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List of Motherboard brands

1. Asus 2. Gigabyte 3. MSI 4. lenovo 5. Intel 6. e GA !. "ed#o$ %. &iostar '. A(er 1). A**le +,e(ting -ab so.eti.es (alled as a e,e(tor.

List of &I/S &rands


1. Asus 2. I&M 3. &iostar 4. Gigabyte 5. Intel 6. A.*tron !. 0on(ord %. 1et2ay '. Megastar 1). Shuttle 1. Asus 2. I&M 3. &iostar 4. Gigabyte 5. Intel 6. A.*tron !. 0on(ord %. 1et2ay '. Megastar 10. Shuttle

List of Motherboard brands

The Major Motherboard Components or Parts and their Functions

A .otherboard sho2ing so.e .a,or (o.*onents

THE MOTHERBOARD

-he .ain *rinted (ir(uit board in a (o.*uter is 3no2n as the Motherboard. It is also 3no2n as Syste. &oard4 Main &oard or 5rinted 6ired &oard 756&8. It also so.eti.es abbreviated or shortened to .obo. Atta(hed to it4 2e have nu.erous .otherboard (o.*onents that are (ru(ial in the fun(tioning of the (o.*uter. -he .otherboard a(ts as the (onne(tion *oint 2here .a,or (o.*uter (o.*onents are atta(hed to. It holds .any of the (ru(ial (o.*onents of the syste. li3e the *ro(essor4 .e.ory4 e$*ansion slots and (onne(ts dire(tly or indire(tly to every *art of the 50. -he ty*e of .otherboard installed in a 50 has a great effe(t on syste. s*eed and e$*ansion (a*abilities.

MOTHERBOARD COMPONENTS
-he .otherboard holds all the .a,or logi( (o.*onents of the (o.*uter. 9ere 2e are going to see 2ith no *arti(ular order4 so.e of those .a,or .otherboard (o.*onets and their fun(tion in a (o.*uter or to be .ore *re(ise in your (o.*uter. CPU- Central Processing Unit It is also 3no2n as the .i(ro*ro(essor or the *ro(essor. It is the brain of the (o.*uter4 and it is res*onsible for fet(hing4 de(oding and e$e(uting *rogra. instru(tions as 2ell as *erfor.ing .athe.ati(al and logi(al (al(ulations. -he *ro(essor (hi* is identified by the *ro(essor ty*e and the .anufa(turer: and this infor.ation is usually ins(ribed on the *ro(essor (hi* e.g. Intel 3%64 Advan(ed Mi(ro ;evi(es 7AM;8 3%64 0yri$ 4%64 5entiu. MM<4 7old *ro(essor ty*es8 Intel 0ore 2;uo e.t.(. If the *ro(essor (hi* is not on the .otherboard4 you (an identify the *ro(essor so(3et as so(3et 1 to So(3et %4 LGA !!5 e.t.(. -his (an hel* you identify the *ro(essor that fits in the so(3et. #or e$a.*le a 4%6;< *ro(essor fits into So(3et 3.

Main Memory / Random Access Memory RAM!


"ando. a((ess .e.ory or RAM.ost (o..only refers to (o.*uter (hi*s that te.*orarily store dyna.i( data 2hen you are 2or3ing 2ith your (o.*uter to enhan(e the (o.*uter *erfor.an(e. In other 2ords4 it is the 2or3ing *la(e of your (o.*uter 2here a(tive *rogra.s and data are loaded so that any ti.e ti.e the *ro(essor re=ures the.4 it doesn>t have to fet(h the. fro. the hard dis3 2hi(h 2ill ta3e a longer a((ess ti.e. "ando. a((ess .e.ory is volatile .e.ory4 .eaning it loses its (ontents on(e *o2er is turned off. -his is different fro. non?volatile .e.ory su(h as hard dis3s and flash .e.ory4 2hi(h do not re=uire a *o2er sour(e to retain data. 6hen a (o.*uter shuts do2n *ro*erly4 all data lo(ated in rando. a((ess .e.ory is returned ba(3 to *er.anent storage on the hard drive or flash drive. At the ne$t boot?u*4 "AM begins to fill 2ith *rogra.s auto.ati(ally loaded at startu*4 and 2ith files o*ened by the user a *ro(ess (alled booting. B"OS- Basic "n#$t O$t#$t System BIOS is a ter. that stands for basic input/output system4 2hi(h (onsists of lo2?level soft2are that (ontrols the syste. hard2are and a(ts as an interfa(e bet2een the o*erating syste. and the hard2are. Most *eo*le 3no2 the ter. &I/S by another na.e@device drivers4 or ,ustdrivers. In other 2ords4 the &I/S is drivers4 .eaning all of the.. &I/S is essentially the lin3 bet2een hard2are and soft2are in a syste.. All .otherboards in(lude a s.all blo(3 of "ead /nly Me.ory 7"/M8 2hi(h is se*arate fro. the .ain syste. .e.ory used for loading and running soft2are. /n 50s4 the &I/S (ontains all the (ode re=uired to (ontrol the 3eyboard4 dis*lay s(reen4 dis3 drives4 serial (o..uni(ations4 and a nu.ber of .is(ellaneous fun(tions.

-he system BIOS is a "/M (hi* on the .otherboard used by the (o.*uter during the startu* routine 7boot *ro(ess8 to (he(3 out the syste. and *re*are to run the hard2are. -he &I/S is stored on a "/M (hi* be(ause "/M retains infor.ation even 2hen no *o2er is being su**lied to the (o.*uter. CMOS-Com#limentary Metal O%ide Semicond$ctor Motherboards also in(lude a s.all se*arate blo(3 of .e.ory .ade fro. 0M/S "AM (hi*s 2hi(h is 3e*t alive by a battery 73no2n as a 0M/S battery8 even 2hen the 50As *o2er is off. -his *revents re(onfiguration 2hen the 50 is *o2ered on. 0M/S devi(es re=uire very little *o2er to o*erate. -he 0M/S "AM is used to store basi( Infor.ation about the 50As (onfiguration e.g.

#lo**y dis3 and hard dis3 drive ty*es 05B "AM siCe ;ate and ti.e Serial and *arallel *ort infor.ation 5lug and 5lay infor.ation 5o2er Saving settings

-he /ther I.*ortant data 3e*t in 0M/S .e.ory is the ti.e and date4 2hi(h is u*dated by a "eal -i.e 0lo(3 7"-08.

Cac&e Memory It is a s.all blo(3 of high?s*eed .e.ory 7"AM8 that enhan(es 50 *erfor.an(e by *re?loading infor.ation fro. the 7relatively slo28 .ain .e.ory and *assing it to the *ro(essor on de.and.

Most CPUS have an internal cache (in-built in the processor !hich is re"erred to as #evel-$ cache memor% or primar% cache memor%. This can be supplemented b% e&ternal cache memor% "itted on the motherboard. This is the #evel-' Cache memor% or secondar% cache. Some CPUs have both #1 and #' cache built-in and desi(nate the separate cache chip as Level 3 (L3) cache.
E%#ansion B$ses An in*utDout*ut *ath2ay fro. the 05B to *eri*heral devi(es ty*i(ally .ade u* of a series of slots on the .otherboard. +$*ansion boards 7(ards8 *lug into the bus. 50I is the (o..on e$*ansion bus in a 50 and other hard2are *latfor.s. &uses (arry signals4 su(h as data: .e.ory addresses4 *o2er and (ontrol signals fro. (o.*onent to (o.*onent. +$*ansion buses enhan(e the 50s (a*abilities by allo2ing users to add .issing features in their (o.*uters in for. of ada*ter (ards that are slotted in e$*ansion slots. -he different ty*es of buses in(lude 50I4 ISA4 and +ISA e$*ansion bus. C&i#set A (hi*set is a grou* of s.all (ir(uits that (oordinate the flo2 of data to and fro. 3ey (o.*onents of a 50. -his in(ludes the 05B itself4 the .ain .e.ory4 the se(ondary (a(he and any devi(es situated on the buses. -he (hi*set also (ontrols data flo2 to and fro. hard dis3s4 and other devi(es (onne(ted to the I;+ (hannels. A (o.*uter has got t2o .ain (hi*setsE? -he Nort&Bridge 7also (alled the memory controller8 is in (harge of (ontrolling transfers bet2een the *ro(essor and the "AM4 2hi(h is 2ay it is lo(ated *hysi(ally near the *ro(essor. It is so.eti.es (alled the 'MCH4 forGrap ic and Memory !ontroller "ub.

-he So$t&Bridge 7also (alled the input/output controller or e#pansion controller8 handles (o..uni(ations bet2een *eri*heral devi(es. It is also (alled the "CH 7I/O !ontroller "ub8. -he te. (ridge is generally used to designate a (o.*onent 2hi(h (onne(ts t2o buses. 0hi*set .anufa(turers in(lude SIS4 IA4 ALI4 /5-I e.t.(.

"nteresting &$(s
Motherboard #or. #a(tors -he .otherboard for. fa(tor des(ribes its general sha*e4 the ty*e of (ase and *o2er su**ly it (an use4 and its *hysi(al organiCation 7layout of the .otherboard8. It is 2hat 2e are going to have a loo3 at in this hub. 0o.*uter 9ard2are 5arts +$*lained In this hub4 (o.*uter *arts e$*lained4 2e are going to have a loo3 at so.e of the *arts that .a3e u* a (o.*uter. 0o.*uters are very useful ele(troni( devi(es that 2e use in .odern 2orld. 0o.*uter &us Ar(hite(ture -y*es A bus is a (o..on *ath2ay through 2hi(h infor.ation is (onne(ted fro. one (o.*onent to another. -his *ath2ay is used for (o..uni(ation and (an be established bet2een t2o or .ore (o.*uter (o.*onents. ;;"14 ;;"24 ;;"3E Favigating -he "AM MaCe 0hoosing the *ro*er ;;"?ty*e for your 50 is (riti(al. -he 2rong (hoi(e (an drasti(ally bottlene(3 your syste.. 9ere is a full guide to *i(3ing the right ;;" for your 05B. C#$ Cloc) -he (lo(3 syn(hroniCes the o*eration of all *arts of the 50 and *rovides the basi( ti.ing signal for the 05B. Bsing a =uartC (rystal4 the 05B (lo(3 breathes life into the .i(ro*ro(essor by feeding it a (onstant flo2 of *ulses. #or e$a.*le4 a 2)) M9C 05B re(eives 2)) .illion *ulses *er se(ond fro. the (lo(3. A 2 G9C 05B gets t2o billion *ulses *er se(ond. Si.ilarly4 in a (o..uni(ations devi(e4 a (lo(3 .ay be used to syn(hroniCe the data *ulses bet2een sender and re(eiver. A Greal?ti.e (lo(34G also (alled the Gsyste. (lo(34G 3ee*s tra(3 of the ti.e of day and .a3es this data available to the soft2are. A Gti.esharing (lo(3G interru*ts the 05B at regular intervals and allo2s the o*erating syste. to divide its ti.e bet2een a(tive users andDor a**li(ations. S*itc&es and +$m#ers ;I5 7;ual In?line 5a(3age8 s2it(hes are s.all ele(troni( s2it(hes found on the (ir(uit board that (an be turned on or off ,ust li3e a nor.al s2it(h. -hey are very s.all and so are usually fli**ed 2ith a *ointed ob,e(t su(h as a s(re2driver4 bent *a*er (li* or *en to*. 0are should be ta3en 2hen (leaning near ;I5 s2it(hes as so.e solvents .ay destroy the.. 1u.*er *ins 1u.*ers are s.all *ins on the board 2ith *lasti( or .etal devi(es that go over the *ins. -his devi(e is (alled a bridge or a ,u.*er (a*. 6hen the bridge is (onne(ted to any t2o *ins via a shorting lin34 it (o.*letes the (ir(uit and a (ertain (onfiguration has been a(hieved. 1u.*er (a* A .etal bridge that (loses an ele(tri(al (ir(uit. -y*i(ally4 a ,u.*er (onsists of a *lasti( *lug that fits over a *air of *rotruding *ins. 1u.*ers are so.eti.es used to (onfigure e$*ansion boards. &y *la(ing a ,u.*er *lug over a different set of *ins4 you (an (hange a board>s *ara.eters.