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ReligiousStudies GCSERevision Guide Ethics1 UnitB603

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This guide has been produced to give you all the key information you will need to pass your RS G.C.S.E The information is laid out in easy to read bullet points with quotations to support the information. Each section contains the teachings of Christianity on the units you have covered in class. It is important to remember that there is rarely a simple teaching accepted by all believers,especiallyinChristianity. If you do not understand any of the words or information it is important that you look it up or askforhelp. HOWTOUSETHISGUIDE The booklet has been laid out clearly into different sections corresponding to the units you havecoveredandwillanswerintheexam. You will find the information laid out in bullet points. This is the bare bones of what you will need. You must refer to your exercise book and any other revision guide (GCSE BBC Bitesize or revisionbookspublishedbyOCR)thatyouhaveaccessto. Ifyouarenotfamiliarwithanyofthetermsuseditisimportantthatyouask. Attheendofeachsetofbulletpointsyouwillfindaseriesofquotations.Bylearningtheseyou will develop a better understanding of the religious teachings. Failing that, it is a good idea to knowwheretheteachingscomefrom,sotrytolearnthereferences. HOWTOREMEMBER Therearemanydifferentwaystorevisebutthebestwayistobeactiveinwhatyouaredoing. Dontjustreadthroughyournotesandtheguide Dontjustpickitup,do3minutesandthenputitdown Dontleaveeverythingtothelastminute Dontrevisewithoutbreaks Dontpunishyourselfifyougetsomethingwrong Dontrevisewhereyouknowyouwillgetdisturbed Domakeaplanofwhatyouwillreviseandwhen Dotesttheinformationyouhavelearnedeachtime Dogiveyourselfrewardswhenyouhaveworkedhard Do put up post it notesaround the house containing key terms, dates, concepts, etc. Especially inplacesyouvisitalot,e.g.thefridge,toilet,lightswitchesetc Doplayquietmusicifithelpsyoutoconcentrate Dotellyourfriendsthatyouareseriousaboutdoingwell Dogetotherpeopletohelpyouparents,friendsetc Dorevisewithfriendsifyouknowthattheyareserioustoo

THEEXAM In the exam it is important not to panic. Take your time to read through the questions and select the ones that you are confident with. Make sure that you understand what every part of the paper is asking you. You will have lots of time to plan your answers so dont just rush straight in. Set yourself 30 minutes for each question and make sure that you do not over run. You can always add more at the end if you have time. Try to ensure you are not repeating yourself. Always write in full sentences. If you are running out of time and have not included everything, jot down in bullet points what you wanted to say. You will get credit for this. If you have finished before time is up, take care to read through your answers, correct any mistakes andaddanymoreinformationthatyoumaythinkof. Youmustchoose2Christianityquestionsfromthechoiceof3. Eachquestionisin5parts(a,b,c,dande)whichaddupto24marks. A1mark.Thiswillaskforthemeaningofareligiouswordrelatedtothetopic.Onesentence willdo. B 2 marks. This will ask for 2 facts about an idea related to the topic so be specific and think intermsofyourknowledgeofChristianity.Donotoversimplify. C3marks.ThiswillaskforadescriptionofChristianbeliefsaboutanissue.Trytogive3ideas. D6marks.Moredetailisneededhere.Theexaminermarksthisansweronasystemoflevels to assess the quality of your answer. They are looking for a comprehensive answer, structure anduseofspecialist(religious)terms. E 12 marks. (Thats 50% of the marks in case you needed that pointing out) Again this is marked on levels. You must make sure you are answering the question. A top level answer will show you have given your opinion and explained your reasons for it and included a range of otherpossiblepointsofview.YoumustalsoshowyouknowwhatapossibleChristianresponse would be. It is a discussion, on paper. Write as much as you possibly can. Refer back to the questioninyouranswertoretainfocusandyouwillbefine.

Part d
Level 0 0 Level 1 1-2 marks No evidence submitted or response does not address the question. A weak attempt to answer the question. Candidates will demonstrate little understanding of the question. A small amount of relevant information may be included Answers may be in the form of a list with little or no description/explanation/analysis There will be little or no use of specialist terms Answers may be ambiguous or disorganised Errors of grammar, punctuation and spelling may be intrusive A satisfactory answer to the question. Candidates will demonstrate some understanding of the question. Information will be relevant but may lack specific detail There will be some description/explanation/analysis although this may not be fully developed The information will be presented for the most part in a structured format Some use of specialist terms, although these may not always be used appropriately There may be errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation A good answer to the question. Candidates will demonstrate a clear understanding of the question. A fairly complete and full description/expl anation/analysis A comprehensive account of the range and depth of relevant material. The information will be presented in a structured format There will be significant, appropriate and correct use of specialist terms There will be few if any errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation

Level 2 3-4 marks

Level 3 5-6 marks

Part e
L evel 0 0 L evel 1 1-3 marks No eviden ce submitted or respo nse does not addr ess the q uestion. A weak attempt to answer the question. Candidates will d em onstrate little understan ding of the question. Answers m ay be simplistic with little or no relevant infor matio n Viewpo ints m ay n ot be supp orted or appr opriate Answers m ay be ambiguous or disorganised T here will be little or no use of specialist terms Err ors of grammar, punctuatio n and spel ling may be intrusive A lim ited answer to the questio n. Candidates will d em onstrate so me understandi ng of the question . Some infor mati on will be relevant, although may lack specifi c d etail. Only one view m ight b e o ffered and develop ed Viewpo ints m ight b e stated and suppor ted with l imited argu ment/discussi on T he infor mati on will show some organisation Reference to the religio n stu died may be vagu e Some use of speciali st terms, although these may not always be used appr opriately T here m ay be err ors in spelling, gr am mar and pun ctuation A competan t answer to the qu estion. Candidates will d em onstrate a sou nd understand ing o f the qu estion. Selection of relevant mater ial with appropr iate develop ment Evidence of appr opriate p er sonal response Justified arguments/differ ent poi nts of view su pported by some discussion T he infor mati on will be presen ted in a structured form at Some appr opriate r eference to the religion studied Specialist terms will be used app ropriately an d for the most part corr ectly T here m ay be occasion al er rors in spelling, grammar and punctu ation A good answer to the question. Candidates will d em onstrate a clear u nder standing of the question. Answers will reflect the significance of the issu e(s) raised Clear evidence o f an app ropriate per sonal respon se, full y suppo rted A range of points of view suppor ted by justified ar guments/discussi on T he infor mati on will be presen ted in a clear and organised way Clear r eference to the reli gion studied Specialist terms will be used app ropriately an d correctly F ew, if any error s in spelling, gramm ar and punctuatio n

L evel 2 4-6 marks

L evel 3 7-9 marks

L evel 4 10-12 m ar ks


CHRISTIANATTITUDESTOSEXUALRELATIONSHIPS Fundamentalist Christians believe people should wait until they are married to have sex andpromoteabstinencetoyoungpeople Fundamentalist Christians believe it is a sin to live together as man and wife without being married(cohabitation) Liberal Protestants and the Church of England now accept that couples may live together before marriage and do not condemn it as it shows commitment to a monogamous way of life AllChristiansregardadulteryasasin In the wedding ceremony couples promise, in front of God, not to have sex with anyone else AdulteryiscondemnedintheTenCommandments The vast majority of Christians believe that sex should be between a man and a woman as thatisthenaturalwaytohavechildrenandthereforedonotagreewithhomosexualsex Promiscuityis wrong for allpeople.This isbecauseit isexplicitly condemned inthe Bible, it increasestheriskofunwantedpregnanciesandSTIsandifyouaregoingtoraiseachildyou shouldbeinastable,marriedrelationship. SAMESEXRELATIONSHIPS This is a contentious issue within Christianity as indeed it has been within British society. As Britishlawhasbecomemoreaccepting,sohavemanyChristians. Some Christians believe that Homosexuality is wrong as it is forbidden in the Old TestamentintheBibleandwasalsocondemnedbyStPaul. ManyChristiansacceptthathomosexualfeelingsareacceptablebutbelievethatpeople must live celibate lives because it would be a sin for them to take part in any sexual activity Although there has been pressure on different Churches to soften their views, some homosexuals may feel that they are not fully a part of the Church. Only the Quakers accepthomosexualswhoaresexuallyactive.

Quotations AgainstAdultery But amongst you there must not even be a hint of sexual immorality or of any impurity. (Ephesians5:3) Youshallnotcommitadultery(Exodus20:14) Againstsexbeforemarriage Thesexualactmusttakeplaceexclusivelywithinmarriage.(CatechismoftheCatholicChurch) Acceptingcohabitation Recognising that for many this (cohabiting) is a step along the way to the fuller commitment ofmarriage.(ChurchofEnglandsboardofresponsibility) Againsthomosexualsex ifamanlieswithamanasonelieswithawoman,bothofthemhavedonewhatisdetestable. Leviticus20:13 CHRISTIANTEACHINGSONCONTRACEPTION(BIRTHCONTROL) Roman Catholics believe that artificial methods of birth control (such as condoms and the pill) should not be used as they interfere with the natural process of conception whichiswhathavingsexisfor. Strict Catholics will only allow coupes to practice the rhythm method as it reduces the likelihoodofconceptionbutstillallowsforthepossibility Most other Churches teach that it is sensible and responsible for a couple to plan the number of children they want to have and to use contraception, especially if the couple cantaffordtogivethechildadecentstandardofliving Most Christianstoday believe sex isanimportantpartofa loving relationship and isnot justforprocreation Quotation BefruitfulandmultiplyGenesis1:28

CHRISTIANATTITUDESTOMARRIAGE Sexshouldberestrictedtomarriage TherearenorequirementsforChristianstomarry IftheyfeelthatGodwantsthemtosharetheirlifewithsomeonethentheyshouldmarry Marriageisintendedasalifelongcommitment Marriageisasacrament(AreligiousactthatisavisiblesignofGod'slove(grace)forpeople) ThemarriageceremonygivescouplestheGraceofGodtomaketheirmarriagework InmostchurchesboththebrideandthegroomshouldbeChristians Somechurchesallowmixedfaithmarriages Some churches will not give a full marriage ceremony unless both bride and groom belong tothesamechurch Quotation I,take you, to be my husband / wife, to have and to hold from this day forward: for better, for worse, for richer, for poorer, in sickness and in health, to love and to cherish, till deathdouspart,accordingtoGodsholylaw:andthisismysolemnvow. (ChurchofEnglandAlternativeServiceBook) THEPURPOSEOFCHRISTIANMARRIAGE MarriageisagiftfromGod Itisgivensothat: Amanandawomancanshareloveandcompanionship AmanandawomantoenjoysexwitheachotherinthewaythatGodwants Childrencanbebroughtintotheworld ChildrencanbebroughtupinaChristianfamilyandbecomemembersofGod'schurch A man and a woman can show love for each other and gain Gods grace in order to help theminmarriedlife THEMAINFEATURESOFACHRISTIANWEDDINGSERVICE TalkandBiblereadingsonthenatureofChristianmarriage Exchangingofvows Theexchangeofrings,tosymbolisetheeternalnatureofmarriage PrayersaskingforGod'sblessingonthecouple EmphasisthatGodispartofthemarriageandthatthismakesitforlife

Quotation In the presence of God and before this congregation,.and., have given their consent and made their marriage vows to each other. They have declared their marriage by the joining of hands and the giving and receiving of a ring. I therefore proclaim that they are husband and wife.ThatwhichGodhasjoinedtogether,letnomandivide. (ChurchofEnglandAlternativeServiceBook) CHRISTIANRESPONSESTOCIVILPARTNERSHIPS On21stDecember2005itbecamelegalintheUKforsamesexcouplestorecognisetheir union legally through civil partnerships. This gave them the same rights in law as a marriedcouple By law a marriage has to happen between one man and one woman so a civil partnershipisnotthereforeamarriage Christianshavedifferentresponsestocivilpartnerships CatholicsandtheChurchofEnglandareagainstcivilpartnershipsbecauseoftheChurch teachingsonsexualrelationships More Liberal Christians feel civil partnerships should be accepted by the Church as they provideunity,companionshipandstability,justasheterosexualmarriagedoes THEROLESOFMENANDWOMENWITHINACHRISTIANFAMILY Some Christians believe men and women should have different roles the man should be the leader and the woman should support him. The man should be the head of the family and wives should obey their husbands. This is because God made man and womandifferently Others believe that men and women should be equal because they were both made in theimageofGod.Theyshouldshareresponsibilitiesandprivileges. Catholics believe wives and husbands should respect each others roles within a marriageandvaluebothequally. The book of Genesis gives different accounts of the order of creation of men and women (see religion and science topic) which can be used differently by both sides on thedebate Quotations Men should truly esteem and love women with total respect for their personal dignity, and societyshouldcreateanddevelopconditionsfavouringworkinthehome PopeJohnPaulII ThelordGodsaidItisnotgoodforthemantobealone.Iwillmakeahelpersuitableforhim Genesis2:8

Wives,submittoyourhusbandsastotheLord.ForthehusbandistheheadofthewifeasChrist is the head of the church, his body, of which he is the Saviour. Now as the church submits to Christ,soalsowivesshouldsubmittotheirhusbandsineverything. StPaulslettertotheEphesians THEROLESOFMANANDWOMENINTHECHURCHFAMILY IntheCatholicChurchonlymencanbecomepriestsandbishops They have to remain celibate as in a sense their work means they are married to the Church Women can only go so far as giving out bread and wine at mass or performing social rolessuchasvisitingthesickonbehalfoftheChurch Protestant churches allow women to become priests. Recently in the Church of England they allowed women to become bishops. The Archbishop can still only be a man however BothmenandwomencandevotetheirlivestoGodbybecomingamonkornun Quotations there is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female for you are all one in Christ JesusStPaulslettertotheGalatians Letthewomenkeepsilentinthechurches.Fortheyarenotpermittedtospeak,butshouldbein submission, as the Law also says. If there is anything they desire to learn, let them ask their husbandsathome.Foritisadisgraceforawomantospeakinchurch. StPaulinhislettertotheCorinthians CHRISTIANTEACHINGSONDIVORCEANDREMARRIAGE TherearemajordisagreementsbetweenChristiansaboutdivorce. Almost all Christians disapprove of divorce as the vows they made before God required a coupletostaytogetheruntildeath Most Protestant and Orthodox Churches allow divorce. They do this because, as Christianityisaboutforgiveness,theybelieveifpeoplerepenttheirmistakestheyshouldbe allowed another chance. Moreover, in Matthews Gospel, Jesus taught that it was allowed incasesofunfaithfulness Often such churches require divorced people who want to remarry to have special preparation and to demonstrate clearly that they repent of their past mistakes and are determinedtomaketheirsecondmarriagelastforlife. The Roman Catholic Church does not allow divorce. They believe the only way a marriage canbedissolvedisbydeath.Theybelievethisbecauseofthevowtilldeathdouspartand theteachingofJesusinMarksGospel. Annulment of marriage is allowed (annulment says that marriage was never a proper marriageandsoneverexistedintheeyesofGod.)

Thesearegrantedif: Oneofthepartnerswasnotbaptisedatthetimeofmarriage Oneofthepartnerswasforcedintothemarriage Oneofthepartnersdidnotintendtokeepthemarriagevows atthetimeofmakingthem Oneofthepartnerswasmentallyunstableatthetimeofthemarriage The Church of England disapproves of divorce, but accepts it in some cases. It is up to the individualpriestifdivorcedcouplesshouldremarry Quotations For those who have taken their vows before God as Christians, there is no divorce. But most Baptists would acknowledge that human beings can make mistakes and what appeared at the timeasalifelongrelationshipmayeventuallybreakdown.Inthiscase,woulditnotbebetterto confess failure and in true repentance acknowledge their guilt and ask forgiveness? (Statement oftheBaptistChurch) When they were in the house again, the disciples asked Jesus about this. He answered, Any one who marries his wife and marries another woman commits adultery against her. And if she divorcesherhusbandandmarriesanotherman,shecommitsadultery.(Mark10:1012)

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Glossary Term
Promiscuity Cohabitation Adultery Monogamy Rhythmmethod Condom ThePill TheCoil Themorningafterpill Abstinence Celibacy Procreation Conception Contraception Marriage Wedding Vow Civilpartnership Homosexual Heterosexual Divorce Annulment Monk Nun

Definition
Havingmanysexualpartnerswithnocommitment Livingwithyourpartnerbutnotbeingmarried Havingsexwithsomeonewhoyouarenotmarriedto Beinginalongtermsexualrelationshipwithjustoneperson Awaytoreducethelikelihoodofconceptionbyonlyhavingsex whenawomanislesslikelytoconceive Aphysicalbarriermethodofcontraceptionputoverthepenisto preventconceptionandSTIs Ahormonepilltakendailybywomentopreventconception Asmalldeviceinsertedintothewombtopreventafertilizedegg settlinginthelining (oremergencycontraception)takenbyawomenupto72hours aftersextoinduceaperiodandabortapotentialpregnancy Tonothavesex Remainingunmarriedandchoosingtonothavesex Tohavebabies Whenaneggisfertilizedbyasperm Chemicalorphysicalmethodsusedtopreventconception Thelifelongsacredrelationshipbetweenawomanandaman Theceremonywhereamarriageismadelegal PromisesmadetoGod Thelegalunionof2menor2women Apersonwhohassexualfeelingsforsomeoneofthesamesex Apersonwhohassexualfeelingsforsomeoneoftheopposite sex Thelegalendingofamarriage Agreeingthepromisesmadeinmarriagearevoidandagreeingto discountthemarriage Amanwhohastakenspecialvowsandcommittedhimselftoa religiouslife Awomanwhohastakenspecialvowsandcommittedherselftoa religiouslife

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ReligionandHumanRelationshipsPracticeExamQuestions
Question1 a) Whatismeantbycontraception?(1mark) b) DescribeChristianattitudestosexbeforemarriage(2marks) c) ExplainwhyChristiansbelievetheweddingceremonytobeimportant(3marks) d) ExplainthedifferentattitudestotherolesofwomenintheChristianfamily(6marks) e) Divorceisalwayswrong(12marks) Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personalviewpoint.YoumustrefertoChristianityinyouranswer. Question2 a) Whatismeantbyabstinence?(1mark) b) WhatdoChristiansbelieveaboutcivilpartnerships?(2marks) c) WhatdoChristiansbelieveabouttheuseofcontraception?(3marks) d) ExplainChristianattitudestodivorce(6marks) e) Womenshouldalwaysobeytheirhusbands(12marks) Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personalviewpoint.YoumustrefertoChristianityinyouranswer. Question3 a) Whatispromiscuity?(1mark) b) Whatisanannulment?(2marks) c) WhatdoChristiansbelieveabouttheroleofawife?(3marks) d) ExplainwhyaChristianwouldchoosetogetmarried.(6marks) e) Godwouldneverapproveofcivilpartnerships(12marks) Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personalviewpoint.YoumustrefertoChristianityinyouranswer.

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CHRISTIANTEACHINGS ChristiansbelievethatlifeisagiftfromGod Lifeissacred,orHoly. Lifeshouldbetreatedasholyandvaluedandprotected HumanlifehasaspecialrelationshipwithGod Godispartoflifeandhumansdonothavetherighttodowhattheylikewithit ThehumanbodybelongstoitscreatorGod OnlyGodcanmakedecisionsregardinglifeanddeath GodsanctifiedhumanlifebybecominghumaninthepersonofJesusChrist Jesussufferedwithouttryingtodoanythingtosavehimself LifeshouldnotbeendeduntilGoddecides Obviously many modern medical advancements are not specifically covered by Biblical teachings Christians may differ over the issue of when life begins and what kind of quality of life constitutesliving Quotation Youshallnotmurder(Exodus20:13)thesixthcommandment CHRISTIANTEACHINGONFERTILITYTREATMENTANDCLONING Couples may seek fertility treatment (or invitro fertilization (IVF)) if they cannot conceivenaturally Doctorswillcreateembryosartificiallyandimplantthemintothewoman NotallChristiansagreeaboutfertilitytreatment. RomanCatholicstendtofeelmorestronglyagainstitthanotherChristiansdo. SomeChristianssayfertilitytreatmentisrightbecausewhenitworksitbringshappiness anditisalovingwayofbehavingtowardspeoplewhoaredesperatetohavechildren Others say that if people have no children, this is Gods plan for themand it is wrong to interfere. Some are concerned about the destruction and disposal of spare embryos as they feel theyareahumanlife. HannahhadnochildrenbecausetheLordhadclosedherwomb 1Samuel1:26

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Jesus welcomed them and spoke to them about the kingdom of God and healed those who neededhealing Luke9:11 Therapeutic or embryo cloning is the production of human embryos in order to gather stemcellsfromthemforuseinresearch Some Christians feel the use of human life in its embryonic state for scientific cloning researchunderminesourhumanity Many Christians recognise that God gave us intelligence to develop cloning with the possibilityofdevelopingcuresforhumandiseasesandconditions Catholicsbelieveresearchonclonedhumanembryosisunnecessaryandimmoral AChristian'sviewoncloningwilllargelydependonhowtheembryoisviewed CHRITSIANTEACHINGONABORTION RomanCatholicsandEvangelicalProtestants Believethatallformsofabortionaresinfulandshouldnotbeallowed They are the main organisers of prolife groups such as LIFE and SPUC (the Society for theProtectionoftheUnbornChild) TheybelievethatalllifeisholyandonlyGodhastherighttoendapregnancy TheunbornchildiscreatedintheimageofGodandisoneforwhomJesusdied Everyhumanbeinghastherighttolife They believe this because of Christian teaching on the Sanctity of Life, the sixth commitmentwhichsaysthatmurderiswrongandthebeliefthatlifebeginsatconception. Quotation BeforeIformedyouinthewomb,Iknewyou,beforeyouwerebornIsetyouapart (Jeremiah1:5) TheChurchofEnglandandMethodistChurches Agreethatabortionisevilbutthatsometimesthelesseroftwoevilshastobechosen Christiansshouldalwaysdowhatisthemostlovingthinginthecircumstances Theywouldallowabortionifthepregnancywasaresultofrape Theywouldalsoallowabortionwhentheembryowasdeformed Theywouldalsoallowabortionwhenthelifeofthemotheristhreatened Somewouldalsoallowabortionforsocialreasonssuchaspoverty They believe this because the sanctity of life can be broken in such times as war so can also be broken for abortion. Life does not necessarily begin at conception. Life doesnot begin until a soul has been given. Jesus taught to love your neighbour, and abortion afterrapewouldbethemostlovingthingtodo.

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Quotation Judge not, and you will not be judged; condemn not and you will not be condemned; forgive andyouwillbeforgiven. Luke6:37 CHRISTIANITYATTITUDESTOWARDSEUTHANASIAANDSUICIDE AllChristiansbelieveeuthanasiaandsuicideiswrong LifeisgivenbyGodandonlyGodcantakeitaway ItisaChristian'sdutytopreserveGod'sgiftoflife Euthanasiaintheformofthedeliberatekillingofapersonisagravesin However not all Christians agree on what to do with people who are terminally ill andareonlybeingkeptalivebymedicalinterference Some Christians believe if someone is dying in a lot of pain, euthanasia can be the mostlovingthingtodo Hospices are often Christian organisations which take care of people who are dying byprovidingthemwithpainreliefandsupport.Theyareseenasalovingalternative toeuthanasia RomanCatholicsbelieveChristianscanneverhastendeath Any action which is intended to cause death of a suffering person (e.g. giving a drug overdose)iswrong Anyomission(failuretogive)treatmenttocausedeathisalsowrong(e.g.notgiving adyingdiabeticinsuliniswrong.) Suicide used to be seen by Christians as very wrong, but today most people believe thatpeoplewhowanttocommitsuicideshouldbegivencareandsympathy The Roman Catholic church does not permit sane suicides to be buried in consecrated ground but most people who commit suicide are not considered to be sane,eitherthroughstressordepressionsothiswouldrarelyapply Christians may volunteer for organisations such as the Samaritans to try to prevent peoplefromreachingthepointwheretheywanttokillthemselves Christiansbelievethisbecauseoftheteachingsonthesanctityoflifeandthebeliefthat only God has the right to take life. Catholics say that suicide is a great sin, and euthanasia is the same as suicide. They also believe that we should learn from suffering andwecannotlearnifweeliminateit. SomeChristiansliketheQuakersfeeleuthanasiashouldbeallowedifapersonrequests it and their illness is incurable. They believe this because of the principle that God gave humansfreewill.

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Quotation If we live, we live to the Lord; and if we die, we die to the Lord. So whether we live or die we belongtothelord. Romans14:8 USEOFANIMALSINMEDICALRESEARCH Christians believe humans are Gods most important creation and that humans have beengiventhepowerandauthoritytoruleoveranimals Quotation God blessed them and said to them ...fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish of the sea andthebirdsoftheairandovereverylivingcreaturethatmovesontheground. Genesis1:28 Itisbelievedwhenthefirsthumanreceivedhissoul,thiswasthebreathoflifewhichis notgiventootheranimalsandsoisseenassettinghumansapart. Quotation The lord God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breathoflife,andthemanbecamealivingbeing. Genesis2:7 Although many people eat meat and keep animals to work for them this is not seen as reasontotreatthembadly.Beingcrueltoanimalsisoftenseenasabusingtheauthority whichGodgavetohumans MostChristianswouldagreethatitisnecessarytouseanimalsformedicalresearchthat canhelphumanbeings Quotations The Church recognises the need for animals to be used in certain research to improve medical understanding....It also however affirms that responsible stewardship of the natural world requiresallanimalstoreceivecarefulandsympathetictreatment. WhattheChurchessayCEM

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Man'sdominioncannotbeunderstoodaslicensetoabuse,spoil,squanderordestroywhatGod hasmadetomanifesthisglory. RomanCatholicteaching

GLOSSARY Term
Sanctityoflife

Definition

The belief that human life is holy as God made us with a soul. HealsomadeitholybybecominghumanhimselfasJesus Embryo A collection of cells that develops when a sperm fuses with an egg IVF From the Latin in vitro (In glass). A form of fertility treatment wheredoctorsextractacouple'seggsandspermandfusethem together to create an embryo which is then inserted into the womanswomb Infertility Naturalconceptioncannotbeachieved Abortion Toremoveafoetusfromthewomb,endingthepregnancy Foetus Thegrowingbabyinthewomb Hospice Places where terminally ill people can go to receive care and oftentodie Prolife Theviewthatabortioniswrong Prochoice The view that abortion should be an option and is the womans decisiontomake TherapeuticCloning The production of human embryos to be used in medical researchuntiltheyareupto12daysold Euthanasia FromtheGreekagentleandeasydeath Assisted suicide / voluntary The process of euthanasia when a doctor helps a patient to euthanasia dieatthepatient'srequest Nonvoluntary / passive When a patient has no say if they die or not but a doctor euthanasia withdraws medical assistance. E.g. switching off a life support machinewhensomeoneisinacoma Suicide Takingyourownlife

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ReligionandMedicalEthicsPracticeExamQuestions
Question1 a) Whatiseuthanasia?(1mark) b) DescribeChristianteachingsonsuicide.(2marks) c) WhatdoesChristianityteachaboutfertilitytreatment?(3marks) d) ExplainChristianattitudestoabortion.(6marks) e) Itiswrongtouseanimalsformedicalresearch(12marks) Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personalviewpoint.YoumustrefertoChristianityinyouranswer. Question2 a) Whatisfertilitytreatment?(1mark) b) Whatisahospice?(2marks) c) WhatdoChristiansbelieveaboutcloning?(3marks) d) ExplainwhyChristiansbelievehumanlifeissacred.(6marks) e) Abortionsshouldbelefttothemothersdecision(12marks) Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personalviewpoint.YoumustrefertoChristianityinyouranswer. Question 3 a) Whatissuicide?(1mark) b) Whatpassiveeuthanasia?(2marks) c) WhatdoChristiansbelieveaboutusinganimalsinmedicalresearch?(3marks) d) ExplainhowaChristianwouldrespondtosomeonewhowantedtodie.(6marks) e) Ifyoucanthaveababyyouareclearlynotmeanttohavechildren(12marks) Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personalviewpoint.YoumustrefertoChristianityinyouranswer.

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HUNGER,POVERTYANDDISEASE Those who are suffering because of poverty, hunger and disease are usually doingsothroughnofaultoftheirown The causes are many. Lack of education, lack of job skills, low wages, corruption in government, natural disasters, inadequate health care, debt, unfair trade, HIV /Aids,gambling,alcoholism,drugs Christiansaretaughtthatcaringforthepoorisaprimaryconcern Christians may give money, volunteer their time and skills, buy fair trade productsandpraytoeasethesituation CHRISTIANTEACHINGABOUTCONCERNFORTHEPOOR Christianity teaches that caring for the poor is not an option it is something Christians mustdo TheBibleteachesthatGodwilljudgepeopleonhowmuchcaretheyhaveshownforthe poorandthatifpeopledonotcareforthepoor,theycantsaythattheyloveGod TheparableofthesheepandthegoatsshowsthatChristiansshouldhelpotherpeople The bad people in this parable will go to hell because they did not help others When youdidnotdoitforotherpeopleyoudidnotdoitforme.(Matthew25:3146) The parable of the good Samaritan also shows Christians that they should help others whoarelessfortunatethanthemselves Quotations God bless those who come to the aid of the poor and rebuke those who turn away from themloveforthepoorisincompatiblewithimmoderateuseofrichesoftheirselfishuse. CatechismofCatholicChurch The Church should concern itself first and indeed second with the poor and the needy, whetherinspiritorbodyArchbishops'commissiononChurchandstate CHRISTIANTEACHINGABOUTTHEUSEOFMONEY Wealthcanbeusedforgood,orforevil Moneyinitselfisnotabadthingbutpeoplemustnotbecomegreedy Christians believe that if they have money then it is a gift from God and should be used forgoodwhichshowsgoodstewardship The wrong attitude to money can mean it becomes more important than God which mustnoteverhappen

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Christians must share their wealth with the poor and be prepared to give up all they haveforGod Quotations Peoplewhowanttogetrichfallintotemptationandatrapandintomanyfoolishandharmful desiresthatplungemenintoruinanddespair:theloveofmoneyistherootofallevil. 1Timothy6:910 Jesus looked at him and loved him. One thing you lack, he said. Go sell everything you have and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven. Then come follow me At this the mans face fell. He went away sad because he had great wealth. Jesus looked around and said tohisdisciples"howharditisfortherichtoenterthekingdomofGod. Mark10;2123 No one can serve two masters. Either he will hate the one or love the other, or he will be devotedtooneanddespisetheother.YoucannotservebothGodandmoney. Matthew6:24 RIGHTANDWRONGOCCUPATIONS Christiansbelievehumanshavearesponsibilitytocareforoneanother The Bible does not list occupations a person can and cannot do but a Christian's occupationshouldbemoral Christians might try to find jobs which are involved with caring for others such as nursing,policeworkorsocialwork They might avoid jobs which exploit others such as jobs involving gambling or tabloid journalism Many Christians would prefer to not work on a Sunday because it is a day set aside for worshipping God. God alsorestedon the 7thday after creation accordingto the bookof Genesis Quotations Eachofyoushouldlooknotonlytoyourowninterestsbutalsototheinterestsofothers Philippians2:4 If one of your countrymen becomes poor and is unable to support himself among you, help him...youmustnotlendhimmoneyatinterestorsellhimfoodataprofit Leviticus25:3537

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GIVINGTOCHARITY SomeChristiansgivemoneytocharityonaregularbasiseverymonth The Bible teaches that Christians should plan to put aside some of their wages for the poor Some Christians work for charities or volunteer by working in a shop or collecting donations Christians might choose to support charities based on Christian principles such as ChristianAid CHRISTIANAID Beganin1944underthenameBritishEcumenicalrefugeecouncil Setuptohelpthosewhohadbeenmadehomelessbythesecondworldwar ItbecameChristianAidinSeptember1945 Itprovidedhelpforthepoorinlessdevelopedcountries Todoitswork,ChristianAidraisesmoneyinavarietyofdifferentways In 1957 the envelope campaign began: Churches divide different towns between them andputanenvelopethrougheverydoorinBritain Churchesandindividualshavefundraisingeventsthroughouttheyear Recently they invented Funusual Christmas presents where people can buy a person a goat / toilet / teacher (Something useful and needed) for Christmas which is given to someoneinneedontheirbehalf. They work where the need is greatest, regardless of the person's religion, colour or nationality EXAMPLESOFTHEIRWORK EMERGENCYAID Thereisadisasterfundtodealwithnaturaldisastersandrefugees Theysendfood,antibiotics,andsheltertopeoplein lessdevelopedcountries who need it ChristianAidspendsbetween1015%onemergencyaideachyear LONGTERMAID MuchofChristianAid's workis done throughChurchesin the countries where theaid is needed.TheseChurchestellChristianAidwhattheyneedandChristianaidfundsit Christianaidseesitsfunctionashelpingotherstohelpthemselves

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EXAMPLESOFTHEIRWORK Columbia, South America Developers wanted to use the land of poor farmers which woulddrivethemoutoftheirhomes.Thefarmersthoughtofawaytodeveloptheland that would allow them to keep their homes. Christian Aid is working with the European Uniontofinancethisscheme Bangladesh Christian Aid has funded a factory to make medicines which the people of Bangladeshcannotaffordtoimport Lesotho Financing a Christian agricultural school which is trying to increase food productionbybringingincheapandmorepracticalnewfarmingmethods EDUCATION 5% of budget is used to educate people in Britain about the need for development in theseplaces Christian Aid News is a newspaper published quarterly which gives information about whatChristianAidisdoing Christian Aid has also helped improve the lives of those living in less developed countries: for example, it funds several multiethnic football teams in Burundi, a place wherechildrenhavebeenverybadlyaffectedbyinterethnicconflict ChristianAidstatementofaims ChristianAidworksinoversixtycountriesprovidingemergencyaidandlongtermassistanceto Church and community organisations working to overcome poverty. Christian Aid prefers to work through local organisations, believing that local people know best how to solve their own problems.ChristianAidworksonthebasisofneedregardlessofraceorreligion. QUOTATIONS "If anyone has material possessions and sees his brother in need but has no pity on him, how cantheloveofGodbeinhim?" 1John3:17 HewhoiskindtothepoorlendstotheLordandhewillrewardhimforwhathehasdone Proverbs19:17 Each man should give what he has decided in his heart to give, not reluctantly or under compulsion,forGodlovesacheerfulgiver 2Corinthians9:7 When yougive do not let your lefthand knowwhat the right hand is doing, so that your giving maybeinsecret.ThenyourFather,whoseeswhatyouaredoing,willrewardyou Matthew6:34

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GLOSSARY Term Stewardship Poverty Povertyline Fairtrade Charity Occupation

Definition TolookaftertheearthandallthatismadebyGodresponsibly The situation of need when a persons income falls below the povertyline Thelevelofincomebelowwhichapersoncannotaffordtobuythe resourcesneededtolive(food,clothingetc) The policy of ensuring workers and producers in underdeveloped countriesarenotexploitedbytherichbuyers Provisionofhelporrelieftothepoor Thejobyouhave

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Religion,PovertyandWealthPracticeExamQuestions Question1 a) Whatischarity?(1mark) b) WhatcareerswouldaChristianconsidertobegood?(2marks) c) WhatdoChristiansbelieveaboutthegambling?(3marks) d) ExplainwhyChristiansmightgivemoneytoacharity(6marks) e) Everyoneshouldgivetocharity(12marks) Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personal viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity in your answer. Question2 a) Whatispoverty?(1mark) b) Give 2 examples of how a Christian charity provides help to the poor. (2 marks) c) WhatdoChristiansteachabouttherightuseofmoney?(3marks) d) Explain how Christians might work to help those who are poor and suffering.(6marks) e) Ajobisajobitdoesnotmatterhowpeopleearntheirmoney(12marks) Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personal viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity in your answer. Question3 a) Whatisgoodstewardship?(1mark) b) HowcanChristiansshowcareforothers?(2marks) c) WhyshouldaChristiangivetocharity?(3marks) d) ExplainChristianteachingsaboutcareforthepoor(6marks) e) Peopleshouldlookaftertheirfamilybeforetheygivetocharity(12marks) Discuss this statement. You should include different, supported points of view and a personal viewpoint. You must refer to Christianity in your answer.

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