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# Measuring Techniques - Testing Earth Electrodes

Determining Touch Potential Touch potential is the potential difference a person would experience across his body if he were, for example, standing on the ground outside the earthed perimeter fence of a substation and touching the fence at the time a fault occurred. Firmly connect the instrument as follows:1) 2) 3) 4) Terminal 'C1' to the substation earth.

Terminal 'C2' to the Current spike inserted in the ground some distance away.

Terminal 'P1' to the structure being tested e.g. the perimeter fence.

Terminal 'P2' to the Potential spike inserted in the ground 1 metre away from the perimeter fence adjacent to the point where a person might stand. Press the Test push, and take a reading in the normal way. This is the effective resistance between the point of test on the fence and the Potential spike as seen by the test current.

5)

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Earth Earthed Perimeter Fence Potential 1m spike Current spike

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SUBSTATION
Determining 'Touch' potential.

The maximum value of the current that would flow in the earth when a fault to earth occurred at the substation must be known. The maximum fault current has to be calculated from the parameters associated with the substation ratings involved. From Ohms Law (V = I x R), the Touch potential can be calculated. 24

Determining Step potential Step potential is the potential difference a person would experience between his feet as he walked across the ground in which a fault current was flowing. Firmly connect the instrument as follows :1) 2) 3) Terminal 'C1' to the substation earth.

Terminal 'C2' to the Current spike inserted in the ground some distance away.

Firmly connect the 'P1' and 'P2' terminals to test spikes inserted in the ground 1 metre apart, (or the length of a step) at positions A and B respectively. A is nearest to the substation earth. Press the Test push, and take a reading in the normal way.

4)

Record the resistance indicated. This is the effective resistance across the positions A and B, as seen by the test current.

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Earth A 1m B Current spike

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SUBSTATION
Determining Step potential 25

The maximum value of the current that would flow in the earth when a fault to earth occurred at the substation must again be known. From Ohms Law the Step potential can be calculated.