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The Process of Systems Development
Systems development process is a set of activities, methods, best practices,
deliverables, and automated tools that stakeholders use to develop and
continuously improve information systems and software.

Problem Analysis
The Problem Analysis phase studies the existing system and analyzes the
findings to provide the project team with a more thorough understanding of
the problems that triggered the project. The analyst frequently uncovers new
problems and answers the most important question, “Will the benefits of
solving these problems exceed the costs of building the system to solve these

Requirements Analysis
The Requirements Analysis phase defines and prioritizes the business
requirements. Simply stated, the analyst approaches the users to find out
what they need or want out of the new system, carefully avoiding any
discussion of technology or technical implementation. This is perhaps the
most important phase of systems development. Errors and omissions in
requirements analysis result in user dissatisfaction with the final system and
costly modifications.

Logical Design
Logical design is the translation of business user requirements into a system
model that depicts only the business requirements and not any possible
Building Blocks View of System Development
technical design or implementation of those requirements. Common
synonyms include conceptualdesign and essential design, the latter of which
refers to modeling the “essence” of a system, or the “essential requirements”
independent of any technology.

Decision Analysis
The purpose of this phase is to (1) identify candidate technical solutions, (2)
analyze those candidate solutions for feasibility, and (3) recommend a
candidate system as the target solution to be designed.

Physical Design and Integration

The purpose of the Physical Design and Integration phase is to transform the
business requirements (represented in part by the logical system models)
into physical design specifications that will guide system construction. In
other words, physical design addresses greater detail about how technology
will be used in the new system.

Construction and Testing

The purpose of the construction and testing phase is twofold: (1) to build
and test a system that fulfills business requirements and physical design
specifications, and (2) to implement the interfaces between the new system
and existing systems.

Installation and Delivery

New systems usually represent a departure from the way business is
currently done; therefore, the analyst must provide for a smooth transition
from the old system to the new system and help users cope with normal
start-up problems. Thus, the Installation and Delivery phase serves to deliver
the system into operation (sometimes called production).

System Operation and Maintenance

Once the system is placed into operation, it will require ongoing system and
user support for the remainder of its useful, productive lifetime.
System Support
System support is the ongoing technical support for users of a system, as
well as the maintenance required to deal with any errors, omissions, or new
requirements that may arise. System support consists of the following
ongoing activities:
o Technical support— Technical support is any assistance provided to
users in response to inexperience or unanticipated situations.
Regardless of how well the users have been trained and how thorough
and clear the end-user documentation is, users will eventually require
additional assistance as unanticipated problems arise, new users are
added, and so forth.
o Program maintenance—Software defects are errors that slipped
through the testing of software. These are inevitable, but they can
usually be resolved, in most cases, by knowledgeable support.
Program maintenance corrects “bugs” or errors that slipped through
the system development process.
o System recovery—System recovery is the restoration of the system
and data after a system failure. From time to time, a system failure
may result in a program “crash” and/or loss of data. Human error or a
hardware or software failure may cause this. The systems analyst or
technical support specialists may then be called on to recover the
o System enhancement—New requirements may include new business
problems, new business requirements, new technical problems, or new
technology requirements. System enhancement is the improvement
of the system to handle new business problems, new technical
problems, or new technology requirements.

User Support
The term user support covers training and user assistance that occur after the
system is up and running. Some of the activities are the same as
preinstallation training activities. For example, new users must be trained
periodically due to employee turnover. Other activities such as refresher
training and help desk operation are unique to support.
Systems Support Activities

User support can be provided by a number of methods, including the


o Online documentation and troubleshooting

o Resident experts
o A help desk
o Technical Support

Online documentation and troubleshooting have surged as a support

method in recent years. Much of this support is built into the application,
although websites are also commonly employed. The goal of online support
is to minimize the need for human support by putting useful information into
the hands of the users when they need it. Achieving that goal, however,
requires well-designed support materials that are comprehensive and easy to

Resident experts are the most common form of user support, and their help
is usually provided informally. A resident expert can be an on-site IS staff
member or (more frequently) a business area staff or user who assists other
users. The position of resident experts is often informal. A person frequently
grows into position simply by displaying exceptional computer literacy or
knowledge of software. Over time, all other users begin to approach that
person with questions or problems.

A help desk is a permanent IS department that provides end-user support for

a wide range of systems and software. Help desk are staffed by personnel
trained to install, operate and troubleshoot application software, including
off-the-shelf products (such as word processors). A help desk serves as a
central contact point for users. Those who require further assistance are
forwarded to technical support.

Technical support is typically a specific function or department within IS

maintenance because of close relationship between user support, change
requests, and system error reporting. If help desk personnel can’t solve a
user’s problem, there’s a good chance that an error has been discovered or
that there is a gap between system capability and user needs. If the problem
us a system error, maintenance needs to be notified quickly to investigate the
cause and correct it if it is critical. Noncritical errors and unmet user needs
must also be brought to attention of maintenance, but timeliness is less
critical. In either case, technical support is bridge between users and
maintenance activities.

Technical Support for Information Systems

Technical support (also tech support) is a range of services providing
assistance with technology products such as mobile phones, televisions,
computers, or other electronic or mechanical goods. In general, technical
support services attempt to help the user solve specific problems with a
product—rather than providing training, customization, or other support
Most companies offer technical support for the products they sell, either
freely available or for a fee. Technical support may be delivered over the
telephone or online by e-mail or a web site. Larger organizations frequently
have internal technical support available to their staff for computer related
problems. The internet is also a good source for freely available tech
support, where experienced users may provide advice and assistance with
problems. In addition, some fee-based service companies charge for
premium technical support services.

Coverage of support
Technical support may be delivered by different technologies depending on
the situation. For example, direct questions can be addressed using SMS,
Online chat, E-mail or Fax; basic software problems can be addressed over
the telephone or, increasingly, by using remote access repair services; while
more complicated problems with hardware may need to be dealt with in

Outsourcing technical support

With the increasing use of technology in modern times, there is a growing
requirement to provide technical support. Many organizations locate their
technical support departments or call centers in countries with lower costs.
There has also been a growth in companies specializing in providing
technical support to other organizations. These are often referred to as MSP's
(Managed Service Providers).
For businesses needing to provide technical support, outsourcing provides
them with the ability to maintain a high availability of service. This comes
as a result of peaks in call volumes during the day, periods of high activity
due to the introduction of new products and maintenance service packs, and
the necessity to provide consumers with a high level of service at a low cost
to the business. For businesses needing technical support assets, outsourcing
enables their core employees to focus more on their work in order to
maintain productivity. It also enables them to utilize specialized personnel
whose technical knowledge base and experience may exceed the scope of
the business, thus providing a higher level of technical support to their

Multi-tiered technical support

Technical support is often subdivided into tiers, or levels, in order to better
serve a business or customer base. The number of levels a business uses to
organize their technical support group is dependent on a business’ need,
want, or desire as it revolves around their ability to sufficiently serve their
customers or users. The reason for providing a multi-tiered support system
instead of one general support group is to provide the best possible service
in the most efficient possible manner. Success of the organizational structure
is dependent on the technicians’ understanding of their level of responsibility
and commitments, their customer response time commitments, and when to
appropriately escalate an issue and to which level. A common support
structure revolves around a three-tiered technical support system.

Tier I
This is the initial support level responsible for basic customer issues. It is
synonymous with first-line support, level 1 support, front-end support,
support line 1, and various other headings denoting basic level technical
support functions. The first job of a Tier I specialist is to gather the
customer’s information and to determine the customer’s issue by analyzing
the symptoms and figuring out the underlying problem. When analyzing the
symptoms, it is important for the technician to identify what the customer is
trying to accomplish so that time is not wasted on “attempting to solve a
symptom instead of a problem.” Once identification of the underlying
problem is established, the specialist can begin sorting through the possible
solutions available. Technical support specialists in this group typically
handle straightforward and simple problems while “possibly using some
kind of knowledge management tool.” This includes troubleshooting
methods such as verifying physical layer issues, resolving username and
password problems, uninstalling/reinstalling basic software applications,
verification of proper hardware and software set up, and assistance with
navigating around application menus. Personnel at this level have a basic to
general understanding of the product or service and may not always contain
the competency required for solving complex issues. Nevertheless, the goal
for this group is to handle 70%-80% of the user problems before finding it
necessary to escalate the issue to a higher level.

Tier II
This is a more in-depth technical support level than Tier I containing
experienced and more knowledgeable personnel on a particular product or
service. It is synonymous with level 2 support, support line 2, administrative
level support, and various other headings denoting advanced technical
troubleshooting and analysis methods. Technicians in this realm of
knowledge are responsible for assisting Tier I personnel solve basic
technical problems and for investigating elevated issues by confirming the
validity of the problem and seeking for known solutions related to these
more complex issues. However, prior to the troubleshooting process, it is
important that the technician review the work order to see what has already
been accomplished by the Tier I technician and how long the technician has
been working with the particular customer. This is a key element in meeting
both the customer and business needs as it allows the technician to prioritize
the troubleshooting process and properly manage his or her time. If a
problem is new and/or personnel from this group cannot determine a
solution, they are responsible for raising this issue to the Tier III technical
support group. In addition, many companies may specify that certain
troubleshooting solutions be performed by this group to help ensure the
intricacies of a challenging issue are solved by providing experienced and
knowledgeable technicians. This may include, but is not limited to onsite
installations or replacements of various hardware components, software
repair, diagnostic testing, and the utilization of remote control tools used to
take over the user’s machine for the sole purpose of troubleshooting and
finding a solution to the problem.

Tier III
This is the highest level of support in a three-tiered technical support model
responsible for handling the most difficult or advanced problems. It is
synonymous with level 3 support, back-end support, support line 3, high-end
support, and various other headings denoting expert level troubleshooting
and analysis methods. These individuals are experts in their fields and are
responsible for not only assisting both Tier I and Tier II personnel, but with
the research and development of solutions to new or unknown issues. Note
that Tier III technicians have the same responsibility as Tier II technicians in
reviewing the work order and assessing the time already spent with the
customer so that the work is prioritized and time management is sufficiently
utilized. f it is at all possible, the technician will work to solve the problem
with the customer as it may become apparent that the Tier I and/or Tier II
technicians simply failed to discover the proper solution. Upon encountering
new problems; however, Tier III personnel must first determine whether or
not to solve the problem and may require the customer’s contact information
so that the technician can have adequate time to troubleshoot the issue and
find a solution. In some instances, an issue may be so problematic to the
point where the product cannot be salvaged and must be replaced. Such
extreme problems are also sent to the original developers for in-depth
analysis. If it is determined that a problem can be solved, this group is
responsible for designing and developing one or more courses of action,
evaluating each of these courses in a test case environment, and
implementing the best solution to the problem. Once the solution is verified,
it is delivered to the customer and made available for future troubleshooting
and analysis.

Tier IV
While not universally used, a fourth level often represents an escalation
point beyond the organization. This is generally a hardware or software
vendor. Within a corporate incident management system it is important to
continue to track incidents even when they are being actioned by a vendor
and the Service Level Agreement (or SLA) may have specific provision for

Remote PC repair or Remote Computer Repair

Remote PC repair or Remote Computer Repair is a safe, secure and fast-
growing method for troubleshooting software related problems via remote
desktop connections. Technicians use appliances like Bomgar or software
services such as TeamViewer or Logmein Rescue, permitting the technician
to access the user's desktop via internet connection (broadband or dialup),
anywhere in the world. With the user's permission, the technician can take
control of the user's mouse and keyboard, transfer various diagnostic and
repair applications to the user's desktop, run scans, install antivirus
programs, etc. If the remote service permits it, the technician can even
reboot the PC and reconnect remotely to continue his work without the user
needing to assist. The technology is being embraced by many people as it
saves them from hauling their PCs to a shop and waiting weeks to get it
back. Another benefit is the lower operating cost, as they have no shop to
maintain, no transportation or expensive fuel costs to pay, and no lost time in
transit. As a result, they can offer high quality repairs at a fraction of the
price proposed by traditional repair shops. They can also cover a global
marketplace. For example, Anglo Computer Repair uses expert technicians
in the UK and US to serve English-speaking residents and small businesses
throughout Europe and the Middle East, with prices generally 50% lower
than traditional repair shops.
Remote PC repair services are extremely cost effective and generally offered
with a no-fix-no-pay policy, which means that the customers don’t have to
pay if the issue is not resolved. These repairs are popular as technical
support, online computer help, and onsite technical support. With an increase
in online resources, there are many companies to get exclusive remote
support at competitive prices.
Common repairs available with online computer support providers are
computer virus and spyware removal, computer optimization, registry repair,
device driver issues,Web related issues,and Windows security updates.
Not all repairs can be fixed using remote PC repair. It can be of no help to
computer hardware with physical damage. Remote repair is ineffective for
computers that are not able to boot, though some companies can help
reinstallations by phone, then take over as soon as an internet connection has
been reestablished to complete the reinstallation process.

Technical support center certification

Technical support centers can be certified to help ensure a particular
business is maintaining a high level of information technology service and
support standards. Of the certifications available for support centers and
technicians, there are two internationally recognized certifications geared
specifically towards support centers as a whole – The Help Desk Institute
(HDI) Support Center Certification and the Service Strategies Service
Capability and Performance (SCP) Standards. Both certifications were
developed by experts and organizations from around the world and both
were developed under the premise of enhancing the quality of customer
service and support.