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PIERS Proceedings, Marrakesh, MOROCCO, March 2023, 2011

The Study on Electromagnetic Force Induced Vibration and Noise from a Normal and an Eccentric Universal Motors
K. Shiohata1 , R. Kusama2 , S. Ohtsu3 , and T. Iwatsubo4
1

Ibaraki University, 4-12-1 Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki, Japan 2 Toyota Ltd, Japan 3 Yamagata, Hitachioomiya, Ibaraki 319-3111, Japan 4 Kansai University, Japan

Abstract There are many harmonic components in the electromagnetic force caused by
electrical motors. The harmonic components induce the structural vibration and noise, frequently. The unbalanced electromagnetic pull force is generated between the rotor and the stator when the rotor is not corresponding to the center of the stator, that is, eccentric in the electrical motor. In the paper, rst, the harmonic components of electromagnetic force caused from a normal and an eccentric universal motor are discussed numerically. Then, the eect of the dierence of the harmonic components of electromagnetic force caused from a normal and an eccentric motor on the structural vibration are discussed numerically. From the numerical simulation, the spectrum distribution is dierent in the space region between a normal and an eccentric motor. And the 12th time order components of electromagnetic force and an electromagnetic vibration and noise of eccentric motor are larger than those of a normal motor. 1. INTRODUCTION

Universal motors shown in Fig. 1 have been the major source of power for power tools and vacuum cleaners since their early days. Recently, the motors have become to run in very high speed and to generate much higher horsepower per unit weight and mechanical structure have become lighter and smaller. As a result of these trends, mechanical vibration and noise are increasing. The lightening of the motor core was also attempted, consequently the electromagnetic exciting force increased by magnetically saturating, and the vibration and noise became easy to be generated. The reason of noise and vibration is the harmonic components of electromagnetic force caused from a motor. The waveform of an electromagnetic stress is shown as Fig. 2. By FFT in the time and space domain of the waveform, many harmonic components are obtained at one point along the inner bore of the stator In the production of the electrical motor, it is dicult that the center of the rotor always coincide with the center of the stator. The unbalanced electromagnetic attractive force is generated between the rotor and the stator when the rotor does not coincide with the center of the stator, that is, eccentric in the electrical motor. In the eccentricity, there are two patterns. One is static eccentricity which rotor center does not coincide with stator center, and the other is dynamic one which is generated by mass unbalances. The unbalanced electromagnetic attractive force becomes a cause of the vibration and noise from the motor. Iwatsubo et al. [1] discussed the stability of induction motor. B. S. Rahman and D. K. Lieu discussed the relation between electromagnetic stress and radial oset [2].
Electromagnetic stress [kPa]
100 80 60 40 20 0 0 180 Electrical angle [deg] 360

Figure 1: Schematic of universal motor.

Figure 2: Waveform of electromagnetic stress at a position of rotational angle.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Marrakesh, Morocco, Mar. 2023, 2011 1655

In this study, the electrical, vibration, and noise characteristics are studied for static eccentricity rotor of universal motor. Ohts et al. reported the test equipment of universal motor and reported the electrical, the vibration, and the noise characteristics of the normal condition of the motor [3]. In the paper, the harmonic components of electromagnetic force and an electromagnetic vibration and noise from universal motor with rotor eccentricity are numerically discussed comparing with normal rotor. The magnitude of eccentricity is 0.2 mm against air gap 0.4 mm and, angle of eccentricity is 0, 45, 90, and 135 degree.
2. ANALYTICAL METHOD 2.1. Harmonics Analysis of Electromagnetic Stress

This analytical method has been presented by Kobayashi, et al. [4]. In this study, a two-dimensional nite element method is used. The electromagnetic force is calculated in two steps. Magnetic ux density along the stator inner bore is calculated, taking into account the motion of the rotor and the eddy current in the rotor bars. From the above calculation results, electromagnetic force is calculated by using the Maxwell stress equation: 1 2 2 r = Br Bt (1) 20 where Br and Bt are radial and tangential magnetic ux density, respectively. In Fig. 2, the calculated distribution of radial electromagnetic force at one point along the inner bore of the stator is shown. These distributions are calculated at several points along the inner bore of the stator. The number of points depends on the meshes divided by using the nite element method. Radial electromagnetic force stress therefore consists of many frequency components along the inner bore of the stator. However, because the frequency is low, the fundamental component has only a small inuence on the vibration and acoustic noise. The electromagnetic density is expressed by the Fourier series as follows: r =
k l

ak,l sin(kx l t + k,l )

(2)

where (= 2f ) is frequency of the stator current (rad/s), k and l are the space and time harmonic order, respectively. And akl and kl are amplitudes and phases of the harmonic components and are calculated as follows: ck,l = dk,l = ak,l = r sin(kx l t)dtdx r cos(kx lt)dtdx
2 c2 k,l + dk,l

(3) (4) (5) (6)

k,l = tan1

ck,l dk,l

Figure 3 shows the example of the spectrum of electromagnetic stress Calculated harmonics are plotted in the k -l plane. A negative time-harmonic order indicates backward rotation of the electromagnetic waves. On the other hand, the space order k participates in the deformation in the radial direction along the stator circumference. The relation between circular mode order n and space order k is n = k (p/2) (7)
2.2. Transformation of Electromagnetic Stress into Exciting Force for the Structural Vibration Calculation

To calculate three-dimensional structural vibration, it is necessary to transform the electromagnetic force stress calculated by two-dimensional analysis into three-dimensional electromagnetic force. Figs. 4(a), (b) show this transformation. The electromagnetic stress is calculated along the inner bore in two dimensions as shown in Fig. 4(a) and the unit is Pascal. On the contrary, the exciting force on the structure is actually in three dimensions as shown in Fig. 4(b) and the unit is Newton.

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Magnitude (kPa)

PIERS Proceedings, Marrakesh, MOROCCO, March 2023, 2011

200 100 0
60 or de r
ac e k

-60
Tim e ha

orde

rl

60

0 ha m

0 rm o

nic

on

ic

(a)

(b)

Figure 3: Spectrum of electromagnetic stress.

Sp

Figure 4: Transformation of electromagnetic force into structural exciting force. (a) Electromagnetic force stress (two dimensions). (b) Excting force of structure analysis (three dimensions).

Figure 5: Conguration of the test apparatus.

Figure 6: Cross section of the universal motor.

When the motor is not a skew structure, the electromagnetic stress in the axial direction is almost constant. The exciting force on the structure is therefore also assumed to be constant in the axial direction. When the structure is divided as shown in Fig. 4(b), it is necessary to calculate the exciting force on element m (m = 1,. . . , M ). First, the center of gravity of the element m (rm , m ) is calculated in terms of polar coordinates. Then the electromagnetic stress m is calculated by Eq. (2) at point (rm , m ). And the electromagnetic force fm is calculated by multiplying by area Sm of element m. Next, the electromagnetic force fm is distributed at the nodes of element m. In this analysis, the electromagnetic force is distributed at the nodes of element m equally. The same calculation is carried out for all elements. Finally, the exciting force on the entire structure is determined.
3. ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE STRESS 3.1. Analytical Model

The rotational speed of rotor (armature) at no load condition is 24000 rpm, and the rated consumed electrical power is 1100 W. The air gap is 0.4 mm in the radial direction. The number of rotor (armature) slot is 12. It is possible to use the universal motor even in both of alternating current and direct current. The number of carbon brush is 2 and the number of segment is 24. Then, all iron cores laminate silicon sheet of the 0.5 mm thickness in order to decrease eddy current loss and exothermic reaction. Fig. 5 shows the conguration of test apparatus used in this study, including the universal motor. Fig. 6 shows the cross section of the universal motor.
3.2. Modeling of Electromagnetic Field Analysis

In the electromagnetic eld analysis, 2-D FEM analysis is applied and ANSYS software is used. The elements are dened in the radial and circumferential directions and the 4-nodal point solid is used. Air-gap is divided especially in detail in consideration of the rotor eccentricity. Fig. 7 shows the FEM model for the electromagnetic eld analysis. The degree of freedom is 14752. It is dened for the amount of eccentricity and the angle of eccentricity based on a rotor center position in the state without the eccentricity as shown in Fig. 8.

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Figure 7: FEM model.


6000 Stator Housing 4000
Cal[Hz]

Figure 8: Denition of eccentricity.

Assemblye

2000 2779Hz 0 0 200 400 Exp [Hz] 6000

Figure 9: Comparison of natural frequency.

Figure 10: 2nd Circular mode of housing (2779 Hz).

3.3. Modeling of Structural Vibration Analysis

In the structural vibration analysis, 3-D FEM analysis is applied and ANSYS software is used. The degree of freedom is 54186. To make the model with high accuracy, the impact tests are done for stator, housing and motor assembly. From the tests, vibration modes, natural frequencies and modal damping are analyzed. The measured and calculated natural frequencies are shown in Fig. 9. Fig. 10 shows the 2nd circular mode of housing in the motor assembly at 2779 Hz. The dierence between the measured and calculated natural frequency of the parts is about 7%. From the comparison, the accuracy of the structural vibration model is well.
4. MUMERICAL SIMYULATION 4.1. Electric Magnetic Force

By using FEM software ANSYS, magnetic ux is calculated. The contour of the magnetic ux density distribution for a normal and an eccentric motor is shown in Fig. 11. The magnitude and angle of the eccentricity is 0.2 mm and 45 degrees, respectively. The maximum of the magnetic ux density is about 2 T. In the air-gap, the magnetic ux density is the maximum in the 45 degrees and 225 degrees. In the normal rotor, the magnetic ux density is symmetry in the original point. On the contrary, in the eccentric motor, the magnetic ux density is not symmetry in the original point. By FFT analysis following Eq. (2), the harmonic components of the magnitude of the electromagnetic stress is obtained. Fig. 12 shows the spectrum of the electromagnetic stress for a normal rotor. From the Fig. 12, The electromagnetic stress of 0th, 12th, 24th time order component are particularly dominant. The 12th, 24th components inuence the vibration and noise. The electromagnetic stress at 12th time order is fundamental component caused by the number of rotor slot. Fig. 13 shows the electromagnetic stress of the 0th to 10th space order component of 12th time order. The electromagnetic stress at 12th time order when it is 0.1 mm, 0.2 mm, and 0.3 mm in the amount of eccentricity is shown in gure. From the Fig. 13, the following are discussed. (1) The electromagnetic force component at the odd number of the space mode doesnt exist when the rotor is not eccentric.

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PIERS Proceedings, Marrakesh, MOROCCO, March 2023, 2011

(a) Normal motor (=0)

(b) Eccentric motor (=0.2, =45deg)

Figure 11: Contour of the magnetic ux density.


Electromagnetic stress kPa]
6 5 4 3 2 1 0 12th 24th

-40 -30 -20 -10

0 10 Time order, l

20

30

30 20 10 Space order 0 k 40

Figure 12: Spectrum of electromagnetic stress in the time and space region.

Figure 13: The harmonic components of the electromagnetic force stress at 12th time order in 45 degree direction.

(2) The magnitude of electromagnetic force at the space order depends on the amount of eccentricity, but the magnitude correlation is not constant. (3) The magnitude of electromagnetic force depends on the space order, but the magnitude correlation is not constant.
4.2. Vibration Caused by Electromagnetic Force

The electromagnetic stress is transformed to structural exciting force by procedure in the Section 2.2. The exciting force is added to the housing in the motor model and the vibration of the surface is calculated. The displacement of the housing center of the normal and the eccentric motor ( = 0.2 mm, = 45 deg) at the natural frequency 2779 Hz is shown in Figs. 14(a), (b) by contours. Both contours are dierent a little. Then, the dierence is compared quantitatively. Then, the 8 positions are chosen to discuss the dierence of the displacement between the normal motor and the eccentric motor. Fig. 15 shows the displacement of a normal rotor and eccentric motor ( = 0.2 mm, = 45 deg) in the 8 locations shown in Fig. 16. From the gure, the following are discussed. (1) The displacement of the eccentric motor is larger than that of the normal motor. (2) The ratio of the maximum displacement is about 1.23. (3) Both displacement of the normal motor and the eccentric motor is larger at 3 and 7 .
4.3. Noise Caused by Electromagnetic Force

The noise radiated from the surface of the motor housing is calculated by BEM (Boundary Element Method) which is named as the Acoustics contained in the software LMS Virtual Lab.. In Fig. 17, the contours of noise of the normal and the eccentric motor ( = 0.2 mm, = 45 deg) are shown. The locations in the axial direction are the center of housing same as the Fig. 14. In Fig. 17, the magnitude of noise is shown. The locations in the circumferential are the same as Figs. 14 and 15, and the locations in the radial direction are 1m outside from the housing. The mean value of noise

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Min

Y X

Z
Max

(a) normal motor (b) eccentric motor Figure 14: Contour of displacement of the housing ( = 0.2 mm, = 45 deg).

Y X

Figure 15: Displacement of housingcaused by electromagnetic force at 2779 Hz.

Figure 16: Location of calculation of vibration of the cross section of housing.

(a) Normal motor

(b) Eccentric motor

Figure 17: Contour of noise of the motor.

of 8 positions of the normal motor and the eccentric motor is 69 dB and 72 dB respectively. From the gure, the following are discussed. (1) The magnitude of noise in the 45 deg, 135 deg, 225 deg and 315 deg directions is dominant. (2) The distribution of noise is almost the same between the normal motor and the eccentric motor. (3) The distribution of noise in the eccentric direction is a little bit dierence. (4) The magnitude of noise from the eccentric motor is overall larger than that from the normal motor. (5) The maximum of the mean value of noise of the normal motor is 3 dB larger than that of the eccentric motor.
5. CONCLUSION

The harmonic components of electromagnetic force and an electromagnetic vibration and noise from universal motor with eccentricity were numerically discussed comparing with those of normal universal motor and the following are concluded. From the results, the 12th time order components of electromagnetic force and an electromagnetic vibration and noise of eccentric motor are larger than those of a normal motor. In addition, although the electromagnetic force harmonic components

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PIERS Proceedings, Marrakesh, MOROCCO, March 2023, 2011

at the even number of the space mode exist when the rotor is non-eccentric or eccentric, that of the odd number of the space mode doesnt exist when the rotor is not eccentric.
REFERENCES

1. Iwatsubo, T., et al., Vibration analysis of an induction motor under electromagnetic force, Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 60, No. 680, 103108, 2003 (in Japanese). 2. Raman, B. S., The origin of permanent magnet induced vibration in electrical machines, ASME, Vol. 113, 476481, 1991. 3. Ohts, S., K. Shiohata, and T. Ogata, A method for analyzing electromagnetic-forceinduced noise from a universal motor, APVC2005 Proceedings of the Asia Pacic Vibration Conference, Malaysia, 2005. 4. Kobayashi, T., F. Tajima, M. Ito, and S. Shibukawa, Eect of slot combination on acoustic noise from induction motors, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 33, No. 2, 21012104, 1997.