983. pa. In this outrageous pop classic, tough-guy Steve Rojack murders his rich wife,

seduces the German maid, eludes police investigators, makes it with a singer named Cherry, faces off with a black pimp named Shago Martin, defeats his tycoon father-in-law, and escapes various forms of mayhem. Whatever it means, the novel seems quintessentially Maileresque, touching on familiar themes, including the macho mystique, the blending of sex and violence, and black-and-white love-hate. 364. Mamet, David. Oleanna. New York: Vintage Books, Random House, 1993. ix, 80p. pa. Mamet's controversial play features a male college professor whose ambition and glib cynicism about his profession leave him an easy target for a female student. The student, Carol, seems to have learned nothing in college except how to misinterpret everything as sexism, harassment, and a display of male power. Their disjointed discussion of her grades in act I spirals out of control in act 2 and culminates in an accusation of rape. John, the professor, is a classic example of the distracted male who has no idea how pervasive and corrosive modern misandry has become. Carol is a chilling depiction of the budding "femi-Nazi" moving in for the kill.

Page 133

365. Maugham, W. Somerset. The Moon and Sixpence. New York: George H. Doran, 1919. 314p. Reprint, New York: Penguin Books, 1944. pa. Written in 1918 and 1919 when Maugham was 44 and 45 years old, this novel draws upon its author's stormy passage through midlife. It is also based somewhat loosely upon the life of Paul Gauguin. The protagonist, Charles Strickland, at age 40 suddenly breaks away from his stuffy life as a London businessman and runs off to Paris to be a painter. Refusing to feel guilt for deserting his wife and children, Strickland relentlessly pursues his new vocation, regardless of whom he hurts. Eventually, he finds in Tahiti an environment more congenial to his art and self, but there he is consumed by leprosy, a disease as implacable as his monomania to create art. However one reacts to Strickland, Maugham has drawn a powerful portrait of a man driven by midlife passions. 366. Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman: Certain Private Conversations in Two Acts and a Requiem. New York: Viking Press, 1949. 139p. Reprint, New York: Penguin Books, 1976. pa. Since its first performances in 1949, Miller's Death of a Salesman has continued to move audiences strongly, and it promises to become an enduring fixture of the American stage. Among other things, the play depicts a representative little man (a low man) whose lot mirrors that of other ordinary U.S. men. Its pitiful protagonist, Willy Loman, is typical in having once harbored Horatio Alger-like dreams of success. These dreams are presented in imagined conversations between Willy and his older brother Ben who made his fortune in the jungles of ruthless business enterprise. But Willy has been unable to attain such success, and near the end of his career, in his early sixties, he feels himself a failure as a man. Although Willy has anxiously tried to raise his two sons with the proper formula for male success, his own work and his values have deeply estranged him from both of them. When his older son Biff discovers his father's affair with The Woman (possibly representing the Bitch Goddess of Success), the break between father and son is irrevocable. Willy's wife Linda loves him deeply, but feeds his dreams and is powerless to prevent his impending catastrophe. Having been used and cast aside by his employer, Willy concludes that he is worth more dead than alive, and he commits suicide in a last desperate effort to win an opportunity for his son Biff.

In brief, Willy kills himself trying to fulfill the masculine role of the provider who raises his family's social status. In the poignant Requiem that closes the play, Biff sadly concludes that Willy had all the wrong dreams and that "he never knew who he was." 367. Moramarco, Fred, and Al Zolynas, eds. Men of Our Time: An Anthology of Male Poetry in Contemporary America. Athens and London: University of Georgia Press, 1992. xxxviii, 408p. appendix. indexes of poets, titles, and first lines. pa. This handsomely printed, generous selection of poetry reveals the inner lives of contemporary males in language that is both forceful and memorable. The editors believe that men have undergone enormous changes in recent years and that the most powerful record of those changes can be seen in men's poetry. "A quiet revolution has been taking place in men's poetry over the past few decades, as men have been chronicling the 'history of their hearts' and have been examining those relationships central to their being in the world: their connections to their fathers and mothers; their own sense of fatherhood and of being sons and brothers; their marriages, divorces, and other aspects of their love lives; as well as the ways they conceive of maleness and femaleness."

Page 134

Poems are gathered into nine sections: boys becoming men; sons seeing fathers; sons and their mothers; fathers and their sons; fathers and their daughters; men and women; brothers, friends, lovers, and others; men at war; and the hearts of men. Poets include Robert Bly, Ishmael Reed, Richard Wilbur, David Citino, Barton Sutter, and Patrick O'Leary. 368. Perlman, Jim, ed. Brother Songs: A Male Anthology of Poetry. Minneapolis, MN: Holy Cow! Press, 1979. xi, 118p. illus. appendix. Perlman has collected poems from 55 modern poets, arranged into sections about fathers, sons, brothers, and friends and lovers. The appendix contains information about the contributors. Graphics are by Randall W. Scholes. 369. Reed, Ishmael. Reckless Eyeballing. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1986. 148p. In this wickedly funny, something-to-offend-everyone novel set in New York City, the Flower Phantom is shaving the heads of black female writers whose works have portrayed black men as oversexed savages, exactly the sort of image that white racists have been purveying for decades. Apparently, the Phantom's motive is to brand the women just as French people after World War II marked female Nazi collaborators. Among the Phantom's victims is feminist playwright Tremonisha Smarts (does she owe something to Alice Walker?), whose successful play Wrong Headed Man featured numerous black, male brutes. Meanwhile, black playwright Ian Ball is so at odds with trendy notions of sexism that he cannot get anything produced. Indeed, producer Becky French (does the last name link her with Marilyn French?) is pouring all her money and energy into a play demonstrating that Eva Braun was the victim of male chauvinism. Ball's play, Reckless Eyeballing, concerns a black man lynched by white men because he looked at a white woman. To get the play produced, however, Ball has to agree to have it rewritten by Smarts; it comes out as an all-female play justifying the lynching because any man guilty of recklessly eyeballing any woman is a rapist. (Shades of Susan Brownmiller in Against Our Will, entry 908, justifying the murder of Emmett Till!) The reworked play's new political correctness guarantees its success. Reed's novel, however, is so deliciously incorrect that one wonders how it ever got into print. 370. Remarque, Erich Maria. All Quiet on the Western Front. Translated by A. W.

Wheen. Boston: Little, Brown, 1929. Reprint, New York: Fawcett Crest Books, 1979. 297p. pa. Original publication, as Im Westen Nichts Neues (N.p.: Ullstein A. G., 1928). Perhaps more than any other novel, All Quiet on the Western Front captures the devastating effects upon men of the horror and futility of modern combat. Moved by the patriotic slogans of his teachers and the pressure from family and friends, young Paul Baumer enlists in the German army, only to be progressively dehumanized by military training and the nightmare of trench warfare. Although Baumer is the central figure, the novel follows in some detail the grim plights of several other soldiers, as well as prisoners and civilians. As the senseless carnage of battle continues, Paul's comrades are wounded or killed, and his own humanity is so irreversibly ravaged by warfare that his death is likely to be perceived by the reader as a blessing and a release. 371. Roth, Philip. My Life as a Man. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1974. 330p. Reprint, New York: Penguin Books, 1985. pa.

Page 135

Trying to achieve manhood, author Peter Tarnopol involves himself in a wildly disastrous marriage from which he may never recover. The first part of this novel consists of two Tarnopol stories in which he tries to exorcise his marital nightmare through fiction; in the longer second part of the book, he attempts to tell his "true story." Growing up in the fifties, Peter is told by society that it is "unmanly" and "immature" not to marry; it is men's duty to rescue women through marriage. "I wanted to be humanish: manly, a man," Peter reportsand so he succumbs to "the Prince Charming phenomenon.'' He marries Maureen, only to find himself in a cage with a wildcat. Peter discovers that in the sixties he cannot divorce his wife without her consent, that the judge at the separation hearings regards women as victims and men as oppressors who ought to pay for their "misdeeds," and that alimony payments are rigged against him. After the separation, Peter begins an affair with Susan, who has her own emotional problems. After Maureen's death in a car accident, Peter must face the challenge of living with his and Susan's battered psyches. In this novel, life as a man is nothing short of earthly damnation. 372. Roth, Philip. Portnoy's Complaint. New York: Random House, 1969. iii, 274p. Reprint. New York: Bantam Books, 1972. pa. Portnoy's complaint is a familiar disordera messed-up sex life traced primarily to a smothering mother-son relationship. With a schlemiel father and a guilt mongering "Jewish mother," Alex Portnoy finds his only relief in incessant masturbation and (later) kinky sex. When he finds a liberated but not-toobright sex partner whom he calls The Monkey, Portnoy has trouble relating to her except in bed. The novel, consisting of Portnoy's primal-scream monologue to his psychotherapist, is by turns horrifying and hilarious. 373. Schultz, Susan Polis, ed. I Love You, Dad: A Collection of Poems. Boulder, CO: Blue Mountain Press, 1983. 63p. illus. pa. Forty-five affectionate tributes to father from as many poets are attractively printed along with stylized color illustrations. 374. Shepard, Sam. Seven Plays. New York: Bantam Books, 1981. xxvii, 336p. pa. Shepard's True West dramatizes the struggle of men who envy other men for "the road not taken." Two brothers, Lee and Austin, have chosen opposite

lifestyles: Lee is a drifter on intimate terms with the desert, Austin is a successful Los Angeles screenwriter. Sibling rivalry pushes them into an almost fatal role reversal, and the play's ending may suggest that the differences between the brothers can never be resolved. This volume also contains Buried Child, Curse of the Starving Class, The Tooth of Crime, La Turista, Tongues, and Savage Love, the latter two plays written in collaboration with Joseph Chaikin. 375. Sherman, Martin, Bent. New York: Avon Books, Bard, 1979. 80p. appendix. pa. Depicting Nazi extermination of homosexuals, Sherman's play provides a metaphor for all persecution of gays. 376. Trumbo, Dalton. Johnny Got His Gun. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1939. 309p. Reprint, New York: Lyle Stuart, 1959, 1970. pa. Reprint, New York: Bantam Books, 1970. pa.

Page 136

This unsparing novel consists of the tortured ruminations of a World War I soldier whose wounds have left him a quadruple amputee, blind, deaf, speechless, and faceless. As such, Joe Bonham represents the millions of men who have died or been hideously wounded in battle. Bonham also imagines himself speaking for all the "little guys" of history who have been exploited, enslaved, tortured, or killed. Learning that the authorities prefer to ignore him in his present grotesque condition, Bonham envisions a time when victimized people will discover who their true enemies are and will turn their weapons on warmongering leaders. 377. Updike, John. Rabbit, Run. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1960, 1970. 309p. Reprint, New York: Fawcett World Crest, 1962. pa. Reprint, New York: Ballantine Books, 1981. pa. The plight of Harry (Rabbit) Angstrom has hit a nerve with many U.S. men. After his high school years of basketball glory, Rabbit at 26 has settled into a life of thoroughgoing banality that includes a second-rate marriage to Janice (complete with son Nelson and a baby on the way) and a deadening job as a five-and-dime salesman in a drab small town. Unable to dispel the feeling that "somewhere there was something better for him than listening to babies cry and cheating people in used-car lots," Rabbit instinctively takes to flightfirst into the arms of a prostitute, Ruth, then back to Janice when she gives birth to their child, and then away from her again after she accidentally drowns the baby in the bathtub during a bout of daytime drinking. A final, futile attempt to reunite with Ruth ends in another of Rabbit's flights. Perhaps, in Rabbit Angstrom, many U.S. men have found the fictional representative of their feelings of being trapped in early adulthood, of their need for something more than meaningless jobs and empty marriages, and of their desire for flight from such life-sapping institutions. 378. White, Edmund. A Boy's Own Story. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1982. 218p. Reprint, New York: New American Library, Plume Books, 1983. pa. This novel about growing up homosexual in America is laced with ironies, insights, and cynicism. 379. Wilson, August. Fences. New York: Penguin-Plume, 1986. xviii, 101p. pa.

Troy Maxson's final days become a retrospective of his life, a life familiar to many twentieth-century black males. Troy recapitulates his impoverished childhood, his move to the city where desperation led him to crime, his prison time, the discrimination he faced as a black baseball player, his bouts with alcohol, and other handicaps in the game of life. He has found some blessings, however, especially in his marriage to Rose. But Troy's later years are complicated by his infidelity, his troubles on the job (significantly, he is a garbage collector), his rivalry with one of his sons, and his concern to fence out Death. When Death comes for Troy, the play's concluding scene suggests that, despite his flaws, his courage in batting what life pitched to him has won him salvation. As a black counterpart of Death of a Salesman (entry 366), Fences eloquently dramatizes African-American male experience and the process of healing the wounded father. 380. Wulbert, Roland, and Larry Laraby, eds. A Good Crew: An Alaskan Men's Anthology. Fairbanks, AL: Fireweed Press, 1986. iv, 78p. pa.

Page 137

Alaska is already a place in the imagination, the editors point out in their introduction. This collection of 29 short stories and poems by male authors features primarily male characters. Several of the entries record rites of passage; a number employ Alaskan fishing as a setting. C. the Arts: Film, Painting, Photography 381. Aymar, Brandt. The Young Male Figure: In Paintings, Sculptures, and Drawings from Ancient Egypt to the Present. New York: Crown, 1970. vii, 247p. illus. bibliography, 245-47. index. With the aid of numerous black-and-white photographs, Aymar traces the depiction of the young male body in classical antiquity, in the Renaissance and mannerist periods, in European art of the seventeenth through the twentieth centuries, and in more exotic art. 382. Gloeden, Wilhelm, Baron von. Photographs of the Classic Male Nude. New York: Camera/Graphic Press, 1977. 105p. illus. Original publication, as Taormina debut du siecle (Paris: Editions du Chne, 1975). Living in Taormina in the early twentieth century, Baron von Gloeden photographed nude Sicilian youths, attempting to evoke a homoerotic Arcadia. Although the preface by Jean-Claude Lemagny stresses their datedhess, others may see the photographs reproduced in this volume as a hymn to the young male body. 383. Hayes, Dannielle B., ed. Women Photograph Men. New York: William Morrow, 1977. unpaged. illus. pa. Hayes brings together 118 photographs of males by 71 artists, including Dawn Mitchell Tress, Kathryn Abbe, Dianora Niccolini, Patt Blue, Arlene Alda, Ruth Breil, Karen Tweedy-Holmes, and Carolee Campbell. Happily, the photographers look at men as humans first, avoiding idealizations and caricatures. Although a few celebrities (e.g., Richard Burton) and a few pretty faces appear, the majority of males are remarkable for their ordinary humanitya Vietnamese boy with a pained smile and a missing leg, a pair of muddy oil riggers engaging in a ballet of work with their gear, and an elderly roustabout wearily propped against a circus tent pole. Although some nudes are included, the photographers seem most fascinated by the men's hands and hairiness.

Unfortunately, the introduction by Molly Haskell comes freighted with all the clichs about men that the photographers have avoided so splendidly. 384. Husband, Timothy, with Gloria Gilmore-House. The Wild Man: Medieval Myth and Symbolism. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1980. xii, 220p. illus. appendixes. bibliography, 205-15. notes. index. This book grew out of an exhibit on the medieval wild man presented at The Cloisters in New York City. Superbly illustrated with dozens of black-and-white and color illustrations, the book discusses the repeated appearances of the wild man in medieval iconography. This book is the place to trace Iron John's family tree. (See entry 861.) For more on the wild man, see The Wild Man Within (entry 273). 385. Keyes, Roger S. The Male Journey in Japanese Prints. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989. xxx, 189p. illus. index.

Page 138

With 255 color and black-and-white reproductions of Japanese woodblock prints, this oversized volume presents the male journey of life in visual images of ukiyo-e, pictures of the everyday changing world. Most of the pictures are examples of surimono, or pictures with verses. The male journey begins with growing up in the presence of mother and other women. Pictures of fathers and children are comparatively few. After childhood comes youth, with pictures of boy prostitutes and young heroes. Maturity brings a wealth of situations portrayed in the prints, including love and sex, work, hardships, leisure, conflict, and battle. Old age can bring serenity, mastery, and detachment. Death and survival close the journey. Keyes's commentary links people and events depicted in the prints to the particulars of Japanese life and to the universals of men's lives. 386. Reich, Hanns, comp. Children and Their Fathers. Text by Eugen Roth. New York: Hill and Wang, 1962. 11, 74p. illus. Original publication, Munich: Harms Reich Verlag, 1960. Containing a splendid collection of photographs depicting fathers and children from around the world, this is a book to cherish. 387. Scavullo, Francesco, with Bob Colacello and San Byrnes. Scavullo on Men. New York: Random House, 1977. 186p. illus. This collection of photographs and interviews features 50 famous men. Scavullo quizzes the men on such topics as health, food, fatherhood, careers, drugs, and the women's movement. Memorable photographic images include William F. Buckley, Jr., with finger to pursed lips, Truman Capote grinning like a possessed imp, Bruce Jenner and Christopher Reeve in barechested splendor, the serenity in Arthur Ashe's face and the intensity in Julian Bond's, the pain in Norman Mailer's eyes and the humane twinkle in Arthur Miller's, and the radiant smile and open arms of operatic tenor Luciano Pavarotti. D. Critical Commentary on the Arts, Language, Literature 388. Absher, Tom. Men and the Goddess: Feminine Archetypes in Western Literature. Rochester, VT: Park Street Press, 1990. xv, 157p. bibliography, 147-52. notes. index. pa. Far from being hostile to feminine qualities and women, the classics of Western

literature often show the male hero as growing in humanity because he accepts the Goddess or the Feminine. Whether the male hero successfully incorporates the Feminine often decides his growth or decline as a human being. Absher demonstrates this thesis by examining The Epic of Gilgamesh (entry 325), Death of a Salesman (entry 366), The Odyssey (entry 328), The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (entry 335), Macbeth, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, The Death of Ivan Ilyich, The Bear, and To the Lighthouse. By defining patriarchy as "male-dominated" rather than "father-involved" society, Absher stacks the deck against it, but he argues convincingly that many literary classics, even those written by dead, white males, are pro-feminine.

Page 139

389. Balbert, Peter. D. H. Lawrence and the Phallic Imagination: Essays on Sexual Identity and Feminist Misreading. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989. xi, 190p. notes. index. Mincing no words, Balbert savages the politicized misreadings of D. H. Lawrence's works by feminist critics, both female and male. Long canonized in academia, these misreadings do not deal honestly with Lawrence's texts. In Sexual Politics (entry 680), Kate Millett altered passages from Lawrence's writings, and Robert Scholes parroted feminist critiques without citing textual evidence. Balbert praises feminists like Anis Nin for more reliable assessments of Lawrence, and he offers extended, revisionist analyses of Sons and Lovers (entry 360), The Rainbow, Women in Love (entry 361), "The Woman Who Rode Away," and Lady Chatterley's Lover (entry 359). Like Lawrence, Norman Mailer, and Ernest Hemingway, Balbert celebrates the phallic imagination, which, he argues, does not demean women but accepts women and men as sexual human beings. Balbert's critique makes for lively reading and offers a refreshing alternative to radical feminist assessments of Lawrence's work. 390. Bamber, Linda. Comic Women, Tragic Men: A Study of Gender and Genre in Shakespeare. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1982. 211p. notes. index. In contrast to critics who see Shakespeare as androgynous, Bamber argues that he often writes from a masculine viewpoint and sees women as "the other." Such a stance does not necessarily mean that Shakespeare is a male chauvinist; the acceptance of "the other" may be positive. Bamber traces the Shakespearean heroine in the comedies, as well as in Antony and Cleopatra, Hamlet, Macbeth, and Coriolanus. In the final comedies, the ''return of the feminine" can be seen as positive, although in The Tempest the mood is saddened by the failure of this return. 391. Bloch, R. Howard, and Frances Ferguson, eds. Misogyny, Misandry, and Misanthropy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989. xvii, 235p. illus. notes. index. pa. This collection of eight essays focuses on misogyny in the arts. Despite the title, equal consideration is not always given to misandry. At their best, the essays examine the complexities of defining misogyny. Frances Ferguson's

essay, for example, looks at how the complexities of rape accusations affect readings of novels like Richardson's Clarissa. In an intriguing analysis of slasher films, Carol J. Clover argues that males in the audience often do identify with the "Final Girl" who destroys the (usually male) slasher. At their worst, the essays exhibit misandry. Naomi Schor's essay on French women's writings about men both flaunts and attempts to justify its anti-male sexism. Other essays present R. Howard Bloch on medieval misogyny, Joel Fineman on Shakespeare's Rape of Lucrece, Jacqueline Lichtenstein on women and makeup in seventeenth-century France, Gillian Brown on agoraphobia and Melville's "Bartleby the Scrivener," and Charles Bernheimer on Degas's brothel drawings. 392. Boone, Joseph, and Michael Cadden, eds. Engendering Men: The Question of Male Feminist Criticism. New York and London: Routledge, 1990. 333p. illus. bibliography, 324-26. notes. index. pa. After the gender sniping in Men in Feminism (entry 224), the editors of this book decided to handle the question of male feminist criticism in a less acrimonious way. The result is a collection of 17 essays that discuss divergent topics, most of them centered on gay sensibilities. Essays focus on familiar

Page 140

literary figures such as the influential, closet gay critic F. O. Matthiessen, Wallace Stevens, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Oscar Wilde, Emily Dickinson, and Sylvia Townsend Warner. Topics include such subjects as the homosexual overtones of American Puritan religious poetry, homoerotics in the Bonanza television series, and gay subtexts in the films Rebel Without a Cause and Nightmare on Elm Street 2: Freddy's Revenge. Individual discussions are interesting, but coherence is not the collection's strong suit. Likewise, the book leaves one feeling that the work of male and gay critics improves when they branch out from radical feminist categories and ideologies. 393. Boose, Lynda E., and Betty S. Flowers, eds. Daughters and Fathers. Baltimore, MD, and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989. 453p. illus. bibliography, 431-50. pa. The daughter-father relationship has been all but overlooked in literary and social criticism, according to the editors. In this collection of 18 articles, the authors examine daughters and fathers, usually in literary texts. Hawthorne, Yeats, Plath, Christina Rossetti, Dickinson, Woolf, and Thackeray are among the authors examined. Other essays discuss Freudian theory, MexicanAmerican culture, and Henry VIII's daughters. 394. Bristow, Joseph. Empire Boys: Adventures in a Man's World. London: HarperCollins Academic, 1991. 233p. (Reading Popular Fiction series). illus. bibliography after each chapter. pa. This readable study attempts to link popular boys literature in England from 1860 to 1928 with British political aims, indicating how this literature shaped an "imperialistic" definition of manhood. Bristow examines periodicals such as Boy's Own Paper and fiction such as Tom Brown's School Days, Treasure Island, She, Kim, and Tarzan of the Apes. Combining social history and literary analysis, the study sometimes strains to condemn "dominant, or hegemonic, masculinity." 395. Butters, Ronald R., John M. Clum, and Michael Moon, eds. Displacing Homophobia: Gay Male Perspectives in Literature and Culture. Durham, NC, and London, England: Duke University Press, 1989. 314p. notes. index. pa. The 12 essays in this anthology discuss a range of literary and cultural

phenomena from a gay male perspective. Topics include the use of boys to play women's parts on the English Renaissance stage, depiction of gays on American television, considerations of gayness in Willa Cather's "Paul's Case," the homoerotics of Lawrence Durrell's Alexandrian Quartet, implications of gayness in Spenser's Shepheardes Calender, Mercutio as "gay" character in Romeo and Juliet, homophobic discourse in Tennessee William's life and work, a survey of British ''sodomy" laws, a reading of Oscar Wilde's Portrait of Mr. W.H., Whitman's reactions to realistic fiction, U.S. Supreme Court rulings on crimes of gay sexuality and fictions like The Talking Room and The Story of Harold, and the interconnections between AIDS, politics, and literary theory. Contributors include Stephen Orgel, Joseph A. Boone, and Joseph A. Porter. 396. Claridge, Laura, and Elizabeth Langland, eds. Out of Bounds: Male Writers and Gender(ed) Criticism. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1990. xii, 344p. illus. notes after each essay. pa. This collection of 15 essays, plus an introduction, attempts to move gender literary criticism beyond the polarity of male-evil, female-good that has

Page 141

characterized much feminist criticism. In the introduction, the editors argue that male authors can be as ill at ease in patriarchy as female writers can be. The term "patriarchy" cannot be equated with "male": not all males are patriarchs, nor do they all subscribe to patriarchal ideology. (The editors' desire to transcend polarized stereotypes, however, is undercut by their inability to see anything positive in patriarchy.) The re-visioning quality of the volume is evident in Joseph Wittreich's lead-off essay on John Milton as less of a misogynist than many feminist critics claim. Later essays focus on such "canonical" authors as Sterne, Blake, Percy Shelley, Keats, Thackeray, Robert Browning, Whitman, Wilkie Collins, Hardy, James, Forster, Frost, Faulkner, and Durrell. 397. Crompton, Louis. Byron and Greek Love: Homophobia in 19th-Century England. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. xiii, 419p. appendix. notes. index. Homophobia led Lord Byron to conceal his bisexuality during his lifetime and led to a cover-up by Byron's contemporaries and later biographers. Although much evidence was destroyed during and after Byron's lifetime, Crompton carefully pieces together what is known of Byron's homosexual and pederastic affairs. He portrays the temper of the times and traces Byron's life in England and abroad. He locates the reflections of Byron's affairs in his poetry (often in passages that never saw print) and letters. Crompton also examines the sexual attitudes of several contemporaries, especially Jeremy Bentham and Percy Shelley. Byron's death while fighting for Greek independence has sexual as well as political implications. 398. Davis, Robert Con, ed. The Fictional Father: Lacanian Readings of the Text. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1981. 206p. notes. index. Literary criticism, as well as the social sciences, has discovered the father. Utilizing the thought of Jacques Lacan (whose theories were fathered by Freud), the critics represented in this collection search for literary fathers in such texts as The Odyssey (entry 328), and Dickens's Bleak House, and in Faulkner's novels. 399. Easthope, Antony. What A Man's Gotta DO: The Masculine Myth in Popular

Culture. London: Paladin Grafton Books, 1986. vii, 184p. illus. bibliography, 180-81. index. Reprint, Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990. pa. Easthope examines "the masculine myth" in diverse items of popular culture, films like Red River, The Deer Hunter, North Dallas Forty, and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, as well as Michelangelo's David, beer and cigarette ads, newspaper items, pop novels, and much else. Although Easthope has some interesting insights into the artifacts he examines, the book's overall thesis is murky. Apparently, Easthope has visions of destroying patriarchy by exposing the "myth" that masculinity does not represent all of humanity, an insight he regards as revolutionary. Easthope's Marxist-feminist brew is flavored with pinches of Freud and Lacan. The overall effect is somewhat incoherent, misandric, and heterophobic. 400. Federico, Annette. Masculine Identity in Hardy and Gissing. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson Press, 1991; London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1991. 148p. bibliography, 143-46. notes. index.

Page 142

Although the female characters in the novels of Thomas Hardy and George Gissing have received much attention, their male characters have been largely ignored by gender-conscious critics. Federico finds these male characters torn between male identity and masculine roles. The men are also under stress from the demands of traditional gender roles, new women, and internal pressures. To add to the confusion, the socially accepted idea of male superiority conflicts with the equally accepted idea that "boys are nasty." Federico discusses numerous novels including Far From the Madding Crowd, Jude the Obscure (entry 326), and The Odd Women. 401. Fone, Byrne R.S. Masculine Landscapes: Wait Whitman and the Homoerotic Text. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1992. xiv, 306p. bibliography, 295-300. notes. index. Rejecting hesitancy on the question of Walt Whitman's sexual orientation, Fone argues that a homosexual subtext with homoerotic pleasures permeates Whitman's writings, including his early fiction, drafts of poems, and Leaves of Grass (entry 336). 402. Franklin, H. Bruce. Prison Literature in America: The Victim as Criminal and Artist. 1978. Expanded ed., New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. xxxii, 352p. bibliography, 293-341. notes. index. pa. Original publication, as The Victim as Criminal and Artist: Literature from the American Prison (1978). In this updated version of a study published earlier in 1978 and 1982, Franklin surveys slave and prison literature in America, devoting separate chapters to slave narratives, Melville (the ship as prison), literature by prison inmates (with special attention to works by Malcolm Braly and Chester Himes), and contemporary prison literature from Malcolm X (entry 70) to the present. An especially full bibliography of prison writings is included. The introductions argue convincingly that current concepts of "American literature" need to be expanded, although the heated denunciation of past scholars as purveyors of race and class bias is often unfair. Franklin notes, for example, the omission of American Indian literature from past literary anthologies, without mentioning the enormous difficulties faced by scholars who try to study this literature. Franklin also insists that the disproportionate number of blacks in prison demonstrates the racism in U.S. society, but he fails to confront the radical corollary of this argument: the disproportionate number of males in prison

demonstrates the sexism in U.S. society. 403. Green, Martin. The Adventurous Male: Chapters in the History of the White Male Mind. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1993. 245p. bibliography, 229-33. index. Although "adventure" in life and art is popular, Green argues that it has seldom received serious critical attention. He also argues that the masculine is closely linked with adventure that combines eros (the erotic) and potestas (power). For this reason, some feminists flown on adventure as concept and art. Green defines adventure as a series of episodes in which the normal rules of civilized life are broken to attain some desirable end; the central virtue of the adventure hero is courage. Adventure has both positive and negative aspects: it can represent a quest for the unknown or the seemingly unattainable, but it can also involve domination. Although the primary texts of adventure derive from late-nineteenth-century British literature (with its imperialistic overtones), Green's discussion of adventure ranges through an extraordinarily wide range of art, history, and literature. He considers, for

Page 143

example, travel and exploration, sports and holidays, the founding of Israel, the history of Scotland's rebellion against England, philosophy and metaphysics, science and the social sciences, and caste and empire. Throughout the discussion, Green maintains a balanced view of adventure, weighing its pluses and minuses. 404. Hornback, Bert G. Great Expectations: A Novel of Friendship. Boston: Twayne, 1987. xiv, 152p. (Twayne Masterwork Studies, no. 6). illus. bibliography, 14749. notes. index. pa. Hornback gives a full analysis of Dickens's novel, connecting its many elements to the overriding theme of male friendship as the source of ultimate value. Starting with A Tale of Two Cities (1859), Hornback notes, Dickens's heroes do not end by marrying but by learning friendship and the freedom it can bring. In Great Expectations (1860-61), young Pip's dreams of becoming a wealthy, idle "gentleman" are realized, but when crises occur, Pip is saved not by his class status but by his friendships with the simple blacksmith Joe Gargery and the ingenuous Herbert Pocket. 404a. Houston, Jean. The Hero and the Goddess: The Odyssey as Mystery and Initiation. New York: Ballantine Books, 1992. xvi, 424p. Book I: Transforming Myth series. illus. appendixes. bibliography, 401-6. notes. index. pa. Not a traditional literary critic, Houston uses The Odyssey (entry 328) as a mythic text for a soul journey that explores initiation and transformation. She provides instructions and exercises for solo and group readers, along with commentary on the action and characters of Homer's epic. Drawing on such sources as Joseph Campbell's The Hero with a Thousand Faces (entry 862), Houston encourages readers to participate in the myth in which the hero Odysseus is transformed by accessing the goddess Athena. 405. Johnson, Wendell Stacy. Sons and Fathers: The Generational Link in Literature, 1780-1980. New York: Peter Lang, 1985. vii, 237p. (Studies in Romantic and Modern Literature, no. 1). notes. index. Taking their cue from Christian theology that identifies the Son and the Father, Western writers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have been exploring the "generational link" between sons and fathers. In Wordsworth's poetry, the

child within is a crucial force, but this child is lost in the work of Coleridge and Byron. In the Victorian era, Thomas Carlyle and Dickens focus on the child as orphan. In the writings of John Ruskin, J. S. Mill, and Matthew Arnold, the estranged child is paramount. Johnson traces father-son patterns in W. B. Yeats, James Joyce, and William Faulkner, concluding with an assessment of the father within who appears in twentieth-century literature. 406. Kahn, Copplia. Man's Estate: Masculine Identity in Shakespeare. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981. xiii, 238p. notes. index. In this scholarly blend of psychology and literary criticism, Kahn explores the recurring theme of masculine identity in Shakespearean drama. She focuses on the difficulties that various male characters have in achieving gender identity in a culture that provides them with social dominance over females and yet makes them vulnerable to females for their masculine identity. Rather than a chronological study, the author examines different themes as they appear in groups of works. In Venus and Adonis, the young hero's refusal to grow to sexual maturity reverses the adolescent rite of passage and causes

Page 144

his loss of identity. The history plays are fiercely masculine, concentrating on male-male tensions that almost exclude women. Romeo and Juliet shows adolescents trying to grow up but thwarted by adult enmity, while in The Taming of the Shrew, Petruchio's conquest of Kate is qualified by the covert recognition that his identity depends upon her actions. Kahn traces the theme of cuckoldry through several plays, including Hamlet and Othello, and she sees in Macbeth and Coriolanus two half-grown men who are fatally dependent on wife and mother. The final chapter examines male characters in the context of family, especially fathers who lose and then recover the feminine in daughter and wife. In The Tempest, however, Prospero does not rejoin with the feminine but surrenders his daughter to her groom and proceeds to his own solitary life. Kahn believes that Shakespeare questioned cultural definitions of manhood and knew how tenuous masculine identity could be. 407. Kiberd, Declan. Men and Feminism in Modern Literature. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1985. xii, 250p. Examining how men reacted to the emergence of turn-of-the-century feminism, Kiberd scrutinizes some leading male authors of the time. Resisting the temptation to dismiss August Strindberg as a misogynist, Kiberd offers intriguing readings of Miss Julie and Comrades. In Thomas Hardy's Jude the Obscure (entry 326) and in D. H. Lawrence's Women in Love (entry 361) Kiberd finds the worst aspects of the "new woman" in Sue Bridehead and Gudrun Brangwen. He also examines the poetry of W.B. Yeats, the plays of Henrik Ibsen, and James Joyce's novel Ulysses. Unfortunately, when Kiberd shifts from literary analysis to social history in the final chapter, the discussion becomes unconvincingly mushy, especially when socialism is introduced as the cure-all for humanity's ills. 408. Kirchhoff, Frederick. William Morris: The Construction of a Male Self, 18561872. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1990. xv, 248p. bibliography, 239-43. index. Critics and biographers often find Morris to be one of the most enigmatic of the Victorians. Kirchhoff argues that Morris rejected the male power system and women's role in it. In the process, he constructed a new male self that baffles many of his later biographers. This kinder, gentler male self helps to explain Morris's socialism and his apparent acceptance of his wife's affairs. Kirchhoff

provides close readings of Morris's major writings between 1856 and 1872 to support his analysis of Morris's new male self. 409. Klotman, Phyllis Rauch. Another Man Gone: The Black Runner in Contemporary Afro-American Literature. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1977. 160p. (National University Publications, Literary Criticism Series). bibliographic essay, 149-157. notes. index. Klotman identifies the running man as a recurring figure in Western literary narratives from the earliest times. The tradition extends from Odysseus and Orestes to Natty Bumppo and Huckleberry Finn, and beyond. Within this larger framework, Klotman locates U.S. black writers, beginning with slave narratives depicting the run from slavery to freedom. Discussing a wide range of authors, she focuses on such major figures as Richard Wright (entry 69), James Baldwin, Ralph Ellison (entry 343a), Claude Brown (entry 37), and Imamu Amiri Baraka.

Page 145

410. Knox, Bernard. The Oldest Dead White European Males, and Other Reflections on the Classics. New York: W. W. Norton, 1993. 144p. notes. In the title essay of this collection, a leading classical scholar answers critics who argue that the canon of Greek classics represents an aristocratic, malechauvinist plot to tyrannize the masses. Although fifth-century B.C. Athens was a slave society that gave women no public role, the classic works of the time are precious precisely because they transcend the class and gender limitations of their age. It is impossible to argue convincingly that works like Euripides' Medea reinforce "male structures of authority," and few historical works are as multicultural as Herodotus' history. Rather than being instruments of reactionism, the Greek classics throughout Western history have been instruments of social change, human progress, and (at times) revolution. The Greek classicssuch as the works of Plato and Aristotle, Aeschylus and Sophocles, Xenophon and Thucydidesare not the products of male narrowness but of male inclusive genius. These works have survived the ages not because male tyrants imposed them upon oppressed populations but because active human minds treasured their intellectual and artistic excellence. 411. Koestenbaum, Wayne. Double Talk: The Erotics of Male Literary Collaboration. New York: Routledge, 1989. x, 214p. bibliography, 199-208. notes. index. pa. Koestenbaum unearths a good deal of homoerotic "double talk" in works created by male collaborators. He examines Josef Breuer's and Sigmund Freud's Studies in Hysteria (1895), Havelock Ellis and John Addington Symonds's Sexual Inversion (1897), William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge's Lyrical Ballads (1798), T. S. Eliot and Ezra Pound's The Waste Land (1922), and a number of late-Victorian and Edwardian "romances," including works by Robert Louis Stevenson, H. Rider Haggard, and Joseph Conrad. In all these works, Koestenbaum finds "homotextuality." Many of the textual readings in this study are persuasively perceptive, but when Koestenbaum leaps from texts to psychobiography, he often seems to be indulging in free association. 412. Krutnik, Frank. In a Lonely Street: Film Noir, Genre, Masculinity. London and New York: Routledge, 1991. xiv, 268p. appendixes. notes. index. pa. Krutnik explores the Hollywood films noir of the 1940s, comparing and

contrasting them with classical Hollywood films. The noir films popularized psychoanalysis, and Krutnik analyzes them in terms of Freudian theory as filtered through Jacques Lacan and feminist critics. He examines the dramatization of tough-guy masculinity threatened by the phallic woman, destabilized masculinity, and other dangers. Krutnik discusses the tough investigative thriller, the tough suspense thriller, and the criminal-adventure thriller. Such films as The Maltese Falcon, The Dark Corner, and Dead Reckoning are examined in detail. Sometimes the politicized Freudian analyses lead to simplistic results: for example, a negatively portrayed female character (like the female lead in The Maltese Falcon) means that the film is "misogynist." The appendixes contain a filmography of hard-boiled Hollywood films of the 1940s and a list of 1940s crime-film cycles. 413. Lee, M. Owen. Fathers and Sons in Virgil's Aeneid: Tum Genitor Naturn. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1979. xi, 200p. notes. index. pa. This reading of Virgil's epic locates its prevailing sadness in the repeated failure of father-son relationships. Such failures are the touchstones of a tragic vision that is political, personal, and cosmic.

Page 146

414. Leverenz, David. Manhood and the American Renaissance. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1989. x, 372p. notes. index. pa. Assessing American literature of the mid-nineteenth century, Leverenz finds that the most important male writers (e.g., Emerson, Thoreau, Whitman, Hawthorne, Melville) feel that they are deviant from the acquisitive norm of masculinity that prevails in the society. The authors' struggle to create a more viable concept of masculinity lies at the heart of such works as "Self-Reliance," The Blithedale Romance, The Scarlet Letter, and Moby Dick. Leverenz's study is complex, involving examination of race and class attitudes, textual ambiguities, and a range of authors that also includes Frederick Douglass, Richard Henry Dana, Francis Parkman, and Harriet Beecher Stowe. 415. Lynn, Kenneth S. The Dream of Success: A Study of the Modern American Imagination. Boston: Little, Brown, 1955. 269p. notes. index. Lynn traces the theme of the American success dream for men as found in writers like Theodore Dreiser (entry 342), Jack London, David Graham Phillips, Frank Norris, and Robert Herrick. 416. Margolies, Edward. Native Sons: A Critical Study of Twentieth-Century Negro American Writers. Philadelphia and New York: J. B. Lippincott, 1968. 210p. bibliography, 201-2. This critical survey, written in the late sixties, assesses twentieth-century black authors, almost all of them male, focusing on such figures as Richard Wright (entry 69), James Baldwin, Malcolm X (entry 70), Chester Himes, and LeRoi Jones (Imamu Amiri Baraka). 417. Massey, Daniel. Doing Time in American Prisons: A Study of Modern Novels. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989. x, 246p. (Contributions in Criminology and Penology, no. 24). bibliography, 233-41. notes. index. This study examines characteristics of the prison-novel "world," devoting separate chapters to the writings of Chester Himes, Malcolm Braly, Edward Bunker, and Nathan C. Heard. 418. Mellen, Joan. Big Bad Wolves: Masculinity in the American Film. New York:

Pantheon Books, 1977. xvi, 367p. illus. index. Hollywood has not been kind to men, Mellen argues in this study of masculine images in U.S. films. By manufacturing outsized screen images of males, Hollywood has made the ordinary male viewer feel insignificant, while women have been made to feel inadequate: "An abiding malaise results in the male, victimized by this comparison between himself and the physical splendor of the hero with whom he has so passionately identified." Mellen's examples are not the comedians or the musical stars but the "leading men" who have embodied cinema fantasies of masculinity. The book's introduction explains how Hollywood manufactures its supermales on the screen, how U.S. films have fostered competition between men and hostility toward women, and how the average working-class man has been virtually ignored by Hollywood's escapism. Politically, U.S. films have encouraged men to support the status quo, fostering conformism, anti-intellectualism, and passive patriotism among men. Later chapters provide a decade-by-decade survey of U.S. films, fitting in accounts of such stars as Tom Mix, Rudolph Valentino, Douglas Fairbanks, Gary Cooper, Clark Gable, Cary Grant, Humphrey Bogart, James Dean, and Marlon Brando. Mellen's severest strictures are reserved for John Wayne, Clint Eastwood as Dirty Harry, Sean Connery as James Bond, Charles Bronson, and other heroes of tight-lipped

Page 147

violence. The relationship between Humphrey Bogart and Katharine Hepburn in The African Queen comes nearest to being Hollywood's depiction of malefemale equality. Mellen is suspicious of male-bonding films, finding them laced with misogyny; she is impressed neither by Paul Newman's liberal facade nor Robert Redford's good looks. The author examines the image of black men in films, and she has positive words for the documentary Men's Lives by Josh Hanig and Will Roberts. 419. Merriam, Sharan B. Coping with Male Mid-Life: A Systematic Analysis Using Literature as a Data Source. Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1980. vii, 129p. bibliography, 118-25. index. pa. Using 12 fictional works from twentieth-century American literature, Merriam explores their insights into male midlife transition, comparing her findings with psychosocial research. Midlife is marked by an awareness of aging, a search for meaning, a generation squeeze as the man finds himself neither young nor old, career malaise, and efforts at ego rejuvenation. Among the works examined are F. Scott Fitzgerald's Tender Is the Night (entry 345), Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman (entry 366), Tennessee Williams's Night of the Iguana, Saul Bellow's Herzog, and Joseph Heller's Something Happened (entry 354). "This study confirmed my belief," Merriam writes, "that literature offers the potential for uncovering significant insights into the process of adult development and aging." 420. Quigly, Isabel. The Heirs of Tom Brown: The English School Story. London: Chatto and Windus, 1982. 296p. illus. bibliography, 284-87. notes. index. In this well-documented study, Quigly examines how boys' experiences in nineteenth-century British schools were transformed into fiction. The most influential text was Thomas Hughes's Tom Brown's Schooldays, which set the standard for numerous, less familiar fictions, including Eric or Little by Little, Rudyard Kipling's Stalky & Co., and some novels by P. G. Wodehouse. Quigly also devotes chapters to girls' school fiction, the Boy's Own Paper, Vice Versa (an unfavorable account of boys' schooling), and the homoerotic and homosexual overtones of schoolboy romances. Separate chapters also cover the novels as documentary, as allegory, and as novels of character. Quigly examines the impact of World War I on schoolboy fiction, twentieth-century versions of school fiction (including Goodbye, Mr. Chips), and the decline and

fall of the genre. Despite some boys' negative experiences, most of the fiction remains upbeat. 421. Ruderman, Judith. D. H. Lawrence and the Devouring Mother: The Search for a Patriarchal Ideal of Leadership. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1984. xi, 211p. notes. index. In a study that is a model of scholarly writing, Ruderman argues that Lawrence never abandoned his desire for an ideal of patriarchal leadership. This ideal required the destruction of the devouring mother. Combining biography, psychology, and literary analysis, Ruderman traces this motif through such "secondary" Lawrence works as The Lost Girl, The Fox, The Ladybird, Aaron's Rod, Kangaroo, The Boy in the Bush, "The Woman Who Rode Away," Lady Chatterley's Lover (entry 359), and Apocalypse. Even in his excesses, Lawrence's rage against women can be seen as the symbolic murder of the devouring mother, and his worship of the dark gods proclaims his recognition of the father's importance in the individual's journey toward an autonomous self.

Page 148

422. Sadoff, Dianne F. Monsters of Affection: Dickens, Eliot, and Bront on Fatherhood. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982. vii, 193p. notes. index. In this scholarly blend of Freudian, Lacanian, and feminist literary criticism, Sadoff traces the search for the father who engenders the action in Dickens's novels, the father-daughter seduction in George Eliot's novels, and the symbolic castration in Charlotte Bront's novels. 423. Savran, David. Communists, Cowboys, and Queers: The Politics of Masculinity in the Work of Arthur Miller and Tennessee Williams. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press, 1992. xi, 205p. notes. index. pa. A child of the sixties in rebellion against the fifties (including the family and heterosexuality), Savran uses literary analysis as a means of deconstructing "heterosexualized masculinity" represented by the image of the cowboy. He depicts the fifties as paranoid about communists and homosexuals. Because Savran can see only negative value in heterosexual masculinity, his discussions of Miller and Williams tend to be exercises in textual male bashing. In Arthur Miller's plays and in the film The Misfits, Savran finds much negative criticism of masculinity, although Miller stops short of abandoning it altogether. In Williams's plays and films, Savran finds a movement toward increasingly radicalized gay sensibility. The readings of Williams's texts resonate more convincingly than those of Miller's. 424. Schwenger, Peter. Phallic Critiques: Masculinity and Twentieth-Century Literature. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984. 172p. notes. index. Some feminist critics have discerned a feminine style of writing. Arguing that there is a corresponding masculine style, Schwenger proceeds to define it by examining members of "the new virility school" of writing. In Norman Mailer's prose, for example, Schwenger finds a tough-guy style marked by obscenity, vigor, and license. Hemingway depicts the manly restraint of emotion through an emotionally restrained style. In Yukio Mishima, style is like a well-developed male body that finds fulfillment in self-destruction. Some writers (e.g., Alberto Moravia, D. H. Lawrence, and Philip Roth) carry on conversations with the willful phallus. Robert Kroetsch constructs novels that resemble "dirty" male jokes, while novels like Deliverance (entry 341), Why Are We in Vietnam?, and

Blood Sport use hunting as the central metaphor of the struggle for masculine identity. Michel Leiris's Manhood (entry 52) and Roth's My Life as a Man (entry 371) also exemplify aspects of the new virility style. Schwenger is unapologetic about macho writing, and he is optimistic that a men's movement will liberate male writers from a debilitating self-consciousness about masculinity. 425. Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985. x, 244p. bibliography, 22939. notes. index. The major premises of this study seem to be that male bonding ("male homosocial desire") is reprehensible because it involves the "exchange" of women as a "counter" to cement bonds between men, and that male bonding turns nasty when men do not admit the homoerotic or homosexual components in it. Sedgwick attempts to locate these ideological-gender themes in an array of literary texts, including Shakespeare's sonnets, Wycherley's The Country Wife, Sterne's A Sentimental Journey, a number of Gothic novels, Hogg's

Page 149

Confessions of a Justified Sinner, George Eliot's Adam Bede, Thackeray's Henry Esmond, Tennyson's The Princess, and Dickens's Our Mutual Friend and The Mystery of Edwin Drood. Although male-male-female triangles in literature clearly deserve attention, the reader-unfriendly prose of this study makes comprehension an uphill struggle. Vocabulary is stretched considerably. "Male homosocial desire" includes cuckoldry and murder. The "exchange" of women includes the rivalry between Shakespeare's "dark lady" and "the poet" for the "fair youth'' of the sonnets. Facts are similarly stretched: Emily Tennyson, it is hinted, was engaged to Arthur Hallam solely to cement bonds between him and her brother, Alfred. The book's Marxist-feminist and gay-activist misandry reveals itself in such things as gratuitous sneers at heterosexual middle-class men. Apparently, heterosexual males are irredeemably corrupt, and female association with them is misguided. Thus, Lizzie Hexam of Our Mutual Friend, who nurtures her father and marries a middle-class man, is a "reactionary." Such skewing converts a potentially illuminating literary study into an elitist exercise in male bashing. 426. Smith, Timothy d'Arch. Love in Earnest: Some Notes on the Lives and Writings of English "Uranian" Poets from 1889-1930. London: Rout-ledge and Kegan Paul, 1970. xxiii, 280p. illus. appendixes. bibliography, 256-68. notes. index. This literary history surveys a group of British "Uranian" poets who hymned boy-love. Beginning with such precursors as William Johnson Cory, John Addington Symonds, and Edward Carpenter, the study focuses on such figures as John Gambril Nicholson, F. W. Rolfe (alias Baron Corvo), Charles Sayle, and Charles Kains Jackson. 427. Spender, Dale. Man Made Language. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1980. xi, 250p. bibliography, 236-45. index. pa. Spender believes that men have imposed a myth of male superiority upon women, using language as a tool of oppression. Language is entirely manmade, according to Spender, and thus it is laden with anti-female messages. Many words denigrate women, and throughout history men have conspired to silence women. In this study, polemics override scholarship. Trying to support the idea that men regard females as secondary to males, e.g., Spender claimsincorrectlythat the word female was derived from the word male. The study entirely ignores language that denigrates males. Spender's premise that

males alone create and control language is dubious, and the argument that males "silence" females is challenged by works like Deborah Tannen's You Just Don't Understand (entry 429). Spender's glee when reporting how her consciousness-raising sessions succeeded in breaking up heterosexual couples suggests a lesbian separatist agenda. In this book, language study is a thin veneer for misandry and gender divisiveness. 428. Spoto, David. Camerado: Hollywood and the American Male. New York: New American Library, Plume Books, 1978. xi, 238p. illus. index. pa. With the aid of numerous stills, Spoto describes dominant images of men in American films, including the Ordinary Guy, the sex symbols, the comedians, the heroes of suspense, and the strong men. 429. Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don't Understand: Women and Men in Conversation. New York: William Morrow, 1990. bibliography, 310-19. notes. index. Reprint, New York: Ballantine Books, 1990. pa. Written by a professor of linguistics, this best-seller explains to general audiences how women and men can miscommunicate in discourse. According

Page 150

to Tannen, most males and females are speaking from entirely different perspectives. Males grow up in a world of contest and problem solving in which "report talk" predominates. Females find themselves in a world of contact through discourse in which "rapport talk" predominates. Tannen refutes the idea that males dominate (or even intend to dominate) females in conversation through such techniques as interruption. Noting that many ethnic peoples (e.g., Jews, African-Americans, Italians) also engage in highly interruptive discourse that has no relation to dominance, Tannen distinguishes between "high involvement" and "high consideration" styles of conversation. She refuses to blame either women or men for their different conversational techniques. Tannen seeks to bring the sexes together by aiding them to understand each other's modes of conversation. 430. Tayler, Irene. Holy Ghosts: The Male Muses of Emily and Charlotte Bront. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990. viii, 342p. bibliography, 325-29. notes. index. Just as male authors have traditionally invoked a female muse to inspire their work, so the Bront sisters invoked male muses to inspirit their art. Tayler provides close readings of the Bronts' poems and fictions, tracing the ambivalent feelings that each artist had for the "male" element in herself and her writings. 431. Todd, Janet, ed. Men by Women. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1981. 251p. (Women and Literature, vol. 2 (new series)). illus. notes. pa. This collection of 15 essays examines male characters and images of men created by female authors. The contributors examine such topics as men in the eighteenth-century novel, male characters in female authors' nineteenthcentury British industrial novels, and the distinction between penis and phallus in the critical theories of Jacques Lacan. Individual essays are devoted to such concerns as the portrayal of men in Jane Austen's novels, the "feminization" of male characters in George Eliot's fiction, Emily Bront's Heathcliff, Charlotte Bront's Rochester, Emily Dickinson's poetry, the "spectacular spinelessness" of men in Dorothy Arzner's films, the biographical implications of Sylvia Plath's short fiction, and Iris Murdoch's male narrators. 432.

Tuss, Alex J. The Inward Revolution: Troubled Young Men in Victorian Fiction, 1850-1880 . New York: Peter Lang, 1992. 198p. (Series IV, English Language and Literature Series, vol. 152). bibliography, 189-98. In this eminently readable study, Tuss links shifting concepts of masculinity in nineteenth-century Britain to a wealth of fiction and poetry, paying special attention to Lady Audley's Secret, Bleak House, A Tale of Two Cities, Our Mutual Friend, Daniel Deronda, and The Picture of Dorian Gray. Tuss illuminates the spirit of the age by examining such figures as Carlyle, Mill, and Arnold, as well as recent writers like Carol Gilligan. The troubled young man who emerges in many guises in the literature often seems a forerunner of modern men searching for more rewarding forms of masculinity. 433. yon Franz, Marie-Louise. The Golden Ass of Apuleius: The Liberation of the Feminine in Man. 1970. Rev. ed. Boston and London: Shambhala, 1992. vii, 246p. illus. bibliography, 241-46. notes. pa. A distinguished Jungian analyst, von Franz here offers a reading of Apuleius' Roman novel The Golden Ass (entry 319). The interpretation combines psychological, historical, cultural, and literary analyses. In Apuleius'

Page 151

tale of a young man, Lucius, who is turned into an ass, von Franz sees the universal struggles of young men to free themselves from the negative mother complex, to get in touch with the earthy masculine (the wild man of current mythopoetic analyses), and to liberate the feminine within themselves. She devotes three chapters to the Psyche-Cupid story contained within The Golden Ass, depicting Psyche as the female counterpart of Lucius. In the final two chapters, von Franz analyzes Egyptian mystery religions to interpret Lucius' redemption by the goddess Isis. 434. Walters, Margaret. The Nude Male: A New Perspective. New York and London: Paddington Press, 1978. 352p. illus. bibliography, 339. notes. index. Reprint, New York: Penguin Books, 1979. pa. Calling the male nude "a forgotten subject," Walters surveys its history from classical Greece to modern pinups, focusing primarily on recognized paintings, sculptures, and other art forms. In contrast to the perfected glory of Greek nudes, Christian art used nudity to convey pathos and shame. Separate chapters are devoted to the Renaissance nude, Michelangelo, and each century from the sixteenth through the twentieth. After the "disappearing" male nudes of nineteenth-century art and the "disembodied" nudes of twentieth-century works, the newsstand pinup and the nude males depicted by women artists represent new departures in seeing men's bodies. 435. Welch, Julie, and Louise Brody. Leading Men. New York: Villard Books, 1985. 224p. illus. index. Rev. ed. London: Conran Octopus, 1993. Generously illustrated with studio photographs, this book surveys 125 romantic male film stars from the silent era to modern times, from Rudolph Valentino to Sean Penn. Extended attention is given to Gary Cooper, Clark Gable, Cary Grant, James Dean, Marlon Brando, Paul Newman, and Robert Redford. The text is by Welch, the design by Brody. The 1993 edition features a foreword by Jane Russell. 436. Wisse, Ruth. The Schlemiel as Modern Hero. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1971. xi, 134p. appendix. bibliography, 127-30. notes. index. Reprint, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, Phoenix Books, 1980. pa.

The wise fool of Jewish folklore and fiction, the schlemiel has emerged as the prototypical modern male hero, a preeminently weak man facing a hostile world. This perceptive and lucidly written study traces the history of the schlemiel, analyzes his humor, and follows his fortunes in such works as Sholom Aleichem's stories, Saul Bellow's Herzog, and Philip Roth's Portnoy's Complaint (entry 372). Wisse goes beyond literary studies to suggest the relevance of the schlemiel to the lot of modern man. 437. Woodcock, Bruce. Male Mythologies: John Fowles and Masculinity. Sussex, England: The Harvester Press; Totowa, NJ: Barnes and Noble, 1984. 192p. bibliography, 176-82. notes. name and subject indexes. Woodcock argues that British novelist John Fowles's negative view of masculinity and positive view of femininity are embodied in his novels, The Collector, The Magus, The French Lieutenant's Woman, Daniel Martin, and Mantissa. An ardent feminist, Woodcock is nevertheless unhappy with Fowles and constantly berates him for not seeing masculinity as sufficiently corrupt. Woodcock's analysis lacks any positive concept of masculinity and deals in oversimplifications of Marxist-feminist doctrine. Male Mythologies offers the

Page 152

spectacle of a male critic, having internalized a misandric mythology of male evil, relentlessly flagellating himself and other men. 438. Wren, Brian. What Language Shall I Borrow? God-Talk in Worship: A Male Response to Feminist Theology. New York: Crossroad, 1990. xi, 264p. notes. pa. The male response of British minister Brian Wren to feminist theology is to accept it uncritically. Echoing radical feminists, Wren recites a familiar litany of misandric accusations: patriarchy is a male-dominated society (not a fatherinvolved one), men seek to control women and everything else, men despise the feminine, men are addicted to rational thought, and so on. Wren believes that Jesus was a feminist who sought to undermine patriarchy. Wren's text is interspersed with his inclusive-language lyrics for hymns. Arguing that traditional masculine imagery for God focuses too exclusively on such metaphors as father and ruler, Wren seeks a wider range of names for the Almighty. Among the new names that Wren suggests are "Bag Lady God" (to link the divine with the lowly) and "Old, aching God" (to include the elderly in God-talk). There are no hymns to "deep masculine God" or "wildman God," because Wren evidently believes that masculinity can be enriched only by adding the feminine. 439. Yaeger, Patricia, and Beth Kowaleski-Wallace, eds. Refiguring the Father: New Feminist Readings of Patriarchy. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1989. xxiii, 319p. notes. This collection of 15 articles focuses primarily on the figure of the father in literature. Although several authors warn that "The Father" of patriarchal society should not be confused with an individual father, a number of the authors have difficulty sorting out "The Father" from "my father." Nearly all the authors regard patriarchy as evil, and several are suspicious of fathers. Kowaleski-Wallace, however, argues that demonizing the father as oppressor serves only to empower him. Among the works discussed are Euripides' Phaedra, Fanny Burney's Evelina, and Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye. The essays vary in quality. At the top of the list is Adrienne Auslander Munich's perceptive analysis of fatherhood in The Aeneid and The Idylls of the King. At the bottom is Susan Fraiman's foolish attempt to persuade readers that Elizabeth Bennet is being humiliated when, at the end of Pride and Prejudice,

she marries rich, young, handsome, and newly sensitized Fitzwilliam Darcy. Cross-References 767. Adams, Stephen. The Homosexual as Hero in Contemporary Fiction. 594.Betcher, R. William, and William S. Pollack. In a Time of Fallen Heroes: The Re-creation of Masculinity. 269. Castrovono, David. The English Gentleman: Images and Ideals in Literature and Society. 270. Cawelti, John G. Apostles of the Self-Made Man. 90. Craig, Steve, ed. Men, Masculinity, and the Media. 946. Fields, Rick. The Code of the Warrior: In History, Myth, and Everyday Life.

Page 153

159. Franklin, H. Bruce, comp. American Prisoners and Ex-Prisoners: Their Writings: An Annotated Bibliography of Published Works, 1798-1981. 789. Galloway, David, and Christian Sabisch, eds. Calamus: Male Homosexuality in Twentieth-Century Literature: An International Anthology. 702a. Hudson, Liam, and Bernadine Jacot. The Way Men Think: Intellect, Intimacy and the Erotic Imagination. 45. Hoyland, John, ed. Fathers and Sons. 956. Jeffords. Susan. The Remasculinization of America: Gender and the Vietnam War. 46. Kafka, Franz. Letter to His Father/Brief an Der Vater. 507. Keyes, Ralph, ed. Sons on Fathers: A Book of Men's Writing. 121. Mailer, Norman. The Prisoner of Sex. 713. Mullahy, Patrick. Oedipus, Myth and Complex: A Review of Psychoanalytic Theory. 718. Pedersen, Loren E. Sixteen Men: Understanding Masculine Personality Types. 719. Rochlin, Gregory. The Masculine Dilemma: A Psychology of Masculinity. 835. Sarotte, Georges-Michel. Like a Brother, Like a Lover: Male Homosexuality in the American Novel and Theater from Herman Melville to James Baldwin. 619. Seidler, Victor J. Rediscovering Masculinity: Reason, Language and Sexuality. 29. Strage, Mark. The Durable Fig Leaf: A Historical, Cultural, Medical, Social, Literary, and Iconographic Account of Man's Relations with His Penis. 1042. Swados, Harvey, ed. The American Writer and the Great Depression. 729. von Franz, Marie-Louise. The Problem of the Puer Aeternus. 170. Young, Ian, comp. The Male Homosexual in Literature: A Bibliography.

Page 154

13 Male Midlife Transition


440. Bergler, Edmund. The Revolt of the Middle-Aged Man. 2d ed. New York: Hill and Wang, 1957. xiii, 312p. One of the earliest assessments of male midlife crisis, Bergler's study depicts the middle-aged man as rebelling and yet wanting his rebellion to fail. Through extensive accounts of interviews with patients, the psychiatrist and author argues that midlife rebellion is doomed to failure; at best, it can be survived and converted into personal growth. Bergler depicts the younger women with whom such men sometimes become involved as neurotic; he advises wives to hang on to their marriages, for the husband's midlife storm will pass. Biological changes are not the source of male midlife changes, and divorce is not the solution because it does not provide the needed therapy. Bergler views middleaged men as suffering from psychic masochism, and his views of patients, wives, and "other women" are sometimes severely judgmental. 441. Bowskill, Derek, and Anthea Linacre. The Male Menopause. Los Angeles: Brooke House, 1977. 195p. appendix. bibliography, 195. Despite the infelicitous title (and the authors had ample warning about it from those they interviewed), this book offers vivid, firsthand accounts of male midlife crises from Great Britain. The authors present extended extracts concerning midlife problems from husbands, wives, and medical practitioners. If organic evidence of midlife changes is uncertain, the psychological and emotional evidence seldom is. Midlife symptoms include disillusionment with success or disappointment at not having achieved it, awareness of physical decline, the desire to be attractive to women, impotence, extramarital affairs, dissatisfaction with work, personality changes, and a feeling that no one cares. "As there is minimal or no sanction for a man to grieve in our society," remarks one man, "there is also neither one for him to grow old." The authors review some of the remedies for midlife anxiety, suggesting that the solution lies in two difficult achievements: fixing a new midlife identity and facing death squarely. An extensive appendix contains extracts reviewing organic evidence for midlife changes, their emotional implications, and female menopause.

442. Chew, Peter. The Inner World of the Middle-Aged Man. New York: Macmillan, 1976. xix, 278p. notes. index. Reprint, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1977. pa.

Page 155

This popular account of midlife crisis draws upon the work of Daniel J. Levinson (entry 445), Elliott Jaques, and others. A journalist, Chew uses interviews and a wide range of readings to explore such midlife concerns as stocktaking, extramarital affairs, impotence, work, leisure, and age discrimination. 443. Farrell, Michael P., and Stanley D. Rosenberg. Men at Midlife. Boston: Auburn House, 1981. xix, 242p. illus. appendixes. bibliography, 227-35. notes. index. pa. Begun in 1971, this study combines a wide sample of 450 men with more detailed study of 20 selected subjects. Instead of a single pattern of predictable male midlife crisis, the authors discovered four distinct paths through midlife: that of the antihero or dissenter who exhibits alienation, identity struggle, and orientation towards his own ego; that of the transcendental-generative male who thrives during this period and is marked by openness to feelings; that of the pseudo-developed man who cultivates a facade of satisfaction but is actually undergoing a midlife crisis; and that of the punitive-disenchanted or authoritarian man who is highly dissatisfied and often in conflict with his children. Farrell and Rosenberg stress that male midlife transition must be seen in the larger context of family relationships. Class also influences the experience: wealthy or educated middle-class males are more likely to weather the period positively. The authors explore husband-wife relationships ("middle age represents the doldrums of marriage in our culture"), parent-child relationships, extended family relationships, and male friendship groups during midlife. Of the four paths through midlife, only one is described positively. The authors conclude that because "most men strive to conform to a limited range of cultural stereotypes of masculinity," their lives "become increasingly burdensome, particularly in relation to work and family." 444. Hallberg, Edmond C. The Grey Itch. N.p.: Ombudsman Press, 1977. Reprint (Rev. ed.), as The Gray Itch: The Male Metapause Syndrome. New York: Stein and Day, 1978. ix, 228p. bibliography, 209-22. notes. index. Reprint, New York: Warner Books, 1980. pa. Writing for corporate and professional white men, Hallberg spells out the ingredients of male metapause, a word signifying a midlife pause in the man's life changes. Part I explores the life stages and the symptoms of male metapause, including dissatisfaction with work, marital boredom, memory slips,

distaste for the role of family money machine, and (above all) an identity crisis. Part 2 examines in greater detail problem areas of men at midlife. Part 3 offers suggestions for coping and changing in these problem areas. The final chapter deals with "emansumation," a term and a concept combining man, sum, and emancipation. 445. Levinson, Daniel J., and Charlotte N. Darrow, Edward B. Klein, Maria H. Levinson, and Braxton McKee. The Seasons of a Man's Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978. xiv, 367p. illustrations. notes. index. Reprint, New York: Ballantine Books, 1979. pa. An extremely influential book, this study has affected both scholarly and popular conceptions of the male life cycle. Building upon the work of Jung and Erikson, Levinson presents a developmental perspective on men in adulthood, based upon in-depth biographical interviews with 40 men, ages 35 to 45, in four occupations: hourly workers in industry, business executives, university biologists, and novelists. In addition, Levinson refers to a secondary sampling of famous men and fictional characters. The study concludes that male adult development proceeds through a series of eras, each of which occurs at an

Page 156

average or most frequent age: 17-22 (Early Adult Development), 22-28 (Entering the Adult World), 28-33 (Age Thirty Transition), 33-40 (Settling Down), 40-45 (Midlife Transition), 45-50 (Entering Middle Adulthood), 55-60 (Culmination of Middle Adulthood), 60-65 (Late Adult Transition), 65 and beyond (Late Adulthood). At each era, the man must perform certain developmental tasks or risk impeding his individuation process. Usually at age 40, the man enters a midlife transition in which he must reappraise the past, modify his life structure, continue individuation, and reconcile four polarities: young/old, destruction/creation, masculine/feminine, and attachment/separation. Levin-son describes five different pathways through midlife transition: advancement within a stable life structure, serious failure or decline, breaking out to a new life structure, advancement that produces a change in life structure, and unstable life structure. Humane and literate, The Seasons of a Man's Life is both moving and thought provoking. 446. Mayer, Nancy. The Male Mid-Life Crisis: Fresh Starts After Forty. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1978. xv, 295p. bibliography, 275-83. notes. index. Reprint, New York: New American Library, Signet, 1979. pa. In readable style, Mayer examines sympathetically what is known about the male midlife crisis and offers advice about how it can be directed positively. Supplementing her researches with interviews, Mayer surveys the thought of Freud, Jung, and Erikson, as well as the more recent findings of Daniel J. Levinson (entry 445) and others. She explores the traditional masculine gender role and its liabilities (e.g., workaholism, disillusionment with "success," exploitation in the marketplace, impacted emotions, early death), as well as the symptoms of midlife transition (e.g., penis angst, the quaking marriage, the pressure of unwanted responsibilities). Nevertheless, Mayer's outlook is essentially optimistic as she details the possibilities for growth and renewal that midlife transition can offer. 447. McGill, Michael E. The 40- to 60-Year-Old Male: A Guide for MenAnd the Women in Their LivesTo See Them Through the Crises of the Male Middle Years. New York: Simon and Schuster, Fireside, 1980.299p. appendix. pa. McGill argues that insufficient research has been done on male midlife transition, that too many studies focus on its negative aspects, and that good advice for dealing with it has been lacking. McGill's own study is based upon a

four-year research effort involving 500 questionnaires completed by men and women, as well as 200 interviews. Keeping an eye on the women, children, friends, employers, and others involved with the midlife male, the author reviews seven possible causes of the crisis. To cope with midlife trauma, McGill suggests five steps for the male; these steps include recognition that there is a problem, a deliberate decision to change in a certain way, and integration of the change into the man's personality. The common denominator of male midlife crisis is a threat to the man's identity; thus, men who define themselves too narrowly will be more prone to the crisis. "Men and women, all of us," McGill concludes, "need to encourage men as individuals to explore who they are as whole men." 448. McMorrow, Fred. Midolescence: The Dangerous Years. New York: Quadrangle/New York Times, A Strawberry Hill Book, 1974. xiv, 366p. "This book is not a sociological or psychoanalytical study," the publishers note. "It makes no pretensions. There is nothing scientific about it in conception or execution." The author presents, usually verbatim, question-and-answer dialogue

Page 157

from interviews concerning midlife crises. Those interviewed are seven experts (e.g., a psychiatrist, a psychoanalyst and sociologist, and a labor-relations lawyer), seven midlife men, and seven women involved with midlife men. Three concluding chapters survey the midlife crisis in history, in literature, and in headline stories; midolescence and awakening homosexuality; and what lies in the years beyond midolescence. 449. Osherson, Samuel D. Holding On or Letting Go: Men and Career Change at Midlife. New York: Free Press, 1980. xii, 258p. appendix. bibliography, 250-54. notes. index. In this study, Osherson reviews the literature on male midlife crisis and interviews 20 men who made radical career changes at midlife by exchanging their professional careers for work in arts and crafts. The author places the midlife years between 35 and 50; he uses a free-association interview procedure described in the appendix. Focusing on six men in the group, Osherson finds a prechange period that often precedes the actual crisis, which is characterized by a sense of loss. The self is called into question, and the man seeks to reconstitute a new self. At midlife, a man may discover the inadequacy of the career choice he made in young adulthood, forcing him to decide whether to "hold on" or "let go." Osherson contrasts premature decisions with more fully "sculpted" ones that are more integrative. He discusses the impact upon sons of the "strong mother-unavailable father" family pattern. In his conclusion, Osherson points to the wisdom of adaptively holding on and letting go, that is, the wise integration of the old and the new. 450. Ruebsaat, Helmut J., and Raymond Hull. The Male Climacteric. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1975. xviii, 190p. illus. appendix. glossary. index. Ruebsaat (an M.D.) and Hull (a writer) explain to lay readers the nature of the male climacteric that usually occurs between the ages of 41 and 50. The introduction contains Hull's personal account of his climacteric experiences. Part I enumerates the physical and emotional symptoms of midlife climacteric. Alluding to famous men of the pastDickens, Tolstoy, Shakespeare, Napoleon, Mussolinithe authors explore the climacteric's social dimensions. Contrasting male climacteric with female menopause, the authors reject the term malemenopause. Part 2 traces the causes of the climacteric, indicating an interrelationship of physical, psychological, and social contributing factors. In

part 3 the authors offer advice to midlife men and to those dealing with them in personal relationships or in public life. A glossary of terms is included. 451. Sharp, Daryl. The Survival Papers: Anatomy of a Midlife Crisis. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1988. 157p. (Studies in Jungian Psychology by Jungian Analysts, no. 35). index. pa. In this unusual study, a drama develops involving the book's rather controlled analyst-narrator, a midlife patient named Norman whose marriage to Nancy is headed for the rocks, the narrator's own analyst-mentor Arnold, and his anima, whom he calls Rachel. As Norman's story unfolds in the analyst's office, the narrator uses it to illustrate Jungian concepts of midlife crisis. Jung, for example, differed with Freud and regarded neurosis as an opportunity for greater individuation. The narrator expounds on numerous matters, such as serpent dream imagery and the four stages of the anima, which he labels Eve, Helen, Mary, and Sophia. He links Norman's travails with the hero's journey described by Joseph Campbell (entry 862). At the end of the book, it appears that the characters in the psychodrama may be aspects of the

Page 158

author's self. In any event, they have been presented primarily to illustrate Jungian interpretations of midlife transition. 452. Still, Henry. Surviving the Male Mid-Life Crisis. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1977. xi, 240p. bibliography, 227-28. notes. index. In the first section of this popular account of male midlife crisis, Still characterizes the physical and emotional changes in men between the ages of 40 and 45. The lost dreams, awareness of mortality, the death of one's parents, and the empty nestall can combine with the rigid gender role of U.S. masculinity to precipitate a crisis in many men's lives. In the second section, Still explores the personal equation of midlife crisisphysical decline, tired marriage, sagging sexuality, and the inability to express feelings or to explore different modes of loving. The book's final section deals with professional reckonings (i.e., work dissatisfaction and burnout, the discovery by some men that they have sacrificed their lives in careers they never really wanted, and the problems of retirement). Especially interesting are Still's idea of granting sabbaticals to midlife men to allow them breathing space to recover and his chapter on the need for lifetime learning. Despite the book's grim portrait of middle age, Still believes that "the midlife crisis of the American male ... is an opportunity for new growth and directions." 453. Tamir, Lois M. Men in Their Forties: The Transition to Middle Age. New York: Springer, 1982. x, 150p. (Focus on Men series, no. 2). appendixes. bibliography, 144-48. index. pa. A sociologist and lifespan developmental psychologist, Tamir has tapped a national survey conducted in 1976 by the University of Michigan in order to draw a picture of men in midlife transition. "Ages 40 to 49 years in the life of the adult male," she finds, "comprise a major transitional period that is reflected in the quality of life experience, with repercussions in the world of work, family, and social relationships." In her study, Tamir includes only men in their forties who are both married and parents; she uses an educational control, distinguishing college-educated men from non-college-educated men. As for quality of life, middle-aged college-educated men displayed a lack of zest, indicating possible psychological distress, while the other group suffered from low self-esteem. For both groups, satisfaction with marriage and parenthood dropped, although, toward the end of the decade, marriage

satisfaction began to increase again. Self-respect became a dominant value for both groups of men. Although job satisfaction increased (particularly among college-educated men), this satisfaction was no longer linked with personal well-being: apparently, midlife men disengage from work as a source of personal fulfillment. For college-educated men, marriage became a more important source of personal satisfaction, although heightened awareness or marital problems also surfaced at this time. Increasingly, the men sought social relationships, perhaps to share midlife troubles with others. Despite the evident difficulties of midlife transition, Tamir cautions against seeing it too bleakly and points to its rewards and opportunities. She concludes with suggestions for future research. 454. Vaillant, George E. Adaptation to Life. Boston: Little, Brown, 1977. xvii, 396p. appendixes. notes. Ninety-five men from an elite private college are followed through 35 years of development in this study. Most of the men were predictably "successful," but success did not mean trouble-free lives. Vaillant studies in detail the men's methods of adapting to reality. Their midlife years were troubled by what Erik Erikson designates as a search for "generativity," a desire for

Page 159

socially creative achievement. Midlife crises, however, were neither universal nor chronologically regular among the men. One appendix contains a glossary of defense mechanisms; the other two concern methodology. Cross-References 99. Filene, Peter, ed. Men in the Middle: Coping with the Problems of Work and Family in the Lives of Middle-Aged Men. 345. Fitzgerald, F. Scott. Tender Is the Night. 354. Heller, Joseph. Something Happened. 328. Homer. The Odyssey. 365. Maugham, W. Somerset. The Moon and Sixpence. 419. Merriam, Sharan B. Coping with Male Mid-Life: A Systematic Analysis Using Literature as a Data Source. 313. Schoenberg, Fred. Middle Age Rage ... And Other Male Indignities. 65. Sifford, Darrell. Father and Son.

Page 160

14 Males in Families
A. Expectant Fathers, New Fathers 455. Alliance for Perinatal Research and Services: Rae Grad, Debora Bash, Ruth Guyer, Zoila Acevedo, Mary Anne Trause, Diane Reukauf. The Father Book: Pregnancy and Beyond. Washington, DC: Acropolis Books, 1981. 263p. illus. appendixes. bibliography, 255-59. notes. index. pa. In this informative and lucid guide, the six authors explore the choices available to gathers in such matters as preparing for childbirth, pregnancy, childbirth classes, father participation in child delivery, unexpected events (e.g., multiple births, stillborn child), the postpartum period, living with an infant, interactions and exercises (a chapter by Jan Shaffer), and recent trends in fathering. Appendix 1 offers information and advice about how to cope with hospital personnel and policies concerning father participation in labor and birth. Appendix 2 lists organizations interested in childbirth. 456. Bittman, Sam, and Sue Rosenberg Zalk. Expectant Fathers. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1978. xxv, 291p. illus. appendixes. glossary. bibliography, 278-83. notes. index. pa. Reprint, New York: Ballantine Books, 1980. pa. A full-scale look at expectant fathers, this book uses current literature, 47 interviews, and 162 questionnaire responses. Although expectant fathers often undergo difficult emotional experiences, modern sex roles discourage their expression, and society tends to ignore these feelings. The authors examine the couvade syndrome in primitive and modern societies; they trace the father's emotional and physical changes during the trimesters of pregnancy. A separate chapter is devoted to sexual relations during pregnancy. The authors describe the stages of labor and birth with the participating fathers' roles during each stage. They warn fathers of infants about men's postpartum depression and urge fathers to resist being pushed aside by well-meaning mothers, relatives, or friends. Despite some negative aspects, involved fatherhood has more than sufficient rewards; the new gather is urged to enjoy this deepening human experience. The text is illustrated by F.X. Tobin's

drawings. The appendixes list questionnaire findings, home birth agencies, contraindications for home birth, and medical emergencies during home birth. A glossary of terms is also included.

Page 161

457. Bradley, Robert A. Husband-Coached Childbirth. 3d ed. New York: Harper Row, 1981. xiii, 238p. illus. index. This pioneering book, first published in 1965, recounts how Bradley (an M.D.) first became an advocate of natural childbirth and only later recognized the importance of involving the father in pregnancy, labor, and birthing. (Bradley uses ''birthing" to describe natural childbirth, as opposed to delivery by a doctor using medication while the father is pacing in the waiting room.) Chapter 4, "Where Do Fathers Fit In?" is necessary reading for any man thinking of becoming a father. Other chapters instruct the man on the part he can play in helping his pregnant partner with physical and mental well-being, his role during the various stages of labor, and his function in the birthing process. Bradley also discusses postpartum family relations and the husband's role in breastfeeding. As an advocate of natural childbirth, Bradley discourages the use of chemical substances by prospective parents. Obstacles to the father's presence in the birthing room have diminished considerably since the first edition of this book, but Bradley warns against recalcitrant doctors, medical personnel, parents, and friends. The book closes with two chapters on problems during pregnancy. Contra Bradley, Ashley Montagu, in the foreword, advocates home birthing; he agrees with Bradley on everything else. This book makes a strong case for the man's presence during birth as a part of the natural bonding of man and womanand child. 458. Burton, Jerome, and Milt Rosen. The Fatherhood Formula. Chatsworth, CA: Major Books, 1976. 187p. index. pa. Dismayed by the lack of information about such matters ("men know less than women"), the authors use a question-and-answer format and a sense of humor to elucidate topics every father-to-be should know about. Contents include the male reproductive system, impregnation, the male responses to pregnancy, the development of the fetus, delivery (the authors believe the father should be present), Cesarean sections, treatment of infants (Burton recommends circumcision), and the newborn at home. 459. Greenberg, Martin. The Birth of a Father. New York: Continuum, 1985. xii, 198p. notes. Reprint, New York: Avon, 1986. pa. "Engrossment" is the term coined by Greenberg to describe the bonding

attachment of father to newborn child. Drawing upon his experiences with his son, interviews with other fathers, and scholarly studies, Greenberg describes for a general audience the characteristics of engrossment. Because hospital staffs vary in their encouragement of father participation in child delivery, the new father must be firm about asserting his right to be near his wife and child. Greenberg discusses family bonding after the delivery, how to be a working father, coping with baby's crying, jealousy, ways to recharge the parents' batteries, and changing diapers. He especially recommends fatherly walks with infants as a way of bonding. Stressing a positive view of fatherhood, the book offers new fathers encouragement and practical advice. 460. Gresh, Sean. Becoming a Father: A Handbook for Expectant Fathers. New York: Butterick, 1980. 144p. appendixes. bibliography, 140-141. index. Reprint, New York: Bantam Books, 1982. pa. This highly readable book provides fathers-to-be with essential information and suggestions during pregnancy, labor, childbirth, and afterward. Without pressuring men, Gresh outlines the choices available to them. He warns prospective fathers that they will be ignored by professionals and that they will experience anxieties; the rewards of active fatherhood, however, outweigh

Page 162

such drawbacks. Discussing men's fears (about finances, dangers of childbirth, sex, and marital relationships), Gresh stresses the importance to men of talking out these fears and maintaining communication with their partners. Separate chapters are devoted to men's changes during pregnancy (including the phenomenon of couvade); women's changes during each trimester of pregnancy; costs; preparations for childbirth; the man's role during labor (the importance of not separating husbands and wives at this time is stressed); and adjustments to life with a newborn. The foreword by Elizabeth Bing briefly traces how separation of fathers-to-be from childbirth occurred in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and how the situation is presently being rectified. The appendixes include a list of chapters and groups of the American Society of Psychoprophylaxis in Obstetrics, a listing by state of chapters of the International Childbirth Education Association, and the Pregnant Patient's Bill of Rights and Responsibilities. 461. Heinowitz, Jack. Pregnant Fathers: How Fathers Can Enjoy and Share the Experiences of Pregnancy and Childbirth. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982. xiii, 126p. appendix. bibliography, 117-19. notes. index. pa. Arguing that couples get pregnant and that the pregnant father has been almost overlooked, Heinowitz offers information and suggestions to encourage males to become full partners in pregnancy. He debunks the ideas that the father is a secondary parent and that fathers' influence on infants and on growing daughters is minimal. Repeatedly stressing the need for men to express their feelings, he warns that repressed feelings can damage a couple's relationship. Exercises in awareness and listening to one's partner are included. Heinowitz discusses couvade, sympathy symptoms, and numerous other topics. Despite the pitfalls of being an involved pregnant father, the rewards are great. An appendix suggests how childbirth educators and others can make their classes more helpful. 462. Jones, Carl. Sharing Birth: A Father's Guide to Giving Support During Labor. New York: Quill, 1985. 195p. illus. appendixes. bibliography, 187-89. notes. index. pa. In Jones's view, a father at childbirth is more than a coach; he is the sharer in the miracle of birth. Jones describes pregnancy, labor, and birth in detail, providing suggestions on how husbands can share in both events. By providing

massages and retaining a positive attitude, the man can foster his partner's maximum physical and emotional well-being. Much of the advice is practical (e.g., lowering the lights during childbirth can soothe the woman, taking off one's shirt and achieving skin contact with the newborn can increase engrossment, and keeping away a swarm of well-wishers may provide the mother with needed rest). Jones includes a chapter on special situations (e.g., Cesarean section) and considers the roles of other family members (including children) at childbirth. Photographs illustrate the text. The appendixes describe subjects to consider before labor begins and a labor record. 463. Kahan, Stuart. The Expectant Father's Survival Kit. New York: Monarch, Sovereign, 1978. viii, 181p. index. pa. With rare good humor, Kahan provides a guide for the expectant father. After exploring men's initial reactions to the news, Kahan takes men through the nine months of pregnancy, with updates on the wife's and the child's changes. Kahan touches upon such matters as figuring costs, finding an obstetrician, the changes men can expect to go through, sex during pregnancy,

Page 163

clothes for the pregnant woman, exercises, and labor and delivery, including instructions for an emergency do-it-yourself delivery. The final chapter covers coping with an infant at home. 464. Lewis, Charlie. Becoming a Father. Milton Keynes, England, and Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1986. ix, 222p. appendix. bibliography, 204-16. author and subject indexes. pa. Research on fathers has been either nonexistent or badly handled, according to Lewis, who takes delight in challenging received wisdom about fatherhood. Drawing upon a study of 100 fathers in England conducted in 1979 and 1980, Lewis finds fathers a more complex, varied group than was suggested by most earlier research. He rejects the idea that the new, nurturant father is really new. Rather, the involved father has been emerging gradually, although powerful social forces (including traditional motherhood and fatherhood) still hinder acceptance of dramatically new roles for most fathers. Lewis finds men closely involved in their wives' pregnancies, and he speculates about the father's presence at delivery as a modern couvade ritual. Not all men do well in the delivery room, Lewis finds. When the baby arrives at home, the father's desire to become an involved parent is often hampered by his marginal status as caregiver. As the infant's first year unfolds, however, the father begins to relate to the child more closely. Significantly, many fathers are more indulgent than mother, and many reject the role of punisher. Many mothers report high father involvement with children, and many fathers have a respect for their role as fathers. However unsettling the presence of the new child may prove, the fathers usually try to be the sturdy oak who weathers crises. Although father's role has become more "nurturant," few parents were motivated by a desire for gender role reversal. The appendix contains the interview format. 465. Mayle, Peter. How to Be a Pregnant Father: An Illustrated Survival Guide for the First-time Father, Including the Pregnant Father's Cookbook by Len Deighton. London: Macmillan, 1980, 1993. 54p. illus. pa. Lighthearted advice from Mayle, a quick-meal cookbook from Deighton, and comical cartoons from Arthur Robbins comprise this upbeat guide for the expectant father. No advice is offered, however, about father participation in childbirth.

466. Phillips, Celeste R., and Joseph T. Anzalone. Fathering: Participation in Labor and Birth. 2d ed. Saint Louis: C. V. Mosby, 1982. xv, 168p. illus. glossary. bibliography after each chapter. notes. pa. Stressing the positive effects of father participation in labor and childbirth, the authors argue that "since fathers tend to be undervalued in our culture ... men may have suffered as much from discrimination as have womenparticularly when it comes to pregnancy and birth." Surveying the father's role in history, Phillips and Anzalone find that excluding the father from birthing parallels the father's diminished role in child rearing. The attack on nineteenth-century paternalism unfortunately also diminished fatherhood. Although some hospitals still regard men as excess baggage during labor and birthing, the movement to make men active participants is growing stronger. Without insisting that every man be present at birth, the authors discuss the impact of pregnancy upon men, ways in which the physician gains from father participation, and its positive effects (e.g., father-infant bonding). Such results are movingly dramatized in a series of accounts from fathers, and sometimes mothers, of their experiences during childbirth. Photographs illustrate these

Page 164

accounts. An additional chapter records the memories of men who pioneered father participation. A glossary of medical terms is included. 467. Sasmor, Jeannette L. What Every Husband Should Know About Having a Baby: The Psychoprophylactic Way. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1972. 232p. illus. appendix. bibliography, 221-22. index. Sasmor provides a readable guide for husbands to the psychoprophylactic method (PPM). "Prophylaxis," she explains, "is a long, unwieldy name that refers to the prevention (prophylaxis) of mental or emotional (psycho) trauma experienced by most unprepared women during the process of childbearing." In Sasmor's plan, the husband becomes the wife's birthing coach. Without mounting any soapboxes, Sasmor explains the value of the husband's involvement in pregnancy and childbirth. (Readers would be well advised to skip the foreword by Benjamin Segal, which manages to be antagonistic to men in a way that Sasmor never is.) Sasmor surveys the history of "natural childbirth'' ideas and outlines the husband's role during pregnancy, delivery, and afterward. As a practicing nurse, Sasmor is able to offer numerous hints for husbands about such matters as breathing and relaxation techniques, what to expect in the delivery room, episiotomy, rooming-in after birth, and taking care of a new baby. Without attempting to usurp the function of husbandcoached childbirth classes, Sasmor's book provides a valuable supplement. 468. Schaefer, George. The Expectant Father. Rev. ed. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1972. xii, 167p. appendixes. bibliography, 159-62. index. pa. In concise style, Schaefer surveys the expectant father's role from premarital examination to costs of caring for an infant. He explains such matters as genes, chromosomes, and the Rh factor; he offers information and advice about living with a pregnant wife, education for parenthood, and deciding whether or not to participate in childbirth. 469. Shapiro, Jerrold Lee. When Men Are Pregnant: Needs and Concerns of Expectant Fathers. San Luis Obispo, CA: Impact, 1987. ix, 274p. bibliography, 269-70. index. Reprint, New York: Delta, 1993. pa. Drawing upon interviews with 227 expectant and recent fathers, as well as his personal experiences, Shapiro surveys men's concerns and needs from

preconception to postpartum. A professor of counseling psychology, Shapiro writes for a popular audience, providing perceptive insights into situations and issues that other writers often ignore or skim. He looks in depth at how modern life can complicate the decision to have a child, the couvade syndrome, and the strains that pregnancy can place upon couples. He notes differing responses by fathers to similar challenges. Shapiro has misgivings about some medical care during childbirth, and he notes the sexist attitudes toward fathers that persist among some doctors and nurses. Despite the numerous pitfalls depicted in this book, Shapiro remains decidedly upbeat about fatherhood. 470. Spacek, Tim. Fathers: There at the Birth. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 1985. 148p. pa. Spacek has collected 13 varied accounts of childbirth from fathers who were thereincluding Spacek himself for two of his children. One father's child was born at home unexpectedly, another had trouble with an imperious hospital staff, and still another was excluded when complications led doctors to perform a Cesarean. Spacek concludes, "There are no 'laws' governing birth,

Page 165

and each story, while similar, is a little different." The accounts provide deeply human perspectives on the impact of birth upon fathers. 471. Weiss, Robert Russell, and Myron Ray Pexton. Dr. Pexton's Guide for the Expectant Father. North Quincy, MA: Christopher, 1970. 208p. index. This popular guide for fathers consists of questions by Weiss and answers by Pexton, an M.D. The topics include birth control, father's presence in the delivery room, Cesarean section, vasectomy, Rh factor, postpartum blues, infant care, and so on. Some readers will find Pexton's responses refreshingly commonsensical; others will find them sometimes dubious and dated. In this book, the father's role is largely a supportive one, a contrast to the more active role recommended by more recent fathers' advocates. 472. Worth, Cecilia. The Birth of a Father: New Fathers Talk About Pregnancy, Childbirth, and the First Three Months. New York: McGraw-Hill, A Sun Words Book, 1988. x, 150p. bibliography, 149-50. pa. A nurse who has taught expectant parents courses for 20 years, Worth offers fathers-to-be clear advice about coping with pregnancy, birth, and the first three months of child care. New fathers go through a major life change, the author argues, and are often ignored by society in general and hospital personnel in particular. Using interviews with new fathers, Worth examines such matters as sex during pregnancy and the male couvade syndrome. Participating in childbirth and caring for a newborn can be scary but rewarding for men. Without omitting negative experiences, the author stresses the positive potential of new fatherhood. B. Fathers, Fatherhood, Husbands, Married Men 473. Andersen, Christopher P. Father: The Figure and the Force. New York: Warner Books, 1983. xi, 256p. bibliography, 255-56. "Nearly every American adult alive today," Andersen declares, "has been raised in his or her father's absence." Arguing that fathers have been given short shrift by American society, the author presents evidence of fathers' overwhelming importance to children. Writing in popular style, Andersen utilizes interviews with celebrities, experts, friends, and acquaintances, as well as his own experiences as son and father, to construct an informal portrait of

fatherhood in modern America. He touches upon such matters as fathers as resident aliens in the family, the effects of father absence upon children, the Oedipus and Electra complexes, and father as mediator of the outside world to the child. Later chapters deal with surrogate fathers and mentors, breaking away from father, and the New Dadwhom Andersen regards as a fraud. Both Dad and Mom, he argues, are defecting from their responsibilities as parents. Despite Andersen's willingness to portray Dad with warts and all, his book is a vigorous defense of fatherhood in a society that he regards as increasingly complacent about parenting. 474. Appleton, William S. Fathers and Daughters: A Father's Powerful Influence on a Woman's Life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1981. xv, 198p. Reprint, New York: Berkley Books, 1984. pa. Although written for daughters, this book makes equally valid reading for fathers. The author, an M.D. with two daughters, writes lucidly of the father's profound effect upon his daughter's life. Rejecting the Freudian model

Page 166

that stresses childhood influences, Appleton argues that the father-daughter relationship occurs over a 30-year period in their separate life cycles. These years he divides into three segments: oasis (when daughter is "daddy's little girl" and when father is building his career), conflict (when daughter is an adolescent and when father is passing through midlife turmoil), and separation (when daughter reaches autonomy and when father sees her as an adult). Although Appleton recognizes that many father-daughter bonds are warm and strengthening, he focuses upon those that adversely affect women's lives in such areas as sex, careers, insecurity, and relationships with men. Making changes in one's life, Appleton points out, requires a process of understanding and an act of will on the woman's part. 475. Barret, Robert L., and Bryan E. Robinson. Gay Fathers. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath, Lexington Books, 1990. xv, 197p. appendix. bibliography after each chapter and in appendix. notes. index. A minority within a minority, gay fathers face discrimination from society, the legal system, and counselors who reject gay parenthood. The authors seek to dispel a number of misperceptions about homosexual fathers, including the myths that children will "catch" gayness from them and that gay fathers are likely to molest their children. They examine different gay family structures. Because divorce is usually involved, children of gay men often face the pain of family breakup in addition to the stigma of parental gayness. Parents and wives of homosexuals are likely to pass through several stages of reactions to news of the man's homosexuality. The impact of AIDS on gay fathers is explored. Because the little research that is available on gay parenthood is often methodologically flawed, the authors present desiderata for future research. Throughout the book, they offer advice for gay fathers and mental health professionals. The appendix includes resources for gay fathers, such as scholarly and popular literature, organizations, periodicals, and audiovisuals. 476. Benson, Leonard. Fatherhood: A Sociological Perspective. New York: Random House, 1968. xii, 371p. bibliography, 325-59. index. An early (1968) study that has retained its validity, this book provides a systematic account of the sociological literature on fatherhood. Deploring our society's comparative neglect of fathers, Benson notes: "It is apparent that the

problems of women as women arouse our most anxious concern, while those of men rarely stir our passion for reform." Part I puts fatherhood into sociological perspective, examining the link between masculinity and fatherhood, our society's encouragement of instrumental roles for males, the passing of patriarchal styles of fathering, and the emergence of the father-mother team. In part 2 Benson discusses the male as parent, examining the father as "weak link" in the family chain who needs more careful adjustment to marriage and family. The greater discrepancy between the husband-father roles than between the wife-mother roles also increases stress for men in families. Benson traces the various theories of sexual identification and father's roles, the urge to excel instilled by many fathers, and the pressures on male children to assume a masculine role. A discussion of father-child conflict is followed by an account of fatherlessness in families. While any individual father in a household may be expendable, Benson concludes, the institution of fatherhood is not. Part 3 examines conflicts between father's obligations as breadwinner and his role as parent. A final chapter of prognosis indicates that the family has become more important to fathers.

Page 167

477. Biller, Henry B. Fathers and Families: Paternal Factors in Child Development. Westport, CT: Auburn House, 1993. xiii, 327p. bibliography, 275-302. notes. author and subject indexes. pa. Stressing the benefits of positive "father presence," Biller crystallizes an enormous amount of research to document the value of nurturing fatherhood. Linking biological, psychological, and social interconnections, he notes the overall advantages of the two-parent family in which father and mother are partners in parenting. Fathers need encouragement to bond closely with infants, and their nurturing presence can contribute greatly to the child's gender and identity development. Biology gives children a nudge in a developmental direction, but parents can smooth the way in helping children establish their individuality. In the development of the child's morality, intelligence, and creativity, Biller demonstrates the contributions of positive fathering. In elementary schools, the shortage of male teachers reinforces the father absence in too many children's homes. For several reasons, boys are often badly served by U.S. schools. Fathers can contribute greatly to the independence and assertiveness of daughters as well as sons. In numerous other areasathletics, fitness, intimacy, sexuality, and social adjustmentthe presence of a caring father is of great benefit to the child. Surveying family problems, Biller concludes that many result from absent fathers and overburdened mothers. The hurried pace of modern life hampers close family interaction, to the detriment of both parents and children. Biller's work represents a major summation of evidence indicating the benefits of nurturant fathering. 478. Biller, Henry. Paternal Deprivation: Family, School, Sexuality, and Society. D.C. Heath, Lexington Books, 1974. xi, 227p. bibliography, 171-207. author and subject indexes. "The thesis of this book is that paternal deprivation, including patterns of inadequate fathering as well as father absence, is a highly significant factor in the development of serious psychological and social problems." This sequel to Biller's Father, Child, and Sex Role (entry 595) examines numerous aspects of paternal deprivation, including theories of a boy's identification with his father and the resulting development of masculinity, father-infant attachments, the boy's sex role, surrogate models of masculine behavior, the effects of paternal

deprivation on the child's personal and social adjustment (including psychopathology), the mother-son relationship caused by paternal deprivation, effects of father-daughter relations on her emotional and interpersonal functioning, the intellectual and academic development of children (including effects of the feminized classroom), ways of coping with paternal deprivation, and suggested solutions for alleviating the problem. Throughout the book, Biller offers impressive evidence of the need for good fathers. The bibliography is unusually full. 479. Biller, Henry, and Dennis Meredith. Father Power. New York: David McKay, 1974. 376p. bibliography, 361-68. notes. index. Reprint, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Anchor, 1975. pa. "Father power" means the enormous influence that a father exercises over his child's life. To harness this power for positive ends, the authors have written a manifesto and guide for the man striving to transcend older, more rigid concepts of fathering and to give his children secure, personal identities, without locking them into narrow gender roles. Drawing upon research studies, as well as their own work and experiences as fathers, Biller and Meredith offer stimulating advice on such matters as how fathers can overcome stereotyped views of fatherhood, how they can help children develop a fulfilling sense of

Page 168

masculinity or femininity, and how they can encourage positive attitudes towards physical growth, learning, work, and morality. A separate section of the book addresses "special problems" (e.g., divorce, stepfathering, handicapped fathers and children, black fathers, and father absence). The easy-to-read style makes Father Power widely accessible to men who want to be more active and nurturing fathers. 480. Bozett, Frederick W., ed. Gay and Lesbian Parents. New York: Praeger, 1987. xvi, 247p. bibliography after each chapter and 237-38. notes. index. pa. Bozett has collected 13 scholarly articles dealing with numerous aspects of gay parenting. Gay men are likely to be most interested in the essays "Gay Fathers" and "Children of Gay Fathers" (both by Bozett), and "Counseling Gay Husbands and Fathers'' (by Brian Miller). In the final essay, Bozett considers future perspectives for gay and lesbian parents. 481. Bozett, Frederick W., and Shirley M. H. Hanson, eds. Fatherhood and Families in Cultural Context. New York: Springer, 1991. xxiv, 290p. bibliography after each chapter. subject and author indexes. The 11 articles in this anthology examine fathers and families in a wider cultural context than many earlier studies had done. In an historical perspective of fatherhood from preindustrial to postindustrial times, Peter N. Stearns questions current stereotypes of past fatherhood and cites its positive and negative attributes. Alfredo Mirand examines differences and similarities among African-American, Latino, Asian, and Native American fatherhood, while Lynda Henley Walters and Stephen F. Chapman alert readers to the danger of our legal system's insensitivity to different cultural concepts of fathering. Teresa Donati Marciano offers a rare study of the impact of religion on fatherhood. Other essays discuss how social class and fatherhood can interact, how "Organizational Culture" can affect fathers, and how positive fathering can be enhanced in family cultures. 482. Bronstein, Phyllis, and Carolyn Pape Cowan, eds. Fatherhood Today: Men's Changing Role in the Family. New York: John Wiley, 1988. xix, 347p. bibliography after each chapter. author and subject indexes. An important collection of 19 articles, plus foreword, Fatherhood Today

extends the range of fatherhood studies to include cultural variations of paternal behavior, divorced fathers, remarried fathers, stepfathers, gay fathers, grandfathers, as well as white, black, and Latino fathers. The book's major sections explore fathers in developing two-parent families, variations and changes in father and family relationships, prevention and intervention programs for men and boys, and directions for research and social change. Articles include a study of "the fatherhood click" (when men decide the time is right for them to become fathers), the social pressures faced by black fathers, conflicts between gay lifestyle and fathering behaviors, and the need for stepfathers to move slowly in establishing a bond with stepchildren. Special mention should be made of Shirley M. H. Hanson's compassionate discussion of divorced fathers with custody and of James W. Loewen's challenging account of visitation fatherhood. All the articles, however, are models of thoughtful scholarship. 483. Cammarata, Jerry, with Frances Spatz Leighton. The Fun Book of Fatherhood: Or, How the Animal Kingdom Is Helping to Raise the Wild Kids at Our House. Los Angeles: Corwin Books, 1978. xiii, 303p. illus. bibliography, 301-3. Reprint, Los Angeles: Pinnacle Books, 1979. pa.

Page 169

Cammarata attracted headlines by fighting forand winninga four-year paternity leave from his job. He wanted the leave not to enable his wife to go out to work (she didn't), but to enable him to be closely involved in raising their two daughters. In frenetically informal prose, Cammarata records his insights into parenting, often by way of zany analogies with animal parents. Using anecdotes from his experiences at home, he touches upon such matters as not pressuring children to succeed, feeding, fighting, telling children about sex, discipline, education, play, and sleeping. 484. Cath, Stanley H., Alan R. Gurwitt, and John Munder Ross, eds. Father and Child: Developmental and Clinical Perspectives. Boston: Little, Brown, 1982. xxv, 663p. bibliography, 587-613. name and subject indexes. Citing the father as the "forgotten parent" and deploring the "relative dearth of reflection on paternity," the editors have collected 36 essays (plus a preface and an afterword) by 39 contributors with impressive credentials. Although geared primarily for clinicians, Father and Child covers such a range of topics and is so readable that it invites a wider audience. Divided into five sections, the book begins with reviews of the psychological literature on fathers (understandably, Freud looms large in these surveys). The next two sections trace the development of the male from infancy to old age, emphasizing the father-child relationship. Among the topics discussed are engrossment (bonding between fathers and newborn infants), father hunger (the need for a father's presence, especially to modulate aggressive drive and fantasy), the father's role in establishing the child's gender identity during early childhood, fathers and adolescent sons, expectant fathers, fathers in midlife crises, grandfatherhood, and the death of the father. Section 4 deals with cultural and historical variations, including the child's representation of God, the patriarchal tradition in Genesis, and a survey of the changing faces of fatherhood in the United States. Exploring clinical problems and applications, section 5 touches upon such matters as divorce, abusive fathers, incest, the relationship between abdicating fathers and homosexual sons, and the importance of involving fathers in clinical treatment of children. An afterword by E. James Anthony examines the internalized early-childhood father by citing the lives of Kafka, J. S. Mill, Gosse, Butler, and Freud. Father and Child maintains a continuity and a consistency of excellence seldom found in anthologies. 485.

Colman, Arthur, and Libby Colman. Earth Father/Sky Father: The Changing Concept of Fathering. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981. xii, 206p. illus. notes. index. pa. Rev. ed., The FatherMythology and Changing Roles. Wilmette, IL: Chiron Publications, 1988. pa. Before the current wave of mythopoetic studies, the Colmans employed Jungian archetypes to depict five models of the father. Arguing that men need images of the nurturing father to validate their changing roles as fathers, the authors insist upon the importance of both the Sky Father who mediates between family and outside world and the Earth Father who functions within the family itself. Using literature, dreams, and myth, as well as interviews with 15 men and case histories, the Colmans examine the archetype of Father the Creator, arguing that parenting may be a man's most significant act of creation. The archetype of Earth Father can be found in images of male fertility and nurturance: in everyday life, this kind of father is totally involved in raising children. The Sky Father is provider, judge, and protector, but men playing this role nowadays may find it frustrating and difficult. The Royal Father controls children's lives completely: at present the single parent is often forced into this role. The Dyadic Father is half of a pair of creative parents who

Page 170

nevertheless retain their own identities. The authors also trace varying images of the father through the life cyclefrom the child's idealization of the father to the adult's reconciliation with the father. In the final section, the Colmans discuss nontraditional fathering, the need for males as earth-father nurturers, and the benefits for children of dyadic parents. The 1988 edition contains a new preface, indicating that the more nurturant father has become more widely accepted, although not universally admired. 486. Corneau, Guy. Absent Fathers, Lost Sons: The Search for Masculine Identity. Translated by Larry Shouldice. Boston and London: Shambhala, 1991. x, 186p. bibliography, 183-86. pa. A Jungian analyst from Canada, Corneau is emphatic about the necessity of fathers in families. During the first two years of life, male children absolutely need a father. "Lacking a father," Corneau writes, "is like lacking a backbone." In the father-absent family, the oedipal triangle can cause trouble for the growing boy. The author points to the near-universal initiation rites that separate the boy from the mother. Arguing that modern fathers do not spend nearly enough time with children, Corneau lists five ways of being an inadequate father, and he cites the inordinate amount of deviant and antisocial behavior exhibited by father-deprived boys. Examining the various roles that father-absent males play, Corneau draws upon Robert Bly's retelling of the Iron Hans (Iron John) story (entry 861) to illustrate the boy's need for directed aggression in contest. Life crises can be helpful for "lost sons" if they push these men to forgive their absent fathers and initiate "self-fathering.'' 487. Cottle, Thomas J. Like Fathers, Like Sons: Portraits of Intimacy and Strain. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1981 xvii, 140p. pa. Utilizing his work in constructing life studies, Cottle provides 10 accounts of fathers and sons. Avoiding "scientific" detachment, he re-creates the people and events impressionistically, thereby conveying the men's experiences of generational stress, love, and legacy. Many readers will find these accounts moving and powerful vignettes of male lives. 488. Daley, Eliot A. Father Feelings. York: William Morrow, 1978. 192p. Reprint, New York: Pocket Books, 1979. pa.

Drawing upon his experiences as a father, Daley reflects upon a variety of family and men's concerns, including the emotional costs of today's frantic mobility, his triumphs and pratfalls in dealing with three children, the dubious advice of family "experts," the teaching of values to children, the overcomplicated mechanisms that thwart us as often as they benefit us, and the place of money in one's priorities. In the chapter with the most radical implications, "The Great Juggling Act, or Trying to Do Justice to Both a Career and a Family," Daley writes: "Women may be tired of being culturally regarded as housekeepers and diaper washers; well, I am tired of being culturally regarded as a breadwinner whose primary responsibility to the family is to be a 'good provider'... I'd rather be a father." 489. Dobson, James C. Straight Talk to Men and Their Wives. Waco, TX: Word, 1980. 222p. illus. Deploring the erosion of family leadership among men, Dobson invokes the memory of his father to redefine a Christian concept of masculinity. He discusses paternal authority and love, husband-wife relations, and men and work. Later chapters focus on masculine identity, emotions, and religious belief.

Page 171

490. Dodson, Fitzhugh. How to Father. Edited by Jeanne Harris. Los Angeles: Nash, 1974. xviii, 537p. illus. appendixes. bibliography, 503-20. notes. index. Reprint, New York: New American Library, Signet, 1975. pa. In this guidebook for fathers, Dodson uses psychological stages of child development as a basis for practical advice on how fathers can deal effectively with children as they grow from infancy to young adulthood. Five appendixes contain guides to commercial toys and play equipment, inexpensive toys and play equipment that fathers can make, children's books, children's records, and a "survival kit" of reading materials for fathers. 491. DuBrin, Andrew J. The New Husbands and How to Become One. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1976. xiv, 213p. notes. index. In what often reads like once-trendy advice for yuppies, DuBrin distinguishes between old- and new-style husbands. The new husband can have it alla goodpaying job, a feminist wife, and children who are politically correct about gender roles. The book's unquestioning acceptance of unisex child-rearing may be one indication of its datedness. 492. Elster, Arthur B., and Michael E. Lamb, eds. Adolescent Fatherhood. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1986. xiii, 204p. bibliography after each chapter. author index. Eleven essays, plus an epilogue, are addressed to various aspects of the adolescent father. In the opening chapter, Raymond Montemayor defines and describes adolescence; in the following essay, Douglas M. Tell and Michael E. Lamb discuss gender role stereotypes and young men's problems in achieving adult masculinity. Freya L. Sonenstein discusses contraceptives, finding that young males use them at about the same rate as young females do. Subsequent essays are devoted to stresses and coping strategies of adolescent fathers, and the greater failure of adolescent fathers to complete high school education. Lamb and Elster note that most studies of adolescent parental behavior have focused exclusively on mothers; fathers seem to share the same higher rate of unsuccessful parenting patterns. In a study by Frank G. Bolton, Jr., and Jay Belsky, however, the predicted higher rates of child maltreatment by adolescent fathers did not materialize. An essay by Belsky and Brent C. Miller argues that the transition to parenthood is more stressful and

complicated for adolescent fathers. James S. Kahn and Bolton argue the reasons why clinicians should attend to teen fathers, and Debra G. Klinman and her associates describe the Teen Father Collaboration, an effort to reach adolescent fathers through organizations in several cities. Maris A. Vinovskis paints a dismal picture of U.S. attitudes towards adolescent fathers and of lawmakers focusing on the teen mother while ignoring or castigating the teen father. In the epilogue, the editors list future research priorities for studying adolescent fathers. 493. Fields, Suzanne. Like Father, Like Daughter: How Father Shapes the Woman His Daughter Becomes. Boston: Little, Brown, 1983. xii, 299p. bibliography, 291-99. notes. In this popularly written discussion of father-daughter relationships, Fields blends questionnaire replies, interviews, a review of psychological and sociological literature, and autobiography. Although the impact of father absence upon sons has been studied more thoroughly, Fields finds that a missing father can have devastating effects upon a daughter. The father confirms her lovableness while she romances him and learns how to relate to other males. Although fathers tend to be more affectionate with daughters than with sons, this closeness can have

Page 172

its drawbacks if it fixes the daughter's dependence upon males. Puberty can be troubling for both daughter and father as both awaken to her sexuality. While not discounting the seriousness of father-daughter incest, Fields refuses to blame it on a patriarchal plot against females. When a daughter marries, she sometimes must make the transition from Daddy's Little Girl to Woman-Wife. Just how trying this adjustment can be is illustrated by an account of Field's colorful father, Samuel "Bo" Bregman, and her first years of marriage to Ted Fields. While welcoming the increased interest of many men in being better fathers, Fields is skeptical of men who worship "feminine" values while denigrating "masculine" ones: "When men pursue a feminine sensibility, women inevitably are shortchanged in their own fundamental psychic and sensual needs." 494. Gilbert, Sara D. What's A Father For? A Father's Guide to the Pleasures and Problems of Parenthood, with Advice from the Experts. New York: Parents' Magazine Press, 1975. xxiii, 231p. illus. appendix. bibliography, 191-202, 21318. notes. index. Reprint, New York: Warner Books, 1975. pa. With humorously informal prose, Gilbert examines a father's roles and offers advice from the experts. She considers such matters as the reasons for wanting to be a father, coping with the demands of fatherhood, a brief history of fathering styles, avoiding sexist stereotyping of boys and girls, new forms of fathering (including dual-career fathers and househusbands), handling smaller children, coping with teens, and launching children into the world. She discusses the special problems of part-time fathers and single fathers ("doubletime fathers"). A final chapter examines difficulties of men's roles in modern society and the father's need to develop as a fulfilled human being. "A typical father ... is somebody's husband, somebody's father, and somebody's employee," Gilbert notes for the benefit of women envying men's lot. "He can't do what he wants any more than his wife can." Comic cartoons by James Stevenson of The New Yorker supplement the text. 495. Golant, Mitch, with Susan Golant. Finding Time for Fathering. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1992. xii, 288p. bibliography, 269-78. index. pa. For an audience of general readers, the Golants stress the importance of fathers' spending time with children. The demands of the breadwinner role militate against quality time between fathers and children. However, men

provide important kinds of nurturing. The authors extol the authoritative father (not to be confused with the authoritarian one) and offer practical advice on how to discipline with love. They suggest ways for fathers to deal with the different stages of childhood, from prebirth to adolescence. Sexuality must be dealt with positively and appropriately. Separate chapters cover how to achieve quality time with children, how to play with children at different ages, and how to introduce children to father's workplace. The authors suggest ways for fathers, especially divorced fathers, to keep in touch during times of absence. 496. Goulter, Barbara, and Joan Minninger. The Father-Daughter Dance: Insight, Inspiration, and Understanding for Every Woman and Her Father. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1993. 256p. bibliography, 237-42. notes. index. Although the son's need for a father has been stressed in the literature, father hunger affects women too. The authors trace six father-daughter patterns that can adversely affect daughters: lost father and yearning daughter, abusive father and victim daughter, pampering father and spoiled daughter, pygmalion father and companion daughter, ruined father and rescuing daughter, and anguished father and angry daughter. The patterns are illustrated by

Page 173

means of biographies, case histories, fictional characters, and historical figures. Goulter and Minninger argue that "mother-raising" of children glamorizes the absent father and overburdens the mother. They describe "redecision therapy" and other means of healing hurtful father-daughter relationships. The discussion is somewhat undercut by the authors' failure to get storylines straight (e.g., Die Walkre), their too-easy acceptance of radical feminist dogmas (e.g., patriarchy devalues women and overvalues males), and their occasional mangling of literature (e.g., Antigone). The foreword is by Harville Hendrix. 497. Grant, Wilson Wayne. The Caring Father. Nashville, TN: Broadman Press, 1983. 155p. appendix. notes. pa. In the context of evangelical Christianity, Grant (an M.D.) considers the importance of fathers to children and offers advice on how fathers can maximize the beneficial aspects of their family role. Men need to allot time for fatherhood, stress the positive when relating to children, and handle discipline with love and intelligence. Children need to see their fathers at work, have their fathers involved in family worship, and understand that their fathers love their mothers. In an addendum, Grant considers the future of the family, indicating that reports of its death have been premature. 498. Green, Maureen. Fathering. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976. ix, 230p. bibliography, 219-25. notes. Reprint, Life without Fathering, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977. pa. Published in Great Britain as Goodbye Father (London and Henley: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1976). In popular style, Green analyzes the crisis of modern fatherhood, arguing that the role must be either reinvented or abandoned. Despite all the evils attributed to patriarchy, Green feels that radical feminist efforts to eliminate fathers from families are a mistake. Fathers are expendable, she warns, but their loss to the family does considerable damage to children, wives, society at large, and men themselves. 499. Hallowell, Christopher. Father to the Man: A Journal. New York: William Morrow, 1987. 177p. Recording a special vacation with his wife and children, Hallowell offers a

meditation upon fathers and sons. The family travels to (fictitiously named) "Weenaumet Point" on Cape Cod, a place where Hallowell had spent summers as a boy. Watching his own children, Hallowell recalls his relationship with his father, now dead. The children, Matthew and Maggie, exhibit sharp gender differences at an early age. Hallowell concludes that they are not picking up on parental or social cues; rather, parents and society throughout the ages have shaped gender roles by picking up cues from children. Hallowell's own father was distant, leaving the son filled with father hunger. When the current vacation at Weenaumet ends, Hallowell seems to have made peace, albeit a somewhat regretful one, with his father. 500. Hamilton, Marshall L. Father's Influence on Children. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1977. x, 230p. bibliography, 173-96. index. pa. Hamilton surveys research done on fathers up to 1974. Rejecting the stereotype of fathers as uninvolved incompetents, he finds indications of strong paternal involvement with children. He explores the effects of father absence on children, and of fathers' influence upon children's sex roles and development. Thumbnail sketches of people like Lee Harvey Oswald, Ralph Nader,

Page 174

and Indira Gandhi emphasize the father-child relationship. The concluding chapter presents characteristics of an "ideal" father. 501. Hammer, Signe. Passionate Attachments: Fathers and Daughters in America Today. New York: Rawson, 1982. xi, 303p. notes. index. Drawing upon interviews, recollections, and scholarly studies, Hammer discusses uneasy father-daughter relationships in modern U.S. society. Her own father, absent during World War II, returned to dominate and discourage her search for autonomy. Similar problems surface in several accounts in the book: the fathers here seldom prepared their daughters for an independent role in the world. Hammer hypothesizes that some fathers identify their own femininity with their daughters and want to protect and pamper them. The "successful" fathers in this book are the ones whose daughters have made it in the outside "male" world. In a concluding chapter, the author considers how overly dutiful daughters can undo the paralyzing effects of an overbearing father. 502. Hanson, Shirley M. H., and Frederick W. Bozett, eds. Dimensions of Fatherhood. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1985. 464p. illus. notes after each chapter. index. pa. An influential collection of 19 articles written by 27 contributors, Dimensions of Fatherhood examines the state of knowledge among social scientists about fathers. It expands the range of earlier studies of fatherhood, and presents a blueprint for the future of fatherhood. Articles follow a similar pattern: an historical perspective on some aspect of fathering, a survey of research, discussion of implications for professional practice, recommended research, and summary and conclusions. Articles are grouped under "Roles Throughout the Life Cycle" and "Variations of Fatherhood." In the former section, essays range from Janice M. Swanson's "Men and Family Planning" to Marc C. Baranowski's "Men as Grandfathers." In the latter section, studies consider topics such as househusbands, stepfathers, fathers in the military, gay men as fathers, single custodial fathers, and widowers as fathers. A final article by Frank A. Pedersen considers ''Research and Fathers: Where Do We Go From Here?" 503. Hearn, Jeff. Birth and Afterbirth: A Materialist Account. London: Achilles Heel,

1983. 60p. illus. notes. pa. This brief essay shows the author conflicted by his powerful feelings as a father and his faith in a Marxist ideology that proclaims fatherhood a part of patriarchy's oppression of women. As a true believer, Hearn jettisons his feelings and attempts to understand reproduction in terms of Marxist teachings on labor and production in capitalism. In the end, Hearn proposes a new matriarchy in which mothers control birth and "childwork" while fathers are dutifully subservient. "Most importantly," Hearn concludes, "the notion of fatherhood must be smashed or more precisely dropped bit by bit into the ocean." The essay is likely to raise more questions than it answers. How will the new matriarchy avoid the weaknesses of the old ones (none of which has survived)? Is denying fathers' powerful attachments to their children treating them as less than human? How is a powerless father to intervene when a mother is harming a child? How can humanity expect to socialize males to become caring and responsible fathers when the notion of fatherhood has been discredited? Many readers will wish that Hearn had listened more to his heart and less to his ideology.

Page 175

504. Heidebrecht, Paul, and Jerry Rohrbach. Fathering a Son. Chicago: Moody Press, 1974. 218p. illus. appendix. bibliography, 205-14. pa. From a biblical, Christian viewpoint, the authors describe how a man can become a loving, encouraging father instead of a domineering, distant one. Arguing that men need to be liberated from false images of masculinity, the authors spell out the father's importance in shaping the son's sex role, his concept of God, his moral values, his ability to deal with society, and his desire to achieve. They examine the boy's development from infancy to teen years, with suggestions on how fathers can foster the son's intellectual and spiritual growth. Additional chapters are devoted to such matters as discipline, schoolwork, career choices, and fathers and daughters. Interviews with four men provide personal insights into fathering. The appendix lists resources for the active fathers, including an annotated bibliography. 505. Johnson, Spencer. The One Minute Father: The Quickest Way for You to Help Your Children Learn to Like Themselves and Want to Behave Themselves. New York: William Morrow, 1983. 112p. In this brief, easily read book, Johnson describes his "one-minute reprimand," a technique for showing disapproval of a child's behavior, showing approval of the child, and letting the father's feelings get expressed. The technique leads to other practices such as positive reinforcement of desired behavior. 506. Jones, Evan, ed. The Father: Letters to Sons and Daughters. New York: Rinehart, 1960. xx, 268p. index. This anthology, containing over 100 letters to children from fathers throughout the ages, features, for the most part, famous men (Lorenzo the Magnificent, Lord Chesterfield, Dickens, Theodore Roosevelt, Gandhi), although a few unknowns are included (an American soldier in World War II writing to his unborn child). Comments before and after the letters provide the necessary context. 507. Keyes, Ralph, ed. Sons on Fathers: A Book of Men's Writing. New York: HarperCollins, 1992. xxix, 315p. index. Love him or hate him, Father has a profound impact on Son's life, as this

unusually rich and moving collection of writings indicates. Keyes has assembled 80 essays, excerpts, short stories, and poems in which sons recall their fathers. In the introduction, Keyes points to recurring themes amid the diversity of the sons' responses to dad: trying to meet the father's expectations, learning not to be too physically affectionate with dad, sharing experiences with dad (playing ball, playing cards, etc.), competing with father, trying to accomplish what father could not, realizing the terrible cost that father paid to be a good provider, realizing one's own mortality after father's death, and coming to terms with memories of dad. Contributors include Robert Bly, John Cheever, James Dickey, Bob Greene, Patrick Hemingway, Bill Moyers, Sam Osherson, and Paul Zweig. The collection closes with Larry L. King's marvelous memoir, "The Old Man." 508. Klein, Ted. The Father's Book. New York: William Morrow, 1968. xiii, 393p. illus. index. This readable handbook from the sixties attempts to provide a Dr. Spock-like guide for fathers. Klein's advice covers such matters as basic information for the father-to-be, understanding childhood development, childhood diseases, father-son and father-daughter relations, absent fathers and divorced fathers, discipline, stepfathers and foster fathers, father's role in sex education and in

Page 176

motivating general learning, money management, grandparents, religion, accidents and first aid, and how to get help from experts. Nowadays, some of Klein's advice still rings true ("If you wait too long to become involved, you may not fit in with your child's needs and already developed behavior patterns"), while other views are dated ("when the husband is present in the labor roomand even more often, at delivery . . . he is the one who usually needs help just when the baby is born"). 509. Klinman, Debra G., Rhine Kohl, and The Fatherhood Project at Bank Street College of Education. Fatherhood U.S.A.: The First National Guide to Programs, Services, and Resources for and about Fathers. New York: Garland, 1984. xxiv, 323p. illus. appendixes. bibliography, 205-46. indexes. pa. An invaluable resource book for fathers and men interested in changing male roles, Fatherhood U.S.A. is divided into six chapters. Chapter I lists programs for expectant and new fathers and for fathers of children with special needs, as well as organizations concerned with male reproductive health. Chapter 2 includes information about nurturant males in the educational system, including child-care classes for school-age boys, programs to encourage male involvement in schools, father-child classes, and college and university courses on fathering and on male roles. In chapter 3 are listed social and supportive services for all kinds of fathers (fathers in general, single fathers, stepfathers, teen fathers, gay fathers, and incarcerated fathers), as well as a listing of men's organizations resource centers and support groups established by men's organizations. Fathers and family law are covered in chapter 4, including a listing of divorce and custody mediation services and of fathers' rights organizations. Chapter 5 is devoted to fathers and work, including information about alternative work schedules, parental leave policies, and education and support programs. The largest section of the book, chapter 6 is devoted to bibliographies and others resources for fathers and "new" men. Books and publications about numerous aspects of fathering are listed, as well as books for children featuring fathers and men in nurturing roles, films and videocassettes about fathers and nurturant males, newsletters of interest to many kinds of fathers, and information about the National Fatherhood Forum Series. The appendixes describe The Fatherhood Project (included is a printed questionnaire). Two indexes of programs and organizations, by alphabet and by geographical location, are followed by a subject index. As this outline

suggests, the book's contents go well beyond the limits suggested by the title. This book is testimony to a burgeoning interest in both fatherhood and the changing gender roles of U.S. men. "Ten years ago," James A. Levine writes in the foreword, "this book could not have been written.'' 510. Kort, Carol, and Ronnie Friedland, eds. The Fathers' Book: Shared Experiences. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1986. xviii, 293p. illus. pa. In this collection of personal essays, poems, and interviews, 70 fathers recount the joys and tribulations of fatherhood. The range of topics is extensive, including expectant fathers, new fathers, fathers and daughters, fathers and sons, fathers and mothers, the tensions between career and fatherhood, newstyle fathers, the two-career family, single fathers, stepfathers, teen fathers and fathers of teens, the difficulties faced by gay fathers, infertility, adoption, vasectomy, handicapped and seriously ill children, and miscarriage and death of a child. The essays illustrate the many-faceted aspects of fatherhood, as well as the powerful and sometimes contradictory emotional responses it can elicit in men. The photographs in the book strongly underline the positive faces of fatherhood.

Page 177

511. Lamb, Michael E., ed. The Father's Role: Applied Perspectives. New York: John Wiley/Interscience, 1986. xiv, 461p. illus. bibliography after each chapter. author and subject indexes. In this first of two volumes (the other is Lamb's The Father's Role: CrossCultural Perspectives, entry 512) Lamb argues that the father is no longer the forgotten parent and that researchers need to summarize what has come to light about fathers. Sixteen articles examine legal and clinical issues as well as programs and policies concerning fathers. Graeme Russell surveys the factors that lead to greater paternal involvement, and Ross A. Thompson criticizes the "best interests" concept that often influences judicial decisions in custody disputes. The gender and age of the child is often an important factor to consider in these decisions. The importance of involving fathers in family therapy is stressed in several essays, and Donald J. Meyer considers ways of aiding the fathers of children with mental handicaps. In her study of abusive fathers, Ann H. Tyler points to stepfathers as the principal offenders and notes that abusers have often been abused as children. Other essays consider the "overseas father" (who is usually an absent, overachiever father) and the adolescent father (who is often misunderstood). Concerning programs and policies, authors consider the impact of unemployment on fathers, the effects of various employment innovations (e.g., flextime or flexitime) on fathers, and the school as alien turf for many fathers. The volume closes with Frank G. Bolton, Jr.'s stinging critique of the social services system's failure to aid fathers. Having stereotyped the father as villain, social workers refuse to see him as victim. 512. Lamb, Michael E., ed. The Father's Role: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1987. xiv, 377p. illus. bibliography after each chapter. author and subject indexes. pa. This companion volume to The Father's Role: Applied Perspectives (entry 511) reprints the same introduction in which Lamb concludes that the father is no longer the forgotten parent. Rather, the need now is to crystallize what has been learned about fathers. The 13 articles in this collection discuss fatherhood in North America, Western Europe, France, Germany, Sweden, Italy, Ireland, Israel, China, Japan, West Africa, the Central African Republic, and Australia. Perhaps most fascinating are the accounts from Sweden and Israel, where

social experiments in gender equality have been only partly successful in eliminating traditional parenting patterns. Conversely, Irish fathers, despite traditionalism, are relatively involved in caregiving. In Italy and China, traditional patterns reign. Japanese fathers seem to be in trouble: their breadwinning, but little else, is respected. Among the Aka pygmies of central Africa, the fathers' holding of children creates intimacy. This volume provides a fascinating look at fathering around the world. 513. Lamb, Michael, ed. The Role of the Father in Child Development. 2d ed. New York: John Wiley/Interscience, 1981. xiv, 582p. illus. bibliography at the end of each chapter. author and subject indexes. In this collection of 14 essays surveying father-child relations, literature on the following topics is surveyed: an overview of fathers and child development (by Michael E. Lamb), the development of Western fatherhood during selected historical periods (by Jonathan Bloom-Feshback), recent developments in psychoanalytic theory of the father (by Veronica J. Mchtlinger), anthropological perspectives on the father's role (by Mary Maxwell Katz and Melvin J. Konner), the role of fathers in the Soviet Union (by Jaan Valsiner), male paternal care among monkeys and apes (by William K. Redican and David M. Taub), the father as a member of the child's social network (by Michael

Page 178

Lewis, Candice Feiring, and Marsha Weinraub), the influence of fathers viewed in a family context (by Frank A. Pedersen), the father's importance in the child's sex role development (by Henry B. Biller), the father's role in the child's moral internalization (by Martin L. Hoffman), the paternal role in the child's cognitive, academic, and intellectual development (by Norma Radin), the determinants of paternal involvement in caregiving and play with infants (by Ross D. Parke and Barbara R. Tinsley), the development of father-child relationships (by Michael E. Lamb), and the effects of father absence and divorce on the child's personality development (by Henry B. Biller). The bibliographies at the ends of chapters are indispensable for anyone researching father-child relationships. 514. Lamb, Michael E., and Abraham Sagi, eds. Fatherhood and Family Policy. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1983. xi, 276p. illus. bibliography at the end of each chapter. author and subject indexes. The 14 essays in this book examine the effects of public policy on fathers. Lamb's introduction stresses the importance of international and interdisciplinary perspectives on the topic. Highlights of the volume include James A. Levine and Lamb's assessment of how family policy in Sweden has not produced the effects it was supposed to; an account of the aims and undertakings of The Fatherhood Project by Lamb, Levine, and Joseph H. Pleck; Martin Wolin's delightfully irreverent discussion of the gender dilemma in social welfare; Eliezer D. Jaffe's account of fathers as the forgotten clients in welfare services; and Lois Wladis Hoffman's evaluation of the losses and gains for mothers from increased father participation. Lamb, Sagi, and Graeme Russell conclude with a chapter of recommendations for public policy in such areas as employment, law, health, and education. 515. Lee, John. At My Father's Wedding: Reclaiming Our True Masculinity. New York: Bantam Books, 1991. xxii, 201p. appendixes. bibliography, 191. pa. In short, reflective chapters, Lee addresses the pain of father hunger. Moved by Robert Bly's observations about the lack of fathering, Lee addresses the wound of father absence. Drawing upon his experiences with men's gatherings, he meditates upon such matters as father-induced repression of emotion, the soft male, and the wounded lover. Describing a journey toward healing, he discusses reclaiming the male body and feelings, the freeing of the

feminine within men, friends, grieving, and honoring elders. In the book's final section, Lee describes the new man who becomes his own father. Appendixes contain listings of books, magazines, audiocassettes, and men's centers. 516. Leonard, Linda Schierse. The Wounded Woman: Healing the Father-Daughter Relationship. Athens, OH: Swallow Press, Ohio University Press, 1982. xx, 186p. notes. pa. Reprint, Boulder, CO, and London: Shambhala, 1983. pa. Besides the wounded daughter, the wounded father and the wounded "feminine" in men are also subjects of this book. A Jungian analyst, Leonard discusses how both men and women are spiritually impoverished when the feminine is devalued, whether by narrowly masculine males or by "armored amazon" females. To illustrate her thesis, the author analyzes dreams, case histories, her own experiences with an alcoholic father, plays, films, novels, myths, and fairy tales. Leonard takes a healing approach, not a blaming one.

Page 179

517. Levant, Ronald, and John Kelly. Between Father and Child: How to Become the Kind of Father You Want to Be. New York: Penguin Books, 1989. xii, 236p. Written for a popular audience, Between Father and Child advises fathers on how to communicate more effectively with children. The advice stresses listening skills, hearing the hidden messages, and "reflecting" the child's message. It tells fathers how to negotiate with children to settle arguments and fights. The authors also suggest ways to encourage children's moral development and ways to show them how to say no to alcohol, drugs, and sex. By building children's self-esteem, fathers can help them become achievers. The book addresses problems of divorce, stepfathering, and ways of treating sons and daughters equally. Some readers may find the advice simplistic and aimed solely at middle-class fathers; others may find the advice perceptive and helpful. 518. Levine, James A. Who Will Raise the Children? New Options for Fathers (and Mothers). Philadelphia and New York: J. B. Lippincott, 1976. 192p. notes. Reprint, New York: Bantam Books, 1977. pa. This influential book examines men who have chosen child care in a society that actively discourages any family role for men other than that of breadwinner. Levine examines how, in the past, social scientists have overlooked fathers and how courts have discriminated against them in granting custody. Drawing upon extended interviews, he describes the struggles and triumphs of fathers with sole and joint custody. Noting that full-time jobs do not accommodate the father's role as parent, Levine investigates such alternatives as part-time work, flextime, small businesses operated jointly by wife and husband, joint college teaching appointments for couples, and paternity leave policies. The single male who adopts a child faces special difficulties, including the suspicion that he is homosexual. Because homemaking is not an esteemed career (especially for men), househusbands encounter puzzlement and hostility. Levine's concluding chapter argues that, because gender roles are interdependent, the problem of reconciling family and career is not simply a woman's problem. While much attention has been focused on women's new roles in society, little time and energy have been devoted to redirecting men's roles. Despite the discouraging evidence of widespread prejudice against men in child-caring roles, Levine offers

heartening evidence of the human reward reaped by men who undertook them. 519. Lewis, Charles, and Margaret O'Brien, eds. Reassessing Fatherhood: New Observations on Fathers and the Modern Family. London and Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1987. 270p. index. bibliography and notes after each chapter. pa. This collection of 15 articles, mostly by British and Canadian authors, continues the study of fathers begun in Lorna McKee and Margaret O'Brien's earlier volume The Father Figure (entry 528). Essays are printed under three headings: "Constraints on Fathers," "Attempts to Change Paternal Roles," and ''Fathers and Family Crisis." In the introductory essay, Lewis and O'Brien examine the social, ideological, institutional, personal, and economic constraints that hinder fathers from playing paternal roles successfully. Other essays in this section survey British middle-class family life from the late Victorian age to the 1920s, fathers and employment (men with children work more than men without children), a Canadian view of fathers and family participation (the option of being a nonworking father is not available to most men), the negotiation of family responsibilities (women have considerable power in the home), and the experience of grandfatherhood. In section 2, on

Page 180

changing paternal roles, an essay by Michael E. Lamb, Joseph H. Pleck, and James A. Levine finds that, while increasing paternal involvement in the family is not an absolute good, the opportunity to do so should be available to men. Other essays indicate gains and losses in newer family styles: dual-earner households still embody inequities for both husband and wife, which they can often accept; Swedish efforts to increase paternal involvement have had mixed results for women and men; and role-reversal families offer both opportunities and problems for couples. The final section, on fathers and family crisis, considers such matters as the exclusion of fathers from social work with families in crisis, the difficulties of men in marriage counseling, challenges facing the noncustodial father, patterns of kin and friendship among single fathers, and conciliation services for men undergoing divorce. 520. Lewis, Robert A., and Marvin B. Sussman, eds. Men's Changing Roles in the Family. New York: Haworth Press, 1986. xvi, 277p. glossary of major terms. bibliography after each article and 229-53. filmography, 255-72. pa. Compiled from the Winter 1985/86 issue of Marriage and Family Review, this anthology consists of 14 articles. Topics range from Shirley M. H. Hanson's discussion of single fathers to John Lewis McAdoo's debunking of stereotypes of black fathers. Other articles include multiple-author studies of why fathers spend less time at home than mothers do and of the effects that paternal involvement has upon fathers and mothers. The political spectrum represented in the articles is also wide, ranging from Teresa Donati Marciano's radical feminist denunciation of patriarchy to Robert E. Salt's vigorous defense of fathers' rights. Even the mythopoetic movement is represented in Kris Jeter's use of myth and Jungian psychology to illuminate the concept of the "honeymoon." The bibliographies after each chapter and "Fatherhood: A Library," a separate 24-page bibliography, are invaluable for anyone researching fatherhood. 521. Lewis, Robert A., and Robert E. Salt, eds. Men in Families. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1986. 288p. bibliography after each chapter. pa. This collection of 16 sociological articles (plus a preface and an introduction) is divided into three sections: "Men as Husbands," "Men as Fathers," and "Men in Family, Kin, and Friendship Networks." Nearly all the articles follow the same pattern: a question is posed, literature on the subject is reviewed, a study is

conducted, results are reported, and conclusions are presented. In this way, contributors reassess commonly held views about men in families. Topics examined include why men do (and do not) marry, husbands' involvement in family work, husbands' jealousy, men's decisions on whether or not to have a child, grandfatherhood, male friendships, and identity change in older and younger men. Other articles focus on African-American men, single-parent fathers, and fathers with daughters in college. Articles from The Netherlands and Australia supplement American-based research. Contributors include familiar names such as Jack O. Balswick, Lawrence E. Gary, Michael E. Lamb, James A. Levine, and Joseph H. Pleck. 522. Lockerbie, D. Bruce. Fatherlove: Learning to Give the Best You've Got. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doubleday-Galilee Original, 1981. 237p. In gracefully written essays, Lockerbie uses Christian scriptures, personal anecdotes, and the experiences of others to investigate such matters as the importance of the father's role, building character, disciplining with love and wisdom, and integrating faith into family life.

Page 181

523. Louv, Richard. FatherLove: What We Need, What We Seek, What We Must Create. New York: Pocket Books, 1993. x, 276p. notes. bibliography, 263-65. pa. As a nation and a society, as individuals and as men and women, we need nothing less than a rediscovery of the possibilities of fatherhood. Many public and personal problems are traceable to the loss of a father's love. Instead of marginalizing fathers and denigrating fatherhood, our society needs to reconnect masculinity and fatherhood. Interviewing young people, Louv finds that they miss absent fathers and are harmed by inept ones. Fatherhood has five dimensions: breadwinning, nurturing, community building, finding oneself in time and place, and spirituality. As breadwinners, fathers must find a balance between work and family. Producing nurturing fathers may require our society to teach parenting systematically. Perhaps most interesting are Louv's speculations on fathers as protectors of the community and the need for men to fight for their "village." (Although he does not use the term, what Louv calls "political fatherlove" is a renewed version of patriarchy, a term that, sadly, theorists and academics have negativized in recent times.) Fathers must also adjust their fathering to the life cycle, changing with the circumstancestheir own and those of others. Finally, fathers must be spiritual leaders with genuine, religious vision. Louv's book constitutes a moving manifesto for the best of fathering. 524. Lucarini, Spartaco. The Difficult Role of a Father. Translated by Hugh Moran. Brooklyn, NY: New City Press, 1979.75p. pa. Original publication, as Il difficile mestiere di padre (Rome: Citt nuova, 1968). In a series of informal essays that use interviews with fathers and children, Lucarini stresses children's need for a loving father's presence, examines the generational conflict between fathers and children, and advises fathers to listen carefully to their children and to talk frankly with them about sexuality "before it is too late." 525. Lynn, David B. The Father: His Role in Child Development. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole, a division of Wadsworth, 1974. xiii, 333p. illus. bibliography, 287319. author and subject indexes. Although recognizing that many fundamental questions remain unanswered,

Lynn provides an early synthesis of the growing body of research on fathers. Part 1, on fathers and cultures, discusses U.S. fatherhood in transition, paternal behavior in animals and early men, the paternal role in different cultures, cultural experiments in restructuring the family (in the Soviet Union, Sweden, Israeli kibbutzim, and U.S. communes), the changing nature of fatherhood in the Western world, and fathers in the U.S. Part 2, on the fatherchild relationship, explores theories of the father's role (with focus upon Freud and Parsons), the father-mother relationship, and the influence of fathers upon children's sex role behavior, scholastic aptitude, achievement, vocational choice, creativity, moral development, and mental health. Other chapters deal with the father's approach to child-rearing (with some attention to abusive fathers) and with the effects upon children of father absence. The final chapter draws conclusions about what is known concerning fathers. 526. Mackey, Wade C. Fathering Behaviors: The Dynamics of the Man-Child Bond. New York: Plenum Press, 1985. xviii, 203p. bibliography, 185-96. author and subject indexes. "Men like children" is the first conclusion reached in this study drawn from observations of over 49,000 adult-child dyads from five continents. What

Page 182

motivates men's love of children? This is the question that Mackey sets out to answer in this cross-cultural study laced with dry wit and thought-provoking observations. Human males are far more solicitous of their young than simians are. Because paternal nurturing enhanced survival, Mackey argues females selected males who exhibited potential or actual fathering involvement. Cultural factors also impinged on male behavior: where males were needed as plowmen or protectors, they were socialized to perform these roles. Because societies universally assign females as primary caregivers of young children, "it is the man-child bond which is more the litmus test for societal dynamics." Although U.S. fathers are warmly involved with their children, the public perception of fathers is largely negative. Images of the derelict and incompetent dad may be our society's hidden method of pushing males towards the soldier-protector role. The conflict between individual freedoms and the demands of child rearing has hit women especially hard and calls for imaginative solutions. Mackey believes that two types of families are now battling for supremacy in the United States: the single-mother family versus the mother-father family. Some evidence supports the idea of a fathering instinct: "Men, as a class, are built to protect and provision bonded children." 527. Marone, Nicky. How to Father a Successful Daughter. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988. xiv, 320p. appendixes. bibliography, 310-15. notes. index. Reprint, New York: Ballantine, 1989. pa. Because fathers generally transmit traditional gender roles, Marone enlists fathers in the effort to encourage a greater diversity among daughters. Traditional feminine roles can hinder the development of many girls, especially gifted ones. Marone offers a checklist of assumptions about femininity and surveys conditions for girls' academic success. What the father does is more important than what he says. Fathers must encourage girls, not pressure them, especially potential high achievers who are not well served by public schools. Fathers must work as a team with mothers to foster positive self-concepts in daughters. Because fathers must spur girls to take unconventional risks, Marone offers strategies for encouraging daughters to achieve. The final two chapters discuss how fathers can best handle a daughter's adolescence and what to do about eating disorders. One appendix provides biographies of "successful" women (the idiosyncratic list includes Belle Starr along with Jane Addams and Margaret Mead); a second appendix lists questions to ask about a

gifted-child program. The foreword is by Gilbert Simon. Clearly, Marone's advice is valuable, but it is marred by occasional misandry: she is hostile to boys' rambunctiousness (which she sees as a threat to girls' self-esteem), and she regards the attractions of young men to pretty young women as sexism. 528. McKee, Lorna, and Margaret O'Brien, eds. The Father Figure. London and New York: Tavistock Publications, 1982. xii, 239p. bibliography, 207-27. notes. name and subject indexes. This collection of 13 readable essays by British scholars reverses the motherfocused perspective of past social science studies; in the process, it challenges many cultural stereotypes of men as fathers. In the first essay, the editors explore why fathering has recently become a popular topic for study, although no adequate history of fathering now exists and numerous aspects of fathering are still ignored. They offer a useful critique of the use (and misuse) of the word patriarchy in modern feminist writings. Other essays include a survey of the legal status of fathers in Great Britain by Nigel V. Lowe and Trevor Lummis's study of turn-of-the-century fathers, which dispels the myth of the working-class brute. Martin P.M. Richards reflects on needed areas of

Page 183

study involving fathers, and David Owens studies the impact of infertility upon men who had hoped to become fathers. Joel Richman recounts men's reactions to pregnancy and childbirth, and Angela Brown reports on the disharmony between hospital staffs and fathers participating in childbirth. Lorna McKee offers a critique of fathers' participation in infant care, Madeleine Simms and Christopher Smith examine the effects of fatherhood upon younger males, while Charlie Lewis criticizes the methodology used in recent father-infant studies. Tony Hipgrave details the trials of being a "lone" (single) father: "There is, in short, no evidence that lone fathers cannot plan and organize a healthy developmental environment for themselves and their children. There is a good deal of evidence we, the community, make it extremely hard for them to do so." Margaret O'Brien examines the different patterns and experiences of men who became single fathers. The final essay by Jacqueline Burgoyne and David Clark explores the role of the stepfather. All essays exhibit scholarly acumen and a willingness to abandon stereotypes for a fresher view of the father figure. For a more recent anthology that updates themes in this volume, see entry 519. 529. Meister, Robert. Fathers. New York: Richard Marek, 1981. 277p. Reprint, New York: Ballantine Books, 1983. pa. A book about "the subjective experience of being a father and having one," this book consists of domestic horror stories gleaned from 213 interviews with fathers and children. After revealing his own sense of failure as a son and as a father, Meister retells a number of chilling case histories, grouping them into accounts of fathers who were distant and silent, seductive, tyrannical and demanding, idealized (usually for the wrong reasons), macho and competitive, and eccentric and bizarre. Capable and caring fathers are in short supply in this book. 530. Miller, Ted, ed. The Christian Reader Book on Being a Caring Father. New York: Harper & Row, 1983. 128p. illus. pa. This anthology of 27 brief, previously published essays presents Christian perspectives on a range of fathering topics. Representative titles include "The Husband Who Leads His Family," by Robert H. Schuller; "Homes Are For Building Christians," by Howard Hendricks; "Dad's Night at Home," by Don Crawford; and "Fathers Can Be Beautiful!" by Marcia Schwartz.

531. Osherson, Samuel. Finding Our Fathers: The Unfinished Business of Manhood. New York: Free Press, 1986. xiv, 217p. notes. index. Reprint, as Finding Our Fathers: How a Man's Life Is Shaped by His Relationship with His Father, New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1987. pa. Citing father absence as "one of the great underestimated tragedies of our times," Osherson employs findings from a longitudinal study of 370 men who graduated from Harvard in the mid-1960s. The author notes that boys have the dual task of breaking from mother and identifying and bonding with father. In this lifelong process, males must deal with the "wounded father," the internal image of the father carried by the son. In modern times, numerous difficulties beset the process. Mother and child may conspire to "protect" and isolate the father; the boy may fashion an absent father into a monster. The unfinished business of adult manhood can trigger problems in later life. Because men often regard mentors as father substitutes, the break from the mentor can be stormy. A wife's going out to work, her pregnancy (or rather their pregnancy), a couple's inability to have a child, and the birth of a child may all trigger uncertainties in men. Osherson offers advice for healing the

Page 184

wounded father, coping with the stresses of adult manhood, and becoming a functional link in the father-son family chain. 532. Ostrovsky, Everett S. Children Without Men. Rev. ed. New York: Collier, 1962. 188p. index. pa. Originally published as Father to the Child. An early and poignant account of how father absence can affect children, Ostrovsky's study uses a case-history approach, drawing upon observations of children at a nursery school. Eight illustrative cases are presented in detail. One girl, whose father is often away on business trips, clings to the male teacher; another, from a divorced home, constantly needs reassurance that the male teacher is not displeased with her. A boy whose father is emotionally distant has trouble expressing his affection for others; another, whose father died a year previously, feels that he was deserted and responds hostilely to grown men. Perhaps most significant is Barbara, a child whose fastidious mother constantly short-circuits her curiosity and spontaneity; closer contact with her more expansive father would help her, but he is necessarily less available to her than her mother is. The case illustrates well Ostrovsky's thesis: the absence or infrequent presence of one parent hinders the child's optimum development. Ostrovsky argues that the missing male distorts sex roles for both girls and boys, misorienting them for the future. Nor can the oedipal conflict be satisfactorily resolved when men are not around. His recommendations include fuller participation of fathers in child care and more male teachers in nursery and grade schools. 532a. Owen, Ursula, ed. Fathers: Reflections by Daughters. London: Virago, 1983. Reprint, New York: Pantheon, 1985. xiv, 240p. illus. pa. Containing twenty-one reflections on fathers by well-known daughters, this collection boasts exquisite writing and vivid memories. Contributors include Doris Lessing, Mary Gordon, Adrienne Rich, Sheila Rowbotham, Alice Walker, and Grace Paley. Love him or hate him, a father leaves an indelible image on his daughter's soul. 533. Parke, Ross D. Fathers. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981. 136p. (The Developing Child Series). bibliography, 133. notes. index. pa. Parke describes his book as "a progress report of what we know today about

how fathers act and how they influence their children." Stressing the idea that fathers influence children both directly and indirectly, this compact volume gracefully surveys such topics as the distorting "myths" about fathers (particularly from Freud and Bowlby), expectant fathers, how fathers interact with infants, and how fathers affect children's socialization, particularly their gender roles. The final two chapters explore the effects of custody decisions and of innovations in fatheringincluding paternity leaves, flexible working hours, work-sharing couples, dual-career couples, and role-sharing families. Parke concludes: "Fathers are no longer, if they ever were, merely a biological necessitya social accident. ... Children need their fathers, but fathers need their children, too." 534. Pedersen, Anne, and Peggy O'Mara, eds. Being a Father: Family, Work, and Self/Mothering Magazine. Sante Fe, NM: John Muir Publications, 1990. xi, 161p. illus. appendix. notes after some chapters. pa. Twenty-seven brief, popular articles (plus a foreword) are divided into six sections: "Becoming a Father," "Fathering and Self," "Fathers and Work," "Fathering Alone," "Remembering Our Own Fathers,'' and "The Fun of Fathering."

Page 185

Representative articles include Ken Druck's account of how his friend Terry supported Ken and Karen during pregnancy and childbirth, Peter J. Dorsen's analysis of how becoming a father deepens the self, and Karen Hill Anton's memoir of her elderly father functioning as super single parent. Written in clear prose, all of the articles are filled with personal experiences, insights, and practical advice. 535. Pedersen, Frank A., ed. The Father-Infant Relationship: Observational Studies in the Family Setting. New York: Praeger, 1980. x, 185p. (Praeger Special Studies). illus. bibliography, 164-79. notes. index. This collection presents five studies in infant-parent interaction, with special attention to fathers. In the introductory essay, Pedersen discusses the past failure of social sciences to examine the father-infant relationship; he points to the importance of studying that relationship in the context of the family. In the first study, Michael E. Lamb rejects the uniqueness of the mother-child relationship and explores parent-infant attachments during the first two years of life. From the earliest ages, infants are attracted to both parents, and the two parent-child relationships differ qualitatively: "Fathers are not merely occasional mother-substitutes." Ross D. Parke and Douglas B. Swain, assessing the interaction of fathers and infants, as well as parental attitudes, find both similarities and differences in mothers' and fathers' responses; the differences are partly dependent upon the infant's sex. Pedersen, Barbara J. Anderson, and Richard L. Cain, Jr., study parent-infant and husband-wife interactions at five months. Jay Belsky examines how fathers may influence their infant's ability to explore. K. Alison Clarke-Stewart views the father's contribution to cognitive and social development in early childhood; she stresses the importance of father's play and his contribution to the child's social-affective development. In a concluding chapter, Pedersen evaluates the findings and reformulates questions that need to be asked about fathers, infants, and families. 536. Pruett, Kyle D. The Nurturing Father: Journey Toward the Complete Man. New York: Warner Books, 1987. 322p. notes. index. Whether or not fathers can nurture children as well as mothers is the central question posed by this book. Pruett notes that the body of evidence supporting the nurturing abilities of fathers has been kept "underground." He suggests

that society wishes to keep men at their traditional roles, that men themselves fear being seen as nurturing parents, and that socialization of boys steers them away from close parenting. Over a five-year period, Pruett tracked 17 families in which the father was initially the primary caregiver. He presents detailed accounts of three families and summarizes findings from the others. Fathers, Pruett discovers, nurture differently than mothers, but just as effectively. Still, formidable forces keep more men from becoming nurturing fathers: schools, media, and parent guidance all discourage the idea; many womenincluding some feministssee the caregiving father as invading their turf; divorce separates fathers from children; and rigid workplace rules hinder family flexibility. Still, the struggle to become a nurturing father is a movement toward fuller humanity. Pruett concludes: '"What is needed is a call to men to reach out and claim their own fatherhood." 537. Rapoport, Rhona, Robert N. Rapoport, and Ziona Strelitz, with Stephen Kew. Fathers, Mothers and Society: Towards New Alliances. New York: Basic Books, 1977. ix, 421p. bibliography, 366-405. index. Reprint, as Fathers, Mothers and Society: Perspectives on Parenting, New York: Random House, 1980. pa.

Page 186

This rich survey of literature places men's family roles in the larger context of family studies. Taking issue with the "myth" that "parenting means mothering" and with the child-focused, mother-oriented, expert-guided view of the family prevailing throughout much of the twentieth century, the authors, in chapter 1, spell out their own views of parenting in a series of 12 propositions. The first proposition states that parents, as well as children, are people with needs to be met. In chapter 2, the authors argue that the recognition of parents' needs by the experts has been unsatisfactory. The next six chapters consist of a packed review of and commentary on studies of the family from several disciplines. The timeline of the survey begins before the birth of the first child, continues through the early and middle years of active parenting, and concludes with parenting of adolescent and adult children. A final chapter recapitulates the book's findings and explores new directions in parenting. The discussion has historical, academic, professional, and social implications. The bibliography is extensive. 538. Reynolds, William. The American Father: A New Approach to Understanding Himself, His Woman, His Child. New York and London: Paddington Press, distributed by Grosset and Dunlap, 1978. 227p. index. pa. Somewhat misleadingly titled, this book presents Reynolds's personal and mildly sardonic view of what is happening in the modern-American, uppermiddle-class, white family. While recounting the interactions of Father, Mother, Sonny, and Sis, Reynolds flings barbs at what he considers the trendy "experts" on mental health, marriage counseling, and child care. 539. Robinson, Bryan E. Teenage Fathers. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, D.C. Heath, 1988. xvi, 173p. bibliography after each chapter. index. pa. As Harriette McAdoo points out in the foreword, Teenage Fathers fills a void in the literature on fathers. Despite the large population of teen fathers in the United States, Robinson indicates that negative images of young fathers have made them invisible. "Contrary to the stereotype that unwed teenage fathers disappear at the first mention of pregnancy," Robinson writes, "more recent and better designed studies indicate that it is the young fathers who have been abandonedpushed away by social agencies, peers, and the adolescent mother's family." Using his work with hundreds of teen fathers and in-depth studies of 26 subjects (22 black, 3 white, 1 American Indian), Robinson

presents a sympathetic picture of teenage fatherhood. The consequences of early fatherhood can be harsh for fathers, mothers, and children. In chapter 6, written by Robert L. Barret, 10 adult men recall their experiences as teen fathers. Robinson provides suggestions for practitioners, assesses programs to assist teen fathers, and offers a rich listing of resources, including books, special reports, periodicals, programs, and audiovisuals. 540. Robinson, Bryan E., and Robert L. Barret. The Developing Father: Emerging Roles in Contemporary Society. New York: Guilford Press, 1986. xv, 224p. bibliography after each chapter. index. pa. Robinson and Barret have assembled and organized a wealth of information about various aspects of fathering. Divided into six chapters, the book opens with a theoretical overview of fatherhood. The authors examine leading psychological and sociological theories of fatherhood and discuss familysystems theories. The second chapter examines childless men and expectant fathers. Discussing the changing roles of fathers, the authors contrast the traditional father, the androgynous father (who takes on "feminine" roles), and the typical father, who combines elements of both categories. In chapter 4, the

Page 187

tasks of fatherhood, changing over the life cycle, are examined; a section on grandfatherhood is included. The remaining chapters explore different types of fathering experiences: single fathers, stepfathers, gay fathers, and teenage fathers. The final chapter on fathers of disabled children is written by Mary Jane Brotherson, Ann P. Turnbull, Jean Ann Summer, and H. Rutherford Turnbull. Throughout the book, Robinson and Barret summarize what is known about fatherhood with clarity and evenhandedness. Among the major assets of this volume are the bibliographic listings, one after each chapter. In addition to books and articles, the references often include categories such as audiovisuals, organizations, professional resources, programs, and pertinent government legislation. The authors also close each chapter with helpful suggestions for professionals dealing with problems connected with various aspects of fatherhood. 541. Rue, James J., and Louise Shanahan. Daddy's Girl, Mama's Boy. Indianapolis, IN, and New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1978. xvi, 250p. bibliography, 249-50. index. Reprint, New York: New American Library, Signet, 1979. pa. Because the father-daughter and mother-son relationships can be crucial to child formation, the authors consider both their positive and their negative potentials. (Homosexuality is considered as a negative possibility.) Throughout the book, Rue and Shanahan illustrate their theses by citing case histories and biographies of the famousincluding Jacqueline Bouvier and Jack Bouvier, Elizabeth I and Henry VIII, Ella Quinland O'Neill and Eugene O'Neill, and Margaret Carnegie and Andrew Carnegie. Rejecting "avant-garde life styles" (including extramarital affairs, cohabitation, and homosexual relationships), the authors consider at some length, the elements of enduring and happy marriages, and they provide a workbook by which readers can assess themselves as daddy's girls or mama's boys. In this way, the book is intended as a guide to a positive understanding and directing of the self. 542. Russell, Graeme. The Changing Role of Fathers? St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia: University of Queensland Press, 1983. x, 250p. appendixes. bibliography, 238-45. index. pa. Based upon investigation into 145 traditional families and 71 shared-caregiving families, this study describes four types of fathersuninterested and unavailable, traditional, "good," and nontraditional and highly participant. A mother's

employment outside the home had a small but significant impact on a father's participation in child care: it increased the fathers' competence with children. Reviewing the literature and assessing cross-cultural evidence, Russell describes the benefits and costs to parents and children in households with participant fathers. 543. Salk, Lee. My Father, My Son: Intimate Relationships. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1982. 255p. Reprint, New York: Berkley Books, 1983. pa. Using informal questioning and making no attempt at statistical representativeness, Salk has gathered 28 interviews with fathers and sons. Although some marred relationships are recounted, most of the recollections are upbeat: many men tell of strong affectional ties with their nurturing fathers, and they strive to emulate that behavior with their sons. The importance of loving attention, physical contact, and discipline recurs in the interviews. A few of the interviewees are well known (e.g., talk-show host Mike Douglas). Noting that fathers and sons either have or crave loving relationships, Salk concludes that "the acceptance of males in the nurturant role ... will contribute to the survival of the family as a social unit."

Page 188

544. Schulenburg, Joy A. Gay Parenting. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1985. 177p. appendixes. bibliography, 160-70. index. pa. For gay and lesbian parents, Schulenburg provides a readable guide to a number of key issues, including coming out to children, dealing with lovers, married gay people, the fear of AIDS, creating alternate families, lesbian choices, adoption and foster parenting, and custody and visitation. The first appendix lists services, resources, and organizations; the second contains the bibliography. 545. Scull, Charles S., ed. Fathers, Sons, and Daughters: Exploring Fatherhood, Renewing the Bond. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher, 1992. xvii, 263p. notes. pa. This unusually judicious selection of 34 essays and three poems explores five principal topics of modern fatherhood: the evolving father who is replacing absence with presence, father-son relationships, father-daughter relationships, the challenges and opportunities of modern fatherhood, and renewing the bond between fathers and children by healing within and without. Scull has selected first-rate material from such authors as Loren Pedersen, Robert Bly, James Hillman, Ram Dass, Maureen Murdock, Betty Carter, Warren Farrell, Perry Garfinkel, Joseph Pleck, Linda Schierse Leonard, Samuel Osherson, and Bill Cosby. Without minimizing the problems and failures of the new fathers, Scull's anthology manages to stress their achievements while providing readers with the most current and perceptive analyses of the importance of fatherhood. 546. Sears, William. Keys to Becoming a Father. New York: Barron's Educational Series, 1991.152p. (Barron's Parenting Keys). glossary. index. pa. A pediatrician and father of seven children, Sears provides practical advice for fathers, from the mother's pregnancy to the child's adolescence. He considers concisely such matters as taking care of a pregnant wife, being involved in labor and delivery (Sears advises fathers to hire a labor coach, or doula), taking charge after delivery, serving the mother, developing nurturing skills (including the "neck nestle"), and getting babies to sleep (Sears advises that couples try sleeping with the baby in their bed). The author covers such matters as father absence, traveling with children, and developing healthy masculinity and

femininity in children. He provides play tips and disciplinary techniques for fathers. Although much of Sears's advice echoes that in other manuals, some of it has a personalized twist. 547. Secunda, Victoria. Women and Their Fathers: The Sexual and Romantic Impact of the First Man in Your Life. New York: Delacorte Press, 1992. xxv, 483p. notes. bibliography, 465-69. index. pa. Reprint, New York: Delta, 1993. pa. This large volume, utilizing interviews with 150 daughters and 75 fathers, as well as extensive research, examines the often-neglected topic of fatherdaughter relationships. The impact of fathers upon daughters' lives, Secunda finds, can be enormous and multifaceted. The author reviews concepts of masculine and feminine gender roles, and she observes that "maternal gatekeeping" can sometimes distance fathers from daughters. Different kinds of fathers include the Good-Enough Father, the Doting Father, the Distant Father, the Demanding Father, the Seductive Father, and the Absent Father. Despite such categorizing, Secunda displays a lively awareness of the exceptions to the rule and the complexities that inform father-daughter relationships. The chapter on the

Page 189

Seductive Father carefully examines father-daughter incest, but it fails to note widespread false charges of child molestation directed against fathers, especially in custody cases. Each chapter closes with a profile of a particular kind of father. The same pattern is followed in chapters dealing with various kinds of daughtersthe Favored Daughter, the Good Daughter, the Competitive Daughter, the Fearful Daughter, and the Maverick Daughter. Even favored, good, and competitive daughters may pay a price, and fearful daughters may turn to lesbianism because their heterosexual impulses have been blocked. Maverick daughters may be rebelling against fathers or rebelling with their fathers' support. The final four chapters deal with adult daughters coming to terms with fathers and with men redefining masculinity and fatherhood. The chapter on the men's movement too-easily blames all men for the evils of patriarchy, which Secunda sees in entirely negative terms. Although she recognizes value in the mythopoetic men's movement, she is critical of its failure to address father-daughter issues. 548. Shapiro, Jerrold Lee. The Measure of a Man: Becoming the Father You Wish Your Father Had Been. New York: Delacorte Press, 1993. xv, 364p. bibliography, 357. notes. index. In this pro-father, pro-male book, Shapiro draws upon interviews with more than 400 fathers and 200 couples, as well as extensive research and experience, to chart a course for the new father. Modern U.S. society does not make fathering easy; it provides plenty of criticism and comparatively little help. (Shapiro vigorously protests the damage done by mindless media male bashing.) Still, there is a movement afoot by fathers to be better fathers than their own fathers were. Because men and women are different, Shapiro insists, fathers parent differently than mothers donot better or worse, just different. He urges people to respect that difference. Shapiro describes the family pitfalls that the inadequate father creates, as well as the benefits that the good father provides. Men need to learn about their own fathers and reconcile with them if possible. They must try to access the father within. Shapiro describes the life cycle of the father, from dating and mating to grandfathering. Two chapters are devoted to "hard" fathering, for the single father and for the stepfather. A chapter on the need for good fathering is followed by one of questions and answers. The book closes with a letter from the author to his children. 549.

Shedd, Charlie. The Best Dad Is a Good Lover. Kansas City, KS: Sheed Andrews and McMeel, 1977. 135p. illus. A father of five, the author of the syndicated column "Strictly for Dads," and a Presbyterian minister, Shedd elaborates upon the thesis that "to love his children well a dad must first love their motherand show it consistently." Brief chapters contain illustrative stories, letters from correspondents, and practical advice. Shedd's later books include A Dad Is for Spending Time With (1978) and Smart Dads I Know (1978). 550. Singer, Wenda Goodhart, Stephen Shechtman, and Mark Singer. Real Men Enjoy Their Kids! How to Spend Quality Time with the Children in Your Life. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1983. 176p. illus. appendix. pa. Written as a practical guide to help men interact positively with children, this upbeat handbook contains numerous suggested activities designed to develop the child's social, emotional, cognitive, physical, and spiritual capacities. Presented in two versions (one for children six and under, the other for children ages seven to twelve), the activities include home life, the working world, leisure time, and crises (new baby, separation or divorce, death). A final

Page 190

section of the book offers additional suggestions for encouraging a deepening relationship between men and children. 551. Stolz, Lois Meek, and others. Father Relations of War-Born Children: The Effect of Postwar Adjustment of Fathers on the Behavior and Personality of First Children Born While the Fathers Were at War. 1954. Reprint, New York: Greenwood Press, 1968. viii, 365p. illus. appendixes. bibliography, 361-65. Reprint, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1975. This classic study examines the effects of father absence upon children and parents alike. 552. Streiker, Lowell D. Fathering: Old Game, New Rules: A Look at the Changing Roles of Fathers. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1989. 221p. notes. pa. It's a whole different world out there for fathers, Streiker reports, but fathers are still badly needed, and brave men still stand by their jobs as fathers. After separation from his first wife, Streiker married a divorced woman with two sons. During his lifetime, Streiker has seen it all: the shifting of traditional paternal roles, the working couple, divorce and custody wars, step-parenting, grandfathering, and on and on. With the present-day family in turmoil, fathers make a difference more than ever. They are still needed to serve as role models and teachers, to instill values, to provide discipline, and to negotiate between family and the outside world. The new dad must also adopt more androgynous qualities without becoming feminized. The job description for modern fathers has become dauntingly difficult, but both adults and children benefit greatly when men tackle the job lovingly and courageously. 553. Sullivan, S. Adams. The Father's Almanac. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Dolphin Books, 1980. xvii, 365p. illus. bibliography, 339-42. index. In this attractive, oversized book, Sullivan offers practical information and advice on such matters as the father's role during pregnancy and childbirth, tending babies, working and fathering, everyday and special family events, child learning, and playing with children. 554. Towle, Alexandra, ed. Fathers. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986. 288p.

illus. index. A blurb on the title page aptly describes this book as a "celebration in prose, poetry, and photography of fathers and fatherhoodfathers loved and fathers feared, famous fathers and fathers obscure, real-life fathers and fathers from fiction." The generous and perceptively selected anthology offers varied insights into the father-child relationship. Some selections are pithy and poignant, such as, E. B. White's observation: "The time not to become a father is eighteen years before a world war." The text is supplemented with a series of attractive photographs. 555. Valentine, Alan, ed. Fathers to Sons: Advice Without Consent. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963. xxxii, 237p. bibliography, 219-26. notes. index. From the Middle Ages to the twentieth century, fathers have written to sons, exhorting, criticizing, advising, praising, and loving them. The letter writers in this collection (most are well known), range from Edward II to Franklin D. Roosevelt. Valentine's introductions and notes are both witty and helpful.

Page 191

556. Welch, Don. Macho Isn't Enough! Family Man in a Liberated World. Atlanta, GA: John Knox Press, 1985. viii, 100p. pa. The feminist revolution has changed the way men should behave in the family, according to Welch. Defining feminist to mean greater equality between the sexes, Welch argues that the traditional male role is too constrictive and that equal partners in marriage should be the ideal. He offers advice about balancing career and family and about raising non-sexist children. Outside the family, men should challenge sexism, such as gender-exclusive language. The good family man will give priority to family, not work. Although much of Welch's advice makes sense, parts of it resemble an uncritically recycled feminist agenda from the 1970s. 557. Winokur, Jon, ed. Fathers. New York: Dutton, 1993. 226p. index. The excerpts in this anthology range from one-liners to short essays and stories. Fathers, in all their diversity, come leaping out at the reader from the selectionfathers positive and negative, fathers creative and crazy, fathers aggressive and passive, fathers wise and foolish. The more than 200 contributors include Arthur Ashe on his father's resourcefulness, Alissa Wayne on her father's courage in the midst of cancer pain, Patti Davis on her father's ability to defuse tensions with humor, and Itabari Njeri's bittersweet memories of an intellectual, left-wing, and formidable father. 558. Woolfolk, William, with Donna Woolfolk Cross. Daddy's Little Girl: The Unspoken Bargain Between Fathers and Their Daughters. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall, 1982. 220p. index. In the love affair of father and daughter, she agrees to worship him, and he agrees to protect her against the world. The danger in this relationship, the authors contend, is that she may never develop her own competencies and he may be unwilling to let her grow up. The authors, father and daughter, provide evidence from their own relationship to support this thesis, and they look for it in the lives of an unspecified number of fathers and daughters whom they interviewed. The book relies on "the idiosyncratic, intuitive, impressionistic method"; it is thus informal and personal rather than rigorously analytic. The authors touch upon such matters as fathers and young daughters, the conflicts created by daughters' awakening sexuality, special situations (e.g., absent

fathers, single parenthood, incest, homosexuality, inadequate fathers), and separation between maturing daughters and their fathers. 559. Yablonsky, Lewis. Fathers and Sons. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982. 218p. notes. Reprint, as Fathers and Sons: The Most Challenging of All Family Relationships. New York: Gardner Trade Book Press, 1990. pa. Yablonsky draws upon interviews with more than 100 men, conducted over a four-year period, and questionnaire responses from 564 men. He also draws upon his own, often-troubled relations with his parents, his clinical experiences with men (usually involving a technique known as psychodrama), research, novels, plays, and television. Examining father-son relationships, warts and all, he delineates the sometimes-conflicting dreams and messages from fathers to sons. He enumerates different kinds of father styles and traces three phases of father-son interaction. Looking at family dynamics, Yablonsky sees the mother as a filter between father and son. He also discusses siblings, grandparents, divorce and separation, and teachers and coaches. Among the special situations considered are deviance and emotional disorders, alcohol and drug abuse, homosexuality, and health problems. A final chapter presents problems and solutions for modern fathers.

Page 192

C. Divorced and Single Fathers, Stepfathers 560. Atkin, Edith, and Estelle Rubin. Part-Time Father. New York: Vanguard Press, 1976. 191p. Reprint, New York: New American Library, Signet, 1977. pa. Drawing upon their experiences as therapists, the authorseach possesses impressive credentialsoffer information and advice to divorced fathers for the breaking-up period and afterward. Topics covered include the visiting father, money problems, "bachelor" fathers, remarriage, extended families, and special problems of adolescent children. The authors' advice is calm, concise, and compassionate. 561. Barber, Dulan. Unmarried Fathers. London: Hutchinson, 1975. 179p. Usually ignored, dismissed, or reviled, the unmarried father deserves a closer, more humane look. Although the author of this British study concludes that most unwed fathers are unconcerned, this is not true of all. He provides extracts from interviews with eight unmarried fathers to demonstrate the range of their characteristics. Examining British law, he finds that it discourages the father's involvement with the child; by denying the unwed father nearly all rights, it also discourages his willingness to support the child. New approaches are needed to help unmarried fathers assume their responsibilities. Also, Barber insists that the same social help given to mothers should be given to singleparent fathers caring for children: "A man who chooses domesticity and total daily care for his child is regarded as work-shy, perhaps a malingerer." An increasing number of men, Barber concludes, are demanding the right to be involved, caring fathersa right often denied them by law and society. 562. Ferrara, Frank. On Being Father: A Divorced Man Talks about Sharing the New Responsibilities of Parenthood. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Dolphin Books, 1986. xiv, 175p. pa. In easily read prose, Ferrara describes his divorce and the joint custody arrangement that he and his ex-wife worked out for their son Christopher. (Basically, Christopher alternates two-week periods with each parent.) Ferrara offers supportive suggestions for divorcing and divorced fathers. Before the actual divorce, the man needs to minimize the damage to himself and his children by acting with as much sense and restraint as he can muster. Most

often, he needs to recreate a new home for the children. Ferrara urges divorced men to cool any hostilities, as much as possible, with their ex-wives, especially in front of the children. He offers suggestions for introducing new women friends to the children and for handling one's job. He advises fathers on how to avoid the weekend-sugar-daddy routine and how to overcome the problems of the long-distance dad. A chapter is devoted to surveying the challenges of different stages of children's development. The final chapter stresses the rewards, for everyone involved, of putting it all together. 563. Gatley, Richard H., and David Koulack. Single Father's Handbook: A Guide for Separated and Divorced Fathers. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1979. xvii, 196p. index. pa. For the separated or divorced father who does not have custody, the authorsboth psychologists and both divorced fathersprovide helpful advice on such matters as maintaining a working relationship with the children's mother, handling grandparents and former in-laws, preparing space for the

Page 193

children at the father's new home, "mothering" children (the authors even provide a few favorite recipes), and bringing children together with new women friends. Above all, the authors provide support for the divorced father who must cope with society's view of him as an expendable parent, incompetent when it comes to caring for children. 564. Greif, Geoffrey. The Daddy Track and the Single Father. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, D. C. Heath, 1990. ix, 246p. appendixes. bibliography, 23739. notes. index. In this update and expansion of his earlier work, Single Fathers (entry 565), Greif argues that single fathers often find themselves on a daddy track that influences all areas of the their lives. Greifs book is based upon a 1988 national survey of over 1,100 single fathers. At that time, the United States had about I million single fathers. After a historical survey of custody in the United States, Greif details the differing situations of two single fathers: Dave, whose relationship with his son Jerry seems solidly grounded, and Mark, who is struggling with his ex-wife for custody of their four children. Paternal custody of children is still unusual in the United States: about 10 percent of divorced fathers have custody. When it comes to running a household, most single fathers, like Dustin Hoffman in Kramer Versus Kramer, learn how to do it. In raising children, most single fathers seem to do well, perhaps because they made a conscious decision to gain custody and are determined to succeed at the job. Few businesses offer the single father much help, and maintaining a social life is difficult. Most custodial fathers get no child support from their exwives. Joint custody can work well, but it requires a high degree of organization and cooperation between ex-spouses. Greif devotes a chapter to widowers, whose sorrowing may be necessary but may also cause family tensions. Another chapter provides a 25-year update on a family headed by a single father. Many chapters in this book conclude with checklists of advice for the single father, and an entire chapter (coauthored by Risa Garon) advises fathers on how to cushion children from the negative effects of divorce. Single fathering is not for every man, nor is it easy. But it can be rewarding. The appendixes present details of the survey and a list of places where single fathers can seek help. 565. Greif, Geoffrey L. Single Fathers. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, D.C. Heath,

1985. xii, 195p. appendix. bibliography, 183-87. notes. index. pa. Drawing upon an unusually large study of 1,136 fathers with sole custody, Greif is able to paint a much more detailed picture of single fatherhood than was previously possible. In 1983, there were 600,000 single fathers in the United States. Most of the fathers in Greif's study were white, middle-class, Christian men. Greif provides a detailed report on one family, in some ways atypical, after 20 years of single fathering; he finds both gains and losses in the family. Greif then examines larger patterns of families, before and after divorce, and the reasons why fathers had custody. Most often, fathers received custody when the mother agreed to the arrangement. The author devotes separate chapters to housekeeping and child care arrangements, balancing the demands of work and child rearing, and the father's relationship with the children. Most fathers did not have housekeepers but managed on their own. Single fathers cited flextime as their most important need. Adjusting to being single again was painful, and the ex-wife's involvement with the children could be a source of both help and hindrance for the father. Although some fathers had no complaints about the legal system, most felt that it was stacked against fathers. Few of the fathers received child support from their ex-wives. A comparison of 150 custodial mothers revealed both similarities and

Page 194

differences with the fathers. In a chapter coauthored by Kathryn L. Wasserman, Greif recounts the toll exacted upon children of divided parents. The final chapter concludes that, although single fatherhood is difficult, it has its rewards. Despite stereotypical views of fathers as bumbling caregivers, men can be capable and loving single parents. The appendix provides details of methodology and tables of results. Readers should consult Greif's update of this study, The Daddy Track and the Single Father (entry 564). 566. Hill, Gerald A. Divorced Father: Coping with Problems, Creating Solutions. White Hall, VA: Betterway Publications, 1989. 190p. appendix. bibliography, 181-82. notes. index. pa. Drawing upon his own experiences with divorce, Hill has fashioned a self-help guide for men. The advice is both personal and public. Hill tells the divorcing man how to ward off depression, how to avoid foolish mistakes, how to find the right lawyer, and how to minimize the damage of such dirty tricks as false charges of child molestation. Hill's own desire to maintain contact with his daughter is the source of a series of chapters on how to handle children lovingly after divorce. The appendix is a short list of action organizations. 567. Jacobs, John W., ed. Divorce and Fatherhood: The Struggle for Parental Identity. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1986. x, 99p. (The Clinical Insights Monograph Series). bibliography after each chapter. pa. This collection of five essays examines sympathetically the divorced father, the understudied party in divorce literature. In the opening article, Jacobs reviews the psychiatric literature on fatherhood and divorce, custody and visitation, fatherhood, and treatment of divorced fathers. Frank S. Williams argues that divorce usually results in a ''parentectomy," or removal of one parent, usually the father. Social and economic forces encourage the mother to surgically remove the father from the children's lives, and U.S. society has done little to understand or help the discarded father. In the third essay, Jacobs describes the "involuntary child absence syndrome" as an affliction suffered by divorced fathers. Dorothy S. Huntington discusses the father as the forgotten figure in divorce, reviewing a series of topics ranging from California's joint custody law to child kidnapping by divorced parents. In the final article, Mel Roman updates information about joint custody, arguing that forms of shared custody are usually more successful than the present practice of sole custody.

568. Kahan, Stuart. For Divorced Fathers Only. New York: Monarch, Sovereign, 1978. 179p. bibliography, 179. pa. On the premise that divorce is usually a hellish experience, this supportive book offers the divorced father reassurance, suggestions, and information for coping. A divorced father himself, Kahan discusses the man's problems of establishing a new life after divorce, the dynamics of maintaining father-child relationships, and the complications of dating and remarriage. A final chapter provides a quick survey of the financial and legal aspects of divorce. The epilogue raises questions about the ready availability of, and the rapid resort to, divorce in the United States. This readable book is informed by Kahan's belief that "no matter what you may have heard, the chief victim in most divorces is the man."

Page 195

569. McCormick, Mona. Stepfathers: What the Literature Reveals: A Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography. LaJolla, CA: Western Behavioral Sciences Institute, 1974. iv, 76p. bibliography, 42-75. pa. Deploring the scarcity of information on the stepfather, McCormick provides a survey of literature available in the early 1970s. She cautions stepfathers not to attempt to supplant the biological father entirely. McCormick enumerates factors affecting the stepfather's role and provides practical solutions to problems. She concludes that, despite difficulties, stepfathers and stepchildren can have loving relationships. 570. McFadden, Michael. Bachelor Fatherhood: How to Raise and Enjoy Your Children as a Single Parent. New York: Walker, 1974. 158p. bibliography, 15558. In upbeat, "can do" style, the authora divorced father with custody of three childrensurveys the basics of handling and enjoying child-rearing as a single parent. McFadden is eager to demonstrate that a single father can succeed as a parent. Skeptical of "happy marriage" and "painless divorce" myths, and aware of fathers' difficulties in gaining custody, the author argues nevertheless that divorce and raising children can be a liberating, fulfilling experience for men. Using interviews with 50 divorced fathers with custody, McFadden offers advice on running a household, loving and living with small children, coping with teenagers, doing the housework, and cooking the meals (a survival handbook of basic recipes is included). A brief afterword suggests that the strong man of the future may not be the warrior but the peacemaker and nurturer. 571. Newman, George. 101 Ways to Be a Long-Distance Super-Dad. Mountain View, CA: Blossom Valley Press, 1981. 108p. illus. pa. From creative tape recording to swapping jokes, Newman presents 101 practical suggestions for the long-distance parent who wishes to sustain an imaginative and loving relationship with his or her child. 572. Oakland, Thomas, with Nancy Vogt Wedemeyer, Edwin J. Terry, and Jane Manaster. Divorced Fathers: Reconstructing a Quality Life. New York: Human

Sciences Press, 1984. 201p. index. For the man facing divorce, this book offers helpful advicealthough in somewhat confusing order. Readers may want to start with chapters 7 through 9 on alternatives to divorce and on legal matters, move on to discussions of child custody (chapter 6), the man's psychological and social changes during divorce (chapter 2), the effects of divorce upon children (chapters 3 through 5), life after divorce (chapter 1), and finish with information on household management and budgeting (chapters 10 and 11). 573. Pannor, Reuben, Fred Massarik, and Byron Evans. The Unmarried Father: New Approaches for Helping Unmarried Young Parents. New York: Springer, 1971. xii, 196p. illus. appendix. notes. author and subject indexes. Usually overlooked by social workers and researchers, the unmarried father is the primary focus of this early 1970s study. The authors note that males are often less prepared for parenthood than females, that the unwed father is usually regarded as little more than a handy scapegoat for an unwanted pregnancy, and that society asks that he either marry the woman, pay support, or disappear from the scene. Seldom are unmarried fathers

Page 196

regarded as human beings with feeling and conflicts. After describing the methodology of their study at the Vista Del Mar Child-Care Services of 96 fathers and 222 mothers, the authors discount stereotypes of unmarried fathers (e.g., the older rou who seduces younger women or the young man who engages in casual affairs). Most of the fathers were emotionally involved with the mothers, most were reachable by the researchers, and most felt more guilt than the mothers did. In drawing a profile of the men, the authors discovered that many had masculine identity problems that were often rooted in unsatisfactory relationships with their own fathers. Also, many of the men came from father-absent or conflicted families without strong religious ties. Such men may be trying to prove their masculinity by fathering a child. The authors list goals that workers should strive for with these fathers, particularly involving them in the pregnancy and decision making. Among the options open to unmarried parents, the opportunity for the father to raise the child with community helpas a mother canis not listed, nor do the authors comment on that anomaly. They do, however, make a series of suggestions to decrease the number of unmarried fathers. The appendix contains the recording form used in the study. 574. Ritner, Gary. Fathers' Liberation Ethics: A Holistic Ethical Advocacy for Active Nurturing Fathering. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1992. xviii, 285p. bibliography, 201-73. index. pa. Taking equality between men and women as the goal of his ethic, Ritner argues that active nurturant fathering (ANF) is the best way to achieve this equality. Traditional parental roles allocate different child care activities to each parent. The absent father creates a disparity between a mother's and a father's caregiving. Ritner advances four moral arguments for ANF, as well as four motivating myths that encourage it. He finds that ANF overcomes fathers' alienation from the reproduction process. He examines the impact upon ANF of employment factors such as part-time work, flextime, parental leave, and women in the workforce. Ritner argues that the father must be brought back into the family, even the divorced and banished father. He critiques the history of child custody decisions and rejects the primacy of mother that is advocated in Beyond the Best Interests of the Child (entry 196). He argues the positive value of joint custody. The final chapter contemplates the return of the prodigal father to the family.

575. Rosenthal, Kristine M., and Harry F. Keshet. Fathers Without Partners: A Study of Fathers and the Family After Marital Separation. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1981. xxiii, 187p. appendixes. bibliography, 167-79. index. The authorsboth are divorced parentsexplore the effects of marital breakup upon men and the father-child relationship. Drawing upon interviews with more than 129 divorced fathers, they conclude that parents need children as much as children need parents, that caring for children often stabilizes divorced fathers, and that some fathers are closer to their children after divorce. Rosenthal and Keshet also comment on numerous related matters, ranging from the women's liberation movement through joint custody. The concluding chapter defines the family in terms of parent-child relationships rather than husband-wife relationships. "We learned," Rosenthal writes, "that fathering means many things, that divorce need not mean an inevitable distancing of a father and his children."

Page 197

576. Rowlands, Peter. Saturday Parent: A Book for Separated Families. New York: Continuum, 1980. viii, 143p. bibliography, 143. pa. A divorced father, Rowlands urges similar Saturday parents to recognize that being involved with their children is crucially important. A psychologist by training, he offers case histories to illustrate problems and possibilities in noncustodial parenting. He offers practical advice on such matters as visits, the father's "new friend," and going to court for visitation rights (not a particularly encouraging chapter). Although most of Rowlands's advice is aimed at fathers, he includes a special chapter for the mother who is a Saturday parent. 577. Shepard, Morris A., and Gerald Goldman. Divorced Dads: Their Kids, Ex-Wives, and New Lives. Radnor, PA: Chilton, 1979. xi, 154p. notes. Reprint, New York: Berkley, 1980. pa. Joint or shared custody is the subject of this book. The authors (both divorced fathers with six preteens between them) decided early on not to become Disneyland Dads or Sunday Heroes. Instead, each worked out a custody arrangement in which the father has the children at least 50 percent of the time. From personal experiences, they offer nuts-and-bolts suggestions about how to make joint custody work, touching on such matters as single parenting, career demands, money problems, and remarriage. Skeptical of the courts, child "experts," and public schools, the authors offer practical advice for coping with each. They report on a Brandeis University study of divorced fathers, and discuss how Sweden's family policy has affected fathers there. 578. Silver, Gerald A., and Myrna Silver. Weekend Fathers. Los Angeles: Stratford Press, 1981. xiv, 236p. appendix. bibliography, 231-36. "If we are going to be a truly equal society," the authors write, "the next major revolution must be men's rights." Within the larger context of inequalities suffered by males, this book focuses upon divorce, custody, property settlements, visitation, support, the plight of second wives and grandparents, and starting over. They find a cultural bias against males that, once divorce occurs, creates a domino effect: the man leaves the house, setting up the process by which the woman will be awarded the children and hence a good deal of the property, spouse support, and so on. Even if the man does not leave the house, judges' outmoded views of gender roles will accomplish the

same result. While support payments are rigidly enforced, visitation rights are not. No-fault divorce laws do not improve the male's disadvantage, and language changes (e.g., alimony becomes spouse support) are merely cosmetic. Despite their expressed goal of sexual equality, some feminists support "selective equality" that benefits women only. The authors, both of whom have suffered through painful divorces, depict and assess the situation of the Disneyland Dads, impact of father absence on children, the needs of divorced men in modern America, the games children play to manipulate divorced parents, the sex bias of many judges and attorneys, and the process of picking up the pieces of one's life after divorce. A final chapter describes the men's rights movement, and the appendix lists divorce reform organizations in the United States. 579. Somervill, Charles, with Herman D. Colomb. StepfathersStruggles and Solutions. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1989. 152p. bibliography, 149-52. pa. Somervill creates a fictional narrative involving Doug, a divorced man with a teenage son, who marries Beth, a divorced woman with two children. As Doug attempts to establish himself in his new family, his struggles illustrate the difficulties faced by stepfathers. After each episode in Doug's story,

Page 198

Somervill offers solutions for similar situations. Gradually, Doug and his new family grope their way towards greater coherence and understanding. For his account of stepfathering, Somervill consulted with psychiatrist Herman D. Colomb. D. Other Family Roles 580. Arcana, Judith. Every Mother's Son. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1983. ix, 322p. notes. bibliography, 303-9. index. A divorced mother and militant feminist, Arcana confronts the problems of raising a non-sexist son. Beginning with diary episodes involving her son, Arcana uses interviews with 60 mothers and sons to explore mother-son relationships. Later chapters examine myths and fairy tales as accounts of patriarchal victories over matriarchy, and discuss sexual politics in modern times. Arcana's total acceptance of ideology about male power and oppression is used throughout the book to justify her extreme hostility toward males, masculinity, and fathers. 581. Beer, William R. Househusbands: Men and Housework in American Families. New York: Praeger, J. F. Bergin, 1983. xxi, 153p. (Praeger Special Studies). appendixes. bibliography, 142-48. index. This vigorously written study is one of the few to deal with men and housework. Beer points out that men have traditionally done some forms of housework, such as, mowing the lawn, painting the house, fixing the car, replacing a broken window, and so on. His study, however, highlights men who do the housework that is traditionally assigned to women. Dividing these men into equal-time and full-time househusbands, Beer describes his own life as an equal-time househusband and parent. Utilizing such literature as there is, as well as information from 46 househusbands in the New York area, he indicates that men are far from the stereotyped monsters who have conspired to foist housework upon women. Among men whose work schedules are flexible, he finds considerable sharing of household tasks. A man's age, a working wife, and available role models can also influence his participation in housework. Few of the men responding to Beer's questionnaire were consciously pioneering new sex roles: the work had to be done, and they did it. Challenging the stereotypical idea that men hate housework, Beer finds that men's attitudes

toward it varied in the same way women's did. The men found it dull and repetitive but also rewarding: they could work at their own pace, they saw tangible rewards, and they took pride in workmanship. Those least free to do housework were least enthusiastic about it. Doing housework did not drastically change most men; certainly it did not feminize them. If U.S. society wishes to encourage more men to become househusbands, Beer has some forthright advice. At present, because husbands are legally required to support wives (while wives have no reciprocal obligation to support husbands), being a fulltime househusband is actually illegal. Such laws will have to change. So also will social values that denigrate men who do "women's work." Finally, men's work schedules will have to become more flexible. In a summary chapter, Beer argues that housework is "the last bastion of nonalienated work in modern society"; putting houseworkers on salary would reduce them to the level of other alienated wage laborers. The appendixes spell out Beer's methodology and present his questionnaire.

Page 199

582. Benson, Dan. The Total Man. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House, 1977. 272p. notes. pa. In a presentation designed for a conservative Christian husband-father in a middle-class marriage with a traditional housewife-mother, Benson offers advice on such matters as the pitfalls of machismo and success-obsession, fitness and diet, being a loving leader of the family, marital infighting, loving and disciplining the children, and putting more spark into marital sex. 583. Herzog, Elizabeth, and Cecelia E. Sudia. Boys in Fatherless Families. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Child Development, Children's Bureau, 1971. iv, 120p. (DHEW Publication No. (OCD) 72-33). bibliography, 99-120.notes. pa. Although dated, this review of the literature on the effects of father absence upon boys (particularly in terms of juvenile delinquency, intellectual and psychosocial development, and masculine identity) is still useful for pointing out the many pitfalls involved in such research. The authors' conclusions will strike some readers as being no more convincing than those they criticize. 584. Humez, Alexander, and Keith Fitzgerald Stavely. Family Man. Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1978. xiv, 262p. The authors have collected 14 extended interviews with a variety of men who discuss their family rolesas sons, husbands, and fathers. 585. Klein, Carole. Mothers and Sons. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1984. 272p. bibliography, 251-62. index. Using responses to questionnaires and interviews, Klein surveys several topics from both the mother's and the son's viewpoints. Above all, she recognizes the difficulties of the son in trying to separate from identification with the mother. She examines the pressures of the masculine role and how these can lead to conflict between mothers and sons. Both parties are likely to feel guilt. Also examined are feminist mothers who resent motherhood, lesbian mothers and homosexual sons, the working mother, troubled sons and successful sons, sons who are pushed too early to become "the man of the house," and mothers' fears of nonaggression in sons. Divorce requires special adjustments for both

mothers and sons. Klein's perspective is both equitable and informed. 586. Newman, Joseph, ed. Teach Your Wife How to Be a Widow. Washington, DC: U.S. News and World Report Books, 1973. 287p. illus. appendixes. index. Because women outlive men so decisively, widows need to know about matters such as wills, sale of houses, social security, stocks and bonds, taxes, estates, and so on. While the authors provide much information, they assume it is the husband's responsibility to instruct the wife about these topics. A more current book, one hopes, would be addressed to the wife, thereby relieving the husband of one more burden that is probably driving him to an early grave. 587. Olsen, Paul. Sons and Mothers: Why Men Behave As They Do. New York: M. Evans, 1981. 192p. notes. Reprint, New York: Fawcett Books, 1982. pa. An extended essay rather than a systematic study, this book describes the ultimate power of the mother to shape a son's life. Interspersing his analysis with excerpts from case histories, Olsen sees mothers as primarily responsible for creating active sons and passive daughters. The "good enough"

Page 200

mother provides security, but not too much: she also stirs her son to rebel, and she permits him to be independent. In some cases, she can create a macho male to wreak vengeance upon a male world she hates. The father, in Olsen's view, is an outsider looking in; he must be interpreted to his son by the mother. Because of the close mother-son ties, leaving home is painful to sons, and even death cannot sever a son's link to his mother. Critics may feel that Olsen has overdrawn maternal bonding with sons; other readers may feel he has provided a needed corrective to recent studies blaming the father for perpetuating traditional gender roles in children. 588. Robertiello, Richard C. A Man in the Making: Grandfathers, Fathers, Sons. New York: Richard Marek, 1979. 185p. In this confessional search for his identity, Robertiello recalls the males who most influenced him, particularly a harsh grandfather who raised him, his father who alternately ignored and competed with him, and his own son with whom he has been only partly successful in establishing a loving relationship. Among the patterns that emerge from these recollections is the idea that men need women so badly because men provide so little love to each other. In a final chapter, Robertiello begins to formulate a psychology of the self that is derived from his experiences. 589. Shedd, Charlie W. Letters to Philip: On How to Treat a Woman. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Co., 1968. xii, 131p. Reprint, New York: Jove Publications, 1968. pa. Reprint, Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell, 1969. pa. In 29 letters addressed to the young husband, Shedd offers traditional Christian advice on how to treat a young wife. Suggestions include: be a leader but not a tyrant, treat her as a person, and when you disagree, fight fair and constructively. 590. Vernon, Bob, and C.C. Carlson. The Married Man. Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell, 1980. 160p. Formerly an assistant chief of police in Los Angeles, Vernon presents a conservative Christian view of the married man's role. Quoting scripture and recounting events from his police work, Vernon offers advice on such mattes as male leadership in family and society, disciplining children, and the importance

of moral conviction. Each chapter is introduced with a few paragraphs from Carole C. Carlson. Some readers will find the book a refreshing endorsement of fundamental concepts of masculinity; others will find it simplistic and authoritarian. 591. Voth, Harold M. The Castrated Family. Kansas City, KS: Sheed Andrews and McMeel, 1977. xvii, 241p. appendix. bibliography, 223-34. The author, a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, argues for a return to traditional family roles for men and women. He details the psychological damage that can be sustained by children in nontraditional, or "castrated," households. Skeptical of current trends in sexual and personal liberation, Voth regards homosexuals as "very sick people" and encourages parents to foster strongly differentiated sex roles in their children.

Page 201

Cross-References See chapter 5, "Boys," chapter 6, "Divorce and Custody," chapter 19, "Patriarchy, Patriarchal Society," and chapter 22, "Single Men." 683. Allen, Marvin, with Jo Robinson. In the Company of Men: A New Approach to Healing Husbands, Fathers, and Friends. 73. Amneus, Daniel. The Garbage Generation: The Consequences of the Destruction of the Two-Parent Family and the Need to Stabilize It By Strengthening Its Weakest Link, the Father's Role. 595. Biller, Henry B. Father, Child, and Sex Role: Paternal Determinants of Personality Development. 905. Biller, Henry B., and Richard S. Solomon. Child Maltreatment and Paternal Deprivation: A Manifesto for Research, Prevention, and Treatment. 393. Boose, Lynda E., and Betty S. Flowers, eds. Fathers and Daughters. 300. Burkett, Michael. The Dad Zone: Reports from the Tender, Bewildering, and Hilarious World of Fatherhood. 338. Butler, Samuel. The Way of All Flesh. 625. Chambers, David L. Making Fathers Pay: The Enforcement of Child Support. 301. Chapple, Steve. Conversations with Mr. Baby: A Celebration of New Life. 38. Clary, Mike. Daddy's Home. 626. Conine, Jon. Fathers' Rights: The Sourcebook for Dealing with the Child Support System. 340. Corman, Avery. Kramer Versus Kramer. 302. Cosby, Bill. Fatherhood. 39. Covington, Jim. Confessions of a Single Father. 398. Davis, Robert Con, ed. The Fictional Father: Lacanian Readings of the Text. 323. Dickens, Charles. Dombey and Son.

689. Dinnerstein, Dorothy. The Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and Human Malaise. 324. Dostoevsky, Fyodor. The Brothers Karamazov. 627. Doyle, R. F. The Rape of the Male. 690. Drew, Jane Myers. Where Were You When I Needed You Dad?: A Guide for Healing Your Father Wound. 673. Engels, Friedrich. The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State.

Page 202

100. Garfinkel, Perry. In a Man's World: Father, Son, Brother, Friend, and Other Roles Men Play. 101. Gerson, Kathleen. No Man's Land: Men's Changing Commitments to Family and Work. 102. Gilder, George. Men and Marriage. 348. Gold, Herbert. Fathers: A Novel in the Form of a Memoir. 350. Goldman, William. Father's Day. 351. Gosse, Edmund. Father and Son: A Study of Two Temperaments. 277. Griswold, Robert L. Fatherhood in America: A History. 352. Guest, Judith. Ordinary People. 866. Gurian, Michael. The Prince and the King: Healing the Father-Son Wound: A Guided Journey of Initiation. 701. Hall, Nor. Broodmales: A Psychological Essay on Men in Childbirth. Introducing The Custom of Couvade (1929) by Warren R. Dawson. 676. Hearn, Jeff. The Gender of Oppression: Men, Masculinity, and the Critique of Marxism. 915. Herman, Judith Lewis, with Lisa Hirschman. Father-Daughter Incest. 108. Herzig, Alison Cragin, and Jane Lawrence Mali. Oh, Boy! Babies! 14. Hewlett, Barry S. Intimate Fathers: The Nature and Context of Aka Pygmy Paternal Infant Care. 328. Homer. The Odyssey. 45. Hoyland, John, ed. Fathers and Sons. 405. Johnson, Wendell Stacy. Sons and Fathers: The Generational Link in Literature, 1780-1980. 46. Kafka, Franz. Letter to His Father/Brief an Der Vater. 629. Katz, Sanford N., and Monroe L. Inker, eds. Fathers, Husbands and Lovers: Legal Rights and Responsibilities. 16. Kaye, Lenard W., and Jeffrey S. Applegate. Men as Caregivers to the

Elderly: Understanding and Aiding Unrecognized Family Support. 995. Kimball, Gayle. The 50-50 Marriage. 996. Kimball, Gayle. 50-50 Parenting: Sharing Family Rewards and Responsibilities. 358. Kopit, Arthur. Oh Dad, Poor Dad, Mama's Hung You in the Closet and I'm Feeling so Sad .... 413. Lee, M. Owen. Fathers and Sons in Virgil's Aeneid: Turn Genitor Nature. 1002. Maine, Margo. Father Hunger: Fathers, Daughters and Food. 21. Malinowski, Bronislaw. The Father in Primitive Psychology.

Page 203

1002. Maine, Margo. Father Hunger: Fathers, Daughters and Food. 21. Malinowski, Bronislaw. The Father in Primitive Psychology. 56. McKuen, Rod. Finding My Father: One Man's Search for Identity. 366. Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman. 893. Miller, John W. Biblical Faith and Fathering: Why We Call God "Father." 711. Mitscherlich, Alexander. Society Without the Father: A Contribution to Social Psychology. 1005. Mooney, Elizabeth C. Men and Marriage: The Changing Role of Husbands. 681. Mount, Ferdinand. The Subversive Family: An Alternate History of Love and Marriage. 311. Myer, Andy. The Liberated Father's Handbook. 183. Nerburn, Kent. Letters to My Son: Reflections on Becoming a Man. 312. O'Neill, Hugh. Daddy Cool: How to Ride a Seesaw with Dignity, Wear a Donald Duck Hat with Style, and Sing "Bingo Was His Name-O" with Panache. 60. Painter, Hal. Mark, I Love You. 330. Pearl: A New Verse Translation. 878. Perry, John Weir. Lord of the Four Quarters: Myths of the Royal Father. 613. Pittman, Frank S., III. Man Enough: Fathers, Sons, and the Search for Masculinity. 386. Reich, Hanns, comp. Children and Their Fathers. 897. Renich, Fred. The Christian Husband. 62. Roth, Philip. Patrimony: A True Story. 422. Sadoff, Dianne F. Monsters of Affection: Dickens, Eliot, and Bront on Fatherhood. 165. Schlesinger, Benjamin. The One-Parent Family: Perspectives and Annotated Bibliography.

314. Schoenstein, Ralph. Yes, My Darling Daughters: Adventures in Fathering. 373. Schultz, Susan Polis, ed. I Love You Dad: A Collection of Poems. 64. Seabrook, Jeremy. Mother and Son. 166. Sell, Kenneth D., comp. Divorce in the 70s: A Subject Bibliography. 65. Sifford, Darrell. Father and Son. 898. Smail, Thomas A. The Forgotten Father. 66. Stafford, Linley M. One Man's Family: A Single Father and His Children.

Page 204

67. Steinberg, David. fatherjournal: Five Years of Awakening to Fatherhood. 315. Stewart, D. L. Father Knows BestSometimes. 316. Stewart, D. L. Fathers Are People Too. 317. Stewart, D. L. Stepfathers Are People Too. 333. Strindberg, August. The Father. 334. Strindberg, August. Getting Married. 900. Tennis, Diane. Is God the Only Reliable Father? 68. Waller, Leslie. Hide in Plain Sight. 189. Weiner, Bernard, and others. Boy Into Man: A Father's Guide to Initiation of Teenage Sons. 636. Weitzman, Leonore J. The Marriage Contract: Spouses, Lovers, and the Law. 32. Wheelock, Jane. Husbands at Home: The Domestic Economy in a PostIndustrial Society. 881. Where the Two Came to Their Father: A Navaho War Ceremonial Given by Jeff King. 637. Wishard, William R., and Laurie Wishard. Men's Rights: A Handbook for the 80's.

Page 205

15 Masculinity: Masculinities, Masculine Gender Roles, Male Sex Roles, Biology, Physiology
Books in this chapter 1) examine the origins of masculinity (in physiology or culture or both) or 2) analyze one or more aspects of the masculine gender role. Readers should also see chapter 3, ''Awareness," chapter 20, "Psychology," and chapter 23, "Spirituality." 592. Bahr, Robert. The Virility Factor: Masculinity Through Testosterone, the Male Sex Hormone. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1976. x, 212p. appendix. glossary. bibliography, 197-205. index. A popular scientific account of "the male hormone," this book describes how testosterone is produced and how it functions to create maleness. After reviewing the history of research into testosterone, Bahr describes the hormone's effects upon the male from the embryonic stage to old age. He portrays the effects of too littleand too muchtestosterone, how it changes the male's appearance, how homosexuality and prostate trouble may be connected with hormone levels, and how testosterone can be affected by diet and drugs. Along the way, Bahr touches on some controversial matters. He argues that male behavior is strongly affected by the hormone: "If anything, society may actually curb a boy's natural tendency to be his hormonal self." Macho men, however, are out of touch with their biological selves: they overreact to "female" estrogens that are a natural part of maleness. Still, Bahr has nothing good to say about "liberated" men who apologize for maleness. Despite attempts to broaden gender roles, nature has no love for unisex: conditions favor the mating of "men with very high testosteronei.e., aggressive/sexual compulsionlevels ... [and] passive, submissive, highly estrogenic" women, their offspring being "highly androgenized boys and highly estrogenized girls." The book includes a glossary of terms. 593. Balswick, Jack. The Inexpressive Male. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, D. C. Heath, 1988. xv, 221p. illus. bibliography, 201-16. index.

Inability or unwillingness to express feelings is widespread among males, a condition, Balswick argues, that is unhealthy to men and damaging to malefemale and male-male relationships. After examining eight theoretical explanations of inexpressiveness, he concludes that socialization is largely at the root of the matter. Using Joseph Pleck's Sex Role Strain paradigm to indicate the dysfunctional nature of male inexpressiveness, Balswick examines

Page 206

methodology for measuring expressiveness. Drawing upon experiments, questionnaires, and interviews, he profiles male inexpressiveness and its consequences for marriage and friendships. The book closes with additional arguments for increasing male ability to both feel and express emotions. 594. Betcher, R. William, and William S. Pollack. In a Time of Fallen Heroes: The Recreation of Masculinity. New York: Atheneum, 1993. xiii, 288p. bibliography, 267-80. index. Masculinity is in trouble, partly because the women's movement has attempted to redefine masculinity in feminine terms. Angry with men, many feminists have declared that masculinity is defective and needs to be feminized. The authors believe, however, that men need to redefine masculinity in male terms. To clarify their ideas, they use ancient myths, especially those of Oedipus (entry 713), Achilles (entry 327), and Odysseus (entry 328). The story of Oedipus illustrates the male need to be autonomous. Although men need to be free of Mother, they need not be unrelated to the Special Women who animates their lives. Men also need Special Men (e.g., good-enough fathers, mentors, and friends). Achilles helps to define male aggressiveness and assertiveness, as well as male vulnerability. The authors explore work, sports, love and lust, and fathering. They find Odysseus to be an important image of re-created masculinity. 595. Biller, Henry B. Father, Child, and Sex Role: Paternal Determinants of Personality Development. Lexington, MA: Heath Lexington Books, D. C. Heath, 1971, xi, 195p. bibliography, 137-80. author and subject indexes. Biller surveys literature on the connection between the father and the child's sex role development. Distinguishing sex role orientation, preference, and adoption, the author explores the effects of father absence upon the boy's masculine development, noting that such absence apparently has its most severe effects when it occurs during the boy's first four years of life. Biller explores theories of sex role identity, stressing Freud's ideas and derivatives from them. Examining sociocultural and constitutional variables affecting paternal influence, Biller notes that sex role demands are heavier upon boys than upon girls, and that boys do not learn fathering as girls learn mothering. Describing paternal influences upon general personality functioning, he touches upon such matters as cognitive, interpersonal, and conscience

development. In separate chapters, Biller analyzes literature on mother-son and father-daughter relationships. A final chapter stresses the importance of effective fathering, charts directions for additional research, and makes suggestions for minimizing the impact of father absence and maximizing the impact of father presence. 596. Bowl, Ric. Changing the Nature of Masculinity: A Task for Social Work? Norwich, England: University of East Anglia, 1985. 40p. (Social Work Monograph no. 30). bibliography, 35-40. pa. Based on an M.A. dissertation, this British monograph raises the question of whether or not social workers should attempt radical action to alter the prevailing concept of masculinity. Influenced by Marxist feminism, Bowl argues that intervention in particular cases is insufficient; the social worker must also be a revolutionist who intervenes to subvert the social order. Bowl describes prevailing masculinity as a prop of capitalist patriarchy, which fosters competition and, thus, violence. In overheated terms, he describes workingclass families as pits of domestic violence and misogyny, and working-class masculinity as brutal, emotionally

Page 207

constricted, and sexist. Bowl dismisses arguments that gender role is determined by biology. After the revolutionary buildup, Bowl's actual recommendations are fairly mild. He urges limited intervention to alter negative masculine behaviors. Still, some readers may be infuriated by Bowl's tendency to refer to men as a "problem" that social workers must correct. 597. Brittan, Arthur. Masculinity and Power. Oxford and New York: Basil Blackwell, 1989. 218p. bibliography, 205-13. index. pa. Brittan surveys mostly left-wing, European theories concerning the nature of masculinities, the linking of masculinity and identity, the political problematics of male sexualities, the question of whether males are a ruling class, the tie between masculinity and aggression, the universalizing of the masculine as the norm, and the current crisis in masculinity. A pro-feminist who emphasizes the shaping power of culture rather than biology, Brittan finds masculinity "dangerous and volatile." His misandry is evident in such tactics as the repeated comparison of masculinity to Nazism and to South African white rule. Being both powerful and flawed, men have created patriarchy, masculinism (an ideology that justifies male dominance), heterosexism, and other evils. Brittan focuses on women's oppression by men, men's fear of women, and male violence against women. (Apparently, he believes that only males commit rape.) All men do not constitute an oppressor class, Brittan argues, but fathers who support their wives and children do: these men "appropriate" and "exploit" the "reproductive labour" of women for male profit and power. Such arguments are likely to leave many readers suspecting that the gap between left-wing theory and reality can yawn wide indeed. 598. Chapman, Rowena, and Jonathan Rutherford, eds. Male Order: Unwrapping Masculinity. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1988. 331p. illus. notes. pa. British socialism has fallen on hard times: the labor movement is allegedly dominated by white males whose concern with economic and class issues allows little room for feminist, gay, and minority issues. The only solution, many of the contributors argue, is to construct a more enlightened masculinity. In the opening essay to this collection of 10 articles, Jonathan Rutherford denounces at length the flaws of current masculinity, using popular ads and films as his primary texts. Lynne Segal looks at the angry young men of the fifties, and Kobena Mercer and Isaac Julien examine racism in the gay men's

movement and in the larger society, primarily using such texts as Robert Staples' Black Masculinity (entry 667) and Robert Mapplethorpe's Black Males. In an amusing expose, Suzanne Moore argues that many fashionable spokesmen of postmodernismfrom Prince to Roland Barthes, from Jacques Lacan to Jean Baudrillardhave simply appropriated femininity for their own masculine purposes. A similar fear is shared by Rowena Chapman in her discussion of male fashions and ads. In opposition, Cynthia Cockburn feels that the only salvation for men is to modify their masculinity by appropriating more of the feminine; until they do, Cockburn urges more separatism by socialist feminists. 599. Cherfas, Jeremy, and John Gribbin. The Redundant Male: Is Sex Irrelevant in the Modern World? London: Bodley Head, 1984. Reprint, New York: Pantheon Books, 1984. 198p. notes. index. pa. Reprint, London: Triad/Paladin Books, 1985. pa. Basically, this book surveys the biological function of sex in evolutionary history, but Cherfas and Gribbin have given the topic a best-seller twist by advancing the sensationalist proposition that males may be biologically unnecessary in the future.

Page 208

Females are depicted as nurturant and thus essential to human survival, while males are generalized as violent philanderers whose biological contribution is more troublesome than efficient. The thesis seems less an inherent part of the topic than a way to sell books by engaging in fashionable male bashing. The authors speculate that, in the future, females may be able to reproduce themselves through virgin-birth cloning, although they admit that male genetic input helps prevent diseases in offspring. One suspects that the authors were amusing themselves by advancing an outrageously anti-male thesis that panders to current misandric prejudices. Still, many people will be offended by the Nazi-like evaluation of male humans strictly in "biological" terms. Had the book been titled The Redundant Jew, for example, its bigotry would have been immediately apparent. 600. Easlea, Brian. Fathering the Unthinkable: Masculinity, Scientists and the Nuclear Arms Race. London: Pluto Press, 1983. 230p. (The Politics of Science and Technology Series). notes. index. pa. Reprint, New York: Schocken Books, 1987. pa. A nuclear physicist who abandoned his career in the 1960s because of moral scruples, Easlea traces the history of nuclear power from the scientific revolution to the development of the hydrogen bomb. He sees both scientific inquiry and the arms race as resulting from irrational masculinity. Men envy women's reproductive power and try to emulate it, usually with disastrous results. (In current academic discourse, it is sexist to suggest that women experience penis envy, but it is acceptable to claim that men suffer from womb envy.) This envy and its consequences are fictionalized in Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein, which Easlea uses as a running commentary on his account of how nuclear weapons were developed. Easlea also examines the sexual metaphors used by men of science. He approvingly quotes Simone de Beauvoir's observation that women are "the sex that brings forth" and men are the sex "which kills." (Easlea writes as if millions of women did not have abortions each year.) To underscore the difference between peaceful female nature and violent male nature, the afterword contrasts a peaceful naturalchildbirth scene with the violent aims of male scientists. (Again, had Easlea depicted an abortion clinic, the contrast would not have worked so well.) The end of the Cold War raises questions about Easlea's thesis: could it be that those Western, male, military leaders and scientists actually saved humanity

from Soviet tyranny by pursuing the arms race long enough for the Soviet Union to collapse? 601. Fanning, Patrick, and Matthew McKay. Being a Man: A Guide to the New Masculinity. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, 1993. 278p. illus. bibliography, 277-78. pa. Starting on an upbeat, male-positive note, the authors provide a self-help guide to becoming a more fully human man. The discussion is divided into four sections. Part I discusses gender differences and the son's need to relate to the father. Part 2 explores ways of enriching one's inner life, deepening and strengthening masculine values, and finding one's right work. Part 3 deals with male friends, lovers, partners, and children. Part 4 examines men's feelings and how to express them. Each of the book's 13 chapters contains practical advice and self-help exercises, such as journal writing, methods of retaining dreams, and so on. The book is user-friendly, especially its clear, informal prose.

Page 209

602. Franklin, Clyde W., II. The Changing Definition of Masculinity. New York and London: Plenum Press, 1984. xi, 234p. bibliography, 215-25. index. Using writings in men's studiesespecially works by Marc Fasteau (entry 98), Joseph Pleck (entry 614), Jack Nichols (entry 128), and Herb Goldberg (entry 103)Franklin conducts an inquiry into changing concepts of masculinity. Assessing male responses to the women's and the men's movements, gay liberation, and "moral majority" traditionalism, he explores such topics as the socialization of males, the ways in which racial differences may shape masculinity, sexual identity, marriage, work, fatherhood, male friendship, and themes in male sexuality. Sensitive to, but occasionally critical of, feminist views, Franklin's book is designed for college courses on men, especially courses in sociology or psychology. A final chapter attempts to chart changes in the masculine gender role. 603. Gaylin, Willard. The Male Ego. New York: Viking, 1992. xxviii, 276p. notes. index. Reprint, 1993. pa. The title may be misleading: Gaylin carefully defines ego to mean masculine identity. Arguing that at present too many males are self-destructive, Gaylin surveys what current social sciences report about masculinity and how it can become more socially and personally functional. Although earlier feminists insisted that gender differences were due entirely to culture, Gaylin agrees with more recent feminists, like Carol Gilligan, who affirm deeper sexual divergence. Aware of these differences, most societies assign three recurring roles to "real men": procreator, protector, and provider. Gaylin examines the potentials and pitfalls in those roles. He describes male sexuality, discusses work as the man's form of nurturing, and examines the importance of sports in men's lives. The signs and symbols of "success" are depicted negatively as "male jewelry." Describing present-day masculinity as faltering, Gaylin says he knows no successful men. Gaylin's dismissal of the wild man is suspiciously abrupt, and some statements cry out to be challenged (e.g., a man "cannot be raped by a woman, only seduced or encouraged"). Nevertheless, The Male Ego is largely pro-male: Gaylin believes that modern society must liberate masculine pride. 604. Gerzon, Mark. A Choice of Heroes: The Changing Faces of American Manhood.

Rev. ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992. xii, 305p. notes. pa. In an account that is personal and political, historical and contemporary, Gerzon examines U.S. cultural images of manhood. His descriptions of The Frontiersman and The Soldier expand into essays on virility and violence, genocide, nuclear warfare, the anti-war movement, and political machismo; the portraits of The Breadwinner and The Expert expand into assessments of boyhood, manhood, marriage, fatherhood, and male religious images. The "emerging masculinities," or new emblems of heroism toward which some men are beginning to aspire, are identified as The Healer, The Companion, The Mediator, and The Colleague. While critical of many masculine stances, Gerzon is sensitive to the psychological and social structures that create them. He argues that destructive and repressive conditions are created by men and women acting in collusion with each other and that the important task now is for the sexes not to blame each other. Rather, Gerzon concludes, "It is our shared responsibility to break the pattern." An afterword updates Gerzon's experiences during the 10 years following the book's original publication. During that time, he has come to value the masculine more than he did at first. His fear of the masculine originally led him to label positive qualities as "feminine." But the mythopoetic men's movement

Page 210

and New Warrior Training have convinced him that the deep masculine is also worthy. 605. Gunther, Max. Virility 8: A Celebration of the American Male. Chicago: Playboy Press, 1975. 280p. Although it is not fashionable these days to be a U.S. male, according to Gunther, his book nevertheless celebrates the American man as mover, maker, and mucker-up. Arguing that, for better or for worse, men still dominate U.S. society, Gunther delineates eight types of modern "virility," ranging from the No-Nonsense Pragmatist who shuns "feminine" frivolity to The Mild Man who effaces himself. In the latter part of the book, Gunther offers 25 tongue-incheek rules for acting male, discusses with good-natured humor such current issues as the "new" impotency, and closes with a decidedly optimistic chapter, "Prognosis: OK." 606. Hapgood, Fred. Why Males Exist: An Inquiry into the Evolution of Sex. New York: William Morrow, 1979. 213p. bibliography, 189-99. index. Reprint, New York: New American Library, Mentor Books, 1980. pa. A superb example of readable scientific writing, Why Males Exist explores the mysteries of why sexual reproduction arose in the evolutionary process andmore specificallywhy males came into existence. Hapgood divides living creatures into four groups. Among the first, consisting of creatures like bacteria, asexual reproduction is standard. Among the second group are "bisexuals" who occasionally resort to sexual reproduction to cope with extreme conditions in their environment. Among the third group, specialization has led to distinct sexual differences and sexual reproduction. At this stage, the female generally controls the reproductive cycle, leaving the males to struggle, demonstrate their fitness, and be rewarded with mating. These animals seldom form couples, mating is quickly achieved, and the female is left to rear the offspring. The fourth group is marked by monogamy among animal couples and by male, as well as female, parenting. Hapgood cites the gains of such an arrangement, including the opportunity to raise more highly developed young, the modification of different sexual tempi in males and females, the disappearance of sex-differentiated roles and tasks, and a mutual dependency of the two-parent animals that allows for closer bonding between them and prepares for the emergence of love in the evolutionary process.

607. Holliday, Laurel. The Violent Sex: Male Psychobiology and the Evolution of Consciousness. Guerneville, CA: Bluestocking Books, 1978. 254p. illus. appendixes. notes. pa. This oddly contradictory book begins as an explanation for the layperson of how males are more psychologically predisposed toward violence than females are, but it ends with a man-hating diatribe that can only be described as violent. The book begins rather dispassionately. A lengthy opening chapter describing brain and hormonal differences in males and females is followed by one arguing that elements in our culture (including mothers) too often encourage violence in males. Chapters 3 and 4on the evolution of the sexes and on modern malesresort to operatic polemics involving wild generalizations and sexist stereotypes of males as destroyers and females as nurtures. Hunting and meat eating are depicted as the "fall" of humanity, and all the world's problems are credited to men. Readers can be amused or repelled by the contradictions that follow fast and thick in the remaining sections. After pages of warning against poisoning one's body with dubious foods and chemicals, Holliday advises men to use marijuana to lower their testosterone levels. After

Page 211

pages of invective against male interference with the natural order of things, the author provides instructions so that women, by artificial means, can bear only female childrenin order not to "burden the world with any more males if you can help it." After lengthy tirades against male insensitivity to life, the author suggests that a pregnant woman who "learns that the fetus is not the sex of her choice ... may decide to have an abortion." 608. Kemper, Theodore D. Social Structure and Testosterone: Explorations of the Socio-Bio-Social Chain. New Brunswick, NJ, and London: Rutgers University Press, 1990. x, 271p. bibliography, 231-64. notes. index. Deploring the hostilities that hinder interdisciplinary work between sociology and biology, Kemper sets out to explore sociopsychoendocrinolgy, focusing primarily on how testosterone affects male behavior. He is anxious to stress that social conditions can affect biology and that biology is not destiny, in any crude sense. His thesis is that a relationship exists between dominance/eminence and testosterone (T). Power and status thus stimulate T levels and make the male more attractive to females. Defeat lowers T levels. Examining sexual activity among males, Kemper concludes that higher T levels energize males to succeed socially and stimulate greater levels of sexual activity. Kemper classifies male sexual infidelities in terms of social conditions and T energy. Higher levels of T give males certain advantages over females, but the women's movement may be stimulating higher T levels in women, thereby enabling them to succeed in public life and to overcome such apparently inherent deficiencies as lesser spatial abilities. The results of this change are mixed: successful women are less likely to reproduce. Kemper speculates that male spectator sports may be a form of vicarious dominance in which a winning team offers male fans a T surge. In the concluding chapter, the author considers several issues, including dominance/eminence and the self, how T may affect men's political opinions, and alternatives for vicarious dominance. An egalitarian liberal eager to avoid conservative conclusions, Kemper argues that the shift away from male dominance/eminence need not be at the expense of T. 609. Mead, Margaret. Male and Female: A Study of the Sexes in a Changing World. New York: William Morrow, 1949. vi, 477p. appendixes. bibliographies located in several places in the appendixes. index. pa.

One of the giants of modern anthropology, Mead, in Male and Female, crystallizes her mature thinking concerning gender roles. Recapitulating her ground-breaking studies among several South Seas cultures, Mead discusses how sex roles are shaped in diverse societies. She explores, for example, how different cultures offer differing ways for males to respond to the oedipal conflict. Noting that girls in general are surer of their gender identities, Mead argues that "the recurrent problem of civilization is to define the male role satisfactorily enough ... so that the male may in the course of his life reach a solid sense of irreversible achievement." Especially significant for men's studies is Mead's ninth chapter, "Human Fatherhood Is a Social Invention," in which she concludes that societies must teach males to want to beget and cherish children. Societies that fail to do so court disaster. Discussing the sexes in contemporary society, Mead rejects the notion that males have conspired throughout history to oppress women: "It takes considerable effort on the part of both men and women to reorient ourselves to thinkingwhen we think basicallythat this is a world made not by men alone, in which women are unwilling and helpless dupes and fools or else powerful schemers hiding their power under their ruffled petticoats, but a world made by mankind for human beings of both sexes." Such a sweeping rejection of radical feminist ideology

Page 212

has made Mead problematic for many feminists, but it indicates her importance as an antidote to ubiquitous formulations of male oppression and female victimization. Mead concludes her study by exploring how, in the future, both sexes can benefit without denying the differences between them. 610. Money, John, and Patricia Tucker. Sexual Signatures: On Being a Man or a Woman. Boston: Little, Brown, 1975. 250p. illus. bibliography, 237-39. index. Writing for the layperson in clear, readable prose, the authors explain the mysteries of gender identity and role. Gender identity is defined as the inner, private experience of one's sexuality, gender role as the public expression of that experience. The authors use "gender identity/role" to express the continuity and interaction of the two. They explain what creates hermaphrodites, and they define homosexuality, transvestism, and transsexualism. Describing prenatal development, the authors invoke the "Adam principle" to explain why males are at greater risk: something extra is needed to prevent the fetus from developing into a female. They explain chromosomes and hormones, as well as variations that can occur in the standard XX and XY patterning. Discussing the socialization of humans, the authors distinguish between "reannouncement" (announcing that an infant thought to be of one sex is actually of the other) and "reassignment" (a more drastic effort to clarify an uncertain identity or to rectify the condition of a person assigned to the "wrong'' sex). Examining childhood and adolescence, the authors recommend greater social flexibility toward roles. Their chapter on the sex revolution is necessary reading for anyone interested in what lies behind the men's movement and other indications of male discontent in the United States. 611. Ong, Walter J. Fighting for Life: Contest, Sexuality, and Consciousness. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1981. 237p. bibliography, 211-22. index. Reprint, Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1989. pa. Ong explores the relation between contest and male identity. Arguing that selfconsciousness emerges from the biological but is not entirely determined by it, he focuses on contest, or adversativeness as a shaping force of male identity. Whether in animals or humans, males live more at risk, needing to define their sexual identity in a way that females do not. Even as an embryo, the male must differentiate himself through hormonal activity or else develop into a

female. Males thus have a built-in resistance to nurture; they exhibit a need to resist the prevailing female environment of existence. Boys must shift their gender identity away from the feminine by proving themselves male; even in intercourse men must perform in order to demonstrate their masculinity. Males thus establish their identity by taking or creating risks. Ong sees irreconcilable differences between the masculine and the feminine. The male is the archetypal quester, at times ridiculous, like Don Quixote. The female is the primary parent, a "Piet" figure who must lovingly relinquish possession of her child. Masculinity is external; femininity is internal. Males are dispensable; females are not. Surveying current society, Ong notes that women's sports have failed to develop the life-and-death sense of contestand hence the audienceof men's sports, that the highly agonistic nature of politics and business reflects masculinity, and that the essentially feminine nature of the Roman Catholic Church (Holy Mother Church) is balanced by its male-only clergy. The agonistic nature of academic life has diminished since women entered academia, and narrative art has become more interiorized with the emergence of women authors. Discussing the positive and negative aspects of contest, Ong notes that difficulties are likely to ensue as males have fewer

Page 213

opportunities for creative contest and as females are increasingly subjected to the insecurity that comes with contest. 612. Petras, John W., ed. Sex: Male/Gender: Masculine: Readings in Male Sexuality. Port Washington, NY: Alfred, 1975. 256p. bibliographies after some selections. notes. pa. Twenty-four previously published items examining the physiology of maleness and the cultural roles of masculinity make up this anthology. Part 1 includes essays on the biological imperatives of maleness, nineteenth-century discourse on the allegedly hideous effects of masturbation, and early-twentieth-century views of how the "real boy" ought to behave. Part 2 presents the socialization of males. Two comical boyhood memoirs by Julius Lester and Bill Cosby are followed by portraits of both executive and blue-collar working-class men in their homes. Mirra Komarovsky explores contradictions in the masculine role as experienced by college students. Part 3 includes Jack O. Balswick and Charles W. Peek on the inexpressive male, Norman Mailer on women's liberation, and Michael Korda on the domestic chauvinist. Part 4, which explores new directions for men, includes Keith Olstad's "basis for discussion" of brave new men, as well as essays on breaking away from mainstream U.S. masculine roles. 613. Pittman, Frank S., III. Man Enough: Fathers, Sons, and the Search for Masculinity. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1993. 287p. bibliography, 271-76. index. Necessarily, boys learn masculinity from other males, whether fathers, grandfathers, mentors, siblings, peers, or male heroes created by the society. In Part I of this book, Pittman argues that many modern men have been hurt because society prevented their fathers from being teachers of masculinity. Consequently, many sons strive for a compulsive display of masculinity. Whether as philanderers, contenders, or controllers, these men are damaged by hypermasculinity. In Part 2, Pittman surveys how boys become men. A sketch of the origins of patriarchy (badly oversimplified because of Pittman's uncritical reliance on skewed sources like Gerda Lerner's The Creation of Patriarchy, item 679) is followed by a discussion of the necessity for sons to separate from mothers. Because of widespread homophobia, many men fear the male friendship that they need. In the book's final section, Pittman advises

men to stop proving their manhood and start practicing it, as caring fathers, husbands, sons, brothers, and so on. 614. Pleck, Joseph H. The Myth of Masculinity. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1981. ix, 229p. appendixes. bibliography, 189-216. notes. name and subject indexes. pa. Challenging the Male Sex Role Identity (MSRI) paradigm, Pleck calls into question over 40 years of sex role research and some of the most widely held assumptions about masculinity. Pleck lists 11 questionable MSRI propositions, including: sex role identity derives from identification-modeling and (to a lesser extent) from reinforcement and cognitive learning of sex-typed traits, homosexuality reflects a disturbance of sex role identity, exaggerated masculine behavior indicates insecurity in some men's sex role identity, problems of sex role identity account for men's negative attitudes and behaviors toward women, and black males are particularly vulnerable to sex role identity problems. Surveying past sex role research, Pleck finds it often based upon inadequately defined psychological theory, misinterpretations, contradictions, and cultural biases. He questions the validity of sex-typing scales, the idea of

Page 214

identification-modeling, theories of what paternal absence does to children, and arguments that schools feminize male students. In the two concluding chapters, Pleck examines an alternative explanation of male behaviors in the Sex Role Strain (SRS) paradigm, which he formulates in 10 propositions, including: sex roles are contradictory and inconsistent, the proportion of people who violate sex roles is high, violating sex roles has more severe consequences for males than for females, each sex experiences sex role strain in its work and family roles, and historical change causes sex role strain. Appendix A reviews theories that biology is the basis for male aggression; appendix B critiques the idea that biology insures weak paternal involvement. Appendix C contains a valuable list of resources for studying or teaching male roles. The bibliography is extensive. 615. Pleck, Joseph H., and Jack Sawyer, eds. Men and Masculinity. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Spectrum Books, 1974. viii, 184p. bibliography, 17584. (The Patterns of Social Behavior Series). pa. This collection of 31 previously published essays is divided into seven sections. Essays in section 1, "Growing Up Male," explore how boys are socialized into learning the masculine role; selections include Brian Allen's disturbing short story "A Visit from Uncle Macho," Ruth E. Hartley's classic essay on the socialization of the male child, and Sidney M. Jourard's study of the lethal aspects of the masculine role. Section 2, "Men and Women," examines relationships between the sexes and sexual problems; Julius Lester's hilarious "Being a Boy'' and Sam Julty's discussion of impotence are among the selections. Items in section 3, "Men and Children," include Robert A. Fein's informative essay "Men and Young Children," which examines how men are blocked from the rewards of child nurturing, and Kelvin Seifert's discussion of the problems encountered by men who work in child care centers. The next section, "Men and Men," explores the troubled relationships between men, especially the problem of homophobia as a bar to male friendships. Section 5, "Men and Work," consists of an essay on measuring masculinity by the size of a paycheck (by Robert E. Gould), an essay on executives as human beings (by Fernando Bartolom), and an autobiographical account of a hip homosexual college teacher attempting to work within the system (by Michael Silverstein). Section 6, "Men and Society," focuses on machismo in the military and in politics. The final section, "Men's Liberation," includes such items as Barbara J.

Katz's survey of the men's liberation movement, two accounts of men's groups, Jack Sawyer's brief essay "On Male Liberation," and the Berkeley Men's Center Manifesto. Pleck and Sawyer provide introductions to the volume and to each section. 616. Rose, Frank. Real Men. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Dolphin Books, 1980. viii, 213p. illus. pa. In this study of "sex and style in an uncertain age," Rose and photographer George Bennet present in-depth portraits of seven men representing highly diverse styles of masculinity: Virginia Military Institute cadet Rick Wetherill, rock star Dee Dee Ramone, gay interior-space designer Norm Rathweg, New York Rangers hockey player Pat Hickey, Youngstown steel worker Carroll Megginson, Dallas stockbroker Billy Bob Harris, and actor Andrew Rubin. 617. Rutherford, Jonathan. Men's Silences: Predicaments in Masculinity. London and New York: Routledge, 1992. x, 227p. (Male Orders series). bibliography, 21321. notes. index. pa.

Page 215

"Men's silences" refers to the gap between language and men's affective relations. Writing in the wake of British, left-wing feminist anger at left-wing male politics, Rutherford notes the narrowing of the men's anti-sexist movement to accommodate that anger. The Men Against Sexism movement degenerated into anti-pornography fundamentalism, typified by the "demagoguery" of John Stoltenberg's Refusing To Be a Man (entry 623). To construct a broader-based theory of masculinity, psychology, and politics, Rutherford conducts a far-ranging theoretical inquiry. Along the way, he examines matters such as Nancy Chodorow on the reproduction of mothering in capitalism, French poststructuralist thought, the writings in the men's profeminist journal Achilles Heel, the thesis of The Sexuality of Man (1985), Wittgenstein on language, the father in Freud and Lacan, and numerous other topics. In contrast to previous oedipal theories that put the mother and the father into opposition, Rutherford postulates a "thirdness," an interrelation between the two parents that can enable the boy to move successfully beyond the oedipal phase. Rutherford offers extended readings of films such as Alice in the Cities; Paris, Texas; Dead Poets Society; and the Rambo films to illustrate the idea. The success of "the good father'' in Rutherford's "thirdness" theory is crucial to the development of male affective life. 618. Segal, Lynne. Slow Motion: Changing Masculinities, Changing Men. London: Virago Press, 1990. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1990. xiii, 396p. bibliography, 361-82. notes. index. pa. In this thoughtful, carefully researched analysis of changing concepts of masculinity, British psychologist Lynne Segal often challenges conventional wisdom about men. After a survey of masculinities that begins with the angry young men of the 1950s, Segal examines the new fatherhood, one that comparatively few men are opting for and one that, paradoxically, threatens female dominance in the family. She examines contemporary research on gender differences, finding most current theories wanting. With admirable clarity, Segal manages to explicate and assess Jacques Lacan's theories on the phallus as symbolic signifier. Three chapters are devoted to describing competing masculinities in recent timesthe historical dominant mode, those of "traitors" to this mode (such as gays), and black masculinities. In discussing sexuality, Segal rejects the radical feminist linking of male sexuality with dominance and violence. Her analyses of pornography and domestic violence

discover complexities in both topics. She examines the anti-sexist men's movement in Britain, noting its limited success. Rejecting the misandry of some feminists, Segal believes men can join women in creating social structures that will ensure a more humane future for both sexes. If Slow Motion at times is not critical enough (it sometimes parrots Marxist-based pieties about men as a ruling class, and it accepts too easily the bad press that masculinity has been given by some liberals, academics, and feminists), the book always presents Segal's active mind confronting the puzzles of what men want and what men are. 619. Seidler, Victor J. Rediscovering Masculinity: Reason, Language and Sexuality. London and New York: Routledge, 1989. xvi, 234p. bibliography, 221-28. notes. name and subject indexes. pa. In this blend of theory, memoir, and reflection, Seidler argues that males have been affected by a cultural heritage that equates masculinity with reason and progress. The Enlightenment defined reason as masculine and emotion as feminine. By doing so, it shut men away from their emotions and atrophied their identity. Feminism has challenged traditional masculinity, but no replacement

Page 216

model has emerged. Seidler finds little help in Marxist or liberal thought; he argues that rethinking masculinity means rethinking socialism. Disagreeing with Dale Spender's Man Made Language (entry 427) on male dominance of language, the author argues that men often use language to mask their emotions. Interwoven with his theoretical critique, Seidler recalls growing up in the fifties, his shame at his Jewishness and sexuality, his life on a Massachusetts commune in the seventies, and his later involvement in an East London socialist organization. He finds a gap between "the institutionalized power of men" and the experiences of individual men, who are, often enough, powerless in the grip of repressed feeling, sexuality, and intimacy. 620. Shapiro, Stephen A. Manhood: A New Definition. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1984. 266p. bibliography, 258-60. notes. index. Arguing that the concept of manhood is now in shambles, Shapiro sounds a call to recover positive masculinity. In eight exhortatory chapters, he denounces male narcissism, passive-aggressive silence, and father-son tensions as the core of the problem. He urges men to recover a sense of responsible brotherhood for other men, to evolve a sense of purpose during midlife transition, and to reestablish trust between the sexes. Regarding Joseph Campbell and other mythologists as too far removed from the world of everyday needs, Shapiro prods men to recover a concept of practical heroism that distinguishes between violence and sacrifice. 621. Steinberg, Warren. Masculinity: Identity, Conflict, and Transformation. Boston and London: Shambhala, 1993. ix, 228p. bibliography, 215-21. notes. index. pa. In this Jungian analysis of masculinity, Steinberg argues that boys need to establish a gender identity before they can move on to fuller masculinity. "A too-early emphasis on androgyny done at the behest of political correctness," the author writes, "is harmful to masculine development." The father plays a crucial role in aiding the son's comfortable movement away from Mother. Rather than being the fearful castrator of Freudian theory, the loving father can provide the boy with an attractive alternative to the mother. The hostile or absent father can complicate the son's attainment of masculine identity. "The Isaac complex," for example, describes a son who sacrifices his individuality to rebel against Father or to quell his guilt for having done so. Society's insistence

upon male achievement and power can leave a man with a fear of failure and of the "feminine." The Shadow and the hairy Wild Man are opposing archetypes that can either warp or aid masculine achievement. Initiation rites are valuable if they lead to rebirth and not to humiliation. However, initiation into traditional masculine roles is but one step toward individuation: the male must incorporate "feminine'' qualities in order to become a male human being. 622. Stoltenberg, John. The End of Manhood: A Book for Men of Conscience. New York: Dutton, 1993. xviii, 313p. Stoltenberg urges men to abandon "manhood" for "selfhood." He equates manhood with male dominance and insensitivity; he defines selfhood as an egalitarian humanity. Stoltenberg parodies Robert Bly's Iron John (entry 861) as Deep Bob, a purveyor of slobbering manhood. Men who subscribe to manhood are like Jekyll and Hyde; they can be kind one moment and cruel the next. Such men compete with other men, or they gang up on weaker men or women. Stoltenberg's rambling reflections are interspersed with autobiographical and satiric parables, and they end with a denunciation of pornography (on which manhood allegedly thrives). The discussion apparently has a subtext: Stoltenberg's caricature of

Page 217

manhood appears to be a covert attack on heterosexuality. By equating manhood with a stereotype of machismo, he evidently seeks to elevate a bisexual, polymorphous, or gay "selfhood." Trying to subvert homophobia, he lapses into heterophobia. He misreads Bly's Iron John as a call to oppression by straight males. The book's ultimate puzzle is never fully solved: How can one be a man of conscience after one's manhood has been abandoned? 623. Stoltenberg, John. Refusing to Be a Man: Essays on Sex and Justice. Portland, OR: Breitenbush Books, 1989. 225p. bibliography, 211-225. Reprint, New York: Penguin USA, Meridian Books, 1990. pa. Reprint, London: Fontana, 1990. pa. Stoltenberg sees "man" almost entirely as a social-political construct with little biological basis. Thus, "sexual identity," as usually understood, is a fiction. A radical pro-feminist, Stoltenberg argues that the masculinity that has prevailed throughout human history is almost entirely negative and oppressive, but it can be deconstructed and replaced by a more positive gender role. The author focuses on rape and pornography as classic cases of male "objectification" of females. He depicts patriarchy negatively as "father right'' and urges its dissolution. Although the point is not explicitly made, Stoltenberg apparently envisions a new matriarchy or "mother right" society. Any claim to fathers' rights, especially in abortion cases, is just another male ploy to gain power over women. Stoltenberg is at his best urging a more humane masculinity; he is at his worst fulminating so wildly against fatherhood and pornography that his arguments wilt in the overheated polemics. 624. Tiger, Lionel. Men in Groups. New York: Random House, 1969. xx, 255p. bibliography, 218-45. notes. index. Reprint, New York: Random House, Vintage, 1970. pa. Reprint, New York: Boyars, Marion, 1989. pa. Influential and controversial, Tiger's book argues that male bonding in human societies is not only socially learned but also biologically transmitted. Like the female-offspring relationship and the male-female sexual link, the male-male bond is rooted in an underlying biological predisposition. After discussing male bonding in animal communities, Tiger traces the evolution of modern male associative interaction from generations of male group hunters. A primary function of male bonding is aggressive action to enhance survival of the society, whether through defence against enemies, hunting for food, or other

strenuous activities. The critical nature of such tasks leads men to "court" other men, that is, to test and select "fit" males for inclusion in the group, often through symbolic initiation practices. The link between aggressive action and violence, however, indicates that male aggression can become antisocial; hence, managing such behaviors is a primary social concern. Although Tiger favors the inclusion of more women in the public life of modem society, he stresses the difficulty of achieving this goal: Because of the predisposition to assign critical public affairs to males, in times of crisis males tend to reject females as colleagues, and both males and females tend to reject females as leaders. Paradoxically, in social matters, the modem middle-class bias against widespread male bonding may impoverish men's lives by failing to formulate acceptable male-male relationships. Any hope of future progress demands that humanity recognize and deal with its biological-social heritage of male bonding.

Page 218

Cross-References See chapter 1, "Anthropology, Sociology," chapter 3, "Awareness," chapter 5, "Boys," chapter 10, "History,'' chapter 17, "Men's Studies," and chapter 23, "Spirituality." 171. Abbott, Franklin, ed. Boyhood, Growing Up Male: A Multicultural Anthology. 72. Abbott, Franklin, ed. New Men, New Minds: Breaking Male Tradition: How Today's Men Are Changing the Traditional Roles of Masculinity. 154. Astin, Helen S., Allison Parelman, and Anne Fisher, comps. Sex Roles: A Research Bibliography. 390. Bamber, Linda. Comic Women, Tragic Men: A Study of Gender and Genre in Shakespeare. 81. Bell, Donald H. Being a Man: The Paradox of Masculinity. 477. Billet, Henry B. Fathers and Families: Paternal Factors in Child Development. 478. Billet, Henry. Paternal Deprivation: Family, School, Sexuality, and Society. 479. Biller, Henry, and Dennis Meredith. Father Power. 861. Bly, Robert. Iron John: A Book About Men. 4. Brandes, Stanley. Metaphors of Masculinity: Sex and Status in Andalusian Folklore. 650. Brod, Harry, ed. A Mensch Among Men: Explorations in Jewish Masculinity. 268. Carnes, Mark C., and Clyde Griffen, eds. Meanings of Manhood: Constructions of Masculinity in Victorian America. 486. Corneau, Guy. Absent Fathers, Lost Sons: The Search for Masculine Identity. 272. Dubbert, Joe L. A Man's Place: Masculinity in Transition. 343. Duberman, Martin. Male Armor: Selected Plays, 1968-1974.

653. Duneier, Mitchell. Slim's Table: Race, Respectability, and Masculinity. 400. Federico, Annette. Masculine Identity in Hardy and Gissing. 150. Flood, Michael, comp. The Men's Bibliography: A Comprehensive Bibliography of Writing on Men and Masculinity. 151. Ford, David, and Jeff Hearn, comps. Studying Men and Masculinity: A Sourcebook of Literature and Materials. 7. Gilmore, David D. Manhood in the Making: Cultural Concepts of Masculinity. 103. Goldberg, Herb. The Hazards of Being Male: Surviving the Myth of Masculine Privilege.

Page 219

987. Goldberg, Herb. The New Male-Female Relationship. 1043. Gorn, Elliott J. The Manly Art: Bare-Knuckle Prize Fighting in America. 152. Grady, Kathleen E., Robert Brannon, and Joseph H. Pleck, comps. The Male Sex Role: A Selected and Annotated Bibliography. 178. Hawley, Richard A. Boys Will Be Men: Masculinity in Troubled Times. 10. Herdt, Gilbert H. Guardians of the Flutes: Idioms of Masculinity. 13. Herzfeld, Michael. The Poetics of Manhood: Contest and Identity in a Cretan Mountain Village. 109. Hoch, Paul. White Hero, Black Beast: Racism, Sexism and the Mask of Masculinity. 406. Kahn, Copplia. Man's Estate: Masculine Identity in Shakespeare. 115. Kaye, Harvey. Male Survival: Masculinity Without Myth. 868. Keen, Sam. Fire in the Belly: On Being a Man. 284. Kirshner, Alan M. Masculinity in an Historical Perspective: Readings and Discussions. 48. Klein, Edward, and Don Erickson, eds. About Men: Reflections on the Male Experience. 17. Komarovsky, Mirra. Dilemmas of Masculinity: A Study of College Youth. 412. Krutnik, Frank. In a Lonely Street: Film Noir, Genre, Masculinity. 870. Lawlor, John. Earth Honoring: The New Male Sexuality. 515. Lee, John. At My Father's Wedding: Reclaiming Our True Masculinity. 52. Leiris, Michel. Manhood: A Journey from Childhood into the Fierce Order of Virility. 414. Leverenz, David. Manhood and the American Renaissance. 20. Lidz, Theodore, and Ruth Wilmanns Lidz. Oedipus in the Stone Age: A Psychoanalytic Study of Masculinization in Papua New Guinea. 661. Majors, Richard, and Janet Mancini Billson. Cool Pose: The Dilemmas of Black Manhood in America.

287. Mangan, J. A., and James Walvin, eds. Manliness and Morality: MiddleClass Masculinity in Britain and America, 1800-1940. 418. Mellen, Joan. Big Bad Wolves: Masculinity in the American Film. 182. Miedzian, Myriam. Boys Will Be Boys: Breaking the Link Between Masculinity and Violence. 921. Miles, Rosalind. Love, Sex, Death and the Making of the Male. 531. Osherson, Samuel. Finding Our Fathers: The Unfinished Business of Manhood.

Page 220

184. Paley, Vivian Gussin. Boys and Girls: Superheroes in the Doll Corner. 663. Paz, Octavio. The Labyrinth of Solitude .... 288. Pleck, Elizabeth H., and Joseph H. Pleck, eds. The American Male. 289. Pugh, David G. Sons of Liberty: The Masculine Mind in NineteenthCentury America. 291. Roper, Michael, and John Tosh, eds. Manful Assertions: Masculinities in Britain Since 1800. 293. Rotundo, E. Anthony. American Manhood: Transformations in Masculinity from the Revolution to the Modern Era. 423. Savran, David. Communists, Cowboys, and Queers: The Politics of Masculinity in the Work of Arthur Miller and Tennessee Williams. 424. Schwenger, Peter. Phallic Critiques: Masculinity and Twentieth-Century Literature. 667. Staples, Robert. Black Masculinity: The Black Man's Role in American Society. 668. Teague, Bob. Letters to a Black Boy. 143. Thompson, Keith, ed. To Be a Man: In Search of the Deep Masculine. 431. Tuss, Alex J., S.M. The Inward Revolution: Troubled Young Men in Victorian Fiction, 1850-1880. 556. Welch, Don. Macho Isn't Enough! Family Man in a Liberated World. 437. Woodcock, Bruce. Male Mythologies: John Fowles and Masculinity.

Page 221

16 Men's Rights
625. Chambers, David L. Making Fathers Pay: The Enforcement of Child Support. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1979. xiv, 365p. illus. appendix. bibliography, 359-62. notes. index. Chambers covers the procedures used in three Michigan counties to force divorced fathers to pay alimony and child support. He examines the treatment of men by the courts, a public agency named Friend of the Court, and the jails. Fathers' rights advocates will find plenty to outrage them in what is reported, but the book depicts a situation producing more than enough misery and hardship for everyone involvedfathers, mothers, and children. The methodological appendix is by Terry K. Adams. 626. Conine, Jon. Fathers' Rights: The Sourcebook for Dealing with the Child Support System. New York: Walker, 1989. xvi, 220p. appendixes. index. Fathers are punished by divorce procedures and a child support system that do notindeed, cannotwork. The man who fails to grapple with the insanities of the system, however, may be destroyed by it. Conine argues that the system often attempts the impossible when it takes children from fathers and then expects fathers to support them willingly. Those who run the system typically blame fathers for its failures and persecute fathers as the villains. In clear prose, Conine spells out the labyrinthine operations of the child support enforcement system, including tracking down fathers, collecting child support, establishing paternity, withholding wages, and enforcing orders. Numerous horror stories of the system out of control punctuate the exposition. Conine encourages fathers to meet their legal support requirements, but he points out the pitfalls confronting even the most cooperative father when dealing with the system. Appendix A lists child support enforcement agencies in each state; appendix B lists fathers' rights organizations. 627. Doyle, R. F. The Rape of the Male. St. Paul, MN: Poor Richard's Press, 1976. xi, 286p. illus. bibliography, 279-86. notes. pa. The founder of Men's Rights Association, Doyle here takes angry aim at

favoritism toward women in U.S. society, especially in the divorce courts. Doyle criticizes no-fault divorce laws that permit automatic granting of custody to

Page 222

women and support payments to men, without any real enforcement of noncustodial visitation rights. "Upon dissolution of marriage, men's functions continue to be enforced," Doyle writes, "yet no judge has ever ordered a woman to cook, clean, and sew for her ex-husband; and damned seldom for an existing one." Ex-husbands are jailed if they cannot meet support payments, perhaps the only surviving example of imprisonment for debt. Courts routinely presume males guilty until proven innocent: "'orders to show cause why the accused should not be held in contempt of court' are a subterfuge, applied almost exclusively to males." Doyle illustrates his argument with horror stories gleaned from years of counseling divorced men and from his own experiences with the courts. As Doyle notes, "This is not a chivalrous book." Present information indicates that this book can be obtained from the Men's Rights Association, 17854 Lyons St., Forest Lake, MN 55025-8854. 628. Kanowitz, Leo. Equal Rights: The Male Stake. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1981. viii, 197p. appendix. notes. case and subject indexes. pa. One purpose of this book is to demonstrate that men as well as women have been historically victimized by social gender discrimination and by sexist legal decisions. "By contrast, a casual glance at the treatment males have received at the hands of the law solely because they are males suggests that they have paid an awesome price for other advantages they have presumably enjoyed over females in our society," Kanowitz writes. "Whether one talks of the male's unique obligation of compulsory military service, his primary duty for spousal and child support, his lack of the same kinds of protective labor legislation that have traditionally been enjoyed by women, or the statutory or judicial preference in child custody disputes that have long been accorded to mothers vis--vis fathers of minor children, sex discrimination against males in statutes and judicial decisions has been widespread and severe." Kanowitz argues that men's interests coincide with those of women seeking equal rights under the law; he deplores the anti-male attitude of some feminists. In a series of essays, Kanowitz examines such matters as "benign" sex discrimination (which he finds not so benign at all), Social Security benefits favoring women, alimony decisions, "protective" laws that are not extended to males, equal pay and overtime restrictions, the New Mexico Equal Rights Amendment, the military draft, the national campaign for the ERA during the 1970s, and prospects for future adoption of such an amendment. Particularly disturbing is the evidence

presented to demonstrate the almost total inability or unwillingness of the Supreme Court to recognize the extent and effects of anti-male discrimination in the past. Although the book is somewhat disjointed because it is made up in part of materials published over an eight-year period, readers can watch Kanowitz evolve from a pro-feminist male who in 1972 accepted the fashionable idea of men as an oppressor class to a genuine equal rights advocate who in 1980 recognizes the impact of anti-male bias on men. A postscript on recent Supreme Court decisions concerning statutory rape and the male-only draft leaves little doubt that men have a long way to go before achieving equality in the courts. 629. Katz, Sanford N., and Monroe L. Inker, eds. Fathers, Husbands and Lovers: Legal Rights and Responsibilities. Chicago: American Bar Association Press, 1982. v, 318p. notes. pa. Ten essays plus an introduction originally published in Family Law Quarterly explore several aspects of law relating to males, including medical tests to determine paternity more accurately (and hence child support obligations), the complications arising from "test tube baby" situations, the impact

Page 223

of Stanley v. Illinois on securing the rights of unwed fathers, the impact of Roe v. Wade on paternal support (if the woman and her doctor have the right to decide on abortion or birth, why should the father be responsible for supporting a child he may not want?), a historical survey of laws regulating fathers' rights and obligations, laws concerning wife battering (no laws concerning husband battering are discussed), and changing alimony and property decisions. A few writers are sympathetic to men's rights, but otherslike the editorsconvey the impression that males are a privileged class that deserves to be punished by law. 630. Lynch, Frederick R. Invisible Victims: White Males and the Crisis of Affirmative Action. New York: Praeger, 1991. xvii, 237p. appendixes. bibliography, 225-31. notes. index. pa. Lynch addresses the "forgotten" problem of discrimination suffered by white males as a result of affirmative action quotas and preferential treatment of women and minorities in hiring, promotion, and educational opportunities. Several factors have operated to cover up the issue of anti-male discrimination. Judges and bureaucrats imposed the policies upon the nation from above, preventing open discussion of them. The male sex role inhibited men from complaining about injustices. "Blaming the victim" was widespread as the media and Democratic politicians accused white males of having created racial and gender inequities in the first place. A "spiral of silence" made a minority view favoring quotas appear to be a majority view, and a "new McCarthyism" that denounced opponents of quotas as racist or sexist further squelched resistance. Corporations found it easier to comply with preferential programs than to face lawsuits and public accusations of racism and sexism. Yet, the majority of Americans have always opposed race and gender quotas. Lynch cites in detail the experiences of 34 white, male victims of affirmative action. He notes the media's positive presentation of affirmative action and the corresponding inattention to discrimination against white males. The numerous problems created by preferential quotas, especially in the academic world where they have been actively embraced, have led to a crisis of affirmative action. 631. Rivkin, Robert S. GI Rights and Army Justice: The Draftee's Guide to Military Life and Law. New York: Grove Press, 1970. xii, 383p. appendixes. notes.

index. Published during the Vietnam War, this book provides a look at legal rights in the military, then and now. Regarding the draftee or reluctant enlistee as a member of an oppressed minority, Rivkin depicts the realities of power and law in the army as a system of coercion producing a travesty of justice. From the time of induction to discharge, the soldier can expect harassment, low pay, maltreatment, and questionable legal practices. The military mind, the author argues, believes that humiliation plus fear equals obedience, revels in an antidemocratic caste system, glorifies killing, and likes to try its own cases. The ordinary soldier can expect little redress for many abuses he suffers. Exercising First Amendment rights of free speech, for example, can be hazardous for the GI, and rights of privacy can be easily violated. Nevertheless, Rivkin spells out what the soldier's rights are and explains how he can protect himself legally, including methods of filing complaints and bringing charges. The abuse of servicemen in stockades is described, including an account of the Presidio 27. The final chapter debunks a series of military "myths" (e.g., discipline in combat will disappear in the absence of terror in training) and argues for a more humane and equitable system of military justice.

Page 224

632. Rivkin, Robert S., and Barton F. Stichman. The Rights of Military Personnel: The Basic ACLU Guide for Military Personnel. Rev. ed. New York: Avon Books, Discus, 1977. 158p. appendix. notes. pa. Original publication, as The Rights of Servicemen (New York: Avon Books, 1972. Reprint, New York: Richard W. Barton, 1973). "The military services are still unnecessarily oppressive," the authors state, "but no longer are they immune from public scrutiny and civilian court review of their lawless actions." Taking a less than enthusiastic view of military law and practice, the authors review such matters as military law and the court-martial system, Article 15 (which allows a commanding officer to punish any member of his command for minor offenses), the soldier's rights during interrogation, AWOL and desertion, the right to privacy (apparently more honored in the breach than in the observance), First Amendment rights of freedom of expression, conscientious objection, the right to disobey illegal orders, getting out of the military, and filing complaints against military personnel. The appendix includes a worldwide list of agencies that provide various forms of military-legal counseling. 633. Rudovsky, David, Alvin J. Bronstein, and Edward T. Koren. The Rights of Prisoners: The Basic ACLU Guide to a Prisoner's Rights. Rev. ed. New York: Bantam Books, 1983. An American Civil Liberties Union Handbook. 145p. appendixes. bibliography, 137-38. notes. Painting a dismal picture of prisoners' rights, the authors argue that the courts' hands-off policy regarding prisons guarantees almost total control of them by prison officials. In question-and-answer format, they touch briefly upon such matters as due process in prison disciplinary cases, freedom from cruel and unusual punishment, problems of censorship in prison, prisoners' rights to free communication and access to the courts, questions of religious and racial discrimination in prison policies, political rights of prisoners, questions of privacy and personal appearance, and rights to medical care and protection from physical or sexual abuse. The authors also discuss pretrial confinement ("the jails are an unmitigated disgrace"), parole, and procedures for remedies of prisoners' complaints. Prisoners' rights are both scarce and arbitrary: the authors advise the reader that "this guide offers no assurances that your rights will be respected."

634. Sherrill, Robert. Military Justice Is to Justice as Military Music Is to Music. Rev. ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1971. 306p. index. pa. While U.S. women are exempt from compulsory military service, U.S. men can still face the possibility of conscription. Once he is in service, the American man "may anticipate not only the possibility of giving up his life but also the certainty of giving up his liberties." This book indicates what men can expect from military courts because both Congress and the Supreme Court have consistently refused to extend constitutional rights to soldiers. Sherrill intersperses his history of military law with accounts of specific cases of miscarriage of justice, atrocities in military stockades, and cruel and unusual punishments meted out by the military. He concludes: "Justice is too important to be left to the military. If military justice is corruptand it issooner or later it will corrupt civilian justice." 635. Stoddard, Thomas B., E. Carrington Boggan, Marilyn G. Haft, Charles Lister, and John P. Rupp. The Rights of Gay People. Rev. ed. New York: Bantam Books, 1983. xiii, 194p. appendixes. bibliography, 167-70. notes. pa.

Page 225

Using a question-and-answer format, this book surveys gay rights in such areas as freedom of speech and assembly, employment, armed services, security clearance, immigration and naturalization, and housing and public accommodations. Separate chapters cover the gay family, gays and criminal law, and the rights of transvestites and transsexuals. The appendixes include criminal statues listed by state that relate to consensual homosexual acts between adults; antidiscrimination laws of Minneapolis and East Lansing; executive orders of the governors of California and Pennsylvania concerning sexual minorities; a list of selected gay organizations; and ACLU state affiliates. This book is the revised edition of The Basic ACLU Guide to a Gay Person's Rights. 636. Weitzman, Leonore J. The Marriage Contract: Spouses, Lovers, and the Law. New York: Free Press, 1981. xxiii, 536p. appendix. notes. index. pa. In exhaustive detail, Weitzman examines the legal implications of marriage and cohabitation, focusing on traditional obligations (the husband must support the wife, the wife must provide domestic service and child care), as well as the discrepancies between the law's view of marriage and the social reality. Weitzman argues the case of "intimate contracts" between couples to ensure a more equitable distribution of powers and obligations. The author's feminist slant stresses the disadvantages to women in the traditional view of marriage and sometimes downplays or overlooks the disadvantages to men. 637. Wishard, William R., and Laurie Wishard. Men's Rights: A Handbook for the 80's. San Francisco: Cragmont Publications, 1980. 264p. appendix. bibliography, 259-60. index. "This book is pro-men; it is not anti-woman or anti-family," the authors explain. In informal and lively language, the Wishardsfather and daughter begin with the idea that, with the qualified success of women's rights in the courts, the time has come to balance the scales by considering men's rights. Most of their discussion concerns family law: marriage as a blank contract, the legal obligations of cohabitation arrangements, the father's well-defined responsibility to support his children and his less well-defined rights as a parent, the father's lack of rights in abortion cases, and the slightly expanding rights of unmarried fathers. The Wishards devote much space to discussing the legal ins and outs of separation, divorce custody (including the benefits and

drawbacks of joint custody), spouse support (as, traditionally, a form of discrimination against men), child support, visitation, and related matters. The authors also discuss the less noticed matter of reverse discrimination in employment opportunities and on the jobhow it occurs, what has been done, and what can be done to nullify it. Only a brief mention is made of men's unequal military obligations. The appendix contains a short list of men's rights organizations. Cross-References See chapter 6, "Divorce and Custody," and chapter 14, "Males in Families," section C, "Divorced and Single Fathers." 942. Barker, A.J. Prisoners of War. 79. Baumli, Francis, ed. Men Freeing Men: Exploding the Myth of the Traditional Male. 483. Cammarata, Jerry, with Frances Spatz Leighton. The Fun Book of Fatherhood...

Page 226

912. Eberle, Paul and Shirley. The Abuse of Innocence: The McMartin Preschool Trial. 96. Farrell, Warren. The Myth of Male Power: Why Men Are the Disposable Sex. 955. Jacobs, Clyde E., and John F. Gallagher. The Selective Service Act: A Case Study of the Governmental Process. 957. Johnson, R. Charles. Draft, Registration and the Law: A Guidebook. 514. Lamb, Michael E., and Abraham Sagi, eds. Fatherhood and Family Policy. 964. O'Sullivan, John, and Alan M. Meckler. The Draft and Its Enemies: A Documentary History. 60. Painter, Hal. Mark, I Love You. 136. Schenk, Roy U. The Other Side of the Coin: Causes and Consequences of Men's Oppression. 138. Shostak, Arthur B., and Gary McLouth, with Lynn Seng. Men and Abortion: Lessons, Losses, and Love. 578. Silver, Gerald A., and Myrna Silver. Weekend Fathers. 931. Spiegel, Lawrence D. A Question of Innocence: A True Story of False Accusation. 966a. Surrey, David S. Choice of Conscience: Vietnam Era Military and Draft Resisters in Canada. 967. Tax, Sol, ed. The Draft: A Handbook of Facts and Alternatives. 968. Taylor, L. B., Jr. The Draft: A Necessary Evil? 143. Thomas, David. Not Guilty: The Case in Defense of Men. 936. Tong, Dean. Don't Blame Me, Daddy: False Accusations of Child Abuse. 68. Waller, Leslie. Hide in Plain Sight. 937. Webb, Cathleen Crowell, with Marie Chapian. Forgive Me. 845. Wolinsky, Marc, and Kenneth Sherrill, eds. Gays and the Military: Joseph Steffan Versus the United States.

Page 227

17 Men's Studies: Interdisciplinary Collections and Studies


638. Brod, Harry, ed. The Making of Masculinities: The New Men's Studies. Boston: Allen and Unwin, 1987. xvi, 346p. notes. index. pa. An important collection of 14 articles (plus a foreword and an introduction), this book attempts to define men's studies and to demonstrate its practice. In the introduction and in his article "The Case for Men's Studies," Brod defines men's studies as "the study of masculinities and male experience as specific and varying social-historical-cultural formulations." Males (or, more exactly, a single concept of masculinity) are to be no longer regarded as "the norm" but as a phenomenon to be examined. Men's studies is "a complement, not a cooptation, of women's studies." More controversial is Brod's attempt to define the politics of men's studies as ''pro-feminist" and to locate its goals in vague socialist transformations of society. Most essays in the volume reflect this agenda, thereby suggesting that the new men's studies has a narrower political range than in fact it has. Thus, in this collection, one reads much about the evils of patriarchy, little about fatherhood, and nothing about fathers' rights. Nevertheless, most articles provide solid contributions to men's studies as both an interdisciplinary project and as a fresh perspective on individual disciplines. If "Towards a New Sociology of Masculinity," by Tim Carrigan, Bob Connell, and John Lee, stumbles under the weight of its Marxistfeminist presuppositions, James D. Riemer's "Rereading American Literature from a Men's Studies Perspective: Some Implications" demonstrates thoughtfully how literary criticism can benefit from a fresh masculinist approach. Joseph Pleck continues to raise troubling questions about male sex role research in his article, and Clyde W. Franklin II opens discussion on the decimation of America's black male population. Most refreshing are the articles that come nearest to questioning the volume's political perspective, such as Peter Filene's riposte to those who insist that traditional study of history has been "his-story" and Perry Treadwell's careful defense of a "biosociological" understanding of gender. Dorothy Hammond and Alta Jablow examine the "myth of male friendship" from Gilgamesh (entry 325) to Butch Cassidy, and

Louis Crompton discusses "Byron and Male Love: The Classical Tradition." Although the book provides no general bibliography, the notes to each article contain a wealth of resources for additional research in men's studies.

Page 228

639. Clatterbaugh, Kenneth. Contemporary Perspectives on Masculinity: Men, Women, and Politics in Modern Society. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990. ix, 182p. bibliography, 161-73. index. pa. Sorting out the various strands of the men's movement and elucidating their philosophical foundations, Clatterbaugh provides a valuable service for anyone interested in men's studies. Clatterbaugh finds six major masculinist perspectives: conservative, pro-feminist, men's rights, spiritual, socialist, and group-specific. He examines each perspective in terms of its history and primary sources, its description and explanation of male reality, and its assessment of that reality and its agenda for change. Clatterbaugh then provides a series of criticisms and responses for each perspective, a summary and personal conclusion, and a list of suggested readings. Conservatives, he finds, are divided into moral conservatives (who see protective, breadwinning masculinity as the triumph of civilizing forces) and biosocial conservatives (who see take-charge masculinity as biological destiny). Pro-feminist men are divided into radicals (who see masculinity as a violent and misogynist evil) and liberals (who see masculinity as hurtful to men and others). Similarly, men's rights advocates are divided between those who stress fathers' rights and those seeking a broader agenda of men's rights. The spiritual or mythopoetic movement is divided between "wild men" who seek to initiate males through distinctly masculine archetypes and "horned god" advocates who stress a feminist orientation for men. Socialists are divided into classical Marxists for whom capitalism causes the evils of patriarchy and socialist feminists for whom patriarchal evils are not limited to capitalism. The group-specific perspective focuses mainly on gay men and African-American men. Although Clatterbaugh's own socialist perspective seems set in Marxist concrete, his clear and systematic presentation of the various masculinist perspectives goes far toward reducing the seeming chaos of the men's movements to reasonable order. 640. David, Deborah S., and Robert Brannon, eds. The Forty-nine Percent Majority: The Male Sex Role. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1976. xiv, 338p. bibliographies after several essays and 331-34. notes. pa. Reprint, New York: Random House, 1976. pa. Widely used in college courses, this anthology contains 38 selections by 36

authors. The extensive introduction by Brannon, "The Male Sex Role: Our Culture's Blueprint of Manhood, and What It's Done for Us Lately," defines four principal components of the role, which are the subjects of the first four chapters. Chapter I contains essays on the stigma for males of being characterized as feminine, while those in chapter 2 explore requirements for success and status. Selections in chapter 3 examine the "manly air of toughness, confidence, and self reliance"; those in chapter 4 deal with the masculine "aura of aggression, violence, and daring." Two additional chapters explore learning the male role and changing it. Selections include Gregory K. Lehne's original essay on homophobia among men, Robert Gould's ''Measuring Masculinity by the Size of a Paycheck," James Thurber's famous short story "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty," Ruth E. Hartley's classic essay "Sex Role Pressures and the Socialization of the Male Child," Julius Lester's hilarious "Being a Boy," and Andrea S. Hayman's informative "Legal Challenges to Discrimination Against Men." Some items, like Lois Gould's parable "X: A Fabulous Child's Story," may now seem naive and dated.

Page 229

641. Doyle, James A. The Male Experience. 3d ed. Madison, WI, and Dubuque, IA: Brown and Benchmark, 1995. xii, 343p. illus. bibliography after each chapter and 294-327. name and subject indexes. pa. An expanded and updated edition of Doyle's overview of men's studies, this volume can serve as a college text for a men's studies course or as a primer for general audiences on the interdisciplinary content of men's studies. In section 1, Doyle surveys such matters as the current flux in men's roles, a history of the various men's movements, biological ingredients of maleness, psychological views of masculinity, sociological analyses of male behavior, and anthropological views of differing masculinities. Section 2 examines elements of the male role, including the need to differentiate from the feminine, "success," aggression, and sexuality. Section 3 covers some issues of concern to males, including power and relationships, homosexuality, race, fatherhood, and men's health. The discussion reflects Doyle's "inclusive" model of men's studies, that is, one that presents divergent viewpoints. Although sensitive to feminist concerns, the discussion strives to articulate numerous promasculinist concerns as well. The section on rape acknowledges the existence of male victims of rape; the account of domestic violence recognizes the existence of some violent women and abused men. This edition draws on the latest scholarship in men's studies. 642. Franklin, Clyde W., II. Men and Society. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1988. vii, 263p. bibliography, 235-53. index. pa. This survey of men and society opens with four newspaper stories: in the first story is a man who buried his girlfriend alive, in the second is a man who engaged in sex with a two-year-old girl, in the third is a man who slashed a female model's face with razor, and in the fourth is a man who exposed himself in public. All four activities, Franklin argues, are representative of traditional masculinity. The book's opening should prepare the reader for Franklin's extremely negative views of white, heterosexual males and modern U.S. society. The author argues that heterosexual masculinity is an inherently barbarous influence on society, that social structures reinforce the power of evil males, and that only the overthrow of heterosexual and patriarchal society will rescue humanity. In this indictment of men and society, the components of heterosexual masculinity are reduced to misogyny, racism, aggressive violence,

power mania, and homophobia. The card stacking of evidence damages the book's credibility and its legitimate protest against current social and private evils. 643. Hearn, Jeff, and David Morgan, eds. Men, Masculinities and Social Theory. London: Unwin Hyman, 1990. xvi, 252p. (Critical Studies on Men and Masculinities, no. 2). bibliography, 229-245. author and subject indexes. pa. The fifteen articles in this collection emerged from a 1988 conference in England on men, masculinity, and social theory. Radical feminist and socialist thought influence most of the articles. In the introduction, Hearn and Morgan point out that awareness of gender and sexual politics has created an awareness of the "malestream" nature of discourse and study. Gender studies allows deconstruction, i.e., the breaking down of artificial unities such as "masculinity" and false dichotomies such as masculine-feminine and gendersexuality. In part 1, "Power and Domination," the uneasy rapprochement between radical feminism and pro-feminist men's studies becomes explicit in Jalna Hanmer's angry, touchy article insisting upon the unique victimization of women in patriarchy. (Despite the talk of deconstructing false dichotomies, nearly all the contributors to this volume write as if only women were victims of rape and

Page 230

violence and as if only men purchased pornography.) In succeeding articles, John Remy distinguishes between patriarchy (rule of the fathers) and fratriarchy (rule of younger men) as differing forms of male power groups. A similar distinction appears later in Harry Brod's discussion of pornography for male audiences: using Marxist and feminist theory, he argues that pornography alienates male sexuality. Sallie Westwood studies the impact of racism on black working-class men, and Cynthia Cockburn tallies the successes and limitations of equal opportunity efforts in Britain. Part 2, "Sexualities," includes Michael Kimmel's examination of the impact made by gender awareness upon sociology. Part 3, "Identity and Perception," features Barry Richard's reading of Ronald Reagan's oedipal conflicts. Part 4, "Commentaries," contains Joyce E. Canaan and Christine Griffin's concerns about the new men's studies. The concerns include funding (will men's studies drain off funds from women's studies?) and politics (will men's studies develop its own agenda that does not mesh with feminist agendas?). The closing essay by Victor J. Seidler argues for balancing pro-feminism with a respect for some aspects of masculinity. Men can change masculinity, he notes, but they cannot reject it. ''In working towards a transformed masculinity," Seidler notes, "we have to recognize the injuries that were done by the idea that men should be guilty as men." In this essay, Seidler manages not only to deconstruct but to reconstruct. 644. Kimmel, Michael S., ed. Changing Men: New Directions in Research on Men and Masculinity. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1987.320p. bibliography after each chapter. notes. pa. This anthology contains 19 essays divided into six sections: "Reformulating the Male Role," "Men in Domestic Settings," "Men and Women," "Sexuality," "Race and Gender," and "Toward Men's Studies." Selections include two essays (by Kimmel and by Harry Brod) defining and justifying the new men's studies, as well as Kimmel's account of teaching a men's studies course. A number of disciplines are represented in the collection. Several sociological studies examine the changing roles of men and women at work and in the family. Joseph H. Pleck succinctly surveys the history of U.S. attitudes towards fatherhood from the eighteenth century to the present, and Michael Shiffman recounts the history of the pro-feminist men's movement. Arthur B. Shostak explores negative attitudes towards males in abortion clinics, and Leonore Tiefer critically examines medical attempts to improve men's sexual

performance. 645. Kimmel, Michael S., and Michael A. Messner, eds. Men's Lives. 2d ed. New York: Macmillan, 1991. xiii, 586p. illus. bibliographies and notes after most chapters. pa. Selections in this anthology of writings cover various aspects of men's studies and issues. The articles are divided into 10 sections: "Perspectives on Masculinities," "From Boys to Men," "Sports and War: Rites of Passage in Male Institutions," "Men and Work," "Men and Health: Body and Mind," "Men with Women: Intimacy and Power," "Men with Men: Friendship and Fears," "Male Sexualities," "Men in Families," and "Men and the Future." The editors have aimed at an inclusiveness that is wider than usual: among the 56 articles, several are devoted to black, gay, Chicano, Jewish, and Asian men. Selections usually reflect the editors' pro-feminist and gay-affirmative perspective. A number of now-classic essays appear, such as, Gregory K. Lehne's analysis of homophobia and Jack Sawyer's account of the inexpressive male. More recent articles include Richard Major on the "cool pose" of young black males and Leonore Tiefer's intriguing account of how some members of the medical profession promise to provide men with the perfect penis.

Page 231

646. Lewis, Robert A., ed. Men in Difficult Times: Masculinity Today and Tomorrow. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981. xvi, 332p. illus. bibliographies after some items. notes. index. pa. This unusually rich collection contains 55 items, including essays, research summaries, historical analyses, autobiographical accounts, poems, and songs. The material from numerous contributors is gathered into six sections. In section 1, "The High Costs of Traditional Masculine Roles," items focus on competitiveness, male lack of playfulness, divorce and custody, men in therapy, and midlife decline. In section 2, "Socialization into Male Sex Roles," authors deal with sports, masculinity in comic strips, male chauvinism, and inexpressive males. Section 3, "Feminism and Men Facing Change," includes discussion of social change and the family, women's changing (and sometimes conflicting) expectations, the rise and fall of a men's group, and evolving masculine gender roles and male identities. In section 4, "Nurturance By and for Males," authors tackle the problems of single fathering, grandfatherhood, male teachers and young children, and barriers that make men's closeness with each other so difficult. Section 5, ''Resources for Change in Males," includes an analysis of male power and powerlessness, advice for male consciousness-raising groups, explorations of how homophobia can be eliminated, and desiderata for research on African-American males. The final section, "The New Man," includes an essay on shared parenting, suggestions for moving men toward greater intimacy, and an historical survey of the male role from preindustrial to postindustrial times. 647. Spender, Dale, ed. Men's Studies Modified: The Impact of Feminism on the Academic Disciplines. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press, 1981. xiii, 248p. bibliography after each chapter. pa. Despite its title, this collection of 16 articles has nothing to say about the new men's studies. Each of the articles describes the impact of feminist thought on a traditional academic area. The authors note the omissions and distortions concerning females in these studies, but they ignore the omissions and distortions concerning males. In the introduction, Spender equates traditional studies with "men's studies," apparently assuming that earlier male academics knew all there was to know about men and spoke for the entire male sex. All the contributors to this collection take a radical feminist view of men as an

oppressor class that despises women and seeks to keep them in their place. They report considerable misogyny on the part of male academics, and in turn they exhibit considerable misandry in their discussions of men. Cross-References See chapter 4, "Bibliographies," section A, "Men's Studies Bibliographies." 76. Baber, Asa. Naked at Gender Gap: A Man's View of the War Between the Sexes. 79. Baumli, Francis, ed. Men Freeing Men: Exploding the Myth of the Traditional Male. 602. Franklin, Clyde W., II. The Changing Definition of Masculinity. 125. Murphey, Cecil. Mantalk: Resources for Exploring Male Issues. 615. Pleck, Joseph H., and Jack Sawyer, eds. Men and Masculinity.

Page 232

18 Minority Males, Multicultural Studies


Books in this section focus primarily on males identified with racial, ethnic, or religious minority groups in the United States. 648. Ali, Shahrazad. The Blackman's Guide to Understanding the Blackwoman. Philadelphia: Civilized Publications, 1989. x, 184p. pa. In this controversial, outspoken polemic, Ali (a Blackwoman) accuses the Blackwoman of undermining respect for the Blackman and thereby harming both him and her, as well as the Black family and Blacks in general. The Blackwoman is out of control, and the Blackman must regain and exercise authority. According to Ali, mothers teach their children disrespect for the Blackman, teenage girls manipulate boys, and adult women are too undisciplined to stay in long-term relationships. The Blackman is a recovering slave whose recovery is often thwarted by the Blackwoman. Ali disapproves of Black-White relationships, and she finds the Blackwoman's behavior exacerbating Black problems. The book's thesis and the author's bluntness practically guarantee strong reactions. 649. Barbeau, Arthur E., and Florette Henri. The Unknown Soldiers: Black American Troops in World War I. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1974. xvii, 279p. illus. appendix. bibliography, 249-70. notes. index. In a documented account, the authors vindicate the valor of black U.S. soldiers during World War I. Despite racism, hostility, and humiliation that were all too often officially sanctioned, black troops served their country well. The narrative is enhanced by period photographs, extensive notes, and a bibliography. 650. Bowser, Benjamin P., ed. Black Male Adolescents: Parenting and Education in Community Context. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1991. 352p. illus. bibliographies after many chapters. name and subject indexes. Twenty-two contributors address what Bowser calls the most maltreated and underserved segment of the U.S. populationblack, male adolescents. The 18 essays are divided into four sections: "Up Against the Odds" (the problems

faced by black, male adolescents), "Families and CommunitiesParenting," "Education for Survival and Success," and "Development of Cultural Identity." Robert Staples sets the keynote early in the volume by describing the treatment

Page 233

of young black males in the United States as a form of genocide. Walter Stafford shows how these young men are "sorted out" from the opportunities that lead to success. Accusations of racism quickly give way to grappling with solutions. In a rousing biographical account, Loften Mitchell describes how community coparenting can operate effectively to socialize young black men. Robert Fullilove and Mindy Fullilove reach the surprising conclusion that AIDS may save the black community by forcing sexual responsibility on young people. Daphne Muse provides a reading list for young black people, and Peter Harris calls for humane portrayals of black fathers. Bowser's conclusion ingeniously sums up the volume by quoting key passages under two headings: "Crucial Insights," and "What Can Be Done." Many of the contributors tackle the grave difficulties facing young black men with verve, courage, and imagination. 651. Brod, Harry, ed. A Mensch Among Men: Explorations in Jewish Masculinity. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press, 1988. xv, 191p. notes. pa. This is the first book about Jewish men as Jewish men, Brod writes. The 21 essays, according to Brod, examine both gender and ethnicity. The foreword by Letty Cottin Pogrebin tells of her charismatic but distant father who "betrayed" her by remarrying after her mother's death. In the introduction, Brod also tells of his father, a survivor of the Holocaust, who evidently was wounded by his son's movement away from Orthodox Judaism. Both the introduction and the book itself reflect Brod's pro-feminist, gay-affirmative stance. Selections are divided into four sections: Jewish male identities; fathers and sons; anti-Semitism, sexism, and heterosexism; and men's movements and social activism. Essays include Chaim I. Waxman's survey of Jewish fatherhood from the Rabbinic-Talmudic period to the present, and Barry Dov Schwartz's survey of Jewish views of homosexuality. As a Jewish father, Zalman SchacterShalomi agonizes over his infant son's circumcisionand then rationalizes it. An emotionally strained article by Andrea Dworkin links the Holocaust with rape, and Bob Gluck's essay on battered Jewish women ignores the topic of battered Jewish men. Two essays consider the fictional Jewish characters of Philip Roth, and a poem by Morris Rosenfeld (1862-1923) describes a working father's wish for shorter hours so that he can enjoy his son. In the final essay, Brod advocates a Jewish male feminism. 652.

David, Jay, and Elaine Crane, eds. The Black Soldier: From the American Revolution to Vietnam. New York: William Morrow, 1971. 248p. In the introduction to this anthology, the editors point out that the black soldier has always waged two wars simultaneouslyone against the common U.S. enemy and one against U.S. racism. The 18 selections in this book illustrate the point vividly. Selections start with James Roberts's narrative of a black soldier in the Revolutionary War and end with Jon Nordheimer's account of a black Vietnam soldier who won the Congressional Medal of Honor and who died of gunshot wounds in Detroit. Other items include extracts from Thomas Wentworth Higginson's record of a black regiment in the Civil War, William Leckie's report of the Buffalo Soldiers (a black cavalry unit on the Western frontier), Arthur Little's story of black soldiers overseas in World War I, and Sammy Davis, Jr.'s autobiographical account of his encounter with racism in the army during World War II. 653. Duneier, Mitchell. Slim's Table: Race, Respectability, and Masculinity. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1992. 192p. illus. notes. pa.

Page 234

Neither U.S. journalists nor sociologists have done justice to the diversity and integrity of black males, Duneier argues. To demonstrate the point, he describes the black (and white) males who gather regularly at the Valois Cafeteria, a Greek restaurant in south Chicago. His portraits of the men do not match the stereotypes. The black men show a compassion, integrity, and ability to cope, qualities that seldom find their way into media accounts or academic studies. In their relationships with women, for example, the men do not fit the oppressor stereotype popularized in works like The Color Purple. Although sociology has led Americans out of the Dark Ages of prejudiced thinking about black men, it still needs to reassess its images of them as dysfunctional men. 654. Gary, Lawrence, ed. Black Men. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1981. 295p. bibliography after each chapter. pa. Sixteen essays, plus an introduction and a conclusion, depict issues of U.S. black men. Essays are divided into four parts. In part 1, two essays by Gary summarize the African-American man's situation in the United States. Problems range from being undercounted by census takers to experiencing higher rates of mortality, fewer educational opportunities, and lower earnings. (To avoid hostility between black men and women, essays in the volume tend to compare black and white males, rather than enumerate black women's gains and black men's losses. The authors do not consider whether they are thus fostering hostility between black and white males.) Part 2, which examines AfricanAmerican men and their families, opens with two essays indicating strain in black male-female relationships. Other essays discount stereotypes of AfricanAmerican fathers as uninvolved in family matters, although highly demanding fathers can take a toll by showing little warmth to children. Leo E. Hendricks examines black, unwed fathers and suggests ways of helping them. Part 3, examining psychological and social coping patterns, contains four essays painting a dismal picture of stress, inadequate support systems, alcohol, and suicide among African-American men. The five essays in the final section, on black men and institutions, depict the disadvantages to black men found in education from grade school to college, in prisons and in the judicial system, and in social services. Despite the positive effects of the black church, according to James E. Tinney, it too can affect black men negatively. The volume convincingly portrays African-American men as penalized by both race

and gender in U.S. society. 655. Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor, Ann F. Brunswick, Michael E. Connor, Richard Dembo, Tom E. Larson, Rodney J. Reed, and Barbara Solomon. Young, Black, and Male in America: An Endangered Species. Dover, MA: Auburn House, 1988. xxxiii, 377p. bibliography after each chapter. index. pa. The seven authors contribute 10 solid chapters covering numerous aspects of young black males as an endangered species in U.S. society. In the opening chapter, Gibbs outlines the social, economic, political, and educational pitfalls facing young black man. Reed next examines the educational scene in greater detail and recommends changes. In chapter 3, Larson explores employment and unemployment among young black males. In the following chapter, Dembo examines delinquency and victimization among adolescent black males, and Brunswick's chapter is devoted to drug use. Connor examines teenage fatherhood. In two separate chapters, Gibbs analyzes physical and mental health and early male death among blacks. Solomon discusses varying effects of public policy upon young black males, and Gibbs concludes the volume with a series of recommendations.

Page 235

The consistently high level of scholarship makes this book essential reading for understanding the crisis facing many young black men. 656. Gilder, George. Visible Man: A True Story of Post-Racist America. New York: Basic Books, 1978. xiii, 249p. On one level, Gilder's book recounts the stow of Mitchell (Sam) Brewer, a black man accused of raping a white woman in Albany, New York. On another level, it is a conservative's tale of how black masculinity and the black family are being destroyed by welfare in a "post-racist" United States. Gilder depicts life on Clinton Avenue, a region of black women on welfare, idle and often-violent black men, fatherless children, winos, and white womenoften welfare mothers and sometimes prostitutes, lesbians, or both. Because their earnings cannot compete with welfare benefits, the men drift from one welfare woman to another, fathering children who will never know them for long as a father in the house. "Unlike virtually all human societies known to anthropologists," Gilder observes, "America does not offer virility rites. This society does not wish to acknowledge that boys have special problems of sexual passage. . .. Without such opportunities, boys all too often resort to the lowest terms of masculinity: sexual violence." When Brewer finds himself facing a rape charge from a white lesbian who apparently supports herself and her lover by occasional prostitution, his trial becomes a cause clbre involving the Albany Rape Crisis Center, lesbian activists, and an overeager female assistant district attorney. Although Brewer is acquitted of the rape charge, his future is hardly bright as he returns to Clinton Avenue to join the ranks of violent male castoffs. "Poor black males," Gilder comments, ''do not get brought up by fathers, socialized by marriage, or regulated by breadwinning." Unlike the "invisible" middle-class black males who help to hold families together, these are the "visible men" whose masculinity has been eroded by well-meaning but shortsighted vendors of poverty "aid" and welfare "rights." 657. Howe, Irving, with Kenneth Libo. World of Our Fathers. New York and London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976. xx, 714p. illus. bibliography, 685-93. notes. index. Reprint, New York: Bantam Books, 1981. pa. In this massive social and cultural history, Howe charts the journey of 2 million east-European Jews who, starting in the 1880s, migrated to the United States, settled mostly in New York's East Side, established a rich Yiddish culture there,

and then dispersed to other locales of the U.S. landscape. 658. Kingston, Maxine Hong. China Men. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980. 310p. Reprint, New York: Ballantine Books, 1980. pa. Reprint, New York: Vintage Books, 1989. pa. In impressionistic prose, Kingston recreates the stories of her male ancestors and other China Men who left their homeland to labor in Hawaiian cane fields, build railroads in the Sierra Nevada mountains, work the gold fields of Alaska, and establish families on the U.S. mainland. From thence, sons issued forth to fight with U.S. troops on World War II battlefields, in Korea, and in Vietnam. Kingston's initial tale of a man painfully transformed into a woman, however, sounds a note of misandry that recurs throughout the book. 659. Liebow, Elliot. Tally's Corner: A Study of Negro Streetcorner Men. Boston: Little, Brown, 1967. xvii, 260p. appendix. bibliography, 257-60. pa. A superbly written study, Tally's Corner recounts the activities of a group of black streetcorner men in inner-city Washington, D.C. By looking closely and humanely at their lives, Liebow is able to offer rare glimpses of poor or

Page 236

marginally poor urban, black malesthe "losers" in our society. Such men have often been overlooked by scholars and social workers, the author contends, because it is assumed that "able-bodied" males neither need nor deserve social support. Liebow demonstrates the complex connection between men and work: The jobs available to them are sometimes beyond their physical ability, the pay is often too low to support a family, and frequently the work is temporary. The men often lack hope for the future; in time they quit or drift away. The job fails the man, and the man fails the job. Liebow describes the range of father absence and presence in families, noting that fathers who feel they have failed their families drift away from them. Marriages and consensual unions are familiar in this world. Although the men frequently talk against marriage, they consider it a necessary rite of passage into manhood. The breakup of marriages is often attributed by the men to male infidelity, but the man's inability to meet the demands of being head of the family is another likely cause. Similarly, the men talk about themselves as "exploiters" of women, but much of this talk may be crowing to cover up failure. An elaborate and shifting network of friends helps the men cope with the hardships of their lives. In a concluding chapter, the author discusses better employment as one of the needs to upgrade the lot of streetcorner men. The appendix describes how the white author conducted field work among black streetcorner men; like the rest of the book, it is a fascinating human drama. 660. Madhubuti, Haki R. Black Men: Obsolete, Single, Dangerous? Afrikan American Families in Transition: Essays in Discovery, Solution, and Hope. Chicago: Third World Press, 1990. ix, 274p. bibliography after each chapter. pa. Because racism deforms black men in America, Madhubuti rejects the stereotype of them as the clowns-criminals of society. To confirm their greatness, black men must develop a "revolutionary" mentality that espouses self-discipline, integrity, rejection of sexism directed against black women, love of book-learning and education, cultivation of family values, investment in the black community, and a sensitivity towards black art and culture. Madhubuti deplores the scarcity of positive father figures in the black community, as well as the lack of Afrikan initiation rites to induct boys into strong masculine adulthood. These deficiencies create the destructive gangs found in many cities. Because reading is a crucial skill for young black males, he provides an extensive reading list of writings by blacks. He offers advice on how to live

responsibly and healthfully, for healing antagonisms between black women and men, and for effective fathering. Madhubuti believes that black men are engaged in a war with white men in which there is no hope of peace or truce, because white males are oppressors by nature. He believes the AIDS epidemic is a human-made conspiracy to eliminate "undesirables." The book reveals some animosity towards Jews as an overly influential minority group. Madhubuti offers tributes to Malcolm X, Hoyt W. Fuller, and Bobby Wright. 661. Majors, Richard, and Janet Mancini Billson. Cool Pose: The Dilemmas of Black Manhood in America. New York: Lexington Books, Macmillan, 1992. xvi, 144p. bibliography, 127-35. notes. index. pa. "It is much more difficult for the black man to enact the traditional male role successfully than it is for the black woman to establish a positive female role," the authors argue. Gender and racism combine to hinder black males from succeeding as providers and protectors. Consequently, black males are disproportionately victims of mental disorders, educational failure, early death, homicide, stress, alcoholism, drug use, and incarceration. As a survival tactic in a society that figuratively castrates black men, some black males resort to "cool," an

Page 237

in-control aloofness. Cool demonstrates the black male's social competence and offers him a form of pride. On the negative side, it can demonize even nondiscriminating white males as the black man's enemy. It can drive a wedge between black men and women, as the man holds himself aloof and seeks to dominate his partner. Cool can also be used as a weapon against "uncool" black males. The authors trace the origins of cool to West African ewuare and to the "masking" strategies of black slaves in America. They examine the expressive style of cool, the "cool cat" lifestyle, and the sometimes cruel game of playing the dozens. Majors and Billson present strategies for aiding black males, and they conclude that the new men's studies needs to broaden its scope and examine more closely the complexities of black male experience. 662. Majors, Richard G., and Jacob U. Gordon, eds. The American Black Male: His Present Status and His Future. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1993. xii, 372p. bibliography, 317-47. notes. name and subject indexes. pa. The 21 essays in this solid collection explore areas of African-American male experience that have received comparatively little attention in the past. The anthology is divided into 5 sections: historical perspectives, present status of black men, search for empowerment, psychosocial development and coping, and the black male's future. Two essays by Clyde W. Franklin II are especially important for placing the study of black males within the academic framework of men's studies. James B. Stewart critiques neoconservative accounts of black males, e.g., those of George Gilder (entry 656) and Thomas Sowell. William L. Andrews traces the black man in American literature. Other essays critique the NCAA's Proposition 40, discuss AIDS and black men, and examine black male anger. Moving beyond stereotypes of black males, Manning Marable argues that the black man's best ally is the black woman. Although many of the essays are marked by frustrated anger at the widespread damage suffered by AfricanAmerican males, the writers have positive suggestions for making the future better. Especially noteworthy on this count is Major's concluding article on reasons for hope concerning black males. 663. Paz, Octavio. The Labyrinth of Solitude, The Other Mexico, Return to the Labyrinth of Solitude, Mexico and the United States, The Philanthropic Ogre. Translated by Lysander Kemp, Yara Milos, and Rachel Phillips Belash. New York: Evergreen Books, Grove Press, 1985. 398p. pa.

No one has defined Mexican manhood more incisively than the poet and essayist Octavio Paz. In his classic work The Labyrinth of Solitude (1961), Paz describes the soul of Mexico, focusing on the men's sense of aloneness, or solitude, the sense of life lived behind a mask. The heart of Paz's account of Mexican males is in the chapter "Sons of La Malinche," where he examines concepts contained in words like la chingada. Chingn or gran chingn is the machoactive, violent, and something of a despoiler. Chingada refers to the feminine, the passive, the sufferer. The polarization is related to whether one identifies with the conquistadors or the conquered natives of Mexico. As Paz sees it, Mexican men are defensively macho because they are sons of La Malinche, the native woman who became Cortez's mistress and was later discarded by him. Yet, modifications of macho abound: Mexicans worship Christ as a suffering male, and the Virgin of Guadalupe is not identified with the violated feminine. While capturing the flavor of Mexican macho, Paz is also alive to its complexities and contradictions. In addition to The Labyrinth of Solitude, this volume contains other essays by Paz, including a retrospective interview (1985) concerning The Labyrinth.

Page 238

664. Poinsett, Alex. Young Black Males in Jeopardy: Risk Factors and Intervention Strategies. New York: Carnegie Corporation, 1988. appendixes. 31p. pa. Described as "Report of a Meeting Held at Carnegie Corporation of New York, February 11, 1988," this brief monograph touches on such matters as the young black male's struggle to define himself, early childhood and elementary school years, ways of expressing racial pride, and examples of effective intervention. The appendixes list the participants and the meeting's agenda. 665. Rogosin, Donn. Invisible Men: Life in Baseball's Negro Leagues. New York: Atheneum, 1983. xiii, 284p. illus. appendixes. index. Rogosin recounts the history of black baseball greats in the days before the major leagues were integrated. 666. Sochen, June, ed. The Black Man and the American Dream: Negro Aspirations in America, 1900-1930. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1971. ix, 373p. This collection of more than 70 contributions of nonfiction and fiction, shows how much black men wanted to share in the Horatio Alger dream of success rather than subvert it. On occasion, it also suggests the repercussions to black masculinity of a dream deferred. 667. Staples, Robert. Black Masculinity: The Black Man's Role in American Society. San Francisco: Black Scholar Press, 1982. 181p. notes. pa. Without denying the validity of some women's grievances, Staples argues that "in the black community, it is the men who need attending to." Exploring the reality behind the image of the black male, Staples presents a disturbing picture of black men victimized by a virulent combination of racism and the masculine mystique. Shortchanged educationally and denied opportunities for life-sustaining and family-supporting work, the black man too often becomes the prey of exploitive capitalism, drugs, and suicide. Depicting the black community as an underdeveloped colony within the larger society, Staples explores the causes of high crime rates there and the socialization of young black males into numerous forms of violence. He discusses the "myth" of black sexual superiority, homosexuality, and the changing nature of male-female relations in recent times. The relationship between black men and white

women is also reviewed. During the seventies, the promises of the civil rights legislation and black pride were fulfilled more for black women than for black men. "As it was," Staples notes, "the decade's flowering of black manhood turned into a withering away of what little supremacy they had and consigned many black men into a prison of their gender." In the eighties, black men may prove to be the first and only casualty of the women's movement as affirmative action schemes increasingly benefit white women rather than black men. Although sympathetic with many feminist issues, Staples criticizes some black feminists for directing their anger indiscriminately against black men, who are not always the cause of the women's difficulties. In the final chapter, Staples calls for a new unity between black men and women to forge their future together. 668. Teague, Bob. Letters to a Black Boy. New York: Walker, 1968. 211p. In a series of letters to his infant son, Teague captures the mood of black men in the late sixties. Touching upon the militants and the visionaries in the black movement, Teague offers an apologia for his own less-activist stance. He recounts episodes from his life, especially his career in television broadcasting.

Page 239

Everywhere in the lettersboth explicitly and implicitlyis Teague's concept of what black masculinity should be. 669. Wallace, Michele. Black Macho and the Myth of Superwoman. New York: Dial Press, 1979. ix, 182p. index. Reprint, New York: Warner Books, 1980. pa. Reprint, London: Verso, 1990. pa. Wallace addresses what she perceives as an increasing hostility between black men and women. Attempting to assert their manhood in a racist society, black men have embraced a misogynist macho ethic; meanwhile, black women have been stereotyped as superwomancapable and castrating. These antithetical roles have set black men and women on a collision course. 670. Whyte, William Foote. Street Corner Society: The Social Structure of an Italian Slum. 4th ed. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1993. xx, 398p. illus. appendixes. bibliography, 390-92. pa. In this classic study, Whyte describes the lives of men in the North Boston Italian community during the late 1930s. He provides a history of the neighborhood, followed by a distinction between "corner boys" and "college boys," as well as an overview of racketeering and politics. Whyte focuses first upon the Nortons, a streetcorner gang of men mostly in their twenties, led by Doc. Next he examines the college boy Chick Morelli and his club, contrasting Chick and Doc as representative of upwardly mobile and nonmobile Italian men. Whyte then describes racketeering and its connection with the Social and Athletic club, depicting the conflict between racketeer Tony Cataldo and corner boy Carlo Tedesco for control of the club. The interlinking of politics and streetcorner social structure is examined, and, in the conclusion, Whyte surveys his findings, offering a vivid reminder of how ethnic prejudice hampered Italians in their efforts to enter the U.S. mainstream. The first editions of Street Corner Society appeared in 1943 and 1955. The latest edition includes three appendixes. In the first, Whyte provides a personal account of his adventures while doing field work in North Boston; he describes his later relations with the corner boys and college boys of the study, and he tells of the book's rising and falling fortunes over the years. In the second appendix, Angelo Ralph Orlandella recounts how working with Whyte turned his life around. The third appendix contains a bibliography of Whyte's writings.

671. Wilkinson, Doris Y., and Ronald L. Taylor, eds. The Black Male in America: Perspectives on His Status in Contemporary Society. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1977. viii, 376p. bibliography, 361-69. notes. author and subject index. pa. The popular image of the black male as "emasculated" by white society and by his matrifocal upbringing, as immature, and as a poor husband and father is examined in 24 scholarly, readable articles. Contributions are grouped into four sections: socialization to the black male role, stereotyping and stigmatizing of black males, the issue of interracial mating, and the black male's roles in postindustrial society. Highlights include essays by Ronald L. Taylor and Ulf Hannerz on growing up as a black male, Robert Coles on black fathers, William H. Turner's account of "myths" and stereotypes of the African man in America, Harry Edward's discussion of white fears of black athletes, Robert Staples's assault upon the "myth" of black matriarchy, Joan Downs's account of the political overtones of black-white dating, Nathan Caplan's description of the "new" ghetto male, and essays by Charles V. Willie and David A. Schulz on black fathers and black families. Many scholars regard this book as a necessary introduction to any study of black men.

Page 240

Cross-References See chapter 1, "Anthropology, Sociology." 171. Abbott, Franklin, ed. Boyhood, Growing Up Male: A Multicultural Anthology. 860. Black Elk. Black Elk Speaks: Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux. 481. Bozett, Frederick W., and Shirley M.H. Hanson, eds. Fatherhood and Families in Cultural Context. 482. Bronstein, Pyllis, and Carolyn Pape Cowan, eds. Fatherhood Today: Men's Changing Role in the Family. 37. Brown, Claude. Manchild in the Promised Land. 6. Dann, Graham. The Barbadian Male: Sexual Attitudes and Practice. 785. Duberman, Martin, Martha Vicinus, and George Chauncey, Jr., eds. Hidden from History: Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past. 175. Eastman, Charles A. Indian Boyhood. 343a. Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. 946. Fields, Rick. The Code of the Warrior: In History, Myth, and Everyday Life. 346. Forster, E. M. A Passage to India. 402. Franklin, H. Bruce. Prison Literature in America: The Victim as Criminal and Artist. 789. Galloway, David, and Christian Sabisch, eds. Calamus: Male Homosexuality in Twentieth-Century Literature: An International Anthology. 347. Garca Mrquez, Gabriel. Chronicle of a Death Foretold. 348. Gold, Herbert. Fathers: A Novel in the Form of a Memoir. 795. Harry, Joseph, and Man Singh Das, eds. Homosexuality in International Perspective. 797. Hinsch, Bret. Passions of the Cut Sleeve: The Male Homosexual Tradition in China.

109. Hoch, Paul. White Hero, Black Beast: Racism, Sexism and the Mask of Masculinity. 329. Ihara Saikaku. The Great Mirror of Male Love. 47. Kantrowitz, Arnie. Under the Rainbow: Growing Up Gay. 385. Keyes, Roger S. The Male Journey in Japanese Prints. 645. Kimmel, Michael S., and Michael A. Messner, eds. Men's Lives. 283. Kinmouth, Earl H. The Self-Made Man in Meiji Japanese Thought: From Samurai to Salary Man.

Page 241

409. Klotman, Phyllis Rauch. Another Man Gone: The Black Runner in Contemporary Afro-American Literature. 512. Lamb, Michael E., ed. The Father's Role: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. 524. Lucarini, Spartaco. The Difficult Role of a Father. 416. Margolies, Edward. Native Sons: A Critical Study of Twentieth-Century Negro American Writers. 820. Murray, Stephen O., ed. Male Homosexuality in Central and South America. 369. Reed, Ishmael. Reckless Eyeballing. 831. Roscoe, Will. The Zuni Man-Woman. 542. Russell, Graeme. The Changing Role of Fathers? 187. Standing Bear, Luther. My Indian Boyhood. 335. Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. 881. Where the Two Came to Their Father: A Navaho War Ceremonial Given by Jeff King. 842. Whitam, Frederick L., and Robin M. Mathy. Male Homosexuality in Four Societies: Brazil, Guatemala, the Philippines, and the United States. 844. Williams, Walter L. The Spirit and the Flesh: Sexual Diversity in American Indian Culture. 379. Wilson, August. Fences. 436. Wisse, Ruth. The Schlemiel as Modern Hero. 69. Wright, Richard. Black Boy: A Record of Childhood and Youth. 70. X, Malcolm. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. 971. Young, Peter. The Fighting Man: From Alexander the Great's Army to the Present Day.

Page 242

19 Patriarchy, Patriarchal Society


672. Amnus, Daniel. Back to Patriarchy. New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1979. 221p. notes. index. In this negative response to the latest wave of the women's movement, Amnus calls for a renewed patriarchalism that will strengthen the family. Widespread divorce has hurt women, children, and men. Custody decisions discriminate glaringly against fathers. Arguing that modern feminism encourages a victimizer-victim mentality, Amnus scoffs at the "myth" of female oppression. Affirmative Action schemes upset the workplace imbalance caused by men's aggressive quest for financial means to support wife and children. "Free" child care will cost the taxpayers, and gay militants have strong-armed their way to legitimacy with the media and politicians. Amnus gleefully trashes the myths of idyllic prehistoric matriarchies, and he argues that men's liberation must involve responsible fatherhood. 673. Engels, Friedrich. The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State. 1884. Translated by Alick West. Rev. ed., edited by Michele Barrett, New York: Penguin Books, 1985. 236p. appendixes. glossary. index. pa. Engels's Origin of the Family remains the grandfather of all attacks on patriarchy and the father-involved family. Although the book can no longer be taken seriously as an anthropological work, its powerful rhetoric has long instigated strong anti-male and anti-father sentiment. Drawing upon and distorting Lewis Morgan's Ancient Society (1877) and J. J. Bachofen's Das Mtterrecht (Mother-Right, 1861), Engels created a misandric myth disguised as a scientific treatise. According to Engels, early societies were happily communal, promiscuous, and mother-centered. But male greed for surplus property destroyed these edenic societies. To bequeath property to their sons, males/fathers destroyed mother-right and the ancient gens. In their place, men introduced the oppression of women by the means of the patriarchal and monogamous families, slavery, polygyny, prostitution, private property, and the oppressive State to maintain the whole system. In short, class and sexual oppression are simultaneous. Thus, the fall of humanity was due entirely to

male greed, the source of all social evils. The book's stirring rhetoric ("The overthrow of mother right was the world historical defeat of the female sex") has long fired up Marxist-feminist anger against men, and its stereotyping of father as tyrant anticipates much current anti-monogamy, anti-family rhetoric. Discredited as an historical or scientific text, The Origin still exercises great influence as a misandric diatribe.

Page 243

674. Figes, Eva. Patriarchal Attitudes: Women in Revolt. New York: Stein and Day, 1970. 191p. bibliography, 188. notes. index. Women are shaped by men, Figes argues, reciting a familiar litany of complaints against males as women-hating oppressors from prehistory to the present. Women collude in their own oppression, Figes admits, but she pays little attention to mothers as the primary socializers of children. While frequently citing Margaret Mead, Figes never mentions that, in Male and Female (entry 609), Mead explicitly rejects Figes's thesis that men are malicious conspirators and women are helpless dupes. 675. Goldberg, Steven. Why Men Rule: A Theory of Male Dominance. Chicago and La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1993. xiii, 254p. appendix. notes. index. This updated and largely rewritten revision of The Inevitability of Patriarchy (1973) argues that physiology gives males an edge in attaining high status positions. As a result, patriarchy is universal throughout human history. Goldberg defines patriarchy as any hierarchical system in which the highest positions are held primarily by males. All societies value male attainment of high status positions, and male dominance or authority is the norm throughout human history. Debunking theories of prehistoric matriarchies, Goldberg argues that matriarchies (societies in which women hold suprafamily authority) have never existed. He insists that he is being purely descriptive not prescriptive, that is, he is merely presenting scientific evidence and drawing no political conclusions. Nevertheless, Goldberg as a biological conservative knows his viewpoint will offend "environmentalists" who regard gender roles as solely the product of social forces. Among the environmentalists are feminists who resist evidence that gender roles follow a physiological lead. Goldberg takes issue with Friedrich Engles (entry 673) and the "vulgarized Marxism" that attempts to treat women and men as separate classes. He argues with John Stuart Mill's The Subjection of Women and Kate Millett's Sexual Politics (entry 680) for attributing gender roles entirely to social forces while dismissing biological factors. Goldberg argues that sexual difference, however, does not translate into sexual "superiority" and "inferiority." He states that statistical averages do not justify discrimination against those who are exceptions to the norm. He believes that women are at the center of human society, and that males, as protectors of women and children, are marginalized and more expendable. He

concludes that those who push women to compete with men on men's terms are pushing women to inevitable failure. Examining alleged exceptions to patriarchy in anthropological literature, Goldberg in the appendix concludes that the studies themselves actually support the universality of patriarchy. 676. Hearn, Jeff. The Gender of Oppression: Men, Masculinity, and the Critique of Marxism. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987. xv, 239p. bibliography, 205-22. notes. author and subject indexes. Hearn redirects Marxism away from economics and class politics to gender politics, because patriarchy preceded capitalism. Indeed, Hearn faults some Marxist and socialist feminists for not paying sufficient attention to gender as the primary form of oppression. Patriarchy is defined as "father right," and Hearn believes social revolution requires nothing less than the abolition of fatherhood. In Hearn's view, men are an oppressor class, even though individual men may attempt to destabilize patriarchy by revolutionary means. Hearn suggests (apparently seriously) that such means might include men's selling their sexual favors for money. Marx mistakenly focused on production; Hearn argues that the politics of reproduction (conception through child care)

Page 244

is paramount. He asserts that males completely control the social organization of reproduction. Moreover, men appropriate the products of women's reproductive labor (i.e., children) without recompense. (Hearn writes as if fathers never paid bills.) The solution is to turn reproductive power entirely over to women by such means as abortion on demand and 24 hour stateprovided child care. In brief, capitalistic patriarchy should be replaced by socialist matriarchy. Fathers are undependable parents who can easily shift from nice to nasty. (Hearn writes as if there were no abusive mothers.) Because men are an oppressor class, any men's organizations are inherently threatening. Because fatherhood is oppressive, recent celebrations of its importance are reactionary. Hearn believes that men will become more responsible for children once they have renounced fatherhood. Instead of being fathers, men should seek to become "sons within a possible matriarchy." On the subject of men's studies, Hearn believes that their major task is a critique of men in the light of feminism. 677. Hey, Valerie. Patriarchy and Pub Culture. London and New York: Tavistock, 1986. 84p. (Social Sciences Paperback, no. 323). illus. bibliography, 77-78. notes. name and subject indexes. pa. British pubs are not friendly neighborhood establishments. According to Hey, they are political spaces created by patriarchy in which the battle of the sexes has been raging since Victorian days. Most of the book's "evidence" consists of a heavy use of the passive voice to hint at a male conspiracy and of Hey's ingenuity in misconstruing anything into a patriarchal plot. Simply because a man once made an unwanted pass at Hey in a pub, she concludes that pubs are patriarchal enclaves privileging male desire. Hey's thesis may have merit, but her treatment of it invites disbelief. Although the book is a revised version of an MA dissertation, it is difficult to imagine its methodology passing muster in a high school report. 678. Kaufman, Michael, ed. Beyond Patriarchy: Essays by Men on Pleasure, Power, and Change. Toronto and New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. xix, 322p. illus. bibliography, 319. notes. pa. In this collection of 15 essays, patriarchy is considered only as a social structure of male dominance that must be jettisoned. Kaufman's introduction indicates that the essays seek to balance the ways in which patriarchy hurts

both women and men. Essays are divided into two sections. In section 1, "Masculinity, Sexuality, and Society," Kaufman's lead-off essay considers men's violence against women and men. In the only essay to consider the origins of patriarchy, Richard Lee and Richard Daly attempt to demonstrate that earlier societies were more egalitarian by citing evidence from the !Kung. Carmen Schifellite argues against biological determinism, and E. Anthony Rotundo examines patriarchal fatherhood (1620-1800) and modern fatherhood (1800the present) in the United States. Kaufman and Gad Horowitz consider male sexuality and pornography (female use of pornography is not considered), and two essays by Gary Kinsman and Seymour Kleinberg examine the impact of out-of-the-closet gayness on heterosexuality. The longest essay, by Tim Carrigan, Bob Connell, and John Lee, reviews changing concepts of masculinity in recent years. In section 2, "Men, Work, and Cultural Life," Brian Easlea recounts his own disillusionment with male scientists and the military during the Cold War. Moving from the ivory tower to the shop floor, Stan Gray describes his efforts as a union shop stewart to integrate female workers into a male skilled workforce. Michael Kimmel examines the image of the cowboy in entirely negative terms, and Bruce Kidd sees little but anti-female sexism in sports. Robin Wood

Page 245

examines the homophobic subtext of the film Raging Bull, and Andrew Wernick sees narcissism in recent advertising images of men. In the final essay, Peter Fitting examines feminist utopian fiction for clues to the future. Having limited the definition of patriarchy to male-dominant structures, the contributors often seem to be beating a straw dummy. Alternate views of patriarchy (e.g., as social structures adopted to maximize the survival of the society) might have enriched the discussions. 679. Lerner, Gerda. The Creation of Patriarchy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. xvi, 318p. illus. appendix. bibliography, 283-303. notes. index. pa. Branching out from her specialty in nineteenth-century history, Lerner attempts to explore the origins of patriarchy in prehistory. She depicts the creation of patriarchy as a process covering 2,500 years from the third millennium to 600 B.C. Relying heavily on Marxist-feminist ideology of male evil and oppression, Lerner's study usually reaches predictable conclusions: males ''appropriated" female reproduction and symbol systems to subjugate women. The study uses heavily politicized prose, such as negative stereotyping of men and persistent use of the passive voice to suggest a male conspiracy against females. Special pleading is frequent. For example, Lerner sees sexism against women in the fact that early conquerors enslaved female captives but butchered male captives on the spot, and she mangles The Odyssey (entry 328) to fit a menare-evil motif. Use of selective evidence is frequent: the argument that females suffered more than males from patriarchal societies ignores such considerations as the use of males as cannon fodder throughout history. The Creation of Patriarchy seems less an inquiry into prehistory than a political tract tailored to fit a radical feminist belief system. 680. Millett, Kate. Sexual Politics. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1970. Reprint, New York: Avon Books, 1971. pa. Rev. ed., New York: Simon and Schuster, Touchstone Books, 1990. xiv, 397p. bibliography, 364-77. notes. index. pa. Controversial and enormously influential, Millett's study has redefined patriarchy for modern audiences. Chapter 2, "Theory of Sexual Politics," acknowledges that not all men hold power but attempts to demonstrate that males nevertheless constitute a powerful class of oppressors. Millett argues that, because most positions of power are held by men, males as a class are empowered. The argument is strained, but Millett (like her mentor, Friedrich

Engels) musters powerful rhetorical forces to overwhelm doubts. She argues that the patriarchal conspiracy against women has been so pervasive that almost no one has noticed it. Millett, however, finds the ideology of male superiority to be ubiquitous. Like Engels (entry 673), she locates the root of oppression in the family, an institution whose demise she eagerly awaits. In more recent times, Millett finds a sexual revolution aimed at greater gender equality that extended from 1830 to 1930, only to be followed by a counterrevolution that lasted until 1960. The book closes with extended analyses of writings by D. H. Lawrence, Henry Miller, Norman Mailer, and Jean Genet. A grab bag of history, ideology, psychology, literary misreadings, and much else, Sexual Politics is laced with a toxic hatred of men as intrinsically evil beings. The revised edition contains a new introduction describing how the book was written.

Page 246

681. Mount, Ferdinand. The Subversive Family: An Alternate History of Love and Marriage. London: Jonathan Cape, 1982.282p. appendix. bibliography, 27276. notes. index. Reprint, New York: Free Press, 1992. Challenging current beliefs that history reveals a pattern of oppressed women subverting a patriarchal order, Mount argues that men and women together in the family have been the most subversive unit in human history, defying the worst that church and state, feudal lords and feminist zealots, Marxist and other ideologues could do to destroy it. Opponents of the family pass through a six-stage relationship with it. First, they attempt to devalue the family, then they reluctantly recognize its strength, and eventually they abandon efforts to replace it with alternate pseudofamilies. In the fourth stage, they reach a onesided peace agreement with the family, and then they rewrite history to demonstrate that they were always its friend. Finally, the family imposes its own terms on its opponents. Dismissing "mass-media sociology myths" about the family, Mount contends that the nuclear family, far from being a modern invention, has been the norm throughout history; that romantic marital love existed before the troubadours sang the praises of adultery; and that divorce, no great novelty in the past, has long been an integral part of family law and is an indication of marriage's popularity. Mount insists that, for the most part, the Christian church has been no friend to the family, that the state is usually jealous of the allegiance the family commands and tries to weaken it, that Marxists have tried unsuccessfully to break the power of the family, and that modern feminists who began by attacking the family as a source of oppression are now beginning to perceive its strength and are (sometimes reluctantly) trying to come to terms with it. Because The Subversive Family offers such a heady critique of standard theories predicating "patriarchal oppression" by means of the family, its belated publication in the United States (with a new, brief preface) is a welcome event. 682. Walby, Sylvia. Theorizing Patriarchy. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1990. viii, 229p. bibliography, 203-22. notes. index. In opposition to those who reject the concept of patriarchy as ahistorical, Walby argues that only the forms of patriarchy change over time. She defines patriarchy as "a system of social structures and practices in which men dominate, oppress and exploit women." Women are exploited in six

"structures": in the family, in the labor market, in the state (which is capitalist, racist, and anti-female), in male violence against women, in "compulsory heterosexuality" with its sexual double standard, and in cultural institutions. In separate chapters, Walby examines feminist theorizing about patriarchy in these structures. She concludes that (in Britain at least) the change from private to public patriarchy has liberated women from domestic tyranny but left them free to be tyrannized in the larger world. The discussion makes large assumptions. Walby takes the dark side of patriarchy as the whole of it. She accepts uncritically the conviction that a power struggle is the most salient feature of gender relations. Selective attention to evidence is apparent. Walby asks why some men molest children but does not ask why some women molest children. (Does she believe that only men molest children?) Her analysis of feminist theory is clearly written and well organized, but the theory itself is narrowly closed, suspiciously misandric, and utterly divorced from men's experiences.

Page 247

Cross-References See chapter 8, "Feminism." 73. Amneus, Daniel. The Garbage Generation .... 883. Bakan, David. And They Took Themselves Wives: The Emergence of Patriarchy in Western Civilization. 885. Bloesch, Donald G. Is the Bible Sexist? Beyond Feminism and Patriarchalism. 597. Brittan, Arthur. Masculinity and Power. 396. Claridge, Laura, and Elizabeth Langland, eds. Out of Bounds: Male Writers and Gender(ed) Criticism. 96. Farrell, Warren. The Myth of Male Power: Why Men Are the Disposable Sex. 102. Gilder, George. Men and Marriage. 503. Hearn, Jeff. Birth and Afterbirth: A Materialist Account. 279. Hearn, Jeff. Men in the Public Eye: The Construction and Deconstruction of Public Men and Public Patriarchies. 702. Hopcke, Robert H. Men's Dreams, Men's Healing. 867a. Judy, Dwight H. Healing the Male Soul: Christianity and the Mythic Journey. 281. Keuls, Eva C. The Reign of the Phallus: Sexual Politics in Ancient Athens. 523. Louv, Richard. FatherLove: What We Need, What We Seek, What We Must Create. 526. Mackey, Wade C. Fathering Behaviors: The Dynamics of the Man-Child Bond. 122. Men Against Patriarchy. Off Their Backs ... and on our own two feet. 893. Miller, John W. Biblical Faith and Fathering: Why We Call God "Father." 711. Mitscherlich, Alexander. Society Without the Father: A Contribution to Social Psychology.

712. Monick, Eugene. Phallos: Sacred Image of the Masculine. 717. Pedersen, Loren E. Dark Hearts: The Unconscious Forces That Shape Men's Lives. 878. Perry, John Weir. Lord of the Four Quarters: Myths of the Royal Father. 291. Roper, Michael, and John Tosh, eds. Manful Assertions: Masculinities in Britain Since 1800. 421. Ruderman, Judith. D. H. Lawrence and the Devouring Mother: The Search for a Patriarchal Ideal of Leadership.

Page 248

25. Sanday, Peggy Reeves. Female Power and Male Dominance: On the Origins of Sexual Inequality. 624. Tiger, Lionel. Men in Groups. 902. Visser't Hooft, W.A. The Fatherhood of God in an Age of Emancipation. 880. Vogt, Gregory Max. Return to Father: Archetypal Dimensions of the Patriarch. 439. Yaeger, Patricia, and Beth Kowaleski-Wallace, eds. Refiguring the Father: New Feminist Readings of Patriarchy.

Page 249

20 Psychology
Books in this chapter focus on the psychology and the counseling of males. Readers should also see chapter 15, "Masculinity," and chapter 23, "Spirituality." 683. Allen, Marvin, with Jo Robinson. In the Company of Men: A New Approach to Healing for Husbands, Fathers, and Friends. New York: Random House, 1993. xix, 236p. notes. appendix. Reprint, as Angry Men, Passive Men: Understanding the Roots of Men's Anger and How to Move Beyond It. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1994. pa. Beginning with his own experiences, Allen describes the personal and social blocks that keep men from psychological healing. Boys are socialized to repress emotion; the protector role, in particular, does not allow them to exhibit strong feelings. Dysfunctional fathers and mothers can produce sons who can express only destructive rage and not positive anger. Allen describes the price men often pay for love. In part 2, Allen narrates his dissatisfaction with traditional methods of counseling. These methods seemed only to alienate men. He recounts how he devised new methods of therapy that included group sessions and "rage work." As an adjunct to therapy, he created Wildman Gatherings. In contrast to some lurid media accounts of such sessions, Allen retells oftenmoving case histories of men transformed by them. He closes the book with chapters on healing male-female relationships, making peace between parents and children, and creative masculinity. The appendix contains a valuable listing of men's centers and organizations, men's publications, and men's retreats and seminars. 684. Baraff, Alvin. Men Talk: How Men Really Feel About Women, Sex, Relationships, and Themselves. New York: Plume, 1992. xiii, 269p. pa. The founder of MenCenter in Washington, D.C., Baraff records 24 sessions of a men's therapy group. The reader is introduced to six men, listens in on their stories, and soon becomes absorbed in the drama of their lives and their interactions with each other. As the men talk about their fears, problems, and angers, they also exchange banter and insults with each other and with Baraff.

After each session, Baraff supplies a brief interpretation, pointing out what is happening behind the men's words and indicating recurring themes in the sessions. Such themes include men's fear of therapy, avoiding feelings, the man's "biological clock," impotence, yearning for missed fathers, "shadow" mothers, and loneliness in a relationship. Baraff's book makes one feel personally close to the men, and his observations convey warmth and wisdom.

Page 250

685. Bolen, Jean Shinoda. Gods in Everyman: A New Psychology of Men's Lives and Loves. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1989. xiv, 338p. appendix. bibliography, 327-31. notes. index. pa. A sequel to Bolen's Goddesses in Everywoman, this book employs images from the ancient Greek pantheon to describe recurring archetypes in men. Bolen envisions a new psychology of men aimed at overcoming the father-son hostility so prevalent in Greek and other ancient myths. For the book's central chapters, Bolen employs a "spiral" pattern that moves from a description of the god, to his corresponding masculine archetype, to problems surrounding the archetype, and to methods of growing with the archetype. Accounts of fathergod archetypesZeus, Poseidon, and Hadesare followed by descriptions of songod archetypesApollo, Hermes, Ares, Hephaestus, and Dionysus. All the archetypes have positive and negative potentials. The final section considers how men can "re-member" themselves by rediscovering parts of the self that they have lost or repressed. Only by reviving Metis, the lost Mother goddess, can men recover their feminine. The appendix offers a who's who of Greek mythology; a chart connecting gods and archetypes is also included. Bolen tends to see mostly the negative aspects of patriarchy, to overrate men's power in patriarchal societies, and to underrate women's advantages in them. Ultimately, she sees men achieving wholeness by discovering the feminine and not the deep masculine. 686. Bowskill, Derek, and Anthea Linacre. Men: The Sensitive Sex. London: Frederick Muller, 1977. vii, 150p. pa. Reprint, Los Angeles: Brooke House, 1977. This exercise in popular psychology offers observations on such topics as impotence, the current battle of the sexes, fantasy and masturbating, gender role traps, and therapy. Discussion is sometimes marred by trendy misandry. 687. Chesler, Phyllis. About Men. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978. xx, 283p. illus. bibliography, 265-81. Reprint, New York: Bantam Books, 1979. pa. Reprint, San Diego, CA: Harcourt, 1989. pa. In this "multidimensional" approach to the psychosexual bases of male personality, part 1 presents mythopoetic interpretations of selected works of art. In stanzas of prose-poetry, Chesler touches upon infanticide and

cannibalism as the masculine "original sin," uterus envy, the conflict between sons and mothers, phallic sexuality, and male-male violence. In part 2, the author provides vignettes from her relationships with menwith her Jewish father who drove a truck in Brooklyn; with her first husband, a Moslem, who took her home to a patriarchal family and society in central Asia, where their marriage deteriorated; with an assortment of lovers who were always imperfect in some way; and with various teachers, supervisors, and colleagues who usually exhibited some masculine psychic malady. In part 3, "An Essay About Men," Chesler reinterprets the oedipal drama to show the son learning how to placate a threatening, rejecting father through fear and performance. She discusses male sexuality as compulsive and egocentric, and she reverts to the topic of male-male and male-female violence. An epilogue contains horror stories of male violence gleaned from the newspapers. Chesler's professed compassion for humanity is belied by her animosity toward the male half of the human race and by her almost entirely negative assessment of masculine psychosexuality. Reader reaction to About Men is likely to range from those who regard the book as an imaginative descent into the lower depths of the male psyche, to those who regard the book as a slick example of anti-male hate literature welling up from the lower depths of Chesler's psyche.

Page 251

688. Corey, Michael Anthony. Male Fraud: Understanding Sexual Harassment, Date Rape, and Other Forms of Male Hostility towards Women. Nashville, TN: Winston-Derek, 1992. xi, 119p. bibliography, 113-16. notes. index. pa. In this exercise in pop psychology, Corey locates the source of male hostility towards women in the Macho Ideal, which he believes is the product of a patriarchal belief in male superiority. Dependence upon females and anger at being rejected by them also foster male hostility. Readers may find Corey's observations uneven, ranging from the simplistic to the perceptive. The book describes the negative Macho Ideal at length but lacks an effectively envisioned positive ideal to counteract it. 689. Dinnerstein, Dorothy. The Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and Human Malaise. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. xv, 288p. bibliography, 286-88. notes. pa. Deliberately quirky and convoluted, this book argues that female domination of child rearing guarantees malaise in sexual arrangements. Because mother is the first denier of the infant's wishes, she bears the brunt of human disappointments with life. She becomes a "scapegoat goddess." The child must eventually react against her, the boy by bonding with his father and the girl by idealizing him. Male domination in society and the sexual double standard are accepted by both males and females because of a need to control female (i.e., mother's) will. But the flight from the female tyranny of childhood results in the acceptance of patriarchal tyranny later in life. By blocking male access to child rearing, mother domination deforms both sexes, shrinking the willful-executive propensities of women and the empathic-nurturant propensities in men. Only when both sexes participate in child rearing will the resulting imbalance in personality characteristics and social arrangements be remedied. 690. Drew, Jane Myers. Where Were You When I Needed You Dad?: A Guide for Healing Your Father Wound. Newport Beach, CA: Tiger Lily, 1992. vi, 202p. illus. bibliography, 194. pa. The author, whose father died when she was 14-months old, has created a guide for healing the father wound. The guide is derived from her fatherwound workshops. Those who experienced inadequate fathering or whose fathers were absent, distant, judgmental, or abusive are invited to mourn and

release their pain. Through a series of exercises, Drew helps readers to reappraise their fathers, heal the child within, and become their own good father. Drew guides readers to find the wisdom in their wound, to reconnect with the father, and to build satisfying relationships. The illustrations are drawings made by participants in her father-wound workshops. 691. Earl, William L. A Dancer Takes Flight: Psychological Concerns in the Development of the American Male Dancer. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1988. xxvi, 143p. appendixes. bibliography after each chapter. notes. pa. A former dancer, choreographer, and director, Earl is now a therapist. In this study, he raises questions about the link between male ballet dancers and neurosis. The image of Nijinsky has created a clich of the male dancer as psychologically damaged "caged talent." Earl questions accounts of the madness that supposedly ended Nijinsky's career. He depicts the talented boy developing through symbolic, egocentric, sociocentric, and universalistic stages, and he concludes that male dancers are not significantly different from other self-driven male achievers. Addicted to excellence, these males do not

Page 252

come from a single type of family background, nor do they represent a single person