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# Sheath bonding The current in the conductor, and the conductors of neighbouring cables, will induce voltages onthe

metallic sheath of the cable. If there is no bonding then these voltages can become high relative to the surrounding earth and may damage the cable and/or cause a hazard. To limit these voltages it is necessary to bond the sheath to earth and there are various arrangements that can be used:

The simplest, known as solid bonding, involves bonding both ends of the cable circuit to earth, as shown above. Whilst this arrangement keeps the voltages on the sheath low it unfortunately provides a very good path for induced currents to flow in the sheath. epending on the geometry of the installation these currents can be high and therefore lead to large sheath losses and lower current ratings. !or cables where all three phases are within the sheath then this will often be the best arrangement.

!or short circuit lengths it may be acceptable to bond only one end to earth. The arrangement shown above, known as end"point bonding, involves bonding one end of the cable circuit to earth and the other end is bonded to sheath voltage limiters. This arrangement allows the voltage to rise but the sheath voltage limiters form a conducting path to earth should the voltage rise too much #under fault conditions\$. %y limiting the circuit length the induced voltage on the sheath at the end farthest from the earth bond can be kept below an acceptable value during normal operation. &nd no induced currents can flow during normal operation.

Th circuit length can be doubled if the bonding point is moved to the mid"point of the cirucit as shown above. This arrangement, known as mid"point bonding has the same benefits and limitations as end"point bonding e'cept that the circuit length can be greater. The mid"point bonding may be at a (oint, as shown above, or by using a special sheath bond attachment.

!or longer circuit lengths the above arrangement, known as cross bonding, is commonly used in the )*. The circuit isdivided into ma(or and minor sections such that there are three minor sections of appro'imately e+ual length in each ma(or section. %oth ends of a ma(or section are bonded to earth and the other two positions within the ma(or section are bonded to sheath voltage limiters. %ecause this would allow induced currents to flow in the sheath the cables are rearranged as shown and the sheaths are ,crossed over, so that they remain at the same geometry, see below. This means that the induced currents are effectively cancelled due to the phase shift.

In the above diagram the colours represent the sheath connections and not

phases. -o, for e'ample, as phase . enters from the left in the top position the sheath is represented in magenta, phase . is then transposed to the middle position to e'it on the right and the sheath is now represented in yellow. The sheath of phase . on the left is shown bonded via the link bo' to the sheath of phase / on the right such that, in effect, the sheath both enters and e'its in the top position whilst the phases are transposed.

English term or phrase: both-ends bonding conexionado de ambos extremos? Both-ends bonding A system is both ends bonded if the arrangements are such that the cable sheaths provide path for circulating currents at normal conditions. This will cause losses in the screen which reduces the cable current carrying capacity. These losses are smaller for cables in trefoil formation than in flat formation with separation.

Lida Garcia !udo" activity #uestions: \$%&\$ '( open) '\$* without valid answers) '+,, closed without grading) Answers: -,. /eru 0ocal time: +*:*\$

puesta a tierra del blindaje en ambos extremos Explanation: El tema es as1: para drenar la corriente inducida en el blinda2e y ba2ar su nivel de tensi3n se pone a tierra el blinda2e del cable. Este arreglo tiene la desventa2a 'tal cual dice el texto 4ue no miente) de disminuir la capacidad de transmitir corriente del cable 'la ampacity dir1an los anglo parlantes). Tampoco sirve ponerlo a tierra en un s3lo extremo. entoces lo 4ue se hace es el cross-bonding 4ue me sigue llamando la atenci3n 4ue no hayas preguntado. Esto es una trasposici3n 4ue se hace en los blinda2es de la terna. 5ormalmente se reali6a 'no cono6co otro caso) aprovechando los empalmes. 7uando te to4ue traducir 8cross-bonding8 no lo tradu6cas d92alo as1. :uerte y a no electrocutarse

## Selected response from: Hector Aires Argentina 0ocal time: +\$:*\$

Monday,June26, 2006
Whatis crossbonding?
Electricalcrossbonding Electrical cross bonding is required to create a zone in which voltage differences and therefore hazards from electrical shocks or sparks are minimised. This is achieved by connecting separate conductive components together with earthing cable. This is necessary in case an electrical problem occurs on wiring or an appliance. It is possible for stray electrical currents to be transmitted to and through the gas pipework.