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UNIT IV INTEGRATED AND DIFFERENTIATED SERVICES PART - A 4.A.1. What is meant by elastic traffic? Give example.

. Elastic traffic can adjust over wide ranges to changes in delay and throughput across an internet and still meet the needs of its applications. Example: File transfer, E-mail, Web access 4.A.2. What is meant by inelastic traffic? Give example. Inelastic traffic cannot adjust to changes in delay and throughput across an internet. Example: Voice chat, ele conferencing 4.A.3. Define Delay Jitter. he delay jitter is the ma!imum variation in delay e!perienced by pac"ets in a single session. 4.A.4. What is meant by best eff rt service? Flows that are not reserving resources are provided with best effort service. he networ" will put best effort to deliver the pac"et but if congestion occurs severely discard the pac"et. 4.A.!. What is meant by "#arantee$ service? Flows that are reserving resources are provided with guaranteed service. he service provides assured capacity levels. 4.A.%. Define "l bal synchr ni&ati n. #ue to pac"et discard during congestion, many $% connections entered slow start at the same time. &s a result, the networ" is unnecessarily under utili'ed for some time. he $% connections which entered into slow start, will come out of slow start at about time causing congestion again. his phenomenon is called global synchroni'ation. 4.A.'. What are the $esi"n " als f (ED al" rithm? (. $ongestion avoidance ). *lobal synchroni'ation avoidance +. ,ound on average -ueue length 4.A.). Define behavi r a""re"ate in per h p behavi r. & set of pac"ets with the same #s code point crossing a lin" in particular direction is called behaviour aggregate. 4.A.*. Define D+ c $e p int. & specified value of . bit #/ code point portion of the 0 bit #/ field in the I% header which indicate to which class pac"et belongs and its drop precedence. 4.A.1,. What is meant by traffic c n$iti nin" a"reement? &n agreement that specify rules that are to apply for pac"ets selected by the classifier. $ontrol functions performed in $& are metering, mar"ing, shaping and dropping. 4.A.11. Define D+ b #n$ary n $e. & #/ node that connects one #s domain to the node in another domain.

4.A.12. Define D+ interi r n $e. & node in #/ domain, which is not the boundary node is called #s interior node. 4.A.13. Define Ds n $e. & router that supports #/ policies is called as #/ node. & host system that use #/ for application is called as #/ node. 4.A.14. What is meant by $ifferentiate$ service? 1 It does not attempt to view the total traffic demand in integrated sense. 1 It does not reserve networ" capacity in advance. 1 It provides differential level of 23/ to different traffic flows. 4.A.1!. What is meant by inte"rate$ services? he Is provider 4 1 Views the total of current traffic demand. 1 5imits the demand with respect to the current capacity handled by the networ". 1 ,eserve resources with in the domain to provide a particular 23/ guaranteed. 4.A.16. What are the requirements for inelastic traffic? 4.A.17. State the drawbacks of FIFO queering discipline? 4.A.18. What is global synchronization? 4.A.19. Distinguish between inelastic and elastic traffic? 4.A.20. Define the format of DS field? PART B 4.B.1. Explain the block diagram for Integrated Services Architecture. And give details about components (16) Integrated Services Architecture ISA! I%v6 header fields for precedence and type of service usually ignored & 7 only networ" designed to support $%, 8#% and real-time traffic 47ay need new installation 9eed to support 2uality of /ervice :2o/; within $%<I% 4&dd functionality to routers 47eans of re-uesting 2o/ Internet Tra""ic E#astic $an adjust to changes in delay and throughput E.g. common $% and 8#% application 4E-7ail 4 insensitive to delay changes 4F % 4 8ser e!pect delay proportional to file si'e /ensitive to changes in throughput 4/97% 4 delay not a problem, e!cept when caused by congestion 4Web := %;, E59E 4 sensitive to delay


per pac"et delay 4 total elapsed time 4E.g. web page loading time 4For small items, delay across internet dominates 4For large items it is throughput over connection 9eed some 2o/ control to match to demand Internet Tra""ic Ine#astic #oes not easily adapt to changes in delay and throughput 4,eal time traffic hroughput 47inimum may be re-uired #elay 4E.g. stoc" trading >itter - #elay variation 47ore jitter re-uires a bigger buffer 4E.g. teleconferencing re-uires reasonable upper bound %ac"et loss Ine#astic Tra""ic Pr$%#e&s #ifficult to meet re-uirements on networ" with variable -ueuing delays and congestion 9eed preferential treatment &pplications need to state re-uirements 4&head of time :preferably; or on the fly 48sing fields in I% header 4,esource reservation protocol 7ust still support elastic traffic 4#eny service re-uests that leave too few resources to handle elastic traffic demands

4.B.2.a. Explain the services offered by ISA (8) b. Define Differentiated services. (8) ISA A''r$ach %rovision of 2o/ over I% /haring available capacity when congested ,outer mechanisms 4,outing &lgorithms /elect to minimi'e delay 4%ac"et discard $auses $% sender to bac" off and reduce load Enahnced by I/& F#$( I% pac"et can be associated with a flow 4#istinguishable stream of related I% pac"ets 4From single user activity 4,e-uiring same 2o/ 4E.g. one transport connection or one video stream 48nidirectional 4$an be more than one recipient 7ulticast 47embership of flow identified by source and destination I% address, port numbers, protocol type


header flow identifier can be used but isnot necessarily e-uivalent to I/& flow ISA Functi$ns &dmission control 4For 2o/, reservation re-uired for new flow 4,/V% used ,outing algorithm 4?ase decision on 2o/ parameters 2ueuing discipline 4 a"e account of different flow re-uirements #iscard policy 47anage congestion 47eet 2o/ ISA I&'#e&entati$n in R$uter ?ac"ground Functions Di""erentiated Services DS! I/& and ,/V% comple! to deploy 7ay not scale well for large volumes of traffic 4&mount of control signals 47aintenance of state information at routers #/ architecture designed to provide simple, easy to implement, low overhead tool 4/upport range of networ" services #ifferentiated on basis of performance

Characteristics $" DS 8se I%v6 header ype of /ervice or I%v. raffic $lass field 49o change to I% /ervice level agreement :/5&; established between provider :internet domain; and customer prior to use of #/ 4#/ mechanisms not needed in applications ?uild in aggregation 4&ll traffic with same #/ field treated same E.g. multiple voice connections 4#/ implemented in individual routers by -ueuing and forwarding based on #/ field /tate information on flows not saved by routers


within #/ domain 4$ontiguous portion of Internet over which consistent set of #/ policies administered 4 ypically under control of one administrative entity #efined in /5& 4$ustomer may be user organi'ation or other #/ domain 4%ac"et class mar"ed in #/ field /ervice provider configures forwarding policies routers 43ngoing measure of performance provided for each class #/ domain e!pected to provide agreed service internally If destination in another domain, #/ domain attempts to forward pac"ets through other domains 4&ppropriate service level re-uested from each domain S)A Para&eters #etailed service performance parameters 4 hroughput, drop probability, latency $onstraints on ingress and egress points

4Indicate scope of service

raffic profiles to be adhered to 4 o"en buc"et #isposition of traffic in e!cess of profile E*a&'#e Services 2ualitative 4&@ 5ow latency 4?@ 5ow loss 2uantitative 4$@ ABC in-profile traffic delivered with no more than DBms latency 4#@ ADC in-profile traffic delivered 7i!ed 4E@ wice bandwidth of F 4F@ raffic with drop precedence E has higher delivery probability than that with drop precedence F #/ Field #etail 5eftmost . bits are #/ codepoint 4.6 different classes available 4+ pools !!!!!B @ reserved for standards 4BBBBBB @ default pac"et class 4!!!BBB @ reserved for bac"wards compatibility with I%v6 3/ !!!!(( @ reserved for e!perimental or local use !!!!B( @ reserved for e!perimental or local use but may be allocated for future standards if needed ,ightmost ) bits unused C$n"igurati$n Diagra&

C$n"igurati$n Interi$r R$uters #omain consists of set of contiguous routers Interpretation of #/ codepoints within domain is consistent Interior nodes :routers; have simple mechanisms to handle pac"ets based on codepoints 42ueuing gives preferential treatment depending on codepoint %er =op behaviour :%=?;

7ust be available to all routers ypically the only part implemented in interior routers 4%ac"et dropping rule dictated which to drop when buffer saturated C$n"igurati$n B$undar+ R$uters Include %=? rules &lso traffic conditioning to provide desired service 4$lassifier /eparate pac"ets into classes 47eter

4.B.3. Explain the various queering disciplines in ISA. (16)

ISA C$&'$nents Bac,gr$und Functi$ns ,eservation %rotocol 4,/V% &dmission control 7anagement agent 4$an use agent to modify traffic control database and direct admission control ,outing protocol ISA C$&'$nents F$r(arding $lassifier and route selection 4Incoming pac"ets mapped to classes /ingle flow or set of flows with same 2o/ 4E.g. all video flows ?ased on I% header fields 4#etermines ne!t hop %ac"et scheduler 47anages one or more -ueues for each output 43rder -ueued pac"ets sent ?ased on class, traffic control database, current and past activity on outgoing port 4%olicing ISA Services raffic specification : /pec; defined as service for flow 3n two levels

4*eneral categories of service

4.B.4. Explain the RED algorithm. (16) Rand$& Ear#+ Detecti$n RED! -$tivati$n /urges fill buffers and cause discards 3n $% this is a signal to enter &dds to load and delay 4*lobal synchroni'ation raffic burst fills -ueues so pac"ets lost 7any $% connections enter slow start raffic drops so networ" under utili'ed $onnections leave slow start at same time causing burst ?igger buffers do not help ry to anticipate onset of congestion and tell one connection to slow down

RED Design G$a#s

$ongestion avoidance *lobal synchroni'ation avoidance 4$urrent systems inform connections to bac" off implicitly by dropping pac"ets &voidance of bias to bursty traffic 4#iscard arriving pac"ets will do this ?ound on average -ueue length 4=ence control on average delay RED A#g$rith& .vervie( $alculate average -ueue si'e avg if avg G =min -ueue pac"et else if =min avg < hma! calculate probability %a with probability %a discard pac"et else with probability (-%a -ueue pac"et else if avg =ma! discard pac"et ,E# ?uffer

RED A#g$rith& Detai#

4.B.5. Explain the various types of Traffic. (16) 7easure traffic for conformance to profile 47ar"er %olicing by remar"ing codepoints if re-uired 4/haper 4#ropper DS Tra""ic C$nditi$ner Per /$' Behavi$ur E*'edited "$r(arding %remium service 45ow loss, delay, jitterH assured bandwidth end-to-end service through domains 45oo"s li"e point to point or leased line 4#ifficult to achieve 4$onfigure nodes so traffic aggregate has well defined minimum departure rate EF %=? 4$ondition aggregate so arrival rate at any node is always less that minimum departure rate ?oundary conditioners Per /$' Behavi$ur E*'#icit A##$cati$n /uperior to best efforts #oes not re-uire reservation of resources #oes not re-uire detailed discrimination among flows 8sers offered choice of number of classes 7onitored at boundary node 4In or out depending on matching profile or not Inside networ" all traffic treated as single pool of pac"ets, distinguished only as in or out #rop out pac"ets before in pac"ets if necessary #ifferent levels of service because different number of in pac"ets for each user P/B - Assured F$r(arding Four classes defined 4/elect one or more to meet re-uirements Within class, pac"ets mar"ed by customer or provider with one of three drop precedence values 48sed to determine importance when dropping pac"ets as result of congestion