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FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

Paul Voorhaar & Hugo Kamphuijs

November 2010

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects Paul Voorhaar & Hugo Kamphuijs November 2010
FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects Paul Voorhaar & Hugo Kamphuijs November 2010

Rough sea

p. 2

Rough sea p. 2 21/12/2010
Rough sea p. 2 21/12/2010

21/12/2010

Who we are

p. 3

We are Colleagues at Bluewater Energy Services in Hoofddorp working as stress engineer

What we are not:

Persons that think their approach is simply the best

•Stress engineers that have stopped being critical about themselves

•Technicians that do not listen to other stress engineers

that have stopped being critical about themselves •Technicians that do not listen to other stress engineers

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Why are we giving this presentation?

p. 4

• Firstly because we were asked by Dynaflow to do so

Secondly because we feel that we can share some of our problems with others and we will all benefit

• We appreciate Dynaflow for giving these presentations for all interested relations

• We have heard many others, telling about their field of expertise and we were more or less obliged to give our contribution even if we can not reach the high level of the others we have heard

• By preparing this presentation we were forced to think about the importance and non-importance of several stress items with FPSO’s

we were forced to think about the importance and non-importance of several stress items with FPSO’s

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FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 5

Difference between:

Land based installations

Coastal installations (Jetties)

Fixed Sea based installations

• Floating Sea based installations on a fixed location (FPSO)

(Jetties) • Fixed Sea based installations • Floating Sea based installations on a fixed location (FPSO)
(Jetties) • Fixed Sea based installations • Floating Sea based installations on a fixed location (FPSO)

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 6

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects p. 6
FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects p. 6
FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects p. 6

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 7

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects p. 7 - Length 248.12 meters - Breadth moulded

- Length 248.12 meters

- Breadth moulded 42 meters

- Depth moulded 21.2 meters

- Draft, design + scantling 14.9 meters

- Dead weight tonnage 105,000 dwt

- Deck area 7,985 m2

- Topsides area 6,000 m2

- Deck payload 7,000 tonnes

- Accommodation 84 persons

105,000 dwt - D ec k area 7 , 98 5 m 2 - Topsides area
105,000 dwt - D ec k area 7 , 98 5 m 2 - Topsides area

Ship movements

p. 8

Space for visuals, tables or info graphics
Space for visuals, tables
or info graphics

Determination of loading cases

p. 9

RESTRAINT SUMMARY REPORT: Loads On Restraints Various Load Cases LOAD CASE DEFINITION KEY

CASE 1 (SUS) W CASE 14 (OPE) W+D4+T2+P2+U1

CASE 15 (SUS) U1 CASE 16 (SUS) U2

CASE 17 (SUS) WIN1

NODE

Load

FX N.

FY N.

FZ N.

MX N.m.

MY N.m.

MZ N.m.

Case

160

Rigid Y

 

1(SUS)

986

-10794

719

0

0

0

14(OPE)

2729

-9115

167

0

0

0

15(SUS)

186

2796

818

0

0

0

16(SUS)

252

4755

1404

0

0

0

17(SUS)

1

13

4

0

0

0

MAX

2729/L14

-10794/L1

1404/L16

252 4755 1404 0 0 0 17(SUS) 1 13 4 0 0 0 MAX 2729/L14 -10794/L1
252 4755 1404 0 0 0 17(SUS) 1 13 4 0 0 0 MAX 2729/L14 -10794/L1

The result of this

p. 10

The result of this p. 10 21/12/2010
The result of this p. 10 21/12/2010

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Ship movements

p. 11

Space for visuals, tables or info graphics
Space for visuals, tables
or info graphics

Loading Cases

p. 12

To avoid numerous combinations of loadings we do calculate the worst combination of acceleration first

 

U1

U2

U3

X

0.5

   

Y

 

0.3

 

Z

   

0.2

L1

W+U1+U2+U3

SUS

L2

W+U1+U2-U3

SUS

L3

W+U1-U2-U3

SUS

L4

W+U1-U2+U3

SUS

L5

W-U1-U2-U3

SUS

L6

W-U1-U2+U3

SUS

L7

W-U1+U2-U3

SUS

L8

W-U1+U2+U3

SUS

SUS L5 W-U1-U2-U3 SUS L6 W -U1-U2+U3 SUS L7 W-U1+U2-U3 SUS L8 W-U1+U2+U3 SUS
SUS L5 W-U1-U2-U3 SUS L6 W -U1-U2+U3 SUS L7 W-U1+U2-U3 SUS L8 W-U1+U2+U3 SUS

Loading Cases

p. 13

One of these combinations will give the highest stresses.

Say it is combination 2. In that case only the following accelerations will be used:

U1=+0.5X-0.3Y+0.2Z

In this way we limit the number of pages of the output.

the following accelerations will be used: U1=+0.5X-0.3Y+0.2Z In this way we limit the number of pages
the following accelerations will be used: U1=+0.5X-0.3Y+0.2Z In this way we limit the number of pages

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 14

Flexibility analysis

Flexibility analysis is performed in order to investigate the effect from alternating

bending moments caused by pipe temperature expansion/contraction and

other imposed displacements from e.g. thermal expansion of pressurised

equipment, FPSO swivel stacks, live load deck deflections, sag and hog effect

on an FPSO.

thermal expansion of pressurised equipment, FPSO swivel stacks, live load deck deflections, sag and hog effect
thermal expansion of pressurised equipment, FPSO swivel stacks, live load deck deflections, sag and hog effect

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 15

Primary Stresses

• Primary stresses are those developed by the imposed loading and are

necessary to satisfy the equilibrium between external and internal forces and

moments of the piping system.

Typical loads are dead weight and internal pressure.

• Sustained stresses are primary stresses.

• Primary stresses are NOT self-limiting.

ht a nd internal p r essu r e . • Sustained stresses are primary stresses.
ht a nd internal p r essu r e . • Sustained stresses are primary stresses.

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 16

Secondary Stresses

• Secondary stresses are those developed by constraining the free

displacement of piping subjected to thermal loads or imposed displacements

from movements of anchor points etc.

Hence, thermal-and displacement stresses are in the secondary stress

category.

• Secondary stresses are self-limiting.

l ace m e nt s tr esses a r e in th e seco nd
l ace m e nt s tr esses a r e in th e seco nd

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 17

Peak Stresses

• Unlike loading conditions of secondary stress which causes distortion, peak

stresses cause no significant distortion in piping.

• Peak stresses are the highest stresses in the region under consideration and

should always be taken into consideration in fatigue and fracture mechanic

calculations.

under consideration and should always be taken into consideration in f atigue and f racture mechanic
under consideration and should always be taken into consideration in f atigue and f racture mechanic

Appendix P of ASME B31.3

p. 18

This Appendix provides alternative rules for evaluating the stress range in piping systems.

It considers stresses at operating conditions, including both displacement and

sustained loads, rather than displacement stress range only.

The method is more comprehensive than that provided in Chapter II and is more

suitable for computer analysis of piping systems, including nonlinear effects

such as pipes lifting off of supports.

more suitable for computer analysis of pipi ng systems, including nonlinear effects such as pipes lifting
more suitable for computer analysis of pipi ng systems, including nonlinear effects such as pipes lifting

Loading Cases

p. 19

L1

W

SUS

 

L2

WW+HYD

SUS

 

L3

W+P1

SUS

 

L4

W+T1+P1

OPE

 

L5

W+T2+P1

OPE

 

L6

W+T1+P1+WIN1

OPE

 

L7

W+T2+P1+WIN1

OPE

 

L8

W+T1+P1+U1+WIN1+D1

OPE

Supress

L9

W+T1+P1+U1+WIN1+D1+F1

OPE

 

L10

W+T1+P1+U1+WIN1+D2

OPE

Supress

L11

W+T1+P1+U1+WIN1+D2+F1

OPE

 

L12

W+T2+P1+U1+WIN1+D1

OPE

Supress

L13

W+T2+P1+U1+WIN1+D1+F1

OPE

 

L14

W+T2+P1+U1+WIN1+D2

OPE

Supress

L15

W+T2+P1+U1+WIN1+D2+F1

OPE

 

L16

W+T2+P1+U2+WIN1+D3

OPE

 
OPE Supress L15 W+T2+P1+U1+WIN1+D2+F1 OPE   L16 W+T2+P1+U2+WIN1+D3 OPE   21/12/2010

21/12/2010

Loading Cases

p. 20

L17

L8-L6

EXP

 

U1+D1

Supress

L18

L10-L6

EXP

 

U1+D2

Supress

L19

L16-L7

EXP

 

U2+D3

Supress

L20

L4-L3+L5-L3

EXP

 

T1+T2

Abs

L21

L17+L18+L19

EXP

 

2U1+D1+D2+T1+T2

Abs

L22

L6-L5

OCC

 

WIN1

 

L23

L9-L8

OCC

 

F1

 

L24

L11-L10

OCC

 

F1

 

L25

L13-L12

OCC

 

F1

 

L26

L15-L14

OCC

 

F1

 

L27

L2

FAT

1

WW+HYD

 

L28

L3-L1+L20

FAT

3650

P1+(T1+T2)

 

L29

2L19

FAT

50000000

2(U2+D3)

 
L28 L3-L1+L20 FAT 3650 P1+(T1+T2)   L29 2L19 FAT 50000000 2(U2+D3)   21/12/2010

21/12/2010

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 21

Flexibility analysis

• So we have seen that we have to perform an analysis that fulfils our requirements since

the notified bodies involved not always support us in the required solutions.

• If we look at the codes there are some requirements to get approval of the notified body.

• We do make a difference between the requirements of the notified body in order to get

an approval and the requirements of the company we work for.

• Although we have to comply with the applicable codes we also have to get a safe

“feeling” about our design.

for. • Although we have to comply with the applic able codes we also have to
for. • Although we have to comply with the applic able codes we also have to

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 22

Flexibility

• Deck Displacements

• Forces on restraints (supporting, nozzles)

Friction

stress aspects p. 22 Flexibility • Deck Displacements • Forces on restraints (supporting, nozzles) • Friction
stress aspects p. 22 Flexibility • Deck Displacements • Forces on restraints (supporting, nozzles) • Friction

Hogging and sagging

p. 23

Space for visuals, tables or info graphics 21/12/2010
Space for visuals, tables
or info graphics
21/12/2010

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 24

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects p. 24 21/12/2010
FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects p. 24 21/12/2010
FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects p. 24 21/12/2010
FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects p. 24 21/12/2010

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FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 25

Ship displacements

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects p. 25 Ship displacements
FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects p. 25 Ship displacements
FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects p. 25 Ship displacements

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 26

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects p. 26 Ship displacements 21/12/2010

Ship displacements

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects p. 26 Ship displacements 21/12/2010
FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects p. 26 Ship displacements 21/12/2010

21/12/2010

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects p. 26 Ship displacements 21/12/2010

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 27

Flexibility

• Deck Displacements

• Forces on restraints (supporting, nozzles)

Friction

stress aspects p. 27 Flexibility • Deck Displacements • Forces on restraints (supporting, nozzles) • Friction
stress aspects p. 27 Flexibility • Deck Displacements • Forces on restraints (supporting, nozzles) • Friction

Supporting

p. 28

Supporting p. 28 21/12/2010
Supporting p. 28 21/12/2010

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Supporting

p. 29

Supporting p. 29 The bending moment decreases as the distance of the load from the support

The bending moment decreases as the distance of the load from the support increases. Bending force f1 is slightly less than force f2 and this difference (f1-f2) is transferred inward toward the web by the longitudinal force (fs)

21/12/2010

than force f2 and this difference (f1-f2) is transferred inward toward the web by the longitudinal

Supporting

p. 30

Supporting p. 30 This force also has an equal component in the transverse direction. A transverse

This force also has an equal component in the transverse direction. A transverse force applied to a beam sets up transverse (and horizontal) shear forces within the section.

A transverse force applied to a beam sets up transverse (and horizontal) shear forces within the

21/12/2010

Supporting

p. 31

Supporting p. 31 In the case of a s y mmetrical section (A) a force (P)

In the case of a symmetrical section (A) a force (P) applied in line with the principle axis (y-y) does not result in any twisting action on the member. This is because the torsional moment of the internal transverse shear forces ( ) is equal to zero.

21/12/2010

member. This is because the torsional moment of the internal transverse shear forces ( ) is

Supporting

p. 32

Supporting p. 32 On the other hand , in the case of an uns y mmetrical

On the other hand, in the case of an unsymmetrical section (B) the internal transverse shear forces ( ) form a twisting moment. Due to the above there will be a twisting action applied to the member which will twist under load, in addition to bending.

21/12/2010

there will be a twisting action applied to the member which will twist under load, in

Supporting

p. 33

Supporting p. 33 21/12/2010
Supporting p. 33 21/12/2010

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Supporting

p. 34

Supporting p. 34 Supporting that is very flexible is not advisable on an FPSO In this

Supporting that is very flexible is not advisable on an FPSO

In this system this type of supporting is used frequently

Probably because the pipe itself was thought to be light

Here it caused problems once it was filled with water as was to be expected

21/12/2010

itself was thought to be light Here it caused problems once it was filled with water

Supporting

p. 35

Supporting p. 35 21/12/2010
Supporting p. 35 21/12/2010

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FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 36

Flexibility

• Deck Displacements

• Forces on restraints (supporting, nozzles)

Friction

stress aspects p. 36 Flexibility • Deck Displacements • Forces on restraints (supporting, nozzles) • Friction
stress aspects p. 36 Flexibility • Deck Displacements • Forces on restraints (supporting, nozzles) • Friction

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 37

Friction

• Approximate and simplified methods of analysis may be applied only within the range for which it has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the competent body that they are sufficiently accurate.

• It is important that we assess the highest load case. Friction is included in most analyses.

• The most severe load case of the two (with or without friction) should be send to the notified body and report that the other one leads to lower stresses (with the exceptions, if any).

be send to the notified body and report that the other one leads to lower stresses
be send to the notified body and report that the other one leads to lower stresses

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 38

Wishful thinking

• Since a ship is moving all the time no build-up of friction forces will occur

• Since a ship is moving all the time the direction of the friction forces changes with time

friction forces will occur • Since a ship is moving all the time the direction of
friction forces will occur • Since a ship is moving all the time the direction of

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 39

Increase Flexibility by means of:

Sliding Couplings (Victaulic, Dresser or alike)

Expansion Bellows

Expansion Loops

by means of: • Sliding Couplings (Victaulic, Dresser or alike) • Ex pa nsio n B
by means of: • Sliding Couplings (Victaulic, Dresser or alike) • Ex pa nsio n B

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 40

Loadings

G-forces due to waves

Blastload

Slugflow

Waterhammer

Hydraulic Shock (Water Piston)

40 Loadings • G-forces due to waves • Blastload • Slugflow • Waterhammer • Hydraulic Shock
40 Loadings • G-forces due to waves • Blastload • Slugflow • Waterhammer • Hydraulic Shock

Modifications

p. 41

Modifications p. 41 21/12/2010

21/12/2010

Modifications p. 41 21/12/2010

Modifications

p. 42

21/12/2010
21/12/2010

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects

p. 43

Any questions?

FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects p. 43 Any questions?
FPSO related piping and pipe stress aspects p. 43 Any questions?