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Differential and Common-
Mode Gain
Recall that in a previous handout, we analyed this circuit!
and "ound that the output is related to the inputs as!
# 2 2
2 1
1 3 # 1
1
out
R R R
v v v
R R R R
_ _ _
+

+
, , ,
R
2
R
1
$
%
v
out
ideal
v
1
v
2
R
3
R
#
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&his circuit is a weighted difference amplifier, and typically, it
is e'pressed in ter(s o" its differential )ain *
d
and common-
mode )ain *
c(
.
&o understand what these )ains (ean, we (ust "irst de"ine the
difference signal
+ ,
d
v t
and common-mode signal
+ ,
c(
v t
o" two
inputs
1
+ , v t
and
2
+ , v t
.
&he difference, as we (i)ht e'pect, is de"ined as!
2 1
+ , + , + ,
d
v t v t v t B
whereas the common-mode si)nal is si(ply the average o" the
two inputs!
2 1
+ , + ,
+ ,
2
c(
v t v t
v t
+
B
-sin) these de"initions, we can e'press the two input si)nals as!
2
1
+ ,
+ , + ,
2
+ ,
+ , + ,
2
d
c(
d
c(
v t
v t v t
v t
v t v t
+

&hus, the di""erential si)nal
+ ,
d
v t
and the co((on%(ode si)nal
+ ,
c(
v t
provide another way to completely speci"y input si)nals
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1 2
+ , and + , v t v t
.i" you /now
+ ,
d
v t
and
+ ,
c(
v t
, you /now
1
+ , v t
and
2
+ , v t
.
0oreover, we can e'press the 1ehavior o" our differential
amplifier in ter(s o"
+ ,
d
v t
and
+ ,
c(
v t
. 2nsertin) these
"unctions into the e'pression o" the a(pli"ier output
+ ,
o
v t
, we
"ind!
# 2 2
2 1
1 3 # 1
# 2 2
1 3 # 1
# 2 2
1 3 # 1
# 2 2
1 3 #
1
+ , + ,
1 + , + ,
2 2
1
1 + ,
2
1
out
d d
c( c(
d
R R R
v v v
R R R R
v t v t R R R
v t v t
R R R R
R R R
v t
R R R R
R R R
R R R R
_ _ _
+

+
, , ,
_ _ _
_ _
+ +


+
, ,
, , ,
1
_ _ _
+ +
1
+
, , ,
]
_ _
+ +

+
, ,
( ) ( )
1
1 # 2 3 2 # 1 # 2 3
1 3 # 1 3 #
+ ,
2
+ , + ,
2
c(
c( d
v t
RR R R R R RR R R
v t v t
R R R R R R
1
_
1
,
]
+ +
+
+ +
&hus, we now have an e'pression "or the open-circuit output in
the "or(!
+ , + , + ,
out c( c( d d
v t * v t * v t +
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where!
di""erential )ain
co((on%(ode )ain
d
c(
*
*
B
B
3ote that each o" these )ains are open-circuit voltage )ains.
* *n ideal di""erential a(pli"ier has zero co((on%(ode
)ain +i.e., *
c(
40,5
* 2n other words, the output o" an ideal di""erential
a(pli"ier is independent o" the common-mode +i.e.,
avera)e, o" the two input si)nals.
* 6e re"er to this characteristic as common-mode
suppression.
&ypically, real di""erential a(pli"iers e'hi1it small, 1ut non%
ero co((on (ode )ain.
&he Common-Mode Rejection Ratio +70RR, is there"ore used
to indicate the quality o" a di""erential a(pli"ier!
2
10 2
70RR 10 lo) + ,
d
c(
*
d8
*

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3ote the 70RR o" a good di""erential a(pli"ier is very large
+e.)., 9 #0 d8,.
:or our eample circuit, we "ind that the di""erential and
co((on%(ode )ain are!
( )
( )
1 2 3 2 # #
1 3 #
1 2 3 #
1 3 #
2
2
d
c(
RR R R R R
*
R R R
RR R R
*
R R R
+ +

+
&he ratio o" these two )ains is thus!
( ) ( )
1
1 2 3 2 1 2 3 # # #
1 3 1 3 # #
1 2 3 2 # #
1 2 3 #
2
2
2 1
2
d
c(
* RR R R R R RR R R
* R R R R R R
RR R R R R
RR R R

_ _
+ +



+ +
, ,
+ +

and there"ore 70RR is!


2
1 2 3 2 # #
10
1 2 3 #
2 1
70RR 10 lo) + ,
2
RR R R R R
d8
RR R R
+ +

2t is evident that "or this e'a(ple, the co((on%(ode )ain *


c(
is
minimized, and thus the 70RR is maimized, when!
1 2 3 #
RR R R
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so that
1 2 3 #
0 RR R R
.