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Copyright, 1914, by

The Buffalo Forge Company

Buffalo, N.Y.

llCt-CO^ tUFFAlO.

ENGINEERS HAND BOOK

OF TABLES, CHARTS AND DATA

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«

^-^

ON THE APPLICATION OF CENTRI-

FUGAL FANS AND

FAN SYSTEM

APPARATUS, INCLUDING ENGINES

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^ E g

AND MOTORS, AIR WASHERS,

HOT BLAST HEATERS AND

SYSTEMS OF AIR DISTRIBUTION

PUBLISHED BY

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THE BUFFALO FORGE COMPANY -E

hp

BUFFALO, N. Y.

FIRST EDITION

PRICE $3.00

EDITED BY

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a.

WILLIS H. CARRIER, Chief Engineer

PREFACE

THE use of the fan in general engineering practice is rapidly-

increasing, making it imperative that both the engineer and the architect become familiar with the fundamental principles

governing the selection and

application

of

fans for various

purposes.

Some general information has been published on the

subject by the different fan builders, but what has been given

out has always been incomplete and frequently misleading, and

did not afford sufficient data to be intelligently employed by the

engineer.

Heretofore no effort has been made to collect and

present under one cover the latest and most reliable engineering data concerning fans and their application to various industrial

requirements.

This book is intended to be used as a guide in the selection

and application of fans, heaters and kindred apparatus, and an

effort has been made to so standardize the rules and data given

that they may be used with any standard make of equipment.

The greater part of the data presented is the result of tests and research made by the engineering staff of the Buffalo Forge

Company in the testing laboratories of the company, many of

the investigations being made purposely to obtain data for this

book.

The results of these investigations have in most cases

never been heretofore published except in the proceedings of some of the engineering societies, where they were presented by

the engineers of this company, and others.

The rules and ap-

plications as outlined are the same as are used in this company's

practice. In preparing this work the theory has been generally omitted, except in such elementary form as was necessary to

an understanding of the facts given.

The information herein presented is in complete and reliable

form for standard applications,

but

there

are

many

cases

requiring special consideration from the engineer familiar with

fan installations.

FAN ENGINEERING

OUTLINE OF CONTENTS

Part I—PROPERTIES OF AIR.

Weight of air.

Specific heat of air.

Relation of velocity to pressure.

O

Effects of temperature, humidity and barometric pressu^^

on the properties of air.

^

Relation of dry-bulb, wet-bulb and dew-point temperC

atures.

O

Sensible, latent and total heat.

Psychrometric charts and tables.

C

0«

^

Part II—APPLICATIONS.

Section IHeating.

Heat losses from buildings. Cold storage insulation.

Heat loss from galvanized iron pipes.

Heat loss due to infiltration.

Heat required for ventilation.

Air quantity and temperature required for heating,

Section IIVentilation.

OO

^^

^

-^

q^

f

Standard of ventilation.

Special air requirements.

Application of the fan system of ventilating.

i^kfl

C2

LlJ

Section IIIAir Washing, Cooling, Humidifjring, Drying.'Z^

Air washing,

Humidity in heated buildings. Cooling.

^

^"^

O

Relation of room temperature to outside wet-bulb tem- Q^

perature.

Drying.

Time required for drying various materials.

Practical examples in drying

calculations.

Moisture removing capacity

of air.

Section IVMechanical Draft. Forced and induced draft.

Draft requirement.

q^

O

^^

C^

O^

FAN ENGINEERING BUFFALO FORGE COMPANY

Amount of air required.

Measurement of air used.

Mechanical draft in connection with mechanical stokers.

Section V Exhaust Systems.

Size of pipes and velocity required. Dust removal from grinding and buffing wheels. Specifications from Labor Laws of New York State.

Dust collectors.

Friction loss in system.

Standard and slow speed exhausters.

Practical examples. Section VIMiscellaneous Applications.

Part III—AIR DUCTS.

Pressure losses in air ducts and elbows.

Pressure losses in nozzles and orifices.

The diverging nozzle in air ducts.

Theoretical outlet or blast area.

Proportioning the various losses.

Proportioning piping for exhaust systems.

Proportioning ducts for public buildings.

Proportioning piping for industrial buildings.

Equalizing friction for unequal length.

Piping layout.

Sizes and weight of piping.

Part IV—APPARATUS.

Section I

Fans.

Fan design.

Pressure characteristics. Special types and features.

Horsepower of a fan.

Relations of total, static, and velocity pressure.

The selection of a fan practical examples.

Section II

Fan Testing.

The pitot tube.

The anemometer.

The orifice.

OUTLINE OF CONTENTS

The converging nozzle.

Coefficients of discharge for air measurements.

Section IIIFan Capacities.

Section IVFan Dimensions.

Section VHeaters. Buffalo standard pipe coil heater.

Heat transmission through metal surfaces.

Temperatures attained with indirect heaters.

Condensation in coils.

Velocity of air through heaters.

Application of heater tables and curves. Frictional resistance of heaters. Sizes and dimensions of Buffalo heaters.

Heater cases and by-pass proportions.

Determination of guarantees.

Section VIAir Conditioning Apparatus. Air washers.

Types of humidifiers.

The dehumidifier.

The design of humidifiers.

Refrigeration required for dehumidifying. Power required for operating humidifiers,

dimensions and capacity tables of Carrier air washers and

humidifiers.

Section VIISteam Engines.

M. E. P. of high speed engines.

Water rate of high speed engines.

Brake H. P. per R. P. M. of Buffalo engines.

Dimensions of Buffalo engines.

Section VIIIPractical Applications and the Selection of

Apparatus for Heating and Ventilating.

Part V—APPENDIX.

Specifications.

Miscellaneous engineering data. Index.

PART I

,

PROPERTIES OF AIR

In this section will be found a discussion of the physical and> -^ chemical properties of air and their general relations with re-

spect to "fan engineering." charts and tables are included.

A complete set of psychrometric "^iT

q^

Air is a mechanical mixture of various gases, ordinarily con- CZ

sidered as consisting of oxygen and nitrogen, but also containing <^

a portion of moisture and carbonic acid, and a very small part" of other constituents. The proportion of these components will -

vary under different conditions, but ordinarily pure dry air is

;

composed as follows, in per cent.:

^

j

By Volume

By Weight oio

Oxygen

Nitrogen

20.9

79.1

23.1

76.9

.

-.

^

The moisture will vary with the humidity of the air, from O*—-.

to 4 per cent., and the carbonic acid will vary with the purity q^

of the air from perhaps 0.03 to 0.30 per cent., or as usually ex-

pressed, from 3 to 30 parts in 10,000.

O C

'^

Weight of Air

The weight

of the air varies with its temperature and baro- C

metric pressure and also with the amount of moisture it contains. LjlJ

The weight of one cubic foot of pure dry air expressed in pounds may be determined by the formula

^^^982p

,• ..

^

§

^

  • 459.2 +t

^

where p = absolute pressure in pounds per square inch.

t=- temperature of the air in degrees F. A convenient formula for expressing the weight of dry air

at any

conditions of temperature and pressure as used by

Frank H. Kneeland* is

a>

CD

^

^

0253b

  • 459.2 +t

(2) c£ *^

^

where b = corrected barometer reading in inches oi mercury

t = temperature, deg. F.

1.3253 = weight in lbs. of 459.2 cu. ft. of air at 0° F. and

1" barometric pressure.

* "Some Experiences with the Pitot Tube on High and Low Velocities"

Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs., Dec. 1911.

FAN ENGINEERING— BUFFALO FORGE COMPANY

A formula expressing the weight of humid air is given in the

Smithsonian Meteorological Tables as

  • 0.080723 b- 0.378 e

1 +0.0020389 (t- 32)

^

29.921

where t = temperature, deg. Fahr.

^"^^

b= height of barometer in inches of mercury

e = pressure due to vapor in the air in inches of mercury.

According to the latest data the above values should be

slightly changed, and we will then have the following formulae

as convenient forms for calculating the weight per cubic foot of

either dry or moist air.

r?

For dry air

A

For moist .^ air

.

w

^^ =

0.0028862 b

1+ 0.0021758

W =

„,

0.0028862

b- 0.001088 e

i^o.0021758t

^^^

^'^

This last gives the weight of a cubic foot of the mixture of

air and vapor, either for saturated or partly saturated air.

The weight of the dry air contained in one cubic foot of

saturated air may be determined from the formula

^y _

  • 0.0028862 b- 0.002886 e

1 +0.0021758 t

^^

The weight of vapor or density in pounds per cubic foot of saturated vapor at temperature t is given by the following:

 

_

S (144X0.4908 e)

^^

'

53.35 (459.2 + t)

where S is the specific weight of water vapor and may be found as

The

S =0.6221 +0.001815l/e"+0.000005lT/e3

(8)

relationship between the temperature and specific

weight of vapor is shown by the diagram on page 14 taken from W. H. Carrier's paper on "Rational Psychrometric Formulae."*

An approximate value for the weight of water vapor con-

tained in one pound of dry air saturated with moisture may be

determined from

G^^^

b-e

(9)

It may be noted from the curve on page 14 that the value of

0.624 for S in the above is only correct at about 70°.

"Rational Psychrometric Formulae " Am. Soc. Mech. Engra., Dec, 1911.

12

PROPERTIES OF AIR

PROPERTIES OF DRY AIR

Barometric Pressure 29.921 Inches

FAN ENGINEERING BUFFALO FORGE COMPANY

0.64 60

0.6440

0.642C

fi.f>400

c^ 53 35(t'4596)Ds

I44p

. Ds Density in lb per cu. ft

t« Temperature. Fahr

O.iSSO

p Pressure in lb persq.m

0.6360

Equa tion of curve

5 --0 6Z2l'>0O0l6l5'ie*0Q00OOSlS?

^0.6300

0.6280

0.6260

0.6Z40

20

40

60

60

100

120

140

l60

180

200

220

240

260

280

Temperature Specific Weight of Water Vapor The table on page 13 gives the properties of dry air for

various temperatures, and the table on page 15 the properties

of saturated air.

These are both based on the standard baro-

metric pressure of 29.921 inches. The table on page 17 giving the weights of saturated and

partly saturated air for various barometric and hygrometric

conditions will be found especially convenient in making calcu-

lations based on other than standard conditions. The weight

in pounds per cubic foot of saturated air is given for even baro- metric pressures and temperatures. The decrement per degree

rise in temperature and the increment per 0.1" increase in baro-

meter are also given, thus readily giving the weight of saturated

air at any other temperature and pressure.

The last column in

the table gives the approximate average increment per degree

wet-bulb depression which is to be added to the weight of satu-

rated air to obtain the corresponding weight of partly saturated

air.

Example .

As an example of the use of the table on page 17 we

will assume a case where it is desired to find the weight in pounds

per cubic foot of air at a temperature of 83° dry- and 68°

14

PROPERTIES OF AIR

PROPERTIES OF SATURATED AIR

Weights of Air, Vapor of Water, and Saturated Mixture of Air and Vapor at

Different Temperatures, Under Standard Atmospheric Pressure

of 29.921 Inches of Mercury

FAN ENGINEERING— BUFFALO FORGE COMPANY

wet-bulb (or a depression of 15°) when the barometric pressure is

29.40 inches.

From the table on page 17 we find that the

weight of saturated

air at 80° and 29.00 inch barometer is

0.07034 lb. per cu. ft.

Also the decrement to be subtracted

is 0.00015 lb. per degree of temperature above 80°.

That is,

the weight at 83° and 29.00 inches would be 0.07034- (3 X 0.00015)

= 0.06989 lb. per cu. ft.

The increment

to be added per 0.1"

increase in barometer above 29.00 inches is 0.00025, so that the weight of the saturated mixture at 83° and 29.40 inches will be

0.06989 + (4X0.00025) =0.07089 lb. per cu. ft.

From the last

column in the table we find the increase in weight for each degree

wet-bulb depression for a temperature of 83° to be 0.000034-1- 0.3 (0.000039 - 0.000034) = 0.0000355.

Then the weight of moist air at 83°, 15° wet-bulb depression,

and 29.40 inch barometer will be

0.07034 -0.00045 -hO.OOl-H 0.00053 =0.07142 lb. per cu. ft.

Specific Heat of Air

The specific heat of air is the ratio of the heat required to

raise the temperature of a given weight of air through one degree

as compared to the heat required to raise the temperature of the

same weight of water from 62 to 63 degrees Fahr., i. e., it is the

B. t. u. required to raise one pound of air one degree Fahr.

The specific heat of air may be expressed as either of two

factors, specific heat at constant pressure or at constant volume.

It is the specific heat at constant pressure that is ordinarily

referred to.

The factors commonly used heretofore have been

those determined by Renaultspecific heat at constant pres-

sure =0.2375, and at constant

volume = 0.1689.

But recent

investigation tends to show that the value 0.2375 is too low, and

that it should be Cp = 0.24112 4-0.000009 t or for ordinary pur-

poses approximately 0.2415.*

For the specific heats of various substances see the table on

page 78.

Relation of Velocity to Pressure

The laws governing the flow of air are perhaps less under-

stood than almost any other branch of engineering data.

The

flow of air under high pressures must necessarily be investigated

thermodynamically and the formulae are more or less compli-

* "Rational Psychrometric Formulae" by Willis H. Carrier. Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs., December. 1911, also W. F. G. Swan, Phil. Trans. Royal Soc,

Series A. Vol. 210, pp. 199-238.

16

I

PROPERTIES OF AIR

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——

FAN ENGINEERING BUFFALO FORGE COMPANY

cated.

For ordinary fan work, however, where air is at low

pressure but slight error is introduced if the same formulae are

applied to the flow of air as are commonly used for th^flow of

water.

The basic formula for such calculations is

= ^2gh

(10)

where Vb = velocity in ft. per second, or

V= 60^^|2^

(11)

where V= velocity in ft. per min. g = acceleration due to gravity in feet per second

h=head in ft. causing flow

But we also have

h=h'^

(12)

where h' = head expressed in in. of water

d= density of water

W= weight of air in lbs. per cu. ft.

Then at 70° F. and 29.92'' barometer and with dry air

and we have

12W 12X0.07495

^^''^

V= 60^2gh'-^=4005^^

(13)

Thus we see that the velocity at standard conditions stated for a pressure of one ipch of water will be 4005 ft. per min., and for

one ounce per square inch will be

  • 4005 a/i.734 = 5273 ft. per min.

(14)

The weight of dry or saturated air at other temperatures

may be found from the tables on pages 13 and 15, or for any

special condition of temperature, barometer, or humidity from

the table on page 17, the use of which has already been explained,

(see page 14).

The most convenient formulae for determining the velocity

or pressure of air under different conditions of temperature,

barometer and humidity, when computing test results are the

following:

V= 1096.5^-^

18

(15)

PROPERTIES OF AIR

where

V»= velocity in ft. per min.

p = pressure in in. of water.

W= weight of air in lbs. per cu. ft.

The quantity of air discharged through an orifice or nozzle

due to a difference in pressure may be determined from Q = 1096.5 CA-J^

where

C = coefficient of discharge.

A= area of orifice in sq. ft.

p = pressure head in in, of water causing flow of air

through orifice.

W= weight of air in lbs. per cu. ft. For values of coefficients of discharge see "Coefficients of

Discharge for Air Measurements" in Part IV, Section II.

In case the pressure is expressed in ounces per square inch

these formulae become:

 

V= 1444.5.^

(17)

W

(18)

Vl444.5/

and

Q = 1444.5 CA-v/J^

\W

The value to be used for W to be determined for each specific

case, as already explained.

Example .

As an example of the application of the above we

will assume a case of a fan test made under the same atmospheric

conditions as those assumed for the example on page 14.

That

is, the air to be at 83° F. and 15° depression, with the barometer

at 29.40

inches.

What will be the velocity of this air at a

pressure of 1.5 inches of water as measured by a pitot tube?

As

determined on page 16 the weight of air under the above con-

ditions will be 0.07142 lb. per cu. ft.

we find the velocity to be

Then from formula (15)

The above formulae are sufficiently accurate for low pres-

sures such as are ordinarily used in fan work, but for high pres-

19

FAN ENGINEERING BUFFALO FORGE COMPANY

sures such as are met in compressed air work, the error becomes excessive and it will be found necessary to use the following

thermodynamic formulae.

For the flow through an orifice

from a higher to a lower pressure, where the absolute initial

pressure is less than twice the absolute pressure of the discharge

region,

V2 = 6552^Ti[l- (^)''']

where

V2 = velocity in ft. per min. at discharge.

(19)

Pi = absolute initial press, in lb. per sq. in. P2 = absolute final press, in lb. per sq. in. Ti = absolute temp, degrees F. of entering air. The discharge through an orifice into a region where the pressure is greater than half the initial pressure, expressed in

cubic feet of free air per minute, may then be determined by the formula

Q=63.oocA^V(irrM?fr

where

Q = cu. ft. free air per min.

C= coefficient of discharge.

A= orifice area in sq. ft.

^^"^

As already shown for dry air at 70° F. and 29.92 inch baro- metric pressure, the velocity due to a pressure of one inch of

water is 4005 feet per minute and for a pressure of one ounce

per square inch is 5273 feet per minute.

Since the velocity

varies as the square root of the pressure, we have

^=^/£^orV

Vo

\

po

=

V„A/Pl

\

Po

(21)

Taking po as unit pressure, and Vo the velocity corresponding

thereto, assuming dry air at 70° F. and 29.92 inch barometer,

the above relation reduces to

V= 4005l/'p~

(22)

When the pressure is taken in inches

or ¥= 52731/"?"

(23)

when the pressure is expressed in ounces.

The table on page 21 gives the velocity of dry air at standard

conditions for various pressures expressed both in inches and

ounces. The two tables on pages 22 and 23 give the correspond- ing velocities of dry air under standard barometric pressure of

20

PROPERTIES OF AIR

CORRESPONDINQ PRESSURES AND VELOCITIES OF DRV AIR AT 70°

AND 29.92 INCHES BAROMETER

II

FAN ENGINEERING— BUFFALO FORGE COMPANY

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