Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 10

ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCIENCE Vol.

117(3), 137146, 2009

Human skeletal remains from the Pacopampa site in the northern highlands of Peru
Tomohito NAGAOKA1*, Yuji SEKI2, Juan Pablo VILLAUEVA3, Walter Tosso MORALES4, Kinya INOKUCHI5, Mauro Ordes LIVIA3, Diana Alemn PAREDES3, Daniel Morales CHOCANO3
1

Department of Anatomy, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki 216-8511, Japan 2 National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka 565-8511, Japan 3 Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru 4 Museo Amano, Lima, Peru 5 Saitama Unviersity, Saitama 338-8570, Japan
Received 8 January 2009; accepted 4 March 2009

Abstract The Pacopampa site, located in the northern highlands of Peru, is an archeological site belonging to the Formative Period (2500 BC0 AD). The purposes of this study are to observe and describe the human skeletal remains from the Pacopampa site, to estimate the sex and age-at-death of each individual, and finally to diagnose morphological traits and skeletal disorders. The materials used here are 498 human skeleton parts. The sample comprises at least 18 individuals: eight subadult skeletons, eight adult skeletons, one skeleton aged 1039 years, and one of unknown age. The age distribution (six of eight subadults were less than one year) suggests a high proportion of infants in the population. The sexual ratio of three adult males to four adult females indicates a skeletal population with hardly any sexual bias. A paleopathological examination revealed that the percentage of permanent teeth affected by dental caries was 9% (18/192). Two elderly females exhibit periodontal disease in both the maxillae and mandibles. This is the first study to examine the lives and deaths of a Formative Period population from the perspective of bioarcheology. Key words: Peru, Formative Period, dental caries, age-at-death distribution

Introduction
The Pacopampa site, located in the northern highlands of Peru, is an archeological site belonging to the Formative Period (2500 BC0 AD) (Figure 1) and played an important role as a ceremonial center in the Central Andes. It was first excavated by a Peruvian archeologist, Rafael Larco Hoyle, in 1939. Subsequent excavations have been performed since the 1960s by Rosas and Shady (1970, 1974), Flores (1975), Fung (1975), Kaulicke (1975), and Morales (1980, 1988). These excavations yielded Formative Period remains related to ritual practices: a large architectural complex composed of three terraced platforms, aqueducts, stairs, plazas, columns, and stone sculptures. In order to explore the socioeconomic dynamics that contributed to the rise and development of the civilization there, the Pacopampa archeological project, organized under the collaboration of the National Museum of Ethnology of Japan and the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos of Peru, has been excavating the Pacopampa site since 2005. The first author (T.N.) participated in an interdisciplinary effort over two field seasons (20072008) to examine the human skeletal remains there.
* Correspondence to: Tomohito Nagaoka, Department of Anatomy, St. Marianna Unviersity School of Medicine, 2-16-1 Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 216-8511, Japan. E-mail: nagaoka@marianna-u.ac.jp Published online 30 April 2009 in J-STAGE (www.jstage.jst.go.jp) DOI: 10.1537/ase.090108
2009 The Anthropological Society of Nippon 137

Archeological Settings of the Formative Period of Peru


The Formative Period is a segment of Peruvian prehistory that lasted from 2500 BC to 0 AD (Figure 2). The Formative Period is defined as a period when temples were constructed and renovated (Seki, 1998, 2006). The construction of temples preceded the manufacture of pottery and had an impact on socioeconomic development and the rise of social hierarchyas exemplified by the Kotosh site from the Formative Period (Onuki, 1998). The construction and renovation of the temples, which required laborers and a food supply, attracted people to the temples, and led to an increase in agriculture and the domestication of animals, and socioeconomic development (Onuki, 1998; Seki, 1998, 2006). The continual work on the temples and their renovation was indispensable to the existence of temples, which functioned as centers of social integration in the Formative Period in the Central Andes (Inokuchi, 2001). It is noteworthy that the beginning of temple construction and renovation was not associated with a reliance on maize. Carbon isotope analysis by Burger and van der Merwe (1990) suggests that maize did not play an important role in the development of civilization in the Central Andes. Although C4 food represented by maize was used in the diet, C3 food such as potatoes and quinoa accounted for the majority of the dietary intake (Burger and van der Merwe, 1990). The introduction of maize into the Central Andes did not make the revolutionary change observed in Northern and Central

138

T. NAGAOKA ET AL.

ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCIENCE

Figure 1. Map of Peru showing the location of the Pacopampa site, which is located in Querocoto District, Chota Province, Cajamarca Prefecture.

America because the Andean region had a rich repertoire of domesticated animals and plants (Burger and van der Merwe, 1990). Seki and Yoneda (2004) analyzed human skeletons from the Formative Period sites of the Kuntur Wasi, Loma Redonda, Huacaloma, and Kolguitn, discussed the maize consumption of the Formative Period societies in the northern highlands of Peru based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis, and were led to the conclusion that those societies cultivated maize, but did not generally rely on this

crop to any great extent. The model for social development, which emphasizes the role of the temple, is different from the usual case for Northern and Central America. In Northern and Central America, the introduction of maize directly brought about revolutionary changes in social organization and life history patterns, and resulted in the prevalence of infectious diseases, an increase in infant mortality, and a reduced lifespan (Larsen, 1982).

Vol. 117, 2009

HUMAN SKELETONS FROM PACOPAMPA, PERU

139

Huari Period, and the Regional States Period, respectively. Matsumura et al. (1997) reported Formative Period human skeletons from the Kuntur Wasi, Loma Redonda, Huacaloma, and Kolguitn sites in the northern highlands.

Methods
Regarding dental terminology, I, C, P, and M stand for the permanent incisor, canine, premolar, and molar, respectively; di, dc, and dm for the deciduous incisor, canine, and molar, respectively. Numbers 1, 2, and 3 show the position of a tooth within a tooth class. This study identified human skeletal remains. In order to avoid counting the same individuals twice, fragmentary bones were counted only when they did not overlap with other individuals. The minimum number of individuals represented by recovered assemblages was calculated by counting the number of the most preserved parts for the total of buried and scattered skeletons. The calculation was based on the cranium, mandible, clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, pelvis, femur, tibia, fibula, and patella, and excluded vertebra, rib, hand bone, and foot bone. The number of individuals for both sides was calculated by counting the most preserved side. Sex determination of individuals 15 years of age or older was carried out on the basis of macroscopic assessment of pelvic features: preauricular surface, greater sciatic notch, preauricular sulcus, composite arch, inferior pelvis (Bruzek, 2002), ventral arc, subpubic concavity, and the medial aspect of the ischiopubic ramus (Phenice, 1969). When the macroscopic observation method of the pelvic bones could not be employed, discriminant functional analysis based on pelvic metrics was used instead (Nakahashi and Nagai, 1986). Although individuals lacking pelvic bones were sexually diagnosed using cranial features, such as the supraorbital ridge, frontal tuberosity, mastoid process, and exterior occipital prominence, these features are less accurate for sex diagnosis than pelvic features (Krogman and Iscan, 1986). The age-at-death estimation for subadult skeletons was based on the diaphyseal length of limb bones (Scheuer et al., 1980), the completeness of crowns and roots (Moorrees et al., 1963a, 1963b; Ubelaker, 1989), the degree of development and closure of the occipital synchondrosis (Wakebe, 1990), and the degree of ossification and epiphyseal union of the pelvis and long bones (Brothwell, 1981; Krogman and Iscan, 1986). In the case of age at death for adult individuals 15 years of age and older, chronological metamorphosis of the pubic symphysis (Todd, 1920, 1921), and chronological metamorphosis of the auricular surface of the ilium (Lovejoy et al., 1985; Buckberry and Chamberlain, 2002) were used. Individuals lacking pelvic bones were assessed using the stage of dental attrition (Lovejoy, 1985), but the degree of dental attrition is easily affected by diet and subsistence. The ageat-death estimation based on dental attrition is less accurate than pubic symphysis and the auricular surface of the ilium. In order to estimate the stature of two females, we employed Genovs (1967) equations for maximum length of tibia, together with Saso and Haniharas (1998) equations based on the least-regression method for maximum lengths

Figure 2. The chronology of prehistoric Peru. The Pacopampa site belongs to the Formative Period.

Purposes of This Study


The interest of this study is in the living conditions of the Formative Period people, who attained a social development that was not associated with maize cultivation. This perspective helps us to understand the strategy by which the prehistoric Andean people adapted to their own environment and developed their civilization. In order to explore the living conditions of Formative Period people, we focus on the human skeletal remains from the Pacopampa site, estimate the sex and age-at-death of each individual, and finally diagnose morphological traits and skeletal disorders.

Materials
The excavation of the Pacopampa site yielded hundreds of human skeleton parts during 20052008. The materials used here are 498 human skeleton parts from the Pacopampa site belonging to the Formative Period. The Pacopampa site includes two cultural phasesPacopampa I (1200900 BC) and Pacopampa II (900500 BC)based on radiocarbon dating. This study does not classify the cultural phases due to the small number of individuals. The human remains are composed of buried skeletons and scattered ones. The former are well-preserved articulated human remains, and the latter are scattered and nonarticulated skeletons in a sanctuary associated with miniature pottery and animal bones. The comparative sample used here was taken from the literature (Drusini, 1991, 2002; Matsumura et al., 1997). Drusini (1991, 2002) examined human skeletal remains from the Pueblo Viejo site on the southern coast of Peru belonging to three cultural phases: Nasca (400 BC550 AD), Huari (6001100 AD), and Chincha (11001412 AD), which correspond to the Regional Development Period, the

140

T. NAGAOKA ET AL.

ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCIENCE

of humerus, radius, ulna, and tibia. Measurements were taken according to the method of Martin and Knussmann (1988). The equations for estimating stature are the ones for native Mexican females (Genovs, 1967) and for Japanese females (Saso and Hanihara, 1998). As for a comparative sample, the stature estimated by Drusini (1991) and Matsumura et al. (1997) was based on Genovs equations. Observation of dental caries was conducted according to the method of Fujita (1995). We recorded only the presence of caries, ignoring decayed regions and the degree or stages of caries. The percentage of persons having carious teeth (PPCT) was calculated for adults by dividing the number of persons having carious teeth by the number of individuals. The percentage of carious teeth (PCT) was also calculated by dividing the number of carious teeth by the number of examined teeth. Since isolated teeth cannot be identified as belonging to any particular individuals, the materials were pooled for age and sex due to the small sample size. The statistical analysis was conducted using statistical package R2.2.1 (R Development Core Team, 2005).

Table 1. Number of skeleton parts Parts of skeletons Cranium Mandible Hyoid Sternum Clavicle Scapula Humerus Radius Ulna Pelvis Femur Tibia Fibula Patella Number Right Left Unknown Total 18 14 1 1 13 7 18 8 9 12 16 12 8 4 Estimated number of individuals for each part 18 14 1 1 8 4 10 3 5 7 9 7 2 2

5 3 8 3 4 7 5 7 2 2

8 4 10 3 5 5 9 5 2 2

0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 4 0

Results and Discussion


Description of the human skeletal remains The Pacopampa site yielded 498 human skeleton parts. Scattered skeletons are composed of 12 crania, 9 mandibles, 47 vertebrae, 33 ribs, 9 clavicles, 2 scapulae, 10 humeri, 4 radii, 3 ulnae, 8 pelves, 7 femora, 5 tibiae, and 3 fibulae. There was no evidence of burning. Table 1 shows the estimated number of individuals for each bone represented by recovered assemblages. The crania are the best preserved parts and observation of these suggests that at least 18 individuals were excavated: six individuals from the burials and 12 other individuals from the sanctuary. Table 2 shows the sex and age-at-death structure represented by the cranium, mandible, and pelvis and gives a brief description of the human skeletal remains. Estimated stature Table 3 shows the estimated stature of two females: 143.4146.5 cm (average 144.9 cm) and 142.3145.2 cm (average 144.2 cm). These estimates are about 58 cm higher than those of Formative Period sites in northern Peru Kuntur Wasi and Hucaloma (138.5 cm) (Matsumura et al., 1997)but they are almost equal to those of the Huari Period (145.4 cm) and Chincha Period (146.7 cm) of southern Peru (Drusini, 1991). Paleopathology Three individuals exhibit skeletal disorders. 2006-A-H11 Both the maxilla and mandible are heavily absorbed and reduced. Periodontal disease was diagnosed in both the maxillae and mandible on the basis of the observation of a horizontal reduction in the alveolar bone height. There is dental calculus in six teeth (right lower I2 to P1 and left lower C to P2) out of seven (6/7 = 85.7%). Dental caries are observed in two teeth (left upper M1 and right lower P2) out of seven (2/7 = 28.6%) (Figure 3).

2007-C-H86 The right articular process of the mandible and the mandibular fossa of the right temporal bone were diagnosed as osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint on the basis of the observation of a flattening of the condylar head, an enlarged mandibular fossa, and an osteophytic lipping (Figure 4). There are two tumors on the left parietal bone and right parietal bone. They were diagnosed as osteoma due to the observation that they are smooth-surfaced and rounded with diameters of 12 cm on the cranial vault. Severe osteoarthritis is also observed at the lower three lumbar vertebrae. Both the maxilla and mandible are heavily absorbed and reduced. Periodontal disease was diagnosed in both the maxillae and mandible on the basis of the observation of a horizontal reduction in alveolar bone height (Figure 5). There is an abscess cavity destroying the cortical bone covering the root of left lower M1 (Figure 5). There is dental calculus in 13 teeth (right upper I1, left upper I1, P1, and M2, right lower I1 to M1 and left lower I2 to P2) out of 23 (14/23 = 60.9%). Dental caries are observed in 13 teeth (right upper I2 to P1, left upper P1 and P2, right lower C to M1 and left lower P1 to M2) out of 23 (13/23 = 56.5%) (Figure 3). 2007-B-H59 Female, aged 1519 years. Dental caries exists in one tooth (right upper M2) out of six (1/7 = 14.3%). Comparison of dental caries among archaeological sites This study examined the cases of dental caries among the Pacopampa specimens. The PPCT for eight adult individuals was calculated: three out of eight individuals (3/8 = 37.5%) exhibit dental caries. Matsumura et al. (1997) also examined dental caries of Formative Period skeletons (2500 BC0 AD) and calculated the PPCT. They found dental caries in 5 out of 21 individuals (5/21 = 23.8%). Drusini (1991) examined human skeletons from Nasca, Huari, and Chincha. His report demonstrates that the frequency of carious individuals increases from Nasca (1/8 = 12.2%) to Huari (18/ 40 = 45.0%) to Chincha (3/4 = 75.0%). There is no significant difference between Pacopampa and these three popula-

Table 2. Description of the human skeletal remains Number of skeletal parts Age-at-death Cranium Left Both cranial and postcranial bones are preserved. Both cranial and postcranial bones are preserved, but the cranium lacks most parts of the face. The cranium is characterized with a developed frontal tuber, no supraorbital ridge, unclear temporal line, laterally projected zygomatic arch, unclear mastoid notch, small mastoid process, and unclear external occipital protuberance. The coronal, sagittal, and lambdaoid sutures are not closed in the outer table, but are partially closed in the inner table. Several wormian bones are present in lambdoid sutures and an Inca bone is present in the midline. Both cranial and postcranial bones are preserved. Both cranial and postcranial bones are preserved, but the teeth are missing. Both cranial and postcranial bones are preserved, but the teeth are missing. 1 1 1 Both cranial and postcranial bones are preserved, but the cranium lacks most parts of the face. The cranium is robust with an undeveloped frontal tuber, slightly developed supraorbital ridge, clear temporal line, pronounced external occipital protuberance, and clear superior nuchal line. The sagittal suture is partially closed in the outer table and completely closed in the inner table. A few wormian bones are present in the lambdoid sutures. The cranium is preserved, but the mandible is missing. 1 The cranium and mandible are preserved. Three teeth (right lower di1-dm1) are isolated. The cranium is preserved, but the mandible and teeth are missing. The cranium is characterized with a clear temporal line, pronounced external occipital protuberance, and clear superior nuchal line. The coronal and sagittal sutures are completely closed in the inner table, but they are partially closed in the outer table. 1 The cranium and mandible are preserved. The cranium is preserved, but the mandible is missing. The right upper molar is isolated. 1 1 1 1 1 Man- Pelvis dible Right 69 months 40 years Description

Vol. 117, 2009

Specimen No.

Burials

Sex

2005-A-H1

Buried skeletons

Unknown

2006-A-H11

Buried skeletons

Female

2006-B-H511 Buried skeletons Perinatal to birth 2 years 1 1 40 years 1

Unknown

06 months

2006-B-H514 Buried skeletons

Unknown

2006-B-H515 Buried skeletons

Unknown

2007-C-H86

Buried skeletons

Female

2006-B-H512 Scattered skeletons 06 months Adult? 1 1

Unknown

06 months

2006-B-H518 Scattered skeletons

Unknown

2006-B-H525 Scattered skeletons

Male?

2006-B-H526 Scattered skeletons Unknown 1

Unknown

06 months

2007-B-H26, Scattered skeletons 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 1519 years 1

Unknown

2007-B-H34

Scattered skeletons

Male?

The left half of the cranium is preserved, but the mandible is missing. The cranium is characterized with an undeveloped frontal tuber, slightly developed supraorbital ridge, unclear temporal line, and slightly clear external occipital protuberance. The left half of the facial bones shows a rectangular orbit, a broad piriform aperture, and projecting nasal bones. The cranium is preserved, but the mandible is missing. The cranium is characterized with an undeveloped supraorbital ridge, unclear mastoid notch, and undeveloped external occipital protuberance. A few wormian bones are present in the lambdoid sutures. The cranium is preserved, but the mandible is missing. The cranium is characterized with an undeveloped supraorbital ridge and unclear external occipital protuberance. The cranium is preserved, but the mandible is missing. The cranium is characterized with a developed supraorbital ridge, clear temporal line, clear mastoid notch, developed external occipital protuberance, and clear superior nuchal line.

2007-B-H58

Scattered skeletons

Female

2039 years

HUMAN SKELETONS FROM PACOPAMPA, PERU

2007-B-H59 2039 years 1

Scattered skeletons

Female?

1519 years

2008-B-H07

Scattered skeletons

Male?

141

Table 2. (continued)
142

Number of skeletal parts Age-at-death Cranium Left The right and left maxillae alone are preserved. They do not overlap with the other crania described above. The right maxilla alone is preserved. This does not overlap with the other crania described above. The right maxilla alone is preserved. This does not overlap with the other crania described above. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 The mandible is preserved. The left half of the mandible is preserved. The left pelvis is preserved. The age at death is estimated to be subadult on the basis of the unfused epiphyseal unions of the iliac crest and Y-shaped cartilage. The right pelvis is preserved. The age at death is estimated to be 2039 years on the basis of the auricular surface stage (Lovejoy et al.s stage 1; Buckberry and Chamberlains stage 1). The right pelvis is preserved. The age at death is estimated to be 2039 years on the basis of the auricular surface stage (Lovejoy et al.s stage 1; Buckberry and Chamberlains stage 2). The left pelvis is preserved. The auricular surface is missing, but the age at death is estimated to be 15 years on the basis of the completely fused epiphyseal unions of the iliac crest. The right and left pelves are preserved. The age at death is estimated to be about 20 years on the basis of the auricular surface stage (Lovejoy et al.s stage 1; Buckberry and Chamberlains stage 1) and the fusing epiphyseal union of the iliac crest. 1 1 18 14 7 5 The left pelvis is preserved. The age at death is estimated to be 15 years on the basis of the completely fused epiphyseal unions of the ischial tuberosity. The right pelvis is fragmentally preserved. The age at death is estimated to be about 2039 years on the basis of the upper half of the auricular surface stage (Lovejoy et al.s stage 34). The right half of the mandible is preserved. The mandible is preserved. The mandible is preserved, but the teeth are not preserved. The mandible is preserved. The left half of the mandible is preserved, but the teeth are not preserved. The fragmentary mandible is preserved, but the teeth are not preserved. The right half of the mandible is preserved. 1 1 1 Man- Pelvis dible Right 2039 years 10 years 1039 years 1539 years 1539 years Unknown Unknown 1539 years Unknown 34 years 1539 years 1539 years 14 years 2039 years 2039 years 15 years About 20 years 15 years 2039 years Description

Specimen No.

Burials

Sex

2006-A-H2

Scattered skeletons

Unknown

T. NAGAOKA ET AL.

2007-B-H43

Scattered skeletons

Unknown

2007-E-H9

Scattered skeletons

Unknown

2006-A-F110 Scattered skeletons

Unknown

2007-B-H10

Scattered skeletons

Unknown

2007-B-H39

Scattered skeletons

Unknown

2007-B-H43, 2007-B-H45

Scattered skeletons

Unknown

2007-B-H44

Scattered skeletons

Unknown

2007-B-H46 (No. 1)

Scattered skeletons

Unknown

2007-B-H46 (No. 2)

Scattered skeletons

Unknown

2007-B-H52

Scattered skeletons

Unknown

2007-E-H5

Scattered skeletons

Unknown

2006-B-H523 Scattered skeletons

Unknown

2006-C-H13

Scattered skeletons

Female

2006-C-H22H Scattered skeletons

Male

2006-C-H22K Scattered skeletons

Male

2006-C-H25

Scattered skeletons

Male

2007-B-H63

Scattered skeletons

Unknown

2007-E-H6

Scattered skeletons

Male

ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCIENCE

Total

Vol. 117, 2009

HUMAN SKELETONS FROM PACOPAMPA, PERU

143

Table 3. Estimated statures from maximum length of limb bones (mm) Bones Measurements Humerus Radius Ulna Tibia Measurement items 2006-A-H11 Left 2007-C-H86 Right 263 218 304 1423 1452 1434 1465 1451 1440 199 217 Left

maximum length of humerus maximum length of radius maximum length of ulna maximum length of tibia

Estimated statures using Saso and Haniharas equations Humerus maximum length of humerus Radius maximum length of radius Ulna maximum length of ulna Tibia maximum length of tibia Estimated stature using Genovs equation Tibia maximum length of tibia

served in the deciduous teeth (0/44 = 0.0%), but the permanent teeth exhibit such decay (18/192 = 9.4%) (Table 4). Permanent teeth exhibit a rate of dental caries several percentage points higher than those of hunter-gatherers. The PCT of prehistoric hunter-gatherers is, in general, approximately 03%, while the PCT of agriculturists is greater (Turner, 1979; Fujita, 1995). The percentage of teeth affected by dental caries in Northern America showed an increase during the transition from foraging (less than 7%) to maize agriculture (more than 7%) (Larsen, 1997). Since dental caries is caused by demineralization through acids by bacterial metabolism of carbohydrates (sugars and starches) (Hillson, 1997), the prevalence of dental caries observed in Pacopampa indicates frequent use of carbohydrates in the diet. It seems reasonable to think that, if the Formative Period people had a rich repertoire of domesticated plants other than maize (e.g. potatoes and quinoas) (Burger and van der Merwe, 1990), those alternatives played an important role in the prevalence of dental caries. Age-at-death distribution This study reconstructed the age-at-death distribution using individuals associated with crania. The study sample consists of at least 18 individuals: eight subadults, eight adults, one individual aged 1039 years, and one of unknown age (Table 5). The sexual ratio of three adult males to four adult females indicates a population with little sexual bias. The age distribution (six of eight subadults were less than one year) suggests a high rate of infants in the population. The individuals aged <1 year and 40 years were concentrated in the burials, but we do not know why. Figure 6 compares the age distributions between Pacopampa and three prehistoric populations of the Nasca (Drusini, 1991), Huari (Drusini, 1991), and Chincha (Drusini, 1991) periods. The age categories employed here those used by Drusini (1991), but the categories of 4060 years and 60 years were combined due to the small number of individuals. The distribution patterns among the four groups are similar in the concentration of individuals aged 07 years and 2040 years. The proportion of deaths under the age of seven years ranges from 46.7% to 70.3%: Pacopampa (46.7%), Nasca (70.3%), Huari (50.0%), and Chincha (50.0%). The percentages of in-

Figure 3. Dental caries. (a) No. 2006-A-H11 individual. (b) No. 2007-C-H86 individual.

tions, possibly due to the small sample size (Fishers exact test, P > 0.05). The present data, together with these previous studies, suggest that the human remains in prehistoric Peru exhibit dental caries at a rate of about 10% or more (12.275.0%) since the Formative Period. The PCT was also calculated: dental caries was not ob-

144

T. NAGAOKA ET AL.

ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCIENCE

Figure 4. The mandibular fossa of the right temporal bone (a) and the right articular process of the mandible (b). They were diagnosed as osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint on the basis of the observation of a flattening of the condylar head, an enlarged mandibular fossa, and an osteophytic lipping.

Conclusion
This study attempts to reconstruct the lives and deaths of a Formative Period population from skeletal remains, and has obtained the following two findings: (1) the present data, together with previous studies, suggest that the human remains in prehistoric Peru exhibit dental caries at a rate of about 10% or more; (2) the distribution patterns among the four groups are similar in terms of the concentration of individuals aged 07 years and 2040 years.

Acknowledgments
The authors would like to express gratitude to Dr. Kazuhiro Uzawa of University of East Asia for helpful comments. This study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (No. 19251013) of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and a Grant-in-aid for Young Scientists (B) (No. 20770197) of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

Figure 5. A periodontal disease with a horizontal reduction in alveolar bone height and an abscess cavity which destroyed the cortical bone in the left lower M1.

dividuals aged 2040 years at Pacopampa, Nasca, Huari, and Chincha, on the other hand, account for 20.0%, 18.9%, 26.4%, and 35.0% of the totals, respectively. There is no significant difference between Pacopampa and these three populations (MannWhitney U-test, P > 0.05).

References
Brothwell D.R. (1981) Digging up bones. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, pp. 5975.

Vol. 117, 2009

HUMAN SKELETONS FROM PACOPAMPA, PERU

145

Table 4. Number of teeth1 Maxilla Buried skeletons Deciduous teeth Deciduous incisor Deciduous canine Deciduous molar Total Permanent teeth Incisor Canine Premolar Molar Total Scattered skeletons Deciduous teeth Deciduous incisor Deciduous canine Deciduous molar Total Permanent teeth Incisor Canine Premolar Molar Unknown Total
1

Mandible Total 7 2 4 13 4(1) 2(1) 3(2) 3(2) 12(6) Right 2 0 2 4 2(1) 2 4(3) 2(1) 10(5) Left 2 0 2 4 2 2 2(2) 2(2) 8(4) Unknown 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 4 0 4 8 4(1) 4 6(5) 4(3) 18(9) Right 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Unknown Left 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Unknown 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Right 4 1 2 7 2(1) 1(1) 2(1) 1 6(3)

Left 3 1 2 6 2 1 1(1) 2(2) 6(3)

Unknown 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Maxilla Right 2 2 2 6 7 6 8 17(1) 0 38(1) Left 0 0 1 1 7 6 11 14 0 38 Unknown 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0 1 1 8 14 12 19 31(1) 0 76(1) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Right 3 2 5 10 3 6 9 20(2) 0 38(2)

Mandible Left 0 0 0 0 4 8 6 17 0 35 Unknown 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 1 0 5 Total 3 2 5 10 8 14 18 38(2) 0 78(2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Right 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Unknown Left 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Unknown 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 5 7 Total 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 5 7

Parenthesis indicates the number of carious teeth.

Table 5. Age and sex distribution represented by cranial series1 Age in years Subadult (14) Perinatal to birth 0 year 2 years About 10 years Adult (15) Adult? 1519 years 2039 years 40 years Others 1039 years Unknown age Total
1

Male 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 3

Female 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2(2) 0 0 4(2)

Unknown 1(1) 5(2) 1(1) 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 11(4)

Total 1(1) 5(2) 1(1) 1 1 2 3 2(2) 1 1 18(6) Figure 6. Comparison of the age distributions between Pacopampa and three prehistoric populations of the Nasca, Huari, and Chincha periods. The distribution patterns among the four groups are similar in terms of the concentration of individuals aged 07 years and 2040 years.

Parenthesis indicates the number of individuals from burials.

Bruzek J. (2002) A method for visual determination of sex using the human hip bone. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 117: 157168. Buckberry J.L. and Chamberlain A.T. (2002) Age estimation from the auricular surface of the ilium: A revised method. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 119: 231239. Burger R.L. and van der Merwe N.J. (1990) Maize and the origin of highland Chavn civilization: an isotopic perspective. American Anthropologist, 92: 8595.

Drusini A.G. (1991) Skeletal evidence of three pre-columbian coastal peoples from Nasca, Peru. Homo, 42: 50162. Drusini A.G. (2002) Paleodemography of the Nasca valley: reconstruction of the human ecology in the southern Pervian coast.

146

T. NAGAOKA ET AL.

ANTHROPOLOGICAL SCIENCE

Homo, 52: 157172. Flores I.E. (1975) Excavaciones en el Mirador, Pacopampa. Seminario de Historia Rural Andina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima (in Spanish). Fujita H. (1995) Geographical and chronological differences in dental caries in the Neolithic Jomon period of Japan. Anthropological Science, 103: 2337. Fung R.P. (1975) Excavaciones en Pacopampa, Cajamarca. Revista del Museo Nacional, 41: 129207 (in Spanish). Genovs S. (1967) Proportionality of the long bones and their relation to stature among Mesoamericans. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 26: 6778. Hillson S. (1997) Dental anthropology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Inokuchi K. (2001) Temples and iconography: the transformational process in the figurative expressions at Kuntur Wasi during the Formative Period in the Central Andes. Bulletin of the National Museum of Ethnology, 25, 385431 (in Japanese with English summary). Kaulicke P. (1975) Pandanche: Un caso del formativo en los Andes de Cajamarca. Seminario de Historia Rural Andina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima (in Spanish). Krogman W.M. and Iscan M.Y. (1986) The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, pp. 103132. Larsen C.S. (1982) The anthropology of St. Catherines Island. 3. Prehistoric human biological adaptation. Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History, 57: 157 276. Larsen C.S. (1997) Bioarchaeology. Interpreting Behaviour from the Human Skeleton. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Lovejoy C.O. (1985) Dental wear in the Libben population: its functional pattern and role in the determination of adult skeletal age at death. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 68: 4756. Lovejoy C.O., Meindl R.S., Pryzbeck T.R., and Mensforth R.P. (1985) Chronological metamorphosis of the auricular surface of the illium: a new method of determining adult age at death. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 68: 1528. Martin R. and Knussmann R. (1988) Anthropologie. Band 1. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart. Matsumura H., Onuki Y., Kato Y., Matsumoto R., Ushino T., Seki Y., Inokuchi K., and Hashimoto H. (1997) Human remains from the Kuntur Wasi, Huacaloma, Loma Redonda and Kolgitin sites in the Cajamarca Region, Peru. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, Series D, Anthropology, 23: 128. Moorrees C.F., Fanning E.A., and Hunt E.E., Jr. (1963a) Age variation of formation stages for ten permanent teeth. Journal of Dental Research, 42: 14901502. Moorrees C.F., Fanning E.A., and Hunt E.E., Jr. (1963b) Formation and resorption of three deciduous teeth in children. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 21: 205213. Morales D.C. (1980) El dios felino en Pacopampa. Seminario de Historia Rural Andina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San

Marcos, Lima (in Spanish). Morales D.C. (1988) Investigaciones arqueolgicas en Pacopampa, departamento de Cajamarca. Boletn de Arqueologa PUCP 2, pp. 113126 (in Spanish). Nakahashi T. and Nagai M. (1986) Sex assessment of fragmentary skeletal remains. Journal of Anthropological Society of Nippon, 94: 289305. Onuki Y. (1998) Kosa shita te no shinden. In: Kato Y. and Seki Y. (eds.), Bunmei no sozoryoku. Kadokawa shoten, Tokyo, pp. 4394 (in Japanese). Phenice T.W. (1969) A newly developed visual method of sexing the os pubis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 30: 297301. R Development Core Team (2005) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL http://www.R-project.org. Rosas H.L. and Shady R.S. (1970) Pacopampa: Un centro formativo en la sierra nor Peruana. Seminario de Historia Rural Andina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima (in Spanish). Rosas H.L. and Shady R.S. (1974) Sobre el periodo formativo en la sierra del extremo norte del Per. Arqueolgicas, 15: 635 (in Spanish). Saso A. and Hanihara T. (1998) Regression equations for estimating stature of modern Japanese females. Anthropological Science (Japanese Series), 106: 5566 (in Japanese with English summary). Scheuer J.L., Musgrave J.H., and Evans S.P. (1980) The estimation of late fetal and perinatal age from limb bone length by linear and logarithmic regression. Human Biology, 7: 257 265. Seki Y. (1998) Bunmei no sozoryoku. In: Kato Y. and Seki Y. (eds.), Bunmei no sozoryoku. Kadokawa shoten, Tokyo, pp. 297311 (in Japanese). Seki Y. (2006) Kodai Andes kenryoku no kokogaku. Kyoto University Press, Kyoto (in Japanese). Seki Y. and Yoneda M. (2004) Reconstruction of the dietary patterns in the Formative Period of the north highlands of Peru: consideration by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis. Bulletin of the National Museum of Ethnology, 28: 515537 (in Japanese with English summary). Todd T.W. (1920) Age changes in the pubic bone: I. The white male pubis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 3: 285334. Todd T.W. (1921) Age changes in the pubic bone: II. the pubis of the male NegroWhite hybrid; III. the pubis of the White female; IV. the pubis of the female NegroWhite hybrid. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 4: 170. Turner C.G., II (1979) Dental anthropological indications of agriculture among the Jomon people of central Japan. X. Peopling of the Pacific. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 51: 619635. Ubelaker D.H. (1989) Human Skeletal Remains. Excavation, Analysis, Interpretation, 2nd edition. Aldine, Chicago, IL. Wakebe T. (1990) A morphological study of crania of infants and children in the Japanese. Nagasaki Medical Journal, 65: 805 824.