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OWJ104102 WCDMA Call Drop Analysis

ISSUE 1.0

Wireless Wireless Curriculum Curriculum Development Development Section Section

Overview

Call drop rate monitors the UTRAN capability of keeping a call after the call setup is success. This KPI can be optimized by driving test and the consequent trouble-shooting based on call drop analysis.

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Objectives

When finished this course,you will be able to:


!

Be

familiar

with

the

common

reasons for call drop in UMTS


!

Do analysis on call drop problems independently

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Course Contents

Definition of call drop problems

Call drop problems analysis process Case study on call drop problems

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Definition of call drop problems


Definition of call drop problems :

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Course Contents

Definition of call drop problems

Call drop problems analysis process Case study on call drop problems

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Call drop problems analysis process

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General call drop analysis flow Categories for call drop reasons

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Call drop problems analysis process


General call drop analysis flow:

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Call drop problems analysis process


Call drop location analysis: based on the location of the call drop event in the map window in the post processing tool Neighbor list analysis: to find out any cell not defined in the neighbor list Analyze the pilot coverage to make sure whether following coverage events take place or not: Coverage limited, System interference, Poor uplink coverage, Poor downlink coverage, pilot pollution Handover analysis to make sure whether following cause exist or not: insufficient handover area, too late to start CM, too late to add target cell, too early to delete serving cell Signaling analysis is used for those call drops that are still confused about the exact reason through analysis mentioned above
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Call drop problems analysis process

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General call drop analysis flow Categories for call drop reasons

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Call drop problems analysis process


Categories for call drop reasons:
1. RF problems 2. Equipment problems RF problems usually can be find out by neighbor list analysis coverage analysis handover analysis, while signaling analysis is

helpful to equipment problems.

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Course Contents

Definition of call drop problems

Call drop problems analysis process Case study on call drop problems

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Case study on call drop problems

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

RF concerned problems
Neighbor missing Coverage Limited Poor Downlink Coverage Pilot Pollution Handover problems Inter System Interference

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1. 2.

Equipment concerned problems


UE problem Data configuration problem

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RF concerned problems
Call drop location-1-ScannerRscp:

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RF concerned problems
Call drop location-2-ScannerEc/I0 :

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RF concerned problems
Call drop location-3-ScannerBestserver :

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RF concerned problems
Before call drop, SC489 goes poor, while SC504 is good the moment before drop, according to the measurements by UE shown below; but SC03 which is not measured by UE is becoming good gradually :

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RF concerned problems
SC03 is becoming good gradually measured by Scanner:

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RF concerned problems
Further investigation shows different performance between UE and Scanner. Before the drop, the Ec/Io degrades for UE ONLY while scanner shows no degradation:

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RF concerned problems
Before the drop, the RSCP degrades for UE ONLY while scanner shows no degradation:

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RF concerned problems
Before the drop, the best server for the UE is not the same as that of the scanner :

Corresponding measurement control shows theres no neighbor relation between SC489 and SC03:
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C: ! NeighborMissi

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Case study on call drop problems

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

RF concerned problems
Neighbor missing Coverage Limited Poor Downlink Coverage Pilot Pollution Handover problems Inter System Interference

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1. 2.

Equipment concerned problems


UE problem Data configuration problem

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RF concerned problems
General definition of coverage limited : The signal of strongest cell should be in ranges: CPICH_EcNo_in_ActiveSet < Threshold1 And, CPICH_RSCP_in_ActiveSet <Threshold2 And, UeTransmittedPower > Threshold3. Theshold1~3 is -15 dB our analysis -95 dB 10 dB respectively in

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RF concerned problems
Call drop location-1-ScannerEc/I0 :

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RF concerned problems
The strongest cells Cpich_Ec/I0 and Cpich_RSCP (shown in next page) is poor, while UE TxPower reaches the threshold of 21dBm:

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RF concerned problems
The strongest cells Cpich_Ec/I0 and Cpich_RSCP is poor :

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Case study on call drop problems

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

RF concerned problems
Neighbor missing Coverage Limited Poor Downlink Coverage Pilot Pollution Handover problems Inter System Interference

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1. 2.

Equipment concerned problems


UE problem Data configuration problem

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RF concerned problems
General definition of Poor Downlink Coverage : The signal of strongest cell should be in ranges: CPICH_EcNo_in_ActiveSet < Threshold1 And, CPICH_RSCP_in_ActiveSet <Threshold2 And, UeTransmittedPower < Threshold3. Theshold1~3 is -15dB our analysis. -95 dB -15 dB respectively in

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RF concerned problems
Call drop location-1-ScannerBestserver :

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RF concerned problems
UE TxPower is not strong, while downlink signal seems so poor that UE can hardly demodulate it :

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RF concerned problems
Measurements from the scanner shows the same thing. Little difference is because that the antenna of the scanner is mounted on the top of the vehicle, while the UEs is in the car, the car penetration loss is nearly 10 dB.

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Case study on call drop problems

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

RF concerned problems
Neighbor missing Coverage Limited Poor Downlink Coverage Pilot Pollution Handover problems Inter System Interference

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1. 2.

Equipment concerned problems


UE problem Data configuration problem

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RF concerned problems
General definition of Pilot Pollution : The pilot pollution event occurs when 4 or more pilots with their Ec/No above -15 dB are in the active or monitored set, more strict definition should consider a relative threshold between the best and the fourth pilot such as 8dB.

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RF concerned problems
Call drop location-1-ScannerBestserver :

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RF concerned problems
There are too many servers at the call drop place, and cells in active set go bad severely in 5 seconds before drop :

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RF concerned problems
There are too many servers at the call drop place, and cells in active set go bad severely in 5 seconds before drop :

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RF concerned problems
UE Txpower keep rising before drop :

Thats a typical pilot pollution point, although from the point of view of signaling, its caused by handover not in time.
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Case study on call drop problems

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

RF concerned problems
Neighbor missing Coverage Limited Poor Downlink Coverage Pilot Pollution Handover problems Inter System Interference

!
1. 2.

Equipment concerned problems


UE problem Data configuration problem

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RF concerned problems
Call drop caused by handover problems, is helpful for us to get solutions to parameters optimization. Heres an example. Call drop place is shown below:

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RF concerned problems
Call drop location-ScanneEc/I0:

The UeTxPower is not high:

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RF concerned problems
The drop call occurred in the area of frequent change of best server shown by the scanner :

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RF concerned problems
Compare Ec/Io from both scanner and UE at the time of the drop: the UE Ec/Io drop to < -18 dB while the scanner remained above 6 dB :

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RF concerned problems
Comparing the best servers from the UE and the scanner at the time of drop: for the scanner and UE SC506 is the best server prior to the drop. However, before the drop, the scanner selected SC505 as the best server while the UE continued to have only SC506 in its active set resulting in the drop call. Immediately after the drop, the UE camps on SC505:

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RF concerned problems
It seems that the best server changes from SC506 to SC505 too fast for the UE to perform soft handover on time. As the handover threshold of 1a event is 4.5dB, the delay is 0dB, the delay trigger time is 320ms, the filter coefficient is 3 (1 second is required), so the requirement for the handover area is: the lasting time when (Ec/Io of 506 cell Ec/Io of 505 cell) < 4.5dB is about 2 seconds :

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RF concerned problems
Uu_Interface messages that 1a event of SC505 was triggered at 54:04:

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RF concerned problems
But SC506 went bad too severe for the procedure of Active Set Update to be finished:

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Case study on call drop problems

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

RF concerned problems
Neighbor missing Coverage Limited Poor Downlink Coverage Pilot Pollution Handover problems Inter System Interference

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1. 2.

Equipment concerned problems


UE problem Data configuration problem

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RF concerned problems
Inter system interference has great impact on performances of our system, heres an example . Call drop place is shown below :

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RF concerned problems
DownlinkCodePower during call drop:

UE Txpower before drop :

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RF concerned problems
The NodeB RTWP scan shows high load (nearly 96%) when the cell is not loaded actually. On that condition, users access will probably fail or in other words handover to this cell will lead to call drop:

Further spectrum measurements show that periodic inter-system interference exist indeed
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Case study on call drop problems

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

RF concerned problems
Neighbor missing Coverage Limited Poor Downlink Coverage Pilot Pollution Handover problems Inter System Interference

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1. 2.

Equipment concerned problems


UE problem Data configuration problem

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Equipment concerned problems


During tests, problems caused by UE happen occasionally, well give an example that we met with when testing with Motorola A835. Call drop place is shown below :

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Equipment concerned problems


Call drop location-ScannerEc/I0 :

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Equipment concerned problems


Call drop location-ScannerBestserver :

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Equipment concerned problems


Before call drop, SC507 went poor, and SC473 was becoming good according to the measurements by UE :

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Equipment concerned problems


Further investigation shows that UE reports event 1b of SC500 before drop instead of reporting event 1a of SC473 :

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Equipment concerned problems


Ec/I0 of SC500 before drop measured by UE :

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Equipment concerned problems


Ec/I0 of SC500 before drop measured by scanner :

There must be something wrong with the performance of UEs measurement. Further reliability of UE is required .
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Case study on call drop problems

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

RF concerned problems
Neighbor missing Coverage Limited Poor Downlink Coverage Pilot Pollution Handover problems Inter System Interference

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1. 2.

Equipment concerned problems


UE problem Data configuration problem

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Equipment concerned problems


Problems caused by data configuration are always indiscoverable, here is an example. Call drop place is shown below :

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Equipment concerned problems


Call drop location-ScannerEc/I0 , The position of the drop call was at the border of two RNCs :

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Equipment concerned problems


Before call drop, SC473 went poor, and SC31 SC16 were becoming good according to the measurements by UE :

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Equipment concerned problems


Further investigation shows that UE reports event 1a of SC31 SC16 before drop:

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Equipment concerned problems


That active set updating about adding Sc31 was successful :

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Equipment concerned problems


While active set updating about adding Sc16 failed for the neighbor RNC cell configuration mistake:

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Summary
Weve discussed of several kinds of call drop, so typical they are as mentioned above. Engineers may meet with call drops that seem more puzzling. Taking no account of equipment problems, RF problems can be solved by suggestions below mostly:
1.

If coverage is poor, we can reduce the downtilt and adjust the azimuth, or we can increase the pilot transmit power or maximum downlink transmit power for service. The negative effect: is other places may be interfered, and soft handover ratio maybe higher.

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Summary
2.

If the interference is strong, first make sure whether it is internal network interference or external network interference. If it is internal network interference, find the interference source cell, increase the downtilt and adjust the azimuth, or reduce the pilot transmit power or maximum downlink transmit power for the service. The negative effect is coverage in other places may become discontinuous, and soft handover areas maybe shrink.

3.

As for the handover area is insufficient, and if its too slow to add the target cell, we can modify corresponding 1a event parameters. If its too fast to delete the serving cell, we can modify corresponding 1b event parameters. The negative effect is other places may be interfered and soft handover ratio maybe increase.
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Security Level: Internal

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