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FuzzyPID Compound Control for UltraPrecision Worktable

LI Ping, GAO Hong-hong, LIU Xiao-ping


School of Mechatronic Engineering Xian Technological University Xian, China pingli01@163.com

AbstractIt is difficult to establish mathematical mode for ultra-precision worktable control system, because there are several disadvantages in the system, such as varying as time, nonlinear and so on. Fuzzy control has good robustness and other advantage, such as it need not establish the mathematical mode of controlled system, but steady state precision is bad. So a new control method which combined fuzzy controller with PID controller was proposed. Because different control schemes are used in different period in whole control process, the controller has inherited character of PID control, in which there are no static error and good static stability, and character of fuzzy control, in which there are strong compatibility and good dynamic property. Simultaneously, it gets rid of the disadvantages of them. Simulation experiment for ultra precision worktable control system has been carried on by Matlab software. PID control and fuzzy-PID control have been compared. Simulation results can prove that fuzzyPID control can achieve better results. It was an efficient control method for the ultra-precision worktable. Keywords-Ultra-precision worktable; Control system; Fuzzy control; PID control; Simulation.

II. CONTROL SYSTEM OF ULTRA-PRECISION


WORKTABLE

The control system is composed of industrial computer, motion control card, servo driver, execution motor, mechanically-driven organization and position detecting device. Figure 1 shows its structure.
IPC Servo Driver Motor Twist-roller fiction drive mechanism

Speed Feedback

Position feedback

Raster detect device

Figure 1. Structure of closed-loop control system

I. INTRODUCTION Ultra-precision worktable is very important in modern advanced industrial manufacture and scientific research field its positioning accuracy directly influence precise and ultra-precision machining level, precise measuring level and production level of very large-scale integrated circuit[1]. In order to realize high accuracy positioning of table, its necessary to control table with closed-loop except improving machine design and machining accuracy. Researching emphasis of this paper is adopting optimal algorithm for closed-loop control of ultra-precision table to realize accurate positioning of system.

Position detecting device (grating and grating counting card) is as feedback of position loop, and motor encoder as feedback of speed loop composed full closed-loop control system. Thus servo driver accepts speed instructions and completes speed loop control; position loop control is completed by motion controller. III. ALGORITHM OF FUZZY-PID CONTROL PID control algorithm is a classical, simple algorithm with good control quality and it is easy to be understood. But shortcoming of the control algorithm is also explicit, for example, its worse robustness for resisting external disturbance and adapting to internal parametric variation, easily generating overshoot, appearing oscillation and making system instability, etc[2]. Yet fuzzy control algorithm is an intelligent algorithm with superior control quality and it is easy to be understood. The most explicit merit of fuzzy control

Bureau of Education of Shaanxi Province for supporting of Foundation (00JK176) Foundation of key subject construction of Shaanxi Province

978-1-4244-3894-5/09/$25.00 2009 IEEE

system is that it does not depend on accurate of mathematical model, so it is very adaptive to control complex system and process. But usually size and change rate of system output error is considered in designing fuzzy controller, which is equivalent to the role of general PD controller (dynamic performance of fuzzy controller is more superior to PD controller, system response speed of which is faster, transition time of which is shorter), which does not have integration segment. Thus fuzzy controller certainly has steady-state error [3], which must be avoided. So if the two control methods are combined, a kind of fuzzy PID compound controller with the advantages of two systems can be obtained. Basic idea of the compound control algorithm is switching control methods with changing of system deviation by certain threshold value to realize sublevel control for worktable with different control algorithms. Computer program automatically realizes switching of the two algorithms according to preset range of deviation as in fig. 2.
PID Control Algorithm Fuzzy Control Algorithm Position Detection Figure 2. Principle of fuzzy-PID control system

TABLE I. MEMBERSHIP GRADE FUNCTION OF E(EC)

TABLE II. MEMBERSHIP GRADE FUNCTION OF U

R(s)

Shift Switch

Controlled Object

Y(s)

and then storing it to computer for online real-time control. Actual control values should get from fuzzy output unties. In this experiment, fuzzy mapping method of untie is maximal membership grade. B. Algorithm of PID control

A.

Algorithm of fuzzy control

Input of fuzzy controller are error E and change rate EC, output U is control value. Basic universe of discourse for E, EC and U are determined by actual working requirement of ultra-precision worktable[4-5]. Fuzzy universe of discourse for E and EC are{ - 6, - 5, - 4, - 3, - 2, - 1, 0+1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6}, Fuzzy universe of discourse for U is{-7-6-5-4-32-1O+l+2+3+4+5+6+7}. Aggregation of EEC and U is { NB, NM, NS, Z0, PS, PM, PB} and NB NMNSZOPSPM PB individually represent negative big, negative medium, negative small, zero, positive small, positive medium, positive big. Tab.1 and tab.2 show membership grade values of E(EC) and U. Method of fuzzy controller is inverting a series of fuzzy control rules mentioned above to a polling list,

Discretization algorithm of PID control shows below:

uk = uk 1 + K p e(k ) + Ki e( j ) +K d [ e(k ) e(k 1)]


j =0

uk is output of PID controller of sample k . uk 1 is


output of PID controller of sample k 1 . e(k ) is deviation of sample k . e(k 1) is deviation of sample

k 1 . K p , K i , K d are proportional, integral,

differential coefficient.

C.

Principle of fuzzy-PID control algorithm

Basic principle of fuzzy-PID control algorithm is fuzzy control would be adopted to decrease error and accelerate response process when system displacement deviation | e( k ) | is larger than set threshold value e ;

If | e( k ) | is equal or smaller than e the system would switch to PID control by selecting appropriate control parameters to correct control system and decrease steady-state error. Output control value is used to drive motor and control motion of worktable after being amplified by AC servo driver. It should be noticed that the threshold value of system deviation must be selected properly; otherwise system dynamic performance will decrease because of overshoot and oscillation. So the experiments are repeated necessary for selecting appropriate threshold value of deviation. Fig. 3 shows flow chart of fuzzyPID control system.
Start The displacement value y assigned

Figure 4. Step response curve of PID control

Calculated displacement errors

Fig.5 is step response curve of fuzzy-PID control, under this control method, transition time was short, transition process was smooth and overshoot was small. This illustrated that the output of fuzzy-PID control can quickly trace the variation of input and fuzzy-PID control is better than traditional PID control, thus fuzzy-PID control can meet control requirement.

e( k ) = y y ( k )
Y N

e( k ) e
Fuzzy control Worktable PID control

Output control variable u ( k )

Output control variable u ( k )

Output displacement y ( k ) Figure 3. Flow chart of fuzzy-PID control system Figure 5. Step response curve of fuzzy- PID control

V. CONCLUSION IV. SYSTEM SIMULATION EXPERIMENT

Matlab simulation was used to verify effect of fuzzy-PID controller in the system. Servo system dynamic characteristics of the ultra-precision worktable selected

control simulation curve was compared with fuzzyPID control simulation curve. Fig.4 is step response curve of PID control, system transition time of ultraprecision worktable is longer, control performance is worse; steady-state accuracy is lower, the time to steady state was long and oscillation occurred during stabilizing process.

s + 50 , and PID 0.007 s 2 + s + 50

Fuzzy-PID control was introduced to control system of the ultra-precision worktable in this paper. The control algorithm integrated features of fuzzy control and PID control, which could make the system have higher rapidity, stronger robustness and higher control accuracy and could solve problems of non-linearity, difficulty to get satisfied control performance as time variation of PID control and difficulty to model. The simulation result showed that the system response process have no overshoot when fuzzy-PID control was used, at the same time the system had better steady-state accuracy and got better control effect.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is a great pleasure to thank the support of the foundation of key subject construction of Shaanxi Province and Bureau of Education of Shaanxi Province for supporting of Foundation.

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