Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 18

The Performance of Centrifugal

Pumps as Turbines
and Influence of Pump Geometry
Arthur Williams University of Nottingham (School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering)
Arnaldo Rodrigues Flowserve Pumps, Newark, UK

Pump as Turbine (PaT) range

For Medium head Micro hydro, use either: Crossflow or

Pump as Turbine
Photo: Energy for Sustainable Development

For Pico size (< 5 kW) e.g. 22 m head, 22 l/s :

Photo: Border Green Energy Thailand

a pump is much more compact than a crossflow turbine, which needs either belt-drive or 8-pole generator

Typical pump and PaT curves


18 16 14 12 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 4 2 0 0 10 20 30 Flow (litre/s) 40 50 60 1000 0

PaT Head Pump best efficiency: 72%

10 8 6

PaT Power

End-suction centrifugal pump with 4-pole motor

Turbine power (W)

Head (m)

Typical pump and PaT curves


16 14 12 10 80 70 60 50

Head (m)

8 6 4 2 0 0 10 20 30 Flow (l/s) 40

PaT best efficiency: 72% Pump best efficiency: 72%

40 30 20 10 0

50

60

Efficiency (%)

PaT efficiencies can be as good as pump mode but not always


1.15 1.1 1.05
PAT:Pump efficiency ratio

1 0.95 0.9 0.85

+/- 5%
>2% lower efficiency +/- 2% efficiency >2% higher efficiency Double suction pumps

0.8 0.75 10 100

Cylindrical volute pump

1000

Pump Specific Speed (Nq - metric units - logarithmic scale)

Examples of PaT applications


Rural Electrification:

Kinko, Tanzania (10 kW) ->

Sahyadri Energy Systems

Photos: Pico Energy Ltd.

^ Thima, Kenya (2.2 kW) ->

Examples of PAT applications

Water In
To drinking water tank

PAT

Gearbox

Multi-stage Pump

^ PATs for water pumping:


Cave system in Java, Indonesia (45 kW each set)
Diagram adapted from KSB Pumps

Zones for PAT loss study (CFD)

Plane vi-vii

Plane v-vi

Zone vi

Measurement plane for suction head


Zone vii

Pump Centreline
Zone vi Zone v Zone iv

Impeller

Draft Tube

Zone iii
Zone ii Zone i

Churning region Volute

CFD was checked against tests


No leakage Simplification of pump geometry changes CFD predictions

Full model

No churning volume

V-shaped interface
- OK for pump mode - not acceptable for turbine modelling

PAT with constricted impeller eye

CFD streamlines: Turbine mode

Modification to impeller = material removed

Enlarging suction eye reduces head

24 20
hhyd curves

80 70
Overload region begins
gH/N D
2 2

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

gH/N2D2

16 12
No load line

8 4 0 0.04

0.08
Non-Modified

End of part load region

0.12
Modified-Eye

Q/ND3

Efficiency (%)

Enlarging suction eye reduces head, but not power

2.0 1.6
hhyd curves Phyd/N D
3 5

80 70

1.2 0.8
End of part Overload region

50 40 30 20 10 0

0.4 0.0 0.04

No load line

0.08
Non-Modified

0.12
Modified-Eye

Q/ND3

Efficiency (%)

60

Phyd/N3D5

Loss (m)
0 8
No load

12 16 20
End of part load

Discharge (l/s)
24 28 32

BEP Overload region

PaT selection

Double suction pump with ribs to prevent pre-swirl

End suction pump with Cylindrical Volute

Examples of pumps NOT suitable for turbine application

Estimating PaT match for Thima site

25

80 70

20 60 15 50
Efficiency (%)

Head (m)

Predicted operating point


Pump head Net site head Estimated Turbine Pump eff (%)

40 30 20 10 0

10

0 0 5 10 15 20 Flow (l/s) 25 30 35 40 45

Correcting PaT match at Thima


40 35 30 25 80

Cut down impeller

70 60

Head (m)

Full size impeller

50 40 30 20 10 0

20 15 10 5 0 15 20 25 Flow (l/s) 30 35

A reduction in impeller diameter improved PaT efficiency at this site

Efficiency (%)

Conclusions
Pumps as Turbines (PaTs): Are suitable for medium-head micro & pico hydro Have acceptable efficiency for fixed flow operation May need modification to improve efficiency

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD): Gives useful insight into hydraulic losses Needs to use appropriate geometrical models

Indicates some pump geometries not suitable for micro-hydro

Acknowledgements
where most of the research was done where much of testing was done (Prof Franz Nestmann & Dr Punit Singh)

funded most of Arnaldos PhD

funded research exchange with Karlsruhe


funded my travel to Hidroenergia 2008