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SEMINAR ON THE LOCAL LANGLANDS CONJECTURES FOR GL(n) OVER A p-ADIC FIELD (DRAFT December 4, 2013) The goal

of this seminar is to discuss the local Langlands conjectures for GL(n) over a p-adic eld, including aspects of at least one proof due to Henniart [13]. We will directly discuss the proof given by Harris and Taylor [9], though all the material will be relevant, except for the one talk on Henniarts proof (1.10). There are essentially three parts of the seminar. - The rst ve weeks (1.11.6) will be spent on the background needed to understand the objects involved in the local Langlands correspondence and its characterization. This includes Weil group representations (of global and local elds), representation theory of p-adic groups and the L and -factors of pairs. - The proof of the local correspondence, regardless of who has given it, exists in general only by global methods. The second portion of the course (1.71.10) constitutes a shift towards a global perspective. We will begin with a discussion of the global theory of automorphic representations of linear groups, including L-functions on the automorphic side. This portion will culminate in two talks (1.10) outlining Henniarts proof of the local Langlands conjecture, with one gap left. - The goal of the nal four weeks (1.111.14) is to ll in the gap of the previous portion by explaining Harris construction of non-Galois automorphic induction of Hecke characters [8]. This requires establishing instances of functoriality along with the construction of -adic Galois representations attached to automorphic representations. We will include talks on the trace formula, functoriality and Shimura varieties and their zeta functions. The outline of the talks is given below. Since there is no day set, as of December 4, 2013, I cannot say when the talks will be. There are still a number of courses missing, but hopefully the general picture looks good. 1.1. Number theoretic background I. Talk 1: Overview. Give an overview of the statement of local Langlands with global motivation. Discuss the structure of Galois groups of number elds and dene the local Weil groups. Give the statements of local and global class eld theory to realized (local) Langlands for GL(1). Possibly include -adic realizations of algebraic Hecke characters. Talk 2: Weil group representations. Discuss Weil groups of number elds and virtual representations [15, Proposition 2.3.1]. Move on to Weil-Deligne representations motivated by -adic considerations [15, 4]. Discuss Galois representations and the relation to the monodromy theorem [15, Theorem 4.2.1]. Specically point out [15, (4.1.4)(4.1.5)]. 1.2. Number theoretic background II. Talk 1: L-functions. Discuss L-functions of global Weil group representations, including meromorphy and the functional equation [15, Theorem 3.5.3]. Include specializations to the case of Hecke characters wherever interesting. State but do not prove the existence of local -factors [15, Theorem 3.4.1]. Talk 2: Local -factors. Follow [6, 4] to prove the existence of local -factors skipped in the previous talk. Focus on the technique of twisting by highly ramied characters. 1.3. Representation theory of p-adic groups I.
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Talk 1: Denitions. Follow [16, 2.1] to give an overview of the theory of smooth admissible representations of p-adic reductive groups. Emphasize the denitions: admissible, smooth, Hecke algebras, distribution characters. Dene the Steinberg representation (in an ad hoc manner). Talk 2: Parabolic induction and Bernstein-Zelivinsky. . Follow [16, 2.2] Discuss unimodularity issues in lctd groups and dene parabolic induction. Dene supercuspidal representations, possibly using a discussion of matrix coecients. Give the classication of Bernstein-Zelivinsky [2]. 1.4. Representation theory of p-adic groups II. Talk 1: Local Whittaker models and generic representations. Dene generic representations. Give [16, Theorem 2.4.4] on which parabolic inductions are generic. Dene Whittaker models in general and show that local Whittaker models for generic representations are unique. Talk 2: L, -factors of pairs. Follow [16, 2.5] to dene the L and factors of a pair. Explain interaction of Bernstein-Zelevinksy and the L, -factors [12, Lemma 3.3]. 1.5. Feb 17thFeb 21st. No meetingperfectoid conference at MSRI. 1.6. Characterization of local Langlands. Talk 1: Proof of uniqueness. Recall the statement of the local Langlands correspondence for GL(n) over a p-adic eld and L, -factors for pairs on GLn GLn1 . Follow [12] to prove that a correspondence, if it exists, must be unique. Talk 2: Reduction to the supercuspidal case. Finish anything unnished by the previous talk and then discuss the why the unramied correspondence reduces the existence question to the existence of a supercuspidal correspondence [16, Theorem 4.2.2]. Possibly mention numerical local Langlands. 1.7. Global theory I. Talk 1: Automorphic representations for GL(2)/Q . Give an overview of automorphic representations for GL(2)/Q and relate them to the classical denition of modular forms [14]. Discuss L-functions of modular forms. Talk 2: Galois representations. Give a statement of the existence of Galois representations attached to modular forms and discuss local-global compatibility in this case. Go through the letter of Deligne to Piatetski-Shapiro [7] (maybe?) 1.8. Mar 10thMar 14th. No meetingsspring break. 1.9. Global theory II. Talk 1: Automorphic representations for GL(n). Discuss cuspidal automorphic representations for GL(n) over a number eld. The rst goal is to explain and give as much of a proof as possible of [3, Theorem 3.3.2]. Next, discuss automorphic forms vs. representations and explain [3, Theorem 3.3.3]. Finally state, but dont prove, strong multiplicty one [3, Theorem 3.3.6]. Talk 2: Global theory L-functions. The main goal here is to discuss the L-functions attached to automorphic representations on linear groups. If time permits, we may give the proof of strong multiplicity one given in [5]. 1.10. Henniarts Proof.
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Talk 1: Equality of L and -factors a.e implies everywhere. Recall the needed facts about Lfunctions of global Weil groups representations and what it means for Weil group representations to be associated to automorphic representations. Prove [13, Corollary 2.4] in as much detail as times allows. In particular, explain [10, Theorem 4.1] and [10, Proposition 4.5]. Admit as much as needed to give [13, Theorem 2.4] and the proof of the corollary. Talk 2: Sketch of proof. Here we will sketch the proof of Henniart [13], assuming the construction of a non-Galois automorphic induction [13, 3]. Include at least the statement of the numerical local Langlands [11] and then construct the injective map [13, 4] from local Weil group representations to the automorphic side. 1.11. Functoriality and the trace formula I. Talk 1: Philosophy. Discuss the general philosophy of functoriality on the automorphic side by way of the following examples: base change and automorphic induction. Make sure to characterize everything independent of the Langlands conjectures. You may state the main results of ArthurClozel (whose proofs will be discussed later). If time permits, discuss more general change of group. Talk 2: Introduction to the trace formula. Begin our discussion of the trace formula. Explain in the simplest case possible the spectral and geometric sides of the trace formula. 1.12. Functoriality and the trace formula II. Talk 1: Comparison of trace formulas. Begin with a discussion of the comparison of the trace formula between GL(2) and a quaternion algebra. Move on to the cases needed by Arthur-Clozel: GL(n) vs. a general central simple algebra and GL(n) versus the Weil restriction of GL(n) over a larger eld. Talk 2: Results of Arthur-Clozel. State the main results of Arthur-Clozel [1, Ch. 3]. Explain the relationship between weak liting [1, Theorem 3.4.2] and strong lifting [1, Theorem 3.5.1]. Indicate how the trace formula is used exactly. 1.13. Shimura varieties. Talk 1: Some simple Shimura varieties. Reminder on unitary groups and their Shimura varieties. Explain how a unitary Shimura variety will see (some) automorphic representations matched up with Galois representations. Talk 2: Dieudonn e modules and p-divisible groups. Prepare for the Langlands-Kottwitz talk by explaining Dieudonn e modules and p-divisible groups. 1.14. Langlands-Kottwitz, Galois representations and nishing Henniarts proof. Talk 1: Counting points on Shimura varieties. Discuss the computation of the zeta functions of Shimura varieties and its relation to the construction of Galois representations attached to automorphic representations. Talk 2: Harris non-Galois automorphic induction. Finally seal o Henniarts proof by discussing the the construction of automorphic induction of Hecke characters to non-Galois extensions. The original source is [8] but see also: [4, 3.5], [13, 3] and [9, VII.2] (beginning with Proposition VII.2.7 of loc. cit.).
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References
[1] J. Arthur and L. Clozel. Simple algebras, base change, and the advanced theory of the trace formula, volume 120 of Annals of Mathematics Studies. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1989. [2] I. N. Bernstein and A. V. Zelevinsky. Induced representations of reductive p-adic groups. I. Ann. Sci. Ecole Norm. Sup. (4), 10(4):441472, 1977. [3] D. Bump. Automorphic forms and representations, volume 55 of Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997. [4] H. Carayol. Preuve de la conjecture de Langlands locale pour GLn : travaux de Harris-Taylor et Henniart. Ast erisque, (266):Exp. No. 857, 4, 191243, 2000. S eminaire Bourbaki, Vol. 1998/99. [5] J. W. Cogdell. Analytic theory of L-functions for GLn . In An introduction to the Langlands program (Jerusalem, 2001), pages 197228. Birkh auser Boston, Boston, MA, 2003. [6] P. Deligne. Les constantes des equations fonctionnelles des fonctions L. In Modular functions of one variable, II (Proc. Internat. Summer School, Univ. Antwerp, Antwerp, 1972), pages 501597. Lecture Notes in Math., Vol. 349. Springer, Berlin, 1973. [7] P. Deligne. Letter from Deligne to Pitatestki-Shapiro. 1973. Available at http://math.bu.edu/people/jsweinst/DeligneLetterToPiatetskiShapiro.pdf. [8] M. Harris. The local Langlands conjecture for GL(n) over a p-adic eld, n < p. Invent. Math., 134(1):177210, 1998. [9] M. Harris and R. Taylor. The geometry and cohomology of some simple Shimura varieties, volume 151 of Annals of Mathematics Studies. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2001. With an appendix by Vladimir G. Berkovich. [10] G. Henniart. On the local Langlands conjecture for GL(n): the cyclic case. Ann. of Math. (2), 123(1):145203, 1986. [11] G. Henniart. La conjecture de Langlands locale num erique pour GL(n). Ann. Sci. Ecole Norm. Sup. (4), 21(4):497544, 1988. [12] G. Henniart. Caract erisation de la correspondance de Langlands locale par les facteurs de paires. Invent. Math., 113(2):339350, 1993. [13] G. Henniart. Une preuve simple des conjectures de Langlands pour GL(n) sur un corps p-adique. Invent. Math., 139(2):439455, 2000. [14] S. S. Kudla. From modular forms to automorphic representations. In An introduction to the Langlands program (Jerusalem, 2001), pages 133151. Birkh auser Boston, Boston, MA, 2003. [15] J. Tate. Number theoretic background. In Automorphic forms, representations and L-functions (Proc. Sympos. Pure Math., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, Ore., 1977), Part 2, Proc. Sympos. Pure Math., XXXIII, pages 326. Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, R.I., 1979. [16] T. Wedhorn. The local Langlands correspondence for GL(n) over p-adic elds. In School on Automorphic Forms on GL(n), volume 21 of ICTP Lect. Notes, pages 237320. Abdus Salam Int. Cent. Theoret. Phys., Trieste, 2008.