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Dr. Hafiz Shaikh Shafiq-ur-Rehman _____Assistant Professor

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_The Islamia University of Bahawalpur_



_____Arabic Language & Literature___



Professor James Dickins Department of Arabic School of Languages, The

University of Salford Manchester U.K___






Annexure A The topic of my Research Proposal was:

Development of Arabic Language Teaching in UK and Pakistani Universities

My research work has two phases: 1) Arabic Teaching in Britain Universities 2) Arabic Teaching in Pakistani Universities In first phase, I have discussed about the Arabic history in UK, Ireland Universities, and current situation, under graduate Arabic courses, teaching orientation, teaching methodology, material development, graduate destinations and the future of undergraduate Arabic. Moreover, I have discussed about Arabic and English translation, students background degree structure, the methodological trends and future development. As for as my second phase is concerned, I have discussed about the role of Pakistani Universities in promotion of Arabic language, colleges, schools and different national and government institutions. I have also discussed about the similarity of educational system between Pakistani and Britain educational system. At the end I have suggested some peculiar steps which our current government should take to promote this Quranic and international language. I hope these suggestions will come up to the work of our governmental standard of education.

Arabic Teaching in Britain and Ireland Structure and Scope of Projects

This research discusses various institutional settings in which Arabic is taught in Britain and Ireland universities, specialist language institutions, schools, mosque based teaching. The focus is on Arabic teaching in British and Irish universities. We can elaborate all facts and figures by the following pattern.

History of Arabic Language

Arabic teaching has a long history in Britain and Ireland. The Sir Thomas Adams Chair of Arabic was established by the University of Cambridge as an adjunct to Theology in 1632, Sir Thomas Adams himself being the first incumbent. In Scotland, Arabic teaching at the University of Edinburgh goes back over 250 years. Other universities began teaching Arabic in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries impelled by British imperial expansion and the more general development of interest in non-Euro-pean cultures. In the latter part of the twentieth century, Modern Standard Arabic became established alongside classical Arabic as an undergraduate degree element. Arabic teaching became more organized. Text books specifically

designed for teaching and initio Arabic were written. Such as Modern literary Arabic and A new Arabic grammar of the written language and began to began to be widely used in British universities. Elementary Modern Standard Arabic was also the first major Arabic course to make use of taped materials, thereby for the first time presenting Arabic to Students as an explicitly spoken language.

The Current Situation

Students of Arabic at British and Irish universities include the following groups. Experienced language learners, typically those who view the study of Arabic as a new challenge leading on from their school studies of modern European language. People with as interest in Islam or with as interest in the societies of the Middle East, who view the learning of Arabic as essential to their future progress in these other areas. People who have developed an interest in Arabic through having spent time in the Arab World wither as children of expatriates or as adults working in Arab countries. Students of Arab background. Students of non-Arab Islamic background particularly drawn from the large British Pakistani, Indian or Bangladeshi communities students of both Arab and non-Arab background are typically second or third-generation British or Irish citizens.

Undergraduate Arabic Courses

Arabic is taught at undergraduate level at the following universities in Britain and Ireland: Cambridge, Durham, Edinburgh, Exeter, Lampeter, Leads, Manchester, Oxford, School of oriental and African studies, ST. Andrew, university college Dublin (National university of Ireland). Structurally, Arabic teaching units all into two main types (i) Area studies departments involving study of various aspects of Middle East including history, politics and religion, as well as Arabic and possibly other Middle Eastern languages.

Teaching orientation
Undergraduate degree involving Arabic at all universities in Britain and Ireland include both modern standard and classical Arabic. Beyond this, however, there is considerable variation. The University of Leads, for example, has a basically modern

orientation. How ever, due to the large proportion of students drawn from the local Muslim population, there is considerable student interest in Islamic studies, and the undergraduate degree includes a number of specialist Islamic options, including one on the academic study of tajwiid. A number of universities focus almost exclusively on Modern standard and classical Arabic. In institutions where students typically study two Middle Eastern languages in particular the prevailing view is often that the teaching of colloquial Arabic would introduce as unreasonable additional burden on students. The University of Cambridge by contrast, adopts a radically communicative approach. On the basis that standard Arabic is only a spoken language in the most formal of situations; students are taught to speak in colloquial Arabic from the very start of the course. Texts are read in standard Arabic, but accompanying oral exercises are done in colloquial. Students thus became accustomed to standard and colloquial Arabics in the context in which they are standardly used in the Arab Worlds. Other universities adopt a half-way house offering some courses in colloquial Arabic during latter years of the undergraduate degree course only. In general, colloquial Arabic remains a poor relation of the standard language in British and Irish Universities.

Teaching Methodology
Methodologically a few universities retain the more traditional teaching books such as Cowans modern literary Arabic, and the associated grammar translation method. Most universities have gone over to more communicatively oriented materials, al-kitaab fita alum al-arabiyya (al-Batal et al. 1995) which makes use not only of toped but also video materials, having proved increasingly popular as a basic course book in recent years and a number of universities make some use of computer aided language learning materials. Several universities, such as Durham, Cambridge and Leeds, offer advanced undergraduate Arabic > English translation courses, allowing students to focus on translation as a specific skill.

Materials Development
At the elementary level a number of materials have been published. These include teach yourself Arabic (smart 1980) by Jack smart, formerly of the university of Exeter and Mastering Arabic (Whightwick and Gaafar 1990) by Jane Whightwick

and Mahmoud Gaddar. The latter is particularly interesting from a methodological point of view Whightwick, who works outside the university sector is a graduate of Arabic with a number of years experience in teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL). Mastering Arabic combines the interactive communicative approach which is typical of TEFL teaching with a sound introduction to Arabic grammar and a surprisingly large Arabic vocabulary range. While used at some universities (e.g. Durham for Arabic-minor courses). Mastering Arabic has perhaps failed to achieve the prominence in might over wise have had because its grammar coverage is not sufficient for it to be used as a complete first level course for undergraduates specializing in Arabic. The first advanced course was Tulia Ashtianys Media Arabic (Edinburgh university press 1994). A more recent advanced course is standard Arabic, an advanced course (Dickins and Watson 1999), which was piloted at the University of Durham. Modern written Arabic a comprehensive grammar (Gully et al. 2003), co authored by Adrian Gully.

Graduate Destinations
There is a high demand for Arabic/English translators and Interpreters. Arabic graduates are sought by the foreign and common wealth office, the intelligence services, the British army, and the British council, other organizations seeking Arabic graduated includes the BBC, Human rights groups, such as Amnesty International.

The Future of Undergraduate Arabic

On the one hand Arabic, like other difficult abinitio languages, is demanding of staff teaching time, and therefore relatively expensive to teach. On the other hand, students demand for course has risen steadily through the 1990; undergraduate intake has increased particularly since the sept. 11,2001 terrorist attacks on the world trade center in New York. Employer demand for Arabic has also never been higher. A meeting between representatives of the British government, industry and academic institutions organized by the foreign and commonwealth in March2002 concluded that there is a severe current shortage of graduates in Arabic, affecting the recruitment ability not only of industry, but also of government organs, such as the security organizations. A shortage exacerbated by the fact that a high proportion of university teachers of Arabic are nearing retirement age there are not sufficient potential younger staff to replace them.

Arabic / English translation and Interpreting Teaching in UK

This article deals with the teaching of Arabic/English translation and interpreting in Britain as specialized professionally oriented skills. It does not attempt to cover translation teaching in the context of Arabic language programmer of a more general orientation.

History of Arabic/English translation

Arabic/English translation and interpreting are more recent university subjects, and initially at least were only taught at postgraduate level. They have their origins in private contracts in the early 1980s to train groups from various Arab countries in Arab/English translation. These gave rise to a more official course based at Heriotwatt University, and subsequently to masters courses at Salford and at Heriot-watt. During the 1990s, further UK universities introduced MAs in Arabic English translation, from the Mid-1980, the University of Salford offered a BA in Arabic with a European language, with a focus on translation and interpreting, eventually with drawing form this due to insufficient student demand in the late 1990s.

Current Situation
The following universities currently offer MA in Arabic/English translation: Durham, Heriot-Watt, Leeds, Salford, the school of oriental and African Studies and Westminster. Manchester and Edinburgh offer more general MAs in translation. The Edinburgh MA includes taught practical courses in Arabic/English translation for students specializing in this language pair. While the Manchester course has a more general orientation, it allows for project work on Arabic/English translation, and includes among its staff Mona Baker, who is a native Arabic speaker. All universities which offer an MA in Arabic/English translation also offer Ph.D.

Students Background
The bulk of students taking Masters Degrees in Arabic/English translation come to Britain from the Arab world in order to take the degree in question. Such students fall into two groups. The first are those sponsored by institutions in Arab countries-normally universities or other immediately or ultimately government funded bodies. Oman in particular sends regular cohorts of students to take translation MAs. The second group of such students is self funding. In some cases, students spend year of hard-earned money in order to pursue their MA in Britain self-founders are often motivated by a desire to improve their work opportunities.

Degree Structure
Those universities which offer specialist Arabic/English translation degrees give at least four hours per week obligatory Arabic > English and English > Arabic translation tuition and in some cases much more than this. In many cases, there are also opportunities for students to do translation work based around their own specific subject-interests, for example in the form of supervised translation projects, where the students themselves choose the text they wish to translate. Departments also typically offer courses involving more general comparison between as pects of Arabic and English which are of specific relevance to translation. Some departments provide opportunities for students to take courses in related as pects of linguistics (stylistics, sociolinguistics, bilingualism). Most departments offer some tuition in interpreting.

Methodological Trends
Methodologically, there trends in Arabic/English translation teaching can be discerned. The first presents material according to subject matter. The second trend, pioneered by Basil Hatim, may be called the text-typological approach. This involves a fundamental division between three text-types: exposition, argumentation and instruction. The third trend in Arabic/English translation teaching may be termed the multilevel equivalence approach. These levels include the phonic/graphic, prosodic, grammatical, semantic and register levels.

Materials Development
All departments in which Arabic/English translation are taught have developed their own sometimes quite extensive, in-house materials, a number of those involved in teaching Arabic/English translation have also, however, published books either directly or less directly related to translation teaching. Hatim has developed his theoretical ideas in a number of works, some co-authored with lan Mason (Hatim & Mason 1993, 1997) and others of which he is sole author (Hatim 1997, 2001). His books English Arabic/Arabic English translation a practical guide (Hatim 2000) is a course book in translation based on his text-typological approach. Hervey and Higgins have published thinking Arabic translation Dickins, Hervey and Higgins 2002. Thinking Arabic translation includes a wide variety of different kinds of writing: technical, legal, consumer oriented, journalism, prose literature, poetry, academic writing, political speeches and tourism brochures.

Future Development
At both undergraduate and postgraduate levels, the future of Arabic/English translation as a specialist subject seems assured. At undergraduate level, this is part of a general trend in British Universities towards the recognition of translation as a language discipline in its own right, rather than simply as a fact of the general activity of foreign language learning. At postgraduate level, Arabic/English translation remains largely financially dependent on income from students from the Arab World. However, as noted, there are currently no signs of this income taking off, despite the development of MA courses in Arabic/English translation with much lower fees in a number of Arab countries. Over the next few years, however, it may be that while student numbers remain roughly the same, the number of British universities offering MAs in Arabic/English translation drops some what as the teaching of the subject is concentrated in a smaller number of larger centers.

The role of Pakistani Universities in the Development of Arabic Language

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is situated in South Asia. It was four major countries its neighboring named as Iran and Afghanistan: The Muslim countries and India and China: The non-Muslim countries. History of Arabic Language in this area i.e. Subcontinent dates back to the arrival of Muhammad Bin Qasim who came in 712 A.D. Historians differs in his arrival. Arrival of Muhammad Bin Qasim affected social, educational, cultural and political thoughts of the inhabitants of these areas. It also affected the local languages of these areas. Soon, Arabic become the language of religion and culture. For example Istakhri writes that the people of Mansoora and Multan also speak Arabic language. After the establishment of Pakistan, Urdu become its national language which written in Arabic script whereas before partition, English remained national language of this area. Local languages are also spoken in this area like Punjabi, Balochi, Sindhi, Pushtu and Kashmiri etc. Every provincial language is written in Arabic sub-script.

Historical Steps of the Education of Arabic Language in Pakistan

We can divide education of Arabic language in Pakistan into two phases: i) ii) After coming Arab Muslims towards those countries. After the establishment of Pakistan as an independent country. In the arrival of Arabs in the first Hijri, Arabic Language gained fame and name. one thing was sure that all the devotion of the Muslims towards the Arabic language was on the behalf of religion not on the worldly basis. It is a fact that Arabic language was official language in the dominated countries in Umvi and Abasi periods. Moreover, education of Arabic Language also spread out in the tribes of Multan and Sindh. With the passage of time, scholars of Arabic language increased and they contributed a great part in promotion of Arabic Language. Along with these scholars, Judicial Judges and translators also contributed their part. In the same way, Arabic language remained national language for Judicial decisions, schools, colleges, and universities and trade centers as well. In 5th century, the Ghaznvis reign, they promoted Farsi language in the place of Arabic language. This phase remained till 1857. Dr Jameel Ahmad says that in the period of Ghaznvis reign Persian and Arabic languages were the administrated languages. In

this period, prose and poetry was also written in Arabic language. Moreover, a famouse historian, Al-Baroni came in the sub-continent to study the Indian culture and knowledges. He wrote a famous book, Kitab-ul-Hind. He writes that he likes Arabic language more than Farsi language. But there was no regular system for the promotion of Arabic language. We can conclude from the above discussion that development and historical background of Arabic language started in first century and particularly when Islam spread in every corner of sub-continent due Muslim trampolines. As it is known that the establishment of Pakistan in the sub-continent was aimed to govern the laws of Allah and to lead their lives according to the tents of Islam. Since the inception of Pakistan its leaders give secondary importance to Arabic language. Founder of Pakistan Quaid-eAzam said: Urdu will be the national language of Pakistan and it is the first and foremost duty of Pakistanis people to learn and speak Arabic language.

After appearing Pakistan on the World Map

After the establishment of Pakistan, government did not take serious steps to promote Arabic language. But same how, some steps were taken. For example, we see that Jamiat Arabic Pakistan was established under the leadership of Dr Fazal-ur-Rehman Sahb and was presedented by Nazim-ud-Din. Moreover, Pakistani Public was agreed to adopt Arabic language as an official language. But, unfortunately, they were forced to speak English Language. Syed Muhammad Shah, Syed Zahid Husain, same ministers and also same Bungali leaders were agree to adopt language as an official language but it was not accepted and we had to see the separation of Dhakka now Bangladaish. Here we present same revolutions that were presented for the development of Arabic language. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Jamiat Hizbul Allah arranged a conference in East Pakistans in January 1951. Majlis-e-Rabita Islami supported Arabic language. Co-ordination of Islamic Rabica councel. Urdu, Arabic and Bangali would be taught at matric level. It is essential for Pakistani government that it should provide all sources to develop national language. 10

After the separation of East Pakistan had to face many changes at cultural, educational, social and political level. Now, the scenario is changed and spreading out the Arabic language is at its peak. For example 1) In the act of 1973, Quran and Islamic Study should be compulsory to support Arabic language. 2) From 1982, Arabic language has been taught as compulsory subjects from secondary to higher secondary level. Syllabus of Azad Kashmir universities and colleges indicates that Arabic language has been taught at graduation level. 3) Facilities are provided in Pakistani universities for the promotion of Arabic language. 4) International Islamic University Islamabad came into being for this purpose. We can conclude from the above discussion that Arabic language covers most difficult way and after the independence, it progressed well. Arabic language had importance due to religion but it spread widely. Main cause of this promotion is the establishment of different educational institution, centers of Arabic and national universities. Now, the time is changed and Arabic has become more famous than Persian. It is also famous as compared to other languages. Moreover, the Muslims living in Pakistan need it mostly.

Educational System of Arabic Language and the Period of Government Universities Government System;
Educational system of Pakistani institutions is like the British i.e, F.A, B.A, M.A, M.Phil and Ph.D degrees. 1) Government Schools: Schools are divided into three steps, Primary, middle and matric. But Arabic starts from 6th class. In this context, Zia is example is before us as he ordered to teach Arabic from 6th to 8th class. National government has made the education Quran compulsory from nursery and minister of education will manage the syllabus.



Colleges: Normally college education starts from intermediate. But Arabic is just an elective subjective at this level.


Universities: The system Pakistani universities are based on British universities. The famous

Pakistani universities which are serving Arabic language are: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) Punjab University Lahore. International Islamic University Faisal Masjid Islamabad. Islamia University Bahawalpur. Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad. Quaid-e-Azam University Islamabad. Bahaudin Zikria University Multan. Karachi University. Pashawar University. Goal University.

Punjab University Lahore:

Punjab University Lahore is rendering marvelous services to the development of Arabic Language. We found some famous personalities who rendered a great part of their knowledge for the promotion of Arabic Language. These personalities are: i) ii) iii) Allama Faiz-ul-Hassan Saharun Puri, founder of Arabic department. Dr. Zahoor Ahmad Azhar Dr. Muhammad Akram Choudhry The degrees which this University is offering are: M.A 2 years M. Phil 2 years Ph. D 2 years Diploma 1 year


Punjab University is also offering diploma in modern Arabic language including speaking and writing. Students of various fields get these diplomas. The medium of this university in Arabic Department is Arabic.

Islamic International University:

This University was established in 1980 in Islamabad. Medium of education in this university is Arabic and English. This is a great step to promote Arabic language all over the world.

Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad

This University was established in 1974 and was named as Allama Iqbal Open University in 1977. There are three steps for education in this university. 1) Correspondence and distance based method. 2) Arranged assignments in which students of Arabic, teachers and common people are together. 3) The practical workshops.

Academies & Government Institution

There are many Academies, institution and Government institutions which are rendering marvelous services to Arabic language. Among these: i) ii) iii) iv) Scholars Academy Lahore. Modern Institution for national languages Islamabad. Military Academy Kakole. Pakistan National Centers.

This research throws light on education of Arabic language in varrous periods at various levels. We can conclude it as:1) History of Arabic Language in Pakistan dates bade to 1st Hijrah. Especially, when the Arab conquerors Muslaims occupied the sub-continents and Islam spread by them in these areas. This education in Pakistan remained in three phases: i.e. after the arrival of Arab Muslims: period of British imperialism: period after the establishment of Pakistan. Every one of these three phases has some merits and 13

demerits about which this research has discussed before. In the same, this research has presented structure of Arabic Language and its education in these phases and the long periods which are extended to 13th century. This presentation clarifies our success and failure in this field and what we should take steps and recommendations to promote Arabic Language, its development and

implementation in this country. 2) Since the dominance of imperialism in this country, two systems are introduced: First: Government, Second: Private. This matrimonial relationship is still existed in Pakistan. As for as government education system is concerned, it follows the British education system. So, the student starts from primary level, then middle, high, secondary, graduation, master, master in philosophy and then doctorate. This system introduces schools, colleges and universities. As for as education of Arabic language is concerned in this system, it starts from 6th class and is taught in sixth, seventh an eighth only. As for as other classes i.e. from high to graduation, it is taught as an optional subject which a student chooses it among three optional subjects. As for as Pakistani Universities are concerned, there are permanent departs to teach Arabic Language and literature at master and Doctorate level. Except the fact that this system in schools, colleges and universities has not appropriate teaching methods. Because of this, this system has many flows. Education standard of a university student is very low and poor. As for as private system is concerned, it is divided into private religious institutions, societies and private trustees. We mean by religious institutions the institutions which organize the promotion of Arabic Language and religious knowledge at private level. The Muslims bear their expenditure. This institutions are constituted by smalls schools, institutions attached with mosques in the villages and the cities in all the provinces of the country. The religious people supervise these institutions. These institution are ample proof of the attention of the Muslims to Arabic Language in this country except this system is victimized to lack of practice of Arabic speaking and exercise of writing and expression along with the fact that the methods of these private institutions are complicated and ancient as well that does


not assist a student in gaining exportation in Arabic Language. A student is fed up with Arabic Language due to these methods. 3) There are many and various difficulties in the promotion of Arabic Language in Pakistan. Some of them are related to teachers, students and the organizers equally. Some of them are related to the teachers of Arabic Language and its literature and some are related to the students of Arabic Language especially. At the end of this research, I cherish to present some suggestions and recommendations to remove these difficulties and hindrances related to the promotion of Arabic Language.

Responsibilities of Pakistani Government:

1) It is necessary to introduce steps of implementation to apply the modern educational politics in Pakistan to make Arabic Language a compulsory subject till F.A level and to constitute a professional committee at high level to revise the methods of Arabic Language and to prepare the books and educational syllabus and to get assistance from national experts and Arabs as well in this perspective. 2) It is necessary that the number of Arabic teachers must be equal to English and Urdu Teachers in all the schools and colleges. 3) Arabic must be a compulsory subject like Urdu and English in the competitive exams for the jobs in the central and provincial administration. 4) All the institutions which manage to promote Arabic Language must be facilitated richly and with modern resources, especially the books, language laboratories and audile and visual resources. 5) Invitation to the Arabic countries, the universities, institutions and specific centers in Arabic Languages for non-Arabic speakers to assist the Pakistani universities to help the teachers of Arabic Language for teaching and supervision of educational researches in higher studies and help in training the teachers and specification the study scholarships, exchange of delegations and visits among the Pakistani universities and Arabic universities as well.