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Workshop 11 Room Temperature Study

14. 5 Release

Introduction to ANSYS CFX


2012 ANSYS, Inc. December 17, 2012 1 Release 14.5

Introduction
In this workshop you will be analyzing the effect of computers and workers on the temperature distribution in an office. In the first stage airflow through the supply air ducts will be simulated and the outlet conditions for the duct will be used to set the inlet conditions for the room. Although both components could be analyzed together, separating the two components allows different room configurations to be analyzed without solving the duct flow again.

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December 17, 2012

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Operating Conditions
The operating conditions for the flow are given below:

The working fluid is Air Ideal Gas Fluid Temperature = 21 [C] Inlet: 0 [atm] Total Pressure Outlet: 0.225 [kg/s] (per vent)

vent2 Inlet

vent1

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Starting CFX in Workbench


Open Workbench Drag a CFX system into the Project Schematic from the Component Systems
toolbox

Change the name of the system to duct Save the project as RoomStudy.wbpj in your working directory Double-click Setup

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Importing the Mesh


The first step is to import a mesh

Right-click on Mesh in the


Outline tree and select Import Mesh > ICEM CFD

Select the file duct_mesh.cfx5


(workshop_input_files\WS_11_ Room Temperature Study)

Make sure Mesh Units are in m


and click Open to import the mesh

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Setup
December 17, 2012

Solving
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Domain
You can now create the computational domain

Double-click on Default Domain in the


Outline tree to edit the domain

On the Basic Settings tab, set the Fluid 1


Material to Air Ideal Gas

Switch to the Fluid Models tab Set the Heat Transfer Option to
Isothermal
Heat Transfer is not modeled but since the working fluid is an ideal gas we need to provide a temperature so its properties can be calculated

Set the Fluid Temperature to 21 [C] Click OK to commit the changes to the
domain
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Boundary Conditions
Now create the following boundary
conditions

VENT1 Boundary Condition



Name: VENT1 Boundary Type: Outlet Location: VENT1 Mass and Momentum Option: Mass Flow Rate Mass Flow Rate: 0.225 [kg/s]

INLET Boundary Condition


Name: INLET Boundary Type: Inlet Mass and Momentum Option: Total

Pressure (stable) Relative Pressure: 0 [Pa] Name: VENT2 Boundary Type: Outlet Location: VENT2 Mass and Momentum Option: Mass Flow Rate Mass Flow Rate: 0.225 [kg/s]
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VENT2 Boundary Condition

Setup
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Solver Control
Double-click on Solver Control from the Outline tree Enable the Conservation Target toggle
The default Conservation Target is 1%. This means that the global imbalance for each equation must be less than 1% (i.e. (flux in flux out)/flux in < 1%). The solver will not stop until both the Residual Target and the Conservation Target have been met or Max. Iterations is reached.

Click OK to commit the settings

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December 17, 2012

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Monitor Point
Monitor points are used to monitor quantities of interest during the solution. They should be used to help judge convergence. In this case you will monitor the velocity of the air that exits through one of the vents. One measure of a converged solution is when this air has reached a steady-state velocity.

Double-click on Output Control from the


Outline tree

Switch to the Monitor tab and enable the


Monitor Objects toggle

Under Monitor Points and Expressions click


the Add new item button

Keep the default name Monitor Point 1 Set the Option to Expression In the Expression Value field type:
areaAve(Velocity w)@VENT1

Click OK to create the monitor point


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December 17, 2012

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Solution
You can now save the project and proceed to write a definition file for the solver

Close CFX-Pre to return to the Project


Schematic window

Save the project Right-click Solution and select Edit Click Start Run when the CFX-Solver
Manager appears

Examine the User Point. The velocity


becomes steady toward the end of the run.

Close the CFX-Solver Manager In Workbench right-click Results and select


Edit
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Export
Now we will export a Boundary Condition profile from the outlet regions for use in the next simulation.

Select File > Export Change the file name to vent1.csv Use the browse icon to set an appropriate
directory

Set Type as BC Profile and Locations as VENT1 Leave Profile Type as Inlet Velocity and click Save Similarly export a BC profile of VENT2 to the file
named vent2.csv

Close CFD-Post and return to the Project


Schematic
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Summary
The first part of the workshop simulated some upstream ductwork and the exit velocity profiles from the ductwork exit were exported. Now those profiles will be used as the inlet conditions to a larger simulation involving a room with heat sources

Details of the next simulation:


The working fluid is Air Ideal Gas The temperature of the computer monitors is
30 [C] The flow through the vent of each computer is 0.033 [kg/s] at 40 [C] For the ceiling vents the velocity profile data are used and the temperature is 21 [C]

vent2

outlet

vent1

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December 17, 2012

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Room Simulation Setup in Workbench


Drag a CFX system into the Project Schematic from the Component Systems
toolbox

Change the name of the system to room Double-click Setup in the room system

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December 17, 2012

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Importing the Mesh


The first step is to import a mesh

Right-click on Mesh in the


Outline tree and select Import Mesh > ICEM CFD

Select the file room.cfx5 Make sure Mesh Units are m


and click Open to import the mesh

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Setup
December 17, 2012

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Domain
You can now create the computational domain

Edit Default Domain from the Outline tree On the Basic Settings tab set the Fluid 1 Material setting to Air Ideal Gas Set the Buoyancy Option to Buoyant. Set the buoyancy settings as
shown:

Gravity X Dirn. = 0 [ m s^-2 ] Gravity Y Dirn. = 0 [ m s^-2 ] Gravity Z Dirn. = -g (first click the Enter Expression icon Buoy. Ref. Density = 1.185 [ kg m^-3 ]

Buoyancy must be included in order to model natural convection due to density variations. The buoyancy force is represented by a momentum source, which is a function of density differences relative to the buoyancy reference density. The buoyancy reference density should be chosen so that the source is not large. For a single-phase simulation the reference density should be an average value for the domain.
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Domain

Switch to the Fluid Models tab Change the Heat Transfer Option to Thermal Energy Change the Turbulence Model Option to Shear Stress Transport Switch to the Initialization tab Check the Domain Initialization box Set the Temperature Option to Automatic with Value and Temperature to 21 [C]

Click OK to commit the changes to the domain

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December 17, 2012

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Profile Data Initialization


Select Tools > Initialize Profile Data and choose
the Data File as vent1.csv.

Click OK
CFX-Pre reads the file and creates functions that
point to the variables available in the file (see the User Functions section in the Outline tree). These functions can be used in the definition of boundary conditions.

Similarly initialize profile data for vent 2 by


choosing vent2.csv

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December 17, 2012

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Boundary Conditions
Now create the following boundary conditions vent1 boundary condition:

Name: vent1 Boundary Type: Inlet Location: VENT1 Select Use Profile Data and choose VENT1 as the Profile Name Click Generate Values Switch to the Boundary Details tab Change the Option for Mass And Momentum to Cart. Vel. Components. Expressions based on the function VENT1 automatically appear Set the Heat Transfer Option to Static Temperature with a value of 21 [C]

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December 17, 2012

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Boundary Conditions
vent2 boundary condition:

Name: vent2 Boundary Type: Inlet Location: VENT2 Select Use Profile Data and choose VENT2 as the Profile Name Click Generate Values Mass And Momentum Option: Cart. Vel. Components Heat Transfer Option: Static Temperature Static Temperature: 21 [C] Name: workers Boundary Type: Wall Location: WORKERS Heat Transfer Option: Temperature Fixed Temperature: 37 [C]
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workers boundary condition

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December 17, 2012

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Boundary Conditions
outlet boundary condition:

Name: outlet Boundary Type: Opening Location: OUTLET Mass and Momentum Option: Opening Pres. And Dirn Relative Pressure: 0 [Pa] Heat Transfer Option: Opening Temperature Opening Temperature: 21 [C] Name: workers Boundary Type: Wall Location: MONITORS Heat Transfer Option: Temperature Fixed Temperature: 37 [C]
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monitors boundary condition

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Boundary Conditions
computerVent boundary condition:
Name: computerVent Boundary Type: Inlet Location: COMPUTER1VENT, COMPUTER2VENT, COMPUTER3VENT,
COMPUTER4VENT (to select multiple locations click on Ctrl button while making selection) Mass and Momentum Option: Mass Flow Rate Mass Flow Rate: 0.132 [kg/s] Heat Transfer Option: Static Temperature Static Temperature: 40 [C] and then hold down the

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2012 ANSYS, Inc.

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December 17, 2012

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Boundary Conditions
computerIntake boundary condition:
Name: computerIntake Boundary Type: Outlet Location: COMPUTER1INTAKE, COMPUTER2INTAKE, COMPUTER3INTAKE,
COMPUTER4INTAKE Mass and Momentum Option: Mass Flow Rate Mass Flow Rate: 0.132 [kg/s] Mass Flow Update Option: Constant Flux
This enforces a uniform mass flow across the entire boundary region rather than letting a natural velocity profile develop. It is used here to make sure the flow rate through each intake is the same.

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2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Setup
December 17, 2012

Solving
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Solver Control

Edit Solver Control from the Outline tree

Increase the Max. Iterations to 750


Change the Timescale Control to Physical Timescale Set a Physical Timescale of 2 [s] Enable the Conservation Target toggle

The default value 0.01 is applicable here

Click OK to commit the settings

Introduction
2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Setup
December 17, 2012

Solving
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Summary
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Monitor Point
You will monitor the temperature of the air that exits through the outlet. One measure of a converged solution is when this air has reached a steady temperature.

Edit Output Control from the Outline tree Switch to the Monitor tab and enable the
Monitor Objects toggle

Under Monitor Points and Expressions


click the Add new item icon

Enter the Name as temp Set the Option to Expression In the Expression Value field type in:
massFlowAve(Temperature)@outlet

Click OK to create the monitor point


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December 17, 2012

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Solution
Save the project and write a definition file:

Close CFX-Pre to return to the Project Schematic window and save the project
The solution will take several hours to solve on one processor. To save time a results file is provided with this workshop. The Project Schematic shows that the room Solution has not been completed, so you cannot view the results in CFD-Post yet. To view the results for the file provided youll need to add the results to the project

Select File > Import from the main menu in


Workbench

Set the file filter to CFX-Solver Results File Select the results file provided with this
workshop, room_001.res

Change the name of the system to room


results

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December 17, 2012

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CFX Solver Manager


Now you can view the solution for the previously solved case.

Right-click on Solution in the room


results system and select Display Monitors

Examine the residual plots for


Momentum and Mass, Heat Transfer and Turbulence (shown on next slide)

The residual target of 1e-4 was met at


about 290 iterations, but the solver did not stop because the conservation target had not been met Examine the User Points plot Air temperature leaving through the outlet did not start to reach a steady temperature until >650 iterations. Using residuals as the only convergence criteria is not always sufficient.
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CFX Solver Manager


Residual plots for Mass and Momentum and Heat Transfer

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CFX Solver Manager


Check the Domain Imbalances at the
end of the .out file for each equation

You can right click in the text monitor,


select Find and search for Domain Imbalance to find the appropriate section An imbalance is given for the U-Mom, VMom, W-Mom, P-Mass and H-Energy equations It took 722 iterations to satisfy the Conservation Target of 1% for the HEnergy equation see the Plot Monitor 1 tab

Close the CFX-Solver Manager View the results in CFD-Post by


double-clicking Results for the same room Results system
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December 17, 2012

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Temperature Plot
Start by creating a ZX Plane at Y = 1.2 [m] Select Location > Plane from the toolbar

On the Geometry tab in the


Details window set the Method to ZX Plane

Set Y to 1.2 [m] On the Color tab set Mode to


Variable

Set Variable to Temperature Set Range to Local and click


Apply

Observe how the warm air


collects under the table
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Setup
December 17, 2012

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Temperature Plots
Using the same procedure, create several other planes displaying the temperature profile:

ZX Plane at Y = 2 [m] ZX Plane at Y = 5.1 [m]

XY Plane at Z = 0.25 [m]


When finished observing the temperature distribution, uncheck the visibility boxes of the planes that you created

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2012 ANSYS, Inc.

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December 17, 2012

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Vector Plots
Plot vectors plots on the planes that you created:

Insert> Vector On the Geometry tab in


the Details window, set Location to Plane 2

On the Symbol tab, set


the Symbols Size to 3

Click Apply After observing the flow


behavior on Plane 2, switch the Location to Plane 4

Click Apply
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December 17, 2012

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Further Steps
Time permitting, you may want to try the following:

Observe the density variation at various planes Create a streamline from each of the vents
You may want to adjust the values on the Limits tab (Max. Segments)

Animate the streamlines


Right-click on the Streamlines in the 3D Viewer and select Animate

Create an isosurface based on different temperatures (e.g., 22 [C], 24 [C],


etc.)

Calculate the areaAve of Wall Heat Flux on the workers


Click Tools > Function Calculator

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2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Setup
December 17, 2012

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Summary
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Summary
This workshop has shown the steps needed to set up a simulation that
includes:

Profile Boundary Condition export and import Buoyant flow Heat Transfer

Of particular note is that, for heat transfer problems, it is very important


to consider the domain imbalance in a system. In this case the solution needed to proceed for more than double the number of iterations that would have been needed to converge to 1e-4.

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2012 ANSYS, Inc.

Setup
December 17, 2012

Solving
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Summary
Release 14.5