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Chapter #18: Renewing the Sectional Struggle Big Picture Themes 1.

. The main question facing the nation was, Will new lands won from Mexico have slaves or be free? 2. The answer to the question was hammered out in the Compromise of 1850. It said California was to be free, popular sovereignty (the people decide) for the rest of the lands. 3. A tougher fugitive slave law was a major concession to the South, but it wasnt enforced. This angered the Southerners. 4. The NorthSouth rift was widened with the Kansas-Nebraska Act. It repealed the Missouri Compromise which had kept the peace for a generation. In its place, popular sovereignty opened the Great Plains to potential slavery. Whereas the slave-land issue had been settled, now it was a big question mark. IDENTIFICATIONS: Stephen Douglas Known as the Little Giant, he was the most prominent spokesman of the Young American movement. He held a series of state offices before being elected for the United States Senate at the age of 29. Douglas wanted to get on with the development of the nation; to build railroads, acquire new territory, and expand trade. This made him suggest and push for the Kansas-Nebraska Act Franklin Pierce He was nominated in 1852 by the Democrats as a presidential candidate. He was nicknames the dark horse, a man who was unknown and enemy-less. He won by a landslide, which also ended the Whig party forever. He tried to be another Polk and later, he wanted to take Cuba. Compromise of 1850 Called for the admission of California as a free state, organizing Utah and New Mexico with out restrictions on slavery, adjustment of the Texas/New Mexico border, abolition of slave trade in District of Columbia, and tougher fugitive slave laws. Its passage was hailed as a solution to the threat of national division. Zachary Taylor Commander of the Army of Occupation on the Texas border. On President Polks orders, he took the Army into the disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grnade Rivers and built a fort on the north bank of the Rio Grande River. When the Mexican Army tried to capture the fort, Taylors forces engaged in is a series of engagements that led to the Mexican War. His victories in the war and defeat of Santa Ana made him a national hero. John C. Calhoun Formerly Jackson's vice-president, later a South Carolina senator. He said the North should grant the South's demands and keep quiet about slavery to keep the peace. He was a spokesman for the South and states' rights Matthew C. Perry Fillmore dispatched an expedition under Commodore Matthew C. Perry to try for commercial concession in the isolate kingdom of Japan 1852. Perrys expedition was a great success. The Japanese, impressed by American Naval power, agreed to establish diplomatic relations. Townsend Harris, negotiated a commercial treaty that opened to American ships six Japanese ports heretofore closed to foreigners.

Henry Clay Clay helped heal the North/South rift by aiding passage of the Compromise of 1850, which served to delay the Civil War. Free-Soil Party Anti- Slavery northerners organized this party and broadened their appeal by advocating federal aid for internal improvements and urging free government homesteads for settlers.

Fugitive Slave Law T his Act promised the return of runaway slaves and in 1850, was part of the Compromise of 1850. This topic was the biggest issue of the time, and besides the fact that the slaves would return to their owners, this also said that the slaves could not testify in court on their own behalf, and were denied a jury trial. Harriet Tubman A former escaped slave, she was one of the shrewdest conductors of the underground railroad, leading 300 slaves to freedom. Ostend Manifesto Pierce instructed his Minster to Spain, Pierre Soule of Louisiana, to offer $130 million for Cuba. Soule was a hotheaded bungler, the admin. Arranged for him firs to confer in Belgium with the American minister to Great Britain and France, James Buchanan and John Y. Mason to work out a plan for persuading Spain to sell. Out of the meeting came a confidential dispatch to the State Department suggesting that if Spain refused to sell Cuba, the great law of preservation might justify wresting if from Spain by force. Kansas-Nebraska Act A Bill introduced by Steven Douglas to organize the Nebraska territory. He hoped to build a transcontinental railroad making Chicago the terminus, but they could not do this until the Indians were cleared away and the land was in control. Nebraska would presumably become a free state due to the Missouri Compromise but to please the South Douglas argued that the territories should be left open to popular sovereignty. Douglas pushed for the bill and won, therefore the Missouri Compromise was repealed and the North was in an uproar. Chapter #19: Drifting Toward Disunion IDENTIFICATIONS: Hinton Helper The Impending Crisis of the South The Impending Crisis of the South was a work that downplayed the efficiency of slavery by proving with statistics that nonslaveholding whites were suffering. It was banned in the South, while playing a great role in the Northern abolitionist movement. George Fitzhugh Fitzhugh was a Southerner who supported slavery. His book praised slavery and the effects that it had, such as giving Africans some dignity and allowing them to achieve something in life. It was very popular in the South, as expected. John Brown Brown was a radical abolitionist who tried to raid a ferry in order to arm a massive slave rebellion. He was eventually captured, tried in court, and hung for his actions. Charles Sumner Sumner was most known for his fight with Brooks in a congressional meeting. Sumner, after being heavily injured, became a sort of martyr for the abolitionist movement and saw his speeches regarded highly.

Dred Scott Dred Scott was a slave who went with his master to a free state, and when his master died, he argued that he was now free. The ruling of the Dred Scott case drastically changed the United States and hastened the path towards civil war. Abraham Lincoln Lincoln was first known for running against Stephen Douglas to become a Illinois senator. He became the Republican nominee in the election of 1860, and became President. John Crittenden A politician from Kentucky, Crittenden came up with the Crittenden Compromise in an attempt to mend the slavery issue. It lost all hope after Lincoln dropped his support for the compromise. Bleeding Kansas "Bleeding Kansas" was a nickname for Kansas due to all the violence after the enactment of the KansasNebraska Act. The violence came as a result of the use of popular sovereignty. American or Know-Nothing Party The Know-Nothing Party was of little importance in the elections of 1856 and 1860, yet continued to argue the past issue of immigration. Panic of 1857 The Panic of 1857 resulted from inflation, overproduction, and overspeculation. This economic crisis split the North and South even further. Lincoln-Douglas Debates The Lincoln-Douglas debates were a series of debates held between Lincoln and Douglas in running for a position in the Senate. Lincoln was able to prove his dominance and that he was worthy of the seat. Freeport Doctrine The Freeport Doctrine was the response to the question that Lincoln proposed in which he stated whether slavery should be allowed regardless of the Supreme Court's ruling. Although it was pioneered by Douglas, it was used against him in the future. Harper's Ferry Raid Harper's Ferry Raid was an attempt by abolitionist John Brown to raid the ferry and arm a massive slave uprising. Southerners considered Brown a criminal, while Northerners saw Brown as a martyr. Constitutional Union Party The Constitutional Union Party was a final attempt to unite the North and the South as they began to truly divide. GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: Stowe and Helper: Literary Incendiaries Know: Harriet Beecher Stowe, Hinton Helper 1. Which book, Uncle Tom's Cabin or The Impending Crisis of the South was more important? Explain. Uncle Tom's Cabin can be seen as much more important because the author, Harriet Beecher Stowe, placed an emphasis on the heart wrenching tales by using imagery and powerful pathos. The Impending Crisis of the South was important as well, but had a different message to send. It was based mostly on statistics and attacked slavery from the basis that it hurt nonslaveholding whites.

The North-South Contest for Kansas Know: Beecher's Bibles, Border Ruffians 2. What went wrong with popular sovereignty in Kansas? Nebraska was expected to become a free state and Kansas a slave state, but the creation of the New England Emigrant Aid Company showed the North had plans to make both free states. Northerners were paid to migrate to Kansas with "Beecher's Bibles", or rifles, and vote so Kansas could be slavery-free. On the day of the election, Southerners sabotaged the election and thus two governments were formed and run in Kansas at the same time. Kansas in Convulsion Know: John Brown, Pottawatomie Creek, Lecompton Constitution 3. What was the effect of "Bleeding Kansas" on the Democratic Party? "Bleeding Kansas" was the nickname of Kansas after the violence caused by the Kansas-Nebraska Act. It started the split of the Democratic Party that would lead to its eventual division. The Democratic Party could solve nothing regarding the issue of Kansas and members held completely different ideas, leading the Democratic Party unable to decide on a consensus about whether Kansas would be instituted as a state, and whether it would be free or slave. "Bully" Brooks and His Bludgeon Know: Charles Sumner, Preston Brooks 5 What was the consequence of Brook's beating of Sumner in the North? The South? After Brooks beat Sumner, Sumner's speeches became influential rallying points for Northerners. Brooks was removed from Congress, yet he emerged as a sort of martyr for Southerners. Overall, it was clear after this conflict that there was little compromise available and the war was inevitable. "Old Buck" versus "The Pathfinder" Know: James Buchanan, John C. Fremont, The American Party 6. Assess the candidates in the 1856 election. Democratic nominee James Buchanan was a well-to-do Pennsylvanian lawyer and minister to London for the Kansas-Nebraska Act. He was not very successful and knew little about what he was supposed to do. Republican nominee John Fremont was an explorer and surveyor, therefore without any political experience. Both nominees seemed incompetent, leaving the American Party and Know-Nothing Party to join the election. They were focused solely on the immigration issue, however. The Electoral Fruits of 1856 7. Interpret the results of the election of 1856. Buchanan won the election of 1856 in running against Fremont and Fillmore, yet the Republicans also saw the election as a win because they were able to do better in the election than expected. Fremont lost due to his somewhat dirtied reputation as someone who could not be held responsible in the face of his fallible honesty and common sense. The Dred Scott Bombshell Know: Dred Scott, Roger B. Taney 8 Why was the Dred Scott decision so divisive? The Dred Scott case was divisive because only the South was able to benefit from the ruling, and the North found no comforting fallback as a result. Tanney and the Supreme Court put out what may have been the stupidest ruling in history in stating that Scott was to remain a state even after moving to a free state. It also stated that Congress could not ban slavery in any areas, and that a slave is considered property. This infuriated the North, leading to further division between states. The Financial Crash of 1857 8 How did the Panic of 1857 make Civil War more likely?

The Panic of 1857, caused by inflation, overproduction, and overspeculation, hurt the economy of the North while barely touching that of the South. The Homestead Act was brought forth as an effort to recover from the Panic, but it was vetoed by Buchanan. Tariffs rose as a result of the Panic, leading the South unhappy. Therefore, the Panic of 1857 helped to renew old conflicts between the North and the South. An Illinois Rail-Splitter Emerges 10. Describe Abraham Lincoln's background. Abraham Lincoln was born in Kentucky in a poor family and had no formal education. He taught himself and read often. He was able to escape his poor beginnings, however, by marrying the Todd family and became a famous lawyer. He then established himself as a reliable candidate for the Republican Party. The Great Debate: Lincoln versus Douglas Know: Freeport Doctrine 11. What long term results occurred because of the Lincoln-Douglas debates? One long term result of the Lincoln-Douglas debates was Douglas' loss to Lincoln. Although Lincoln was considered incompetent at first, his ability to debate was highlighted in the face off against Douglas. Douglas' use of the Freeport Doctrine lost him votes in the South because he did not support Kansas as a slave state and didn't agree with the Supreme Court following its ruling. John Brown: Murderer or Martyr Know: Harper's Ferry, Robert E. Lee 12. Why were the actions of one (crazy?) man so important in the growing conflict between North and South? John Brown was a radical abolitionist who attempted to raid Harper's Ferry in order to arm a massive slave uprising. Although he was stopped by Robert E. Lee then tried in court, his actions moved the North into calling him a martyr. The South, of course, condemned him and stated that he was rightfully tried and hung. Thus the North and South were further split by one man's actions. The Disruption of the Democrats Know: John C. Breckenridge, John Bell 13. What happened when the Democratic Party attempted to choose a candidate for the presidency in 1860? When the Democratic Party attempted to choose a candidate for the election of 1860, they were already split over the slavery issue and therefore had to choose two nominees. The nominees had very opposite ideas considering their approach to the issue of slavery, therefore causing the death of the Democratic Party and its split. A Rail-Splitter Splits the Union 14. Why was Lincoln chosen as the Republican candidate instead of Seward? Lincoln was chosen as the Republican nominee instead of Seward because he was better liked. The only way in which the Republicans would win the election was if they were able to win without Southerners' votes, and by uniting the abolitionist cause. Lincoln was able to do just that, allowing him to garner more votes and reach out to more people than Seward would ever have as a candidate. The Electoral Upheaval of 1860 15. Did the South have any power in the national government after Lincolns election, or were they helpless? The South still help power in the federal government after Lincoln's election in that they had assistance from five justices in the Supreme Court. Although they did not hold a majority in the House or Senate, neither did the Republicans. They only felt helpless because Lincoln won the election while losing the election in terms of the popular vote. The Secessionist Exodus Know: Secession, Jefferson Davis 16.. What did President Buchanan do when the South seceded? Why?

President Buchanan saw little reason in going after the South, and therefore acted accordingly. He believed that money and resources would be better spent on westward expansion and that the North and South were still capable of compromise. Finally, he realized that his term was almost over and saw no reason to ruin his reputation when he could wait for the next president to take action. The Collapse of Compromise 17. What was the Crittendon Compromise and why did it fail? The Crittendon Compromise was a final and failed attempt to reunite the North and the South. He adjusted the line of compromise introduced in the Missouri Compromise and introduced a new policy. After Lincoln dropped his support for the compromise, however, so did everyone else and its popularity dipped greatly. Farewell to Union 18. What advantages did southerners see in secession? Who did they compare themselves to? The Southerners thought that through secession, they could establish their own form of economy. They wanted separate federal power from the North. They could not see the Northerners stopping their cause and also asked the British for aid in war. Southerners compared themselves to the US in the American Revolution.