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Ryan Gardner English 2010 Instructor: Stacie Draper Weatbrook, M.A. Date: 9/13/2013 Annotated Bibliography

Brooks, Mike. Personal Interview. 6 Sept. 2013. Summary: Mike Brooks is a Line and Signal Technician who works for Utah Transit Authority (Brooks). In my interview I asked what UTA does when a gate is malfunctioning. Brooks said they are immediately dispatched to the broken gate, and their average response time to a broken gate is less than 5 minutes (Brooks). He said that his department closely monitors their response time, anything over 5 minutes is considered unacceptable (Brooks). Brooks described the operation of the gates; he said the gates are set up so they require power to stay up, and drop when power is lost or there is a malfunction (Brooks). He said the lights and bells are powered by its own backup battery supply, so they also activate in the event of a main power loss (Brooks). Brooks said they are designed this way for safety, but it also means that traffic will be backed up around a malfunctioning crossing (Brooks). When he arrives to the scene he communicates with UTAs train control center by radio and proceeds to lift the gates by hand when it is safe to do so, and flaggers are present to guide traffic through while the gate is being repaired (Brooks). Brooks said the most common reason he has to respond to a crossing is because a person has driven through the crossing arm, causing the arm to break off (Brooks). The arms are designed to break off easily; they arent meant to stop cars by anything other than visual warnings (Brooks). When this happens, the gate detects the fault and the train operator is notified the gate is having a problem by a large flashing white light at the crossing called a GCI (Brooks). He said the GCI signal is unique to light rail. The light rail train operator is required to come to a stop and make eye contact with motorists at the crossing before proceeding (Brooks). Heavy rail does not consider the GCI a real signal, and would not stop due to the long stopping distances of a locomotive (Brooks). Brooks said, Safety is our number one priority. I asked if he knew of any collisions which happened because of a crossing failure. Brooks said he did not know of any, and that all of the collisions he has responded to were due to people ignoring safety devices which were functioning normally (Brooks). Rhetorical Analysis: I find the interviewee to be credible. He works on and around the crossings on a daily basis, and has done so for years. His opinions might be slightly biased because it is his job to maintain these crossings, but the information he gave me fell in line with other research I have done. Thoughts on Research: Getting a first-hand account of the operation of the crossing protection systems has reinforced my opinion that the people being hit by trains are entirely at fault. The systems in place have many fail safes, and even when malfunctioning, a person has to really be trying to get onto the tracks when the crossing is activated. Its not something that just happens unknowingly.

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Reavy, Pat, and Devon Dolan. "UTA Hopes Video of Fatal TRAX Accident Will Save Lives. Ksl.com. KSL News, 25 Feb. 2013. Web. 9 Sept. 2013. Summary: The source I selected is a news report released by Ksl news on their website which informs the reader that UTA has released video of a recent TRAX accident which occurred at 300 W 5900 S in Murray, Utah (Reavy). Reavy states, Lorna Boguslawski, 72, of Jerome, Idaho, was killed Aug. 15 when police say she made a left turn against the red light, drove around a downed crossing arm and was hit by an oncoming TRAX train at 300 West and 5900 South. UTAs train operators are trained for risk-takers, but its impossible to avoid all collisions (Reavy). UTA spokesperson Jerry Carpenter said, "If they see someone who they think might dart out in front of the train, they'll begin to decelerate even; get ready to brake if necessary." Rhetorical Analysis: Pat Reavy and Devon Dolan appear to be credible rhetors. They delivered just the facts of the incident based on their interviews with people on scene. Thoughts on Research: I chose this article because it shows a scenario which, unfortunately, is not uncommon in train vs. car collisions. Included with the article is a video of an SUV making an illegal left hand turn through a red light and going around downed crossing arms before being hit by the oncoming train. In other instances the crossing arms were down for extended lengths of time before cars would go around them, but this was not the case in this incident. I wonder if the people participating in these dangerous acts consider their safety to be the responsibility of the train, which has absolute right of way. I dont see any other possible justification other than just pure recklessness or a lack of understanding of the hazards.

Cunliffe, J. Peter. Rail/ Highway Safety: The Advent of High-Speed Rail Systems. Professional Safety 44.2 (1999): 24. Academic Search Premier. Web. 6 Sept. 2013. Summary: J. Peter Cunliffe provides an interesting approach to grade crossing safety; a shared responsibility between the train and the driver (24). Currently trains have the absolute right of way, meaning that cars have the sole responsibility of being clear of a rail crossing (25). This is because trains have long stopping distances, and being on rails, cant exactly swerve out of the way (25). In the article Cunliffe talks about how railroad crossing signs are often ignored (25). He believes that crossing protection that cannot be bypassed should be the new standard (25). Cunliffe says, A dynamic positive prevention method that cannot be defeated, such as a high security barricade, should be installed (25). Another component of his proposed system includes a new signal for trains which detects cars in the crossing, and are placed at a distance that would allow the train to come to a stop before reaching the crossing (26). In the new system, cameras would be installed to detect and ticket violators of the crossing signals (26).

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Rhetorical Analysis: J. Peter Cunliffe is president of Movement Control Inc., a consulting firm that specializes in transportation system technology. He has 40 years experience in transportation issues. He is a credible rhetor because he has an understanding of current rail crossing issues. Thoughts on Research: After reading many news articles about people going around crossing arms and being hit by trains, providing impassable physical barriers appears to be one of the only systems that can keep people from entering an active grade crossing. The responsibility of the driver to acknowledge the warning devices and keep their cars off the tracks has been proven to be too much for some people. I think the authors extensive experience in crossing safety has led him to the conclusion that people cant be trusted, and a security barricade is the only thing that will keep people out of active crossings. I think this article is important because he takes a different approach to crossing safety. It is my impression that he is attempting to idiot proof the system to provide zero fatalities. His proposed changes to crossings place the responsibility of accident avoidance entirely on the train.

Reavy, Pat. Many TRAX Accidents, but Utahs Light Rail is Unique Compared to Others. Ksl.com. KSL News, 4 Nov. 2011. Web. 9 Sept. 2013. Summary: Pat Reavy of KSL news compares Salt Lake Citys rail systems accident rate to other cities with similar number of rail miles (Reavy). Reavy states, When comparing the number of fatalities and injuries alone, UTA's light-rail system ranks high. Salt Lake City has 40 miles of light rail, and over the past 4 years have had 7 fatalities (Reavy). Denver has 72 miles of light rail, but has only had 3 fatalities in the last 4 years (Reavy). UTA representative Jerry Carpenter states, Comparing UTA to other light-rail systems isn't completely an apples-to-apples situation. To make an accurate comparison, Carpenter said factors such as population density, frequency of train service and how many light-rail systems are sharing the roadway with other vehicles needs to be looked at (Carpenter). The comparison of Salt Lake Citys light rail to other transit authorities around the nation need to be based on more than just number of rail miles versus the number of injuries and fatalities (Carpenter). Rhetorical Analysis: Pat Reavy has reported many TRAX collisions in Salt Lake City. His reports are always well educated and provide the different aspects of each incident. I believe he is a credible rhetor. Thoughts on Research: I find it interesting that Salt Lake City has a high accident rate compared with the rest of the nation. All of the grade crossing are protected with crossing arms with lights and bells. It makes sense that other factors other than the total number of rail miles needs to be taken into account when comparing agencies. I wonder if other cities have stretches of track where cars, bikes, and trains share the same narrow street the way our Main Street does. This article is important to my research because other cities with lower accident rates may have better designs on crossings than here in Salt Lake which could make evident an area which needs improvement in our crossings.

Davidson, Lee. Video Released Today: Crossing Guard Gate Was Down 14 Minutes Before TRAX Crash sltrib.com. The Salt Lake Tribune, 4 Nov. 2011. Web. 9 Sept. 2013.

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Summary: This is an article by Lee Davidson of the Salt Lake Tribune posted on their website discussing the factors that led to a collision between a tow truck and a TRAX train at 6100 S (Davidson). The main factor leading to the accident was that the crossing gate was down for more than 14 minutes, and the drivers were getting impatient and going around the crossing arms (Davidson). After an interview with a witness, Davidson said, Oman estimates that 15 to 20 cars going the other direction had gone around the gates and through the crossing as he waited. A UTA representative said that the reason the crossing arms were down for such a long period of time was because there was a train at the Fashion Place West platform having trouble with a ramp for the disabled (Carpenter). Since the platform is so close to the crossing, the arms drop before the train departs (Carpenter). Rhetorical Analysis: I think that Lee Davidson is a credible rhetor. He provides the comments from eye witnesses as well as UTAs spokesperson to give you both sides of the story. Thoughts on Research: There are many different factors as to why this collision happened. The gates should not have been down for 14 minutes. 15 to 20 cars had already gone around the crossing arms successfully so Im sure this built up the confidence of the tow truck driver. Tow truck drivers typically are not paid by the hour, but rather by the job, so while he was stuck at the crossing he was not making any money. Although the gates were down for an abnormally long amount of time, they were functioning normally. The problem was that there was a train that was unable to proceed, because of a stuck wheelchair ramp, at a nearby platform interrupting the track circuit and keeping the gates down. Although many people were upset because of the length of time the crossing arms were down, that still doesnt make it okay to go though. That just isnt something you do. Each grade crossing has a sign with a crossing identification number and a number to call to report if the arms are down longer than normal. This article is important to my research because it shows that people going around crossing arms is not uncommon; it stated that 15 to 20 other people also went around the arms.