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Organic Geochemistry of Source Rocks, Condensates, and Thermal Geochemical Modeling of Miocene Sequence of Some Wells, Onshore Nile Delta, Egypt
M. M. El Nadya a Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

To cite this Article Nady, M. M. El(2007) 'Organic Geochemistry of Source Rocks, Condensates, and Thermal Geochemical

Modeling of Miocene Sequence of Some Wells, Onshore Nile Delta, Egypt', Petroleum Science and Technology, 25: 6, 791 818 To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/10916460600803629 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10916460600803629

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Petroleum Science and Technology, 25:791818, 2007 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 1091-6466 print/1532-2459 online DOI: 10.1080/10916460600803629

Organic Geochemistry of Source Rocks, Condensates, and Thermal Geochemical Modeling of Miocene Sequence of Some Wells, Onshore Nile Delta, Egypt
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M. M. El Nady
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: The organic geochemical and biomarker analyses of the Miocene source rocks of some wells in the onshore Nile Delta, suggested that the Abu Madi Formation has poor immature to marginally mature source rocks of Type III Kerogen deposited under the terrestrial environment. The Sidi Salem Formation has fair-togood mature source rocks of producing mixed oil and gas, originating mainly from marine organic sources. The Moghra Formation has mature good source rocks for Type (II/III) kerogen, derived from organic matter and rich in both terrigeneous and marine sources. The geochemistry of condensates revealed that the Abu Madi and Moghra condensates originated from marine organic matters with little input from a terrestrial source, while Sidi Salem condensate was derived from more contribution of terrestrial organic matters. Abu Madi condensate is less mature than Sidi Salem and Moghra condensate. The geochemical thermal modeling of the Miocene source rocks indicates that the Abu Madi formations are in the early stages of hydrocarbon up until the present time, while Moghra and Sidi Salem formations are in the mature stage of hydrocarbon generation up until the present time. This indicates that the studied condensates have probably migrated from deeply buried source rocks which are at a higher level of maturity rather than from less mature source rocks in the study area. Keywords: condensates, Egypt, onshore Nile Delta, source rocks, thermal geochemical models

INTRODUCTION The Nile Delta is a triangular shape that covers an onshore area of about 25,000 square kilometers and about an equal offshore area to 200 meters. The southern apex of the Delta is at 30 N, some 30 kilometers north of Cairo.
Address correspondence to Dr. Mohamed M. El Nady, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Department of Exploration, Organic Geochemistry Unit, Nasr City, Hai Al-Zehour 11727, Cairo, Egypt. E-mail: mohamedelnady@hotmail.com 791

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The Nile Delta basin contains a thick sequence of potential hydrocarbon source rocks that generate essentially gas and condensates. Although the Nile Delta has been predominantly considered an important gas province, the analyses of potential source rocks in the Miocene have identied oil in a number of wells, which may indicate the possible presence of commercial oil occurrence (Abdel Halim, 2001). More than 160 wells have been drilled in the Delta during the last few years. The area of study covers the onshore concession within the Nile Delta, which lies between longitude 30 300 to 31300 E and latitude 31 000 to 31 300 N (Figure 1). The Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation (EGPC) (1994) suggests that the Oligocene-Miocene sediments include the best source rocks in the northern Delta as indicated from total organic carbon (TOC) and Rock-Eval pyrolysis data. The thickness of sandstones in Moghra, Sidi Salem, and Abu Madi formations in the study area have proven to be the most suitable reservoir units (EGPC, 1994). The main objective of this article is to evaluate the potential of the Miocene source rocks in the onshore Nile Delta (Figure 1). There is discussion of the organo-geochemical characteristics of Miocene source rocks and some condensates to identify their origin and maturation on the basis of biological marker characteristics. This target has been achieved throughout the pyrolysis analysis of 32 shaly samples from wells (Abu Madi-1, 3, 5; Qawasim-1; Abadiya-1; and Kafer El Sheikh-1; Figure 1) representing Miocene source rocks (Abu Madi, Sidi Salem, and Moghra formations) in the study area. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the representative samples from source rocks and condensates

Figure 1. Location map of the studied wells, onshore Nile Delta, Egypt.

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of Abu Madi, Sidi Salem, and Moghra formations were done. Four thermal geochemical modeling and maturity proles were constructed to assess the petroleum accumulation in the study area. The samples were provided to the author by the authorities of the EGPC. The geochemical studies of the Nile Delta have been discussed by Zein El Din et al. (1988); Abu El-Ella (1990) suggested that the highest levels of source rock maturity occur in the northern part of the onshore around Abu Madi wells. Halim et al. (1996) concluded that the Nile Delta gases are thermogenic and are mainly sources from Type II kerogen. Metwalli (2000) concluded that biogenic and nonbiogenic sources for natural gas have been identied for a number of on- and offshore wells in the Nile Delta. Hammad (2000) classied the Sidi Salem Formation into two system tracts based on the specic organo-geochemical characteristics. The rst one is a low stand system (tract) formed of onlapping submarine conditions. The second is a high stand system deposited under shallow marine conditions.

EXPERIMENTAL A Rock-Eval/TOC analysis was conducted using a LECO CR 12 organic analyzer connected to a Rock-Eval II pyrolysis which was performed to obtain TOC, S1 , S2 , S3 , and Tmax data (see Peters, 1986). A gas chromatographic analysis of the saturated hydrocarbon fractions of the source rocks and condensates was achieved by a Perkin Elmer Instrument Model 8700 provided with a ame ionization detector (FID). The oven temperature was programmed for 100 to 320 C at 3 C/min and a nal time of 20 min. A SPB-1 capillary column of 60 m in length and nitrogen was used as a carrier gas. The optimum ow rate was 6 ml/min. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry used a 50 m 0.25 mm fused silica capillary column of bonded SE 54 installed with a nnigan MAT TSQ70 combined gas chromatography/quadrupole mass spectrometer. The column oven was programmed from 100 to 310C at 4C/min. Biomarker identication was achieved using mass fragmentograms of characteristic ions (Philp, 1985; Philip and Gilbert, 1986; Peters and Moldowan, 1993). Pyrolysis and gas chromatographic analyses of the source rocks were done in the laboratories of the Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analyses of the source rocks and condensates were done in the laboratories of the StratoChem (Cairo) and provided to the author by the authorities of the EGPC.

GEOLOGY OF THE NILE DELTA The geology of the Nile Delta is synthesized by Salem (1976) and Said (1990). It is generally agreed, however, that the history of the Delta is still

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only partially understood. The oldest sedimentary rocks penetrated in the Nile Delta are the shallow marine Late Jurassic carbonates, which are overlaid unconformably by Early Cretaceous sediment. The Late Cretaceous interbedded carbonate-clastic sequence unconformably underlies the earliest Tertiary sediments, which is unconformably overlaid by the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene shale section (prone source rocks). The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene section is of sandy facies. The Middle-to-Late Miocene sediments are the main hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Nile Delta. The Early Pliocene formations were deposited in a deep marine, outer neritic environment. Rizzini et al. (1978) recognized that the clastic sediments in the onshore Nile Delta can be grouped into three sedimentary cycles: a Miocene cycle, comprising largely nonmarine to shallow marine deposited of the Sidi Salem, Qawasim, and Abu Madi formations, a Palio-Pleistocene cycle, comprising the open marine Kafr El Sheikh formation, and a Holocene cycle of the deltaic El Wastani, Baltim, and Mit Ghamr/Bilgas formations. El-Heiny and Enani (1996) recognized six depositional sequences and nine system tracts in the Late OligoceneEarly Pliocene section in the North Nile Delta. Each sequence was separated into low stand system tracts, which represented marine turbiditic onlap and upper high stand system tracts, which were characterized by high stand shelf progression and gave rise to downlap surface changing into a marine hiatus of deposition in a condensed section basin ward. The Miocene sedimentary section penetrated by wells in the study area (Figure 2) consists of thick shales with some sandstones and anhydrite. The following stratigraphic unite are recognized. Abu Madi and/or Qawasim Formation (Late Miocene) It is grade into Rosetta Formation in the offshore toward the northwest, which consists of anhydrite, shales, and some sandstones facies. These formations overlain unconformably by the Kafer El Sheikh Formation and underlain unconformably by the Sidi Salem formation (Figure 2). Sidi Salem Formation (Middle Miocene) It is dominated by shales with some sandstones facies, deposited under marine to uvial condition. It is unconformably underlain by Moghra formation and unconformably overlain by Qawasim and/or Abu Madi formations. Moghra Formation (Early Miocene) It is composed of calcareous marine shales and sandstones overlain unconformably by the Sidi Salem Formation. The Nile Delta region is divided into two subprovinces: the South Nile Delta block and the North Nile Delta basin separated by exure zone

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Figure 2. Generalized stratigraphic column of the Nile Delta, Egypt (El-Heiny, 1982; modied after El-Heiny and Morsi, 1992).

(Zaghloul, 1976; Zaghloul et al., 1979). The South Delta block is characterized by a gradual northward dip of top Middle Eocene carbonates. The North Delta basin is characterized by two main structure patterns, deep preTortonian, and shallow post-Meissinian fault patterns. Zaghloul et al. (2001) recognized that the Nile Delta basin seemed to have been initiated by structures occurring in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic times in successive tectonic events that took place since the Paleozoic onward and mainly including the following:

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1. E-W shears in the Mesozoic times and rejuvenated during the Tertiary. 2. NE-SW Palusium shear during the Triassic-Jurassic time onward associated with opening of the Tethys. 3. E-NE Syrian Arc movements in the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary associated with closure of the Tethys. 4. Tertiary transform faults including the NNW Gulf of Suez-Red Sea rift, the NNE Aqaba rift, and the N-S Baltim rift in addition to the offshore NE Rosetta and the NE Temsah faults. These faults are mostly rejuvenated of pre-Tertiary structures.
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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Geochemistry of Source Rocks Abu Madi Formation (Late Miocene) Abu Madi Formation in the studied part of the onshore Nile Delta has TOC values ranging from 0.39 to 2.34 wt% (Table 1). The pyrolysis S2 value of 0.88 to 2.10 mg HC/g rock (Table 1). These data indicate poor source rocks (Figures 3A and B). The hydrogen index values (HI) range from 25 to 250 mg HC/g TOC (Table 1), revealing that the organic matter can be classied as Type III Kerogen (mainly gas prone) (Figure 3C). The source rocks in Abu Madi Formation has Tmax values ranging from 430 to 435 C (Table 1) indicating immature to marginally mature source rocks (Figure 3D). The gas chromatograms of Abu Madi Formation (Figure 4A) show that pristane is greater than phytane with a pristane/phytane ratio (1.33), pristane/nC17 and phytane/n-C18 ratios (0.67 and 0.55, respectively, Figure 4A), normal alkane distribution is in the range of n-C15 to n-C25 with a slightly odd carbon preference at n-C19 -n-C30 range (Figure 4A). The presence of X compound and C29 normoretane, C30 moretane, and C30 hopane (Figure 4B) suggest terrestrial organic sources. High bacterial contribution and limited input from marine organic matters in anoxic environments are indicated by a moderate concentration of C29 norhopane, slightly low tricyclic terpanes, and low gammacerane and C35 homohpanes (Figure 4B) (Guzman-Vega and Mello, 1999). The steranes distribution of this formation is dominated by C27 and C29 steranes (20SCR) (Figure 4C). This is held to be diagnostic of nonmarine organic sources (Moldowan et al., 1985). However, the organic matters were derived from marine carbonate source rocks older than Early Cretaceous, generally showing high relative amounts of C29 steranes and attributed to the algal precursors (Grantham and Wakeeld, 1988; Peters and Moldowan, 1993; Mello et al., 1995). All the above biological marker features are characteristics of extracts derived from clay-rich source rock with more contributions from terrestrial organic sources and limited input of marine organic matter.

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Table 1. Pyrolysis analyses of the studied formations in the onshore Nile Delta, Egypt Well name Abu Madi-1 Qawasim-1 Abadiya-1 Kafer El Shiekh-1 Sidi Salem-1 Abadiya-1 Kafer El Shiekh-1 Abu Madi-1 Abu Madi-3 Abu Madi-5 Qawasim-1 Kafer El Shiekh-1 Depth, m 37403750 37603770 37603790 3810 3830 41004160 41554175 42004350 44004500 45504650 49005200 48755100 51505190 TOC, wt% S2 HI 2540 5570 8092 243250 198220 356421 460480 480500 110178 300402 325350 275300 OI 180190 200220 150200 185220 98130 150160 140159 90130 100198 80102 5070 57100 Tmax 430433 433435 430432 433435 434436 436440 437440 440444 440442 438444 440445 445448

Abu Madi Formation 0.390.41 (2) 1.561.97 0.480.49 (2) 2.002.10 0.320.48 (2) 0.881.80 1.842.34 (2) 1.842.34 Sidi Salem Formation 0.691.45 (4) 3.885.42 0.880.96 (2) 4.694.78 1.381.25 (4) 4.995.21 1.671.70 (3) 5.005.21 1.671.70 (3) 5.005.20 Moghra Formation 1.111.67 (4) 5.005.20 1.421.82 (3) 5.105.22 1.681.88 (3) 5.265.54

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TOC: Total organic carbon (weight percent of the whole rock); S2 : Residual petroleum potential (mg HC/g rock); HI: Hydrogen index (mg HC/g TOC); OI: Oxygen index (mg CO2 /g TOC); Tmax: Temperature at which maximum emission of high temperature (S2 ) hydrocarbons occurs ( C).

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Figure 3. Source rock evaluation of Abu Madi Formation, onshore Nile Delta, Egypt. (A) TOC versus depth; (B) Rock Eval S2 versus depth; (C) HI versus OI; (D) Rock Eval Tmax versus depth.

Sidi Salem Formation (Middle Miocene) Fair-to-good source rocks predominant in the Middle Miocene (Sidi Salem Formation, Figure 5A and 5B). This is indicated by TOC (wt%) and S2 values (0.69 to 1.70 wt% and 3.88 to 5.21 mg HC/g rock, respectively, Table 1).

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Figure 4. Representative gas chromatograms (A), ion fragmentograms (triterpanes m/z 191, (B), and (steranes m/z 217, (C) of Abu Madi Formation in Kafer El Sheikh1 well (depth 37403750 m), onshore Nile Delta, Egypt.

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Figure 5. Source rock evaluation of Sidi Salem Formation, onshore Nile Delta, Egypt. (A) TOC versus depth; (B) Rock Eval S2 versus depth; (C) HI versus OI; (D) Rock Eval Tmax versus depth.

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Also, HI values reveal that the source rocks of the Sidi Salem Formation have generating capabilities of mixed oil and gas (II/III kerogen) as shown from hydrogen index values (110 to 500 mg HC/g TOC (Table 1 and Figure 5C). The thermal maturation of this formation as indicated by Tmax ( C) (Table 1) indicates mature source rocks, where the majority of samples lie in the oil zone (Figure 5D), except one sample from the Sidi Salem-1 well, are marginally mature (Figure 4D) (Tmax less than 434C) (Table 1). The gas chromatograms of the Sidi Salem Formation (Figure 6A) show an even carbon preference of n-alkanes in the range n-C16 to n-C34 . Low pristane/phytane (pr/ph) ratios (0.71) suggest carbonate-rich source rocks for this source rock, deposited under anoxic marine condition. Isoprenoids/n-alkane (pr/n-C17 and ph/n-C18) ratios (0.52 and 0.66, respectively) (Figure 6A) reveal anoxic marine condition. The ion fragmentograms (m/z 191 triterpanes) (Figure 6B) show a predominance of tricyclic terpanes and C28 bisnorhopanes suggesting source rocks extract from marine algal and bacterial origin (Waples and Machihara, 1991). Hunt (1996) recognized that the gammacerane is resistant to biodegradation, it tends to be present in a variety of source rocks and oils but its proportion is relative to other triterpanes which is particularly high in samples from hypersaline depositional settings (Huang, 2000). In the Sidi Salem formation, the gammacerane concentration is relatively high (Figure 6B) support the interpretation of an anoxic and reducing hypersaline environment. The homohopanes (Figure 6B) are slightly high , indicating marine carbonate rocks (Huang, 2000). The mass fragmentograms (m/z 217 steranes) show that the Sidi Salem Formation is characterized by the dominance of C27 steranes (Figure 6C). This is characteristic of signicant marine organic matter contributions (Peters et al., 1994; Hunt, 1996). Also the dominance of C29 steranes patterns (Figure 6C) suggests a higher plant contribution (Hunt, 1996). On the other hand, Peters and Moldowan (1993) and Hunt (1996) reported that the marine carbonate in the source rocks have high C29 steranes, possibly because of sterol precursor from marine brown and green algae or bacteria. Therefore, the high relative amount of C29 steranes in the Sidi Salem Formation is attributed to marine algal precursors. Also, the presence of C30 steranes (Figure 6C) indicates a marine depositional inuence (Moldowan et al., 1985). Moreover, the relatively low concentration of diasteranes compared to regular steranes (Figure 6C) suggests a source rock with low clay content, consistent with carbonate lithology (Huang, 2000). The low abundance of hopane (Figure 6B) relative to steranes (Figure 6C) indicates algal input (Abrams et al., 1999). Moghra Formation (Early Miocene) The Moghra Formation has TOC values ranging from 1.11 to 1.88 wt% and rock-Eval derived S2 from 5.00 to 5.54 mg HC/g rock (Table 1) indicating

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Figure 6. Representative gas chromatograms (A), ion fragmentograms (triterpanes m/z 191,(B), and (steranes m/z 217, (C) of Sidi Salem Formation in Kafer El Sheikh1 well (depth 42004350 m), onshore Nile Delta, Egypt.

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good source rocks (Figures 7A and 7B). In the plot of hydrogen index versus oxygen index (Figure 7C), the samples of the Moghra Formation from wells Abu Madi-5, Qawasim-3, and Kafer El Sheikh-1 are plotted in the mixed type kerogen (II/III), where HI is ranging from 275 to 402 mg HC/g TOC (Table 1). The Tmax ( C) (Table 1) indicates mature source rocks, where most samples of this formation lie in the oil zone (Figure 7D). The Moghra Formation has higher pr/ph ratio (1:30). Also, isoprenoids to n-alkane ratios (0.72 and 0.53, respectively, (Figure 8A) indicate an origin from mixed Type II and III organic matters, deposited under suboxic conditions. This formation has odd over even n-alkanes preferences in the ranges n-C21 , n-C27 , and n-C29 (Figure 8A) which suggests mixed organic sources (Hunt, 1996). The Moghra Formation has slightly higher tricyclic terpanes (Figure 8B), suggesting source rock that contains nonmarine and higher plant organic matter (Hanson et al., 2000). Also, the smooth decreasing in the homohopanes (C31 C35 ) prole (Figure 8B) reects a clastic facies (Waples and Machihara, 1991). The low gammacerane concentration in the sample (Figure 8B) indicates a low salinity level at the time of their source rock deposition. The presence of oleanane (Figure 8B) indicates higher plant contribution and suggests that the source rock is of tertiary or a younger age. The relative high levels of diasteranes (Figure 8C) indicates a clay-rich source rock (Peters et al., 1999), because a clay catalysis is required for the production of diasteranes during catagenesis (Peters et al., 1999). Additionally, the relative high abundance of C27 and C29 steranes suggests that the source organic matter was very rich in both terrigeneous and marine organic matter (Huang and Meinschein, 1979).

Geochemistry of Condensates Three condensate samples were taken from Abu Madi, Sidi Salem, and Moghra formations in wells Abu Madi-1, 3, and 5, respectively (Figure 1). The results of the organo-geochemical analyses are summarized in Table 2. The gas chromatograms of the Abu Madi condensate from well Abu Madi-1 (Figure 9A) shows moderate concentration of n-alkane with a high pristane/phytane ratio (1:90) (Figure 9A) and isoprenoide/n-alkane ratios (pr/n-C17 and ph/n-C18) are 0.83 and 0.46, respectively (Table 2), suggesting terrestrial organic sources. For the condensates of Sidi Salem and Moghra formations (Figures 9B and 9C, respectively) shows a high-to-moderate concentration of n-alkane with slightly even carbon preference in the range nC10 to n-C30 . The high pristane/phytane ratio (1.97 and 3.33, respectively) (Table 2) and isoprenoide/n-alkane ratios (pr/n-C17 and ph/n-C18) are 0.77, 0.38 and 0.91, 0.29, respectively (Table 2). These data suggest mixed organic sources with terrestrial input (Peters and Moldowan, 1993) and suboxic to oxic depositional conditions (Peters et al., 1994).

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Figure 7. Source rock evaluation of Moghra Formation, onshore Nile Delta, Egypt. (A) TOC versus depth; (B) Rock Eval S2 versus depth; (C) HI versus OI; (D) Rock Eval Tmax versus depth.

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Figure 8. Representative gas chromatographs (A), ion fragmentograms (triterpanes m/z 191, (B), and (steranes m/z 217, (C) of Moghra Formation in Qawasim-1 well (depth 48755100 m), onshore Nile Delta, Egypt.

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Table 2. GC and GC/MS of condensate samples from some wells, onshore Nile Delta, Egypt Sterane ratios 0.50 0.55 0.60 C35 /C34 ratios 0.41 0.60 0.94

Wells 806 Abu Madi-1 Abu Madi-3 Abu Madi-5

Depth, m 37403750 41104180 51505190

Formation Abu Madi Sidi Salem Moghra

Pr/Ph 1.90 1.97 3.33

Pr/n-C17 0.83 0.77 0.91

Ph/n-C18 0.46 0.38 0.29

Ts/Tm 1.80 2.33 1.80

Pr/Ph:Pristane/phytane ratio; Pr/n-C17 : Pristane/C17 normal alkane; Ph/n-C18 : Phytane/C18 normal alkane; Ts/Tm:trisnorhopanes/trisnorneohopanes ratios; Sterane ratios: %C29 20S/20SC20R; C35 /C34 Homohopanes ratios.

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Figure 9. Representative gas chromatograms of Miocene condensates, onshore Nile Delta, Egypt.

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The mass fragmentograms (m/z 191) of condensates (Figure 10) show that the concentration of tricyclic terpanes is slightly low for the Abu Madi condensate (Figure 10A) than the condensates of the Sidi Salem and Moghra formations (Figures 10B and 10C) suggesting low maturity of Abu Madi condensate and/or low salinity of the depositional environment than the other condensates (Huang, 2000). The C30 hopane is higher than the condensates (Figure 10) and illustrate that the condensate samples were sourced from source rock rich in carbonaceous organic matters. The presence of C30 oleneane in all condensates (Figure 10) which is derived from Late Cretaceous and tertiary angiosperms (Murray et al., 1994), indicate terrestrial input (Kennicutt et al., 1991). On the other hand, the presence of C29 normoretane, C30 moretane, and slightly higher concentrations of C28, C29 bisnorhopanes in the Abu Madi and Sidi Salem condensates (Figures 10A and 10B) suggesting more of a contribution from terrestrial sources with an input from marine origin (Riediger et al., 1990). The smooth decrease in the C31 -C35 homohopanes prole (Figure 10), suggests a clastic rock facies (Waples and Machihara, 1991). Sidi Salem condensate, characterized by C29 norhopane, is approximately equal to C30 hopane (Figure 10B), suggesting that this condensate was generated from calcareous rocks (Connan et al., 1986). On the other hand, the absence of gammacerane (Figures 10A and 10B) is interpreted as molecular features, which suggest a terrestrial origin. The absence of C29 normoretane and C30 moretane in the Moghra condensate (Figure 10C) suggests a contribution from marine organic matters with little input from the terrestrial source (Hunt, 1996). The ion fragmentograms (m/z 217, Figure 11) show that the relatively high abundance of diasteranes in the Abu Madi condensate (Figure 11A) rather than the Sidi Salem and Moghra condensates (Figures 11B and 11C) indicate that the liquid petroleum originated from a clay-rich source rock (Peters et al., 1999). The predominance of C27 regular steranes (20S and 20R) over C29 steranes (20S and 20R) of the Abu Madi and Moghra condensates (Figures 11A and 11C) suggests a signicant contribution from marine organic matters with little input from a terrestrial source. While in the case of the Sidi Salem condensate (Figure 11B), the C29 steranes (20S and 20R) are predominant over C27 steranes (20S and 20R) indicating more of a contribution from terrestrial organic matters (Huang and Meinschein, 1979).

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Maturity of Condensates The tricyclic terpanes, Ts/Tm, C35/C34 homohopanes and C29 20S/20SC20R ratios were used as a qualitative indicator of maturity (Van Graas, 1990). The tricyclic terpanes in the Abu Madi condensate (Figure 10A) seem to be in low abundance than the other condensates (Figures 10B and 10C) and the diasteranes (Figure 11A) is slightly higher than the others (Figures 11B and 11C). Furthermore, the Ts/Tm, C35 /C34 homohopanes and C29 20S/20SC20R

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Figure 10. Representative ion fragmentograms (triterpanes m/z 191) of Miocene condensates, onshore Nile Delta, Egypt.

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Figure 11. Representative ion fragmentograms (steranes m/z 217) of Miocene condensates, onshore Nile Delta, Egypt.

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ratios are 1.80, 0.41, and 0.50, respectively. These parameters seem to be less than those of the Sidi Salem and Moghra condensates (Table 2) indicating a low thermal maturity of the Abu Madi condensate. Moreover, the condensates of Sidi Salem and Moghra formations were generated from source rocks, which are more mature than the Abu Madi condensate previously mentioned (see Figures 3, 5, and 7), where the source rock of the Abu Madi Formation is Type III kerogen (Figure 3C) and lies in the early stages of a hydrocarbon generation (Figure 3D), while the condensates of the Sidi Salem and Moghra formations were generated from mature source rocks of Type II/III kerogen (Figures 5C and 7C) and lie within the oil zone (Figures 5D and 7D).
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Thermal Geochemical Modeling The geochemical thermal modeling of the Miocene source rocks of the studied portion in the onshore Nile Delta was constructed for the drilled section which includes the stratigraphic sequence and the timing of events in the Nile Delta that are Triassic-Jurassic time, Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary, and Tertiary events. These tectonic events were incorporated in the models. The geochemical gradient of 2 C/100 m was employed based on the bottom hole temperature (BHT) that was recorded during drilling after correction by using the Horner method (Fertle and Wichman, 1977). The data was input with Basin Mod software. Preliminary maturation modeling using Lopatins method (1971) proved very useful in suggesting the source intervals and timing of petroleum generation, expulsion, and migration. The purpose of these models is to evaluate the maturity of potential source rocks and to estimate their timing of maturation. There is a correlation found between measured and calculated maturities of potential source beds calibrated against the available measured maturity parameters, which included mainly vitrinite reectance data from Abu Madi-3 and Abu Madi-5 wells. In the present work, the early stage of hydrocarbon generation is in between vitrinite reectance (Ro D 0:6 to 0.85%). The oil window is dened as the depth interval between peak of hydrocarbon generation (Ro D 0:85%) and the gas generation (Ro D 1:35%), while the gas generation at Ro (1.35 to 2.6%) according to Waples (1985). In the Abu Madi-3 well, the geochemical burial model and maturity prole (Figures 12A and 12B) indicates that Moghra and Sidi Salem formations (E-M. Miocene) are in the mature stages of hydrocarbon generation (dened by 0.85-1.35% Ro ) at 46 million years before the present (mybp), while the Qawasim and Abu Madi formations (L. Miocene) are in the early stages of hydrocarbon generation (dened by 0.60.85% Ro ) at 23 million years before the present (mybp). In the Abu Madi-5 well (Figures 13A and 13B) the Miocene source rocks lie in the mature stages of hydrocarbon (oil window, Ro D 0.851.35%) at 1518 million years before the present (mybp). Moghra and Sidi Salem formations are in the late stages of maturation (gas

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Figure 12. Geochemical model (A) and maturity prole (B) of sedimentary section penetrated by Abu Madi-3 well, onshore Nile Delta, Egypt.

Figure 13. Geochemical model (A) and maturity prole (B) of sedimentary section penetrated by Abu Madi-5 well, onshore Nile Delta, Egypt.

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window, Ro D 1.352.60%) at 812 million years before the present (mybp). In Kafer El Sheikh-1 well (Figures 14A and 14B) the Miocene source rocks are in the early stages of hydrocarbon generation at 35 million years before the present (mybp). In the Sidi Salem-1 well (Figures 15A and 15B), Mohgra and Sidi Salem formations are in the Middle stages of hydrocarbon generation (oil window) at 35 million years before the present (mybp), while Abu Madi and Qawasim formations are in the early stages of maturation (early generation) at 810 million years before the present (mybp). This timing adds to the value of future explorations in the Nile Delta and indicates that Miocene source rocks have expelled hydrocarbons during the Pleistocene-Early Pliocene time. As previously mentioned, the source rock of the Abu Madi formation is Type III kerogen (Figure 3C) and lies in the early stage of hydrocarbon generation until the present time (Figures 12 to 15), while the source rocks of the Sidi Salem and Moghra formation were generated from mature source rocks of Type II/III kerogen (Figures 5C and 7C) and lie within the oil window until the present time (Figures 12 to 15). Moreover, the condensate of the Abu Madi formation, as mentioned previusly, appears to be less mature than the Sidi Salem and Mohgra condensates. This reects that the studied condensates have probably migrated from deep burial source rocks which are at a higher level of maturity than from less mature source rocks in the study area.

Figure 14. Geochemical model (A) and maturity prole (B) of sedimentary section penetrated by Kafer El Sheikh-1 well, onshore Nile Delta, Egypt.

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Figure 15. Geochemical model (A) and maturity prole (B) of sedimentary section penetrated by Sidi Salem-1 well, onshore Nile Delta, Egypt.

CONCLUSIONS The Miocene source rocks as well as some condensate samples from Abu Madi-1, 3, 5; Qawasim-1; Abadiya-1; and Kafer El Sheikh-1 wells in the onshore Nile Delta were discussed through the advanced organo-geochemical techniques as rock eval pyrolysis, gas chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analyses. Also, four geochemical models of some wells in the study area are discussed. The results are as follows: 1. The Late Miocene Abu Madi Formation, which originated from poor immature to marginally mature source rocks and organic matter, has Type III Kerogen deposited under terrestrial environment. 2. The Middle Miocene Sidi Salem Formation has fair-to-good mature source rocks which have the capability of producing mixed oil and gas originating mainly from marine organic matters. 3. The Early Miocene Moghra Formation has mature good source rocks for kerogen (Type II/III) which originated from organic matter and was rich in both terrigeneous and marine organic matter. 4. The geochemistry of condensates revealed that the Abu Madi and Moghra condensates originated from marine organic matters with little input from terrestrial sources. While Sidi Salem condensate was from terrestrial

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organic matters, Abu Madi condensate was less mature than Sidi Salem and Moghra condensates. 5. The geochemical thermal modeling of the Miocene source rocks indicates that the Abu Madi formations are in the early stages of hydrocarbon until the present time. Moghra and Sidi Salem formations are in the mature stage of hydrocarbon generation until the present time. This indicates that the studied condensates have probably migrated from deeply buried source rocks which are at a higher level of maturity than from less mature source rocks in the study area.
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author is grateful to the authorities of the Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation (EGPC) and the Belayim Petroleum Company for permitting the publication of this work. Thanks are due to the StratoChem (New Madi) and Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Cairo, Egypt, for the different organo-geochemical analyses. Thanks is due to Prof. Dr. Mahmoud Y. Zein El Din, Geology Department, Al Azhar University, for critical reading and reviewing this work.

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