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1. Field engineers are often found talking of optimum moisture content (OMC) conditions while constructing of road sub-grade. Define and explain this term, bringing out clearly the importance it posses and the methods by which it is controlled.

Field engineers are often found talking of optimum moisture content (OMC) conditions while constructing of sub- grade. When the values of the dry density and moisture content are plotted the resulting curve has a peak value of dry density. The corresponding moisture content is known as the optimum moisture content (OMC). The reason for this is that at low w values the soil is stiff and difficult to compact, resulting in a low dry density with a high void ratio; as w is increased the water lubricates the soil, increasing the workability and producing high dry density and low void ratio, but beyond OMC pore water pressures begin to develop and the water tends to keep the soil particles apart resulting in low dry densities and high void ratios. With all soils an increase in the compactive effort results in an increase in the maximum dry density and a decrease in the optimum moisture content. Once the ideal moisture content and bulk density are determined in the lab this information can then be used during field compaction of the fill material. Then, field moisture and density is determined. The engineer on site can use this information to determine when field density is 90% of the lab derived value. At this point field compaction may be considered sufficient. Controlling the moisture content of road sub-grade during construction will reduce the risk of damage to the sub-grade. The stability of unbound pavement materials generally decreases with increasing moisture content or the Degree of Saturation (DOS). The DOS is a measure of the ratio of the volume of water to the combined volume of air voids and water within a material. A material with a DOS of 100% is fully saturated and has a very high pore pressure and high instability under load. As the DOS reduces, the reduction in pore water pressure also reduces with a corresponding increase in stability.


Discuss the method of compaction of (a) cohesion less soil (b) cohesive soils.

Soil compaction is defined as the method of mechanically increasing the density of soil. In construction, this is a significant part of the building process. If performed improperly, settlement of the soil could occur and result in unnecessary maintenance costs or structure failure. Almost all types of building sites and construction projects utilize mechanical compaction techniques.

There are five principle reasons to compact soil: Increases load-bearing capacity Prevents soil settlement and frost damage Provides stability Reduces water seepage, swelling and contraction Reduces settling of soil

There are four types of compaction effort on soil or asphalt: Vibration Impact Kneading Pressure



Water movement

When moist...

When dry...

Granular soils, fine sands and silts.

Coarse grains can be seen. Feels gritty when rubbed

When water and soil are shaken in palm of hand, they

Very little or no plasticity.

Little or no cohesive strength when dry. Soil

between fingers.

mix. When shaking is stopped, they separate.

sample will crumble easily.

Grains cannot be Cohesive soils, mixes and clays. seen by eye. Feels smooth and greasy when rubbed between fingers.

Has high When water and soil are shaken in palm of hand, they will not mix. Plastic and sticky. Can be rolled. strength when dry. Crumbles with difficulty. Slow saturation in water.

The desired level of compaction is best achieved by matching the soil type with its proper compaction method. Other factors must be considered as well, such as compaction specs and job site conditions.

Cohesive soils

Granular soils

Clay is cohesive, its particles stick Since granular soils are not together. Therefore, a machine cohesive and the particles require with a high impact force is a shaking or vibratory action to required to ram the soil and force move them. Vibratory plates

the air out, arranging the particles. (forward travel) are the best A rammer is the best choice or a choice. pad-foot vibratory roller if higher production is needed.

CONCLUSION After conducting experiments sand fiber method, the data obtained is to determine the density of dry soil. The purpose of this experiment determine the density of natural soil or compacted with sand pouring cylinder. In the course of this experiment, the possibility of experimental error there is in progress. Of them is in terms of the amount of sand taken is less, the land taken as a sample is not enough, a hole dug with a slightly different depth and soil also contain impurities which may cause different densities.