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Appendix

Formulas and units


Hydraulic system and circuit design is limited only by the creativity of the application
engineer. All basic circuit design begins with the ultimate actuator functions in mind how-
ever. The most critical parameters are the required rates of travel, feeds, speeds, accel-
eration, deceleration requirements as well as ambient conditions and duty cycles. Addi-
tional consideration must be given to load induced as well as external forces.
Thermal efficiencies and noise abatement considerations are another major factor in
todays fluid power system design.
The following formulas and tables are intended to serve as guideline only and should help
with the planning of your hydraulic system.
A-18 04/01
Equipment Formulas and description Symbol
General information
Hydraulic cylinders
Single acting
F: force
p: pressure
A: area
Q: flow
v: speed
V: volume
t: time
s: travel (stroke)
M: torque
Basic equations (static, without any loss)
Q
V
t
V A s


F p A
p
F
A
Q A v
M
V p
v
s
t

2
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
A mm d mm
v
m
s
s mm
t s
F N p bar A mm
p bar
F N
A mm
Q l A mm v
m
s
s B
B
s
in
2 2
2
1
2
2
4
1000
01
10
006

1
]
1

1
]
1

,
/ min ,
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
A mm d mm
v
m
s
s mm
t s
F N p bar A mm
p bar
F N
A mm
Q l A mm v
m
s
s B
B
s
in
2 2
2
1
2
2
4
1000
01
10
006

1
]
1

1
]
1

,
/ min ,
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
A mm d mm
v
m
s
s mm
t s
F N p bar A mm
p bar
F N
A mm
Q l A mm v
m
s
s B
B
s
in
2 2
2
1
2
2
4
1000
01
10
006

1
]
1

1
]
1

,
/ min ,
d: piston diameter (mm)
A: piston area (mm
2
)
F
s
: force (N)
p
B
: operating pressure (bar)
v: piston speed
Q
in
: inflow (lpm)
s: stroke (mm)
t: time (S)

F
s
[N] = - 0.1 p
B
[bar] A [mm
2
]
=
p
B
[bar] =
Q
in
[lpm] = 0.06 A [mm
2
]
A [mm
2
] = [mm]
A
1
[mm
2
]
-10 F
s
[N]
s [mm]
1000 t [s]
Q
in
m
s

_
,

Formulas and units


A-19 04/01
Equipment Formulas and description Symbol
Double acting
Hydraulic pumps /
hydraulic motors
Extending
Basic equations (balance of forces):
Retracting
Basic equations (balance of forces):
( )
( )
A
d
d d
A d d
p A p A F
p
A
p A F
Q A v
Q A v
in
out
1 1
2
1
2
3 1
2
1
2
1 1 3 3
1
1
3 3
1
3
078
4
1
=
=
=
=
=
=

,
( )
p A p A F
p
A
p A F
Q A v
Q A v
1 1 3 3
3
3
1 1
3
1
1
= +
=
=
=
in
out
p
3
is the result of back pressure from pipes and valves for Q
out
Attention: Pressure intensification could occur!
p
1
result of back pressure from pipes and valves for Q
out
Basic equations: Simplified:
Flow:
Middle torque:
Power:
Geometric volume per
revolution (piston pumps): V A h =
Q V n =
M
V p
=

2
P p Q
hydr
=
V: displacement (cm
3
)
A: effective piston area (mm
2
)
h: double stroke (mm)
n: rev. rating (rpm)
M: middle torque (Nm)
p: pressure (bar)
|p: effective pressure (bar)
Q: flow (lpm)
P
hydr
: hydraulic performance (kW)
P
mech
: mechanical performance (kW)

T
: total efficiency (including volumetric and
mechanical losses)
P
drive
: drive performance (kW)
P
out
: output hydraulic motor (kW)
Simplified:
Simplified:
A
1
: piston area (mm
2
)
A
3
: rod side area (mm
2
)
d
1
: piston # (mm)
d
2
: rod # (mm)
F: force (N)
Q
in
: inflow (lpm)
O
out
: outflow (lpm)
p
1
: pressure, piston side (bar)
p
3
: pressure, rod side (bar)
s: stroke, travel (mm)
Guideline: A power rating of 1 kW for the drive is neces-
sary to achieve a delivery flow of Q = 1 lpm
with operating pressure p = 500 bar!
1
)
1
) p
o
result of back pressure from pipes and valves
2
) incl. degree of efficiency
T
, 0.82
p p p
o
=
1
Power consumption (pump):
Power rating (motor):
Hydraulic motor
Hydraulic pump
1
T
1
T
mech
T T
mech
n 2 M Q p
P
n 2 M Q p
P


=
T T mech
n 2 M Q p P = =
2
)
2
)
p
3
[bar] A
3
[mm
2
] - 10F [N]
p
1
[bar] =
p
1
[bar] =
F [N] =
F [N] =
A
1
[mm
2
]
A [mm
2
] h [mm]
318
V [cm
3
] ,
Q[lpm] ,
M[Nm] ,
P
hyd
[kW] ,
P
drive
[kW] ,
P
out
[kW] ,
,
V [m
3
] n [min
-1
]
1000
M[Nm] n [min
-1
]
12000
V [cm
3
] |p [bar]
62
|p [bar] Q[lpm]
612
|p [bar] Q[lpm]
500
|p [bar] Q[lpm]
740
- p
1
[bar] A
1
[mm
2
] + p
3
[bar] A
3
[mm
2
]
10
p
1
[bar] A
1
[mm
2
] - 10F [N]
A
3
[mm
2
]
p
1
[bar] A
1
[mm
2
] - p
3
[bar] A
3
[mm
2
]
10
( )
( ) F A p
A
1
p
F A p A p
d d
4
A
d 78 . 0 d
4
A
3 3
1
1
3 3 1 1
2
2
2
1 3
2
1
2
1 1
=
=

=
Q
in
Q
in
Q
in
Q
out
Q
out
Appendix
A-20 04/01
Equipment Formulas and description Symbol
Orifices
(ideally, sharp edged)
e.g. orifice inserts type
EB; by-pass check
valves type BC, BE
Pipes /
hoses
Basic equation: Simplified:
Basic equations:
The diameter of pipes and/or hoses should be selected in such a way that back
pressure is minimized.
Q: flow (lpm)
|p: back pressure between A and B (bar)
d: orifice diameter (mm)
: density (approx. 0.9 g/cm
3
)
a: flow coefficient (approx. 0.78)

R
: pipe back pressure coefficient
|p: back pressure (bar)
l: pipe length (m)
d: pipe diameter (mm)
n: cinematic viscosity (mm
2
/s)
Q: flow (lpm)
Re: Reynolds No. (< 2300)
: density (approx. 0.9 g/cm
3
)
v: flow velocity
Valves
Directional valves
Pressure valves
Flow valves
Check valves
Losses of pressure by streaming fluid
The loss of pressure in hydraulic systems is caused by:
Back pressure of valves
Back pressure of pipes
Back pressure due to geometric shape (elbows etc.)
The back pressure |p of valves caused by streaming fluid, may be
found in the |p - Q curves of the corresponding pamphlets. They will
be approx. 30% as a rough estimation when calculating the
performance loss of a complete circuit
Examples:
Directional valve
Pressure limiting valve
Flow control valve
Releasable
check valve
Q d
p


4
2
2
[ ] [ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
2
2
2
mm d
lpm Q 81 . 1
p
bar p
lpm Q
37 . 1 d
bar p mm d 55 . 0 Q

,
_



Re
v d


R

64
Re
p
l
d
v
R


2
2
[ ] [ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
Q l d mm
mm
s
d mm
Q l
mm
s
p
l
bar
m
mm
s
Q
l
d mm
/ min ,
, / min
,
min

1
]
1
1

1
]
1
1

1
]
1

1
]
1
1

1
]
1
0108
9 2
61
2
2
2
4

[ ] [ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
Q l d mm
mm
s
d mm
Q l
mm
s
p
l
bar
m
mm
s
Q
l
d mm
/ min ,
, / min
,
min

1
]
1
1

1
]
1
1

1
]
1

1
]
1
1

1
]
1
0108
9 2
61
2
2
2
4

[ ] [ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]
Q l d mm
mm
s
d mm
Q l
mm
s
p
l
bar
m
mm
s
Q
l
d mm
/ min ,
, / min
,
min

1
]
1
1

1
]
1
1

1
]
1

1
]
1
1

1
]
1
0108
9 2
61
2
2
2
4

Simplified:
m
s

_
,

Q [lpm] $ 0.108 d [mm]


d
4
[mm]
9.2 Q [lpm]
d [mm] %
6.1
pm
Formulas and units
A-21 04/01
Equipment Formulas and description Symbol
Back pressure due to
geometric shape
(elbows etc.)
Leakage losses
(by concentric (e = 0)
and eccentric gaps)
Volumetric losses
(due to pressure increase)
Volumetric losses
(due to temperature rise)
Basic equations:
Basic equation:
Basic equation:
Basic equation:
90 elbow = 0.15
straight pipe fitting = 0.5
elbow fitting = 1.0
|p: back pressure (bar)
: back pressure coefficient
: cinematic viscosity (mm
2
/s)
d: pipe diameter (mm)
: density (approx. 0.9 g/cm
3
)
e: eccentricity (mm)
|r: gap (mm)
|p: back pressure (bar)
d: diameter (mm)
: cinematic viscosity (mm
2
/s)
l: gap length (mm)
: density (approx. 0.9 g/cm
3
)
Q
L
: leakage losses
V V p
with
bar
o
P
=

07 10
07 10
1
4
4
,
,
V V
with
K
o
T
=

07 10
07 10
1
3
3
,
,
p
1
: pressure, start (bar)
p
2
: pressure, end (bar)
V
o
: initial volume (l)
|}: volume alternation (l)

P
: compressibility
}
1
: temperature, start (C)
}
2
: temperature, end (C)
|}: temperature, difference (K)
V
o:
initial volume (l)
|V: volume alternation (l)

T
: expansion coefficient
V p = =

07 10 07 10
4 3
, ,
p v =

2
2
v
Q
A
Q
d
= =
4
2

V V p
with p p p
P o
=
=

2 1

V V
with
T o

=


2 1
Pressure increase caused
by temperature rise
(without volumetric
compensation)
Attention: A temperature rise of trapped oil volume will cause a pressure increase!
(i.e. a pressure limiting valve will be required sometimes)
Guideline: The pressure will rise by approx. 10 bar for 1 K of temperature increase.
F p A =
Simplified:
Simplified:
Simplified:
i.e. |} , 1K & |p , 10 bar

0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7 0.7
] mm [ d
min] / l [ Q
2 , 2 ] bar [ p
4
2
=
( )
r
e
5 , 1 1
l
p r d
1848 Q
2
3
L

= +


=
.
( )
2
3
L
5 , 1 1
l
p
p 12
r d
Q +



=
.
Simplified:
[lpm]
Appendix
A-22 04/01
Equipment Formulas and description Symbol
Hydraulic accumulators
Cavitation
Thermal level
Dissipation power
and oil temperature
Hydraulic accumulators are intended for the supply of pressurized fluid during
sudden demands (quick, adiabatic pressure alternations), compensation of
leakage losses or to dampen oscillations (slow, isotherm pressure alternations).
Pressure alternations,
isotherm (slow)
adiabatic (quick)
Basic equations:
o 1
p 1 . 1 p =
isotherm (slow)
adiabatic (quick)
V V
p
p
=

1
1
2
1
V V
p
p
=

1
1
2
1
0 71 ,
p
o
: filling pressure for the gas (bar)
p
1
: lower operating pressure (bar)
p
2
: upper operating pressure (bar)
V
1
: initial volume (l)
|V: volume alternation (l)
Approx. 9 % (volumetric) air are solved in oil at atmospheric pressure. There is the danger of bubble cavitation during
atmospheric pressure below 0,2 bar. These situations can occur, accompanied by sudden noise, during suction process
of pumps and cylinders as well as at extreme throttle sections. The hydraulic components where this occurs will show
increased wear.
The hydraulic power losses in a hydraulic system result in a temperature rise of the fluid and the equipment which is
partly radiated to the surroundings via the surface of the system. They roughly amount 20 - 30% of the induced perfor-
mance. The induced and the radiated heat will balance at some point after the warm-up of the system.
Basic equations: P P
v hydr
= 03 , +
amb
v
c
P
A
Surface with unhindered circulation c , 75
Surface with bad circulation c , 120
with fan (v , 2 m/s) c , 40
Oil/water radiator c , 5
P
v
: performance loss, transformed in heat (kW)
P
hydr
: hydraulic performance (kW)
}
oil max
: max. fluid temperature (C)
}
amb
: ambient temperature (C)
A: surface of the system (tank, pipes etc.) (m
2
)
Simplified:
}
oil max
] [m A
[kW] P 3 , 0
c
2
hydr
Umg max l

+ }
amb
}
oil max
] m [ A
2
0.71
0.3
0.3
Formulas and units
A-23 04/01
Conversion table
Nomenclature
Pressure
Force
Length, travel,
stroke
Torque
Performance
Area
Volume
Temperature
Mass
Cinematic
viscosity
Codings
p
Unit Factor
10
10
1
0.07
Unit
bar
bar
bar
bar
N
N
mm
mm
Nm
kW
mm
2
mm
2
l
l
l
l
C
kg
,
,
,
,
,
=
,
,
,
=
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
=
1
2
N
mm
1
2
kgf
cm
1
2
kg m
s

1
2
2
kg m
s

2
10 64 . 1

x
1 MPa
1 psi
1 lbf
1 in
1 ft
1 PS, 1 hp
1 UK gal
1 US gal
5 (F-32)/9
1 lb
1 cSt
1 ft
2
1 in
2
1 ft
3
1 in
3
F
l, s, h
M
P
A
V
T, }
1
4.45
25.4
304.8
1
0.74
92903
645.16
28.92
m

4.55
3.79
1
0.45
1
mm
s
2