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Generic Blueprint for a sustainable village project

Generic Blueprint for a sustainable village project Prepared by Myrtelle Chéry, Urb. Karyne Raymond, Eng., mba

Prepared by

Myrtelle Chéry, Urb. Karyne Raymond, Eng., mba

Presented to

POWERED BY ACTION

Andre P. Hughes Tracey Patterson Chinwe Onyegoro

Date: December 26, 2oo8

Statement

Third World urbanization has often been fast, unplanned, and beyond the control of the appropriate authorities. Farmers migrate to the cities, where they hope to increase their income and secure a better future for their family. The ensuing rapid urban growth - a combined result of migrations and natural increase - creates such a pressure on the environment, the public services, and the urban infrastructures, that the cities cannot possibly integrate newcomers and be the driving force behind national development. To make human settlements healthy, safe, prosperous, and sustainable, Third World countries have to overcome major problems, such as poverty, unemployment, pollution, and lack of decent housing.

One way to remedy the situation is to preserve rural life. However, this will be possible only if we understand the cause and effect relationship between rural and urban development. In other words, to reduce the rate of rural-to-urban migration in Africa, we must be aware of what triggered it:

Unemployment status that farm workers often face;

Difficulty to obtain both land and credit;

Plumbing and electrical facilities, medical clinics, schools, and other basic services are insufficient in rural areas;

The advent of telecommunication technologies, an easier access to higher education, and the redefinition of women's role in society, which have altered the consumption patterns and sociocultural attitudes toward urban lifestyles;

Industries and services being developed in cities and metropolitan areas;

Cities profiting more from economic globalization than rural areas; and

Sociopolitical instability, which creates a feeling of insecurity in rural areas.

We must always keep in mind that sustainable development will succeed only if we manage to create strong socioeconomic ties between the villages and their neighboring towns. The present document is a generic blueprint – with key guidelines to a more efficient rural agglomeration – proposed to Powered by Action whose vision is to build self-sufficient villages in order to eliminate poverty and contribute to a safer, more equitable and prosperous world.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Statement

1 - General features of the territory

2 - Potential land uses

3- The potential purposes of the land

4 - The land particularities

5 - Generic Templates (housing, public equipment,

road)

6 - References and Statistics

7 - The blueprint

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3

4

5

7

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12

14

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The main factors to consider when starting a Village project are:

1. GENERAL FEATURES OF THE TERRITORY

1.1. Location: The work plan shall be defined according to the location of the territory. Decisions related to access roads and infrastructures are based on how close the village is to the ocean, a mountain ridge, a large city, another village, etc.

1.2. Surface area: The ideal population density for long-term rural development is calculated in relation to the size of the territory.

1.3. Soil: Knowing the make-up of the soil help identify potential resources, and indicate what type of commercial operation could prosper in the region (farming, mining, etc.).

1.4. Climate: General weather conditions determine what types of crops (coffee, rice, cotton, sugar cane…), housing, and energy supply are better suited for the region.

1.5. Water: Access to water is absolutely necessary to accomplish any commercial or domestic activities.

1.6. Leftover equipment from previous urban development: Many tools and machines can be refurbished, then used again in the new Village Project.

1.7. Historic database of the land: It may contain useful information about the population movements, the natural resources (including those that no longer exist), the soil submersion cycles (indicate sites unsuitable for building), etc

1.8. Demography: It is important to take into account the population density and make sure that the site for the new village will answer the needs of the residents. A well-chosen location will encourage rapid human settlement, and facilitate sociodynamic and cultural interaction among the locals.

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2.

POTENTIAL LAND USES

Depending on the results of the above research, any of the following potential land uses for rural environment could be advisable. (Note: If a specific land use creates more than 30% of the region's total revenue, we speak of "primary land use".)

2.1. Forest Use

2.1.1. If the territory has a vast forested area, all tree species shall be listed, and the possibility of rationally exploiting this natural resource and its by-products shall be evaluated.

2.1.2. Wherever forest exploitation is deemed appropriate, controls shall be established to ensure long-term management for these resources.

2.1.3. All wood residues shall be collected and used in lucrative activities, such as producing handicraft, home utensils, etc.

2.2. Agricultural Use

2.2.1. A territory deemed arable shall be officially zoned as "permanent protected farmland", so that demographic expansion will never be a threat to the farmers' livelihood. Zoning regulations shall protect all areas where vegetable and livestock farming, fishing, beekeeping, aquaculture, horticulture, etc., are being practiced.

2.2.2. Farming manpower and access to agricultural training shall be considered vital to the maintenance of agricultural business.

2.2.3. A modern and well-adapted irrigation system shall be designed and installed, and archaic watering techniques gradually abandoned.

2.3. Commercial Use

2.3.1. In the countryside, we see mostly small-scale family farms. Grocery stores, construction trades, tailor shops, etc., are scarce as there is no proper education system, and the locals are poor.

2.3.2. A business will thrive within a village if :

it supports another main local economic sector, such as farming, tourism industry, etc. Small family businesses and various community initiatives should be encouraged, as

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they keep the locals employed and guarantee them a large variety of services; and

it is supported by an educational system that trains a literate and specialized workforce. A few non-profit organizations are presently training some villagers, who will soon participate actively in building a self-sufficient community.

2.4. Recreational Use

2.4.1. Most African and Caribbean countries enjoy a perfect climate for a flourishing tourist industry. Therefore, a village may consider the possibility of establishing a program of activities adapted to its landscape (coastline, plains, mountains, etc.), in order to get revenue. Specific recreational equipment shall be designed and provided to support this type of land use.

2.5. Industrial Use

2.5.1. Some settlements, called “mono-industrial towns”, are built to accommodate only miners and their families. While these towns may become very prosperous, they usually shut down as soon as there is nothing left to extract from the earth. We can avoid this problem simply by taking a more global approach to development, and propose to the residents of mining towns alternative ways of earning a living.

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3.

POTENTIAL PURPOSES OF THE TERRITORY

(guidelines of the

Blueprint)

In order to establish long-term socioeconomic development in the village, the village authorities and their social development partners shall define their global view of the village by setting up some guidelines that are based upon the assets and constraints of the territory. Safe infrastructures, diversified public services, and inspired urban design, are major contributing elements to a healthy economic emancipation of a village.

Each of the potential purposes of a territory involves a series of tasks to be accomplished. Based on their demographic data, the village authorities will choose the most appropriate purpose for their territory, and determine how much financial support and human effort they are prepared to contribute to carry out every task.

3.1 Organizing the territory according to expected population density and socioeconomic activities

3.1.1 Compile geodesic, demographic and socioeconomic data for the territory in order to determine the quantity, capacities and types of infrastructures needed

3.1.2 Compile comparative data (demography, GDP, etc.) for cities and regions adjacent to the territory, in order to establish accurately their competition for resources

3.1.3 Classify land into six zones, identified by their use, and list their resources, their potential use or need for protection

Agricultural zone

Commercial zone (or semi-commercial, if combined with a residential or institutional zone)

Residential zone (divided into sub-zones according to population density/neighborhood)

Institutional zone (schools, municipal or community buildings, green spaces)

Industrial zone

Protected zone (vulnerable area or area with a building

constraint;

natural sites)

political

decision

to

preserve

historical

or

3.1.4 Develop a land settlement plan which identifies the main types of occupancies of the territory (Scales : 1 :20000/ 1 :5000)

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3.1.5

Develop a land settlement plan which identifies the unique characteristics of the territory (Scales: 1 :20000/ 1 :5000)

3.1.6 Develop a land settlement plan which identifies the stages of territorial development staggered over the next five years (Scales: 1 :20000/ 1 :5000)

3.2 Setting up agrarian reforms to achieve optimal use of the land

3.2.1 Identify zones of arable land

3.2.2 and

Distribute

allocate

lands

according

to

the

diversified

needs

3.2.3 Develop an irrigation system for available water (possibly including rain water collection), access networks, and municipal equipment adapted to the agricultural activities

3.2.4 Train and support a competent workforce

3.2.5 Build a partnership with organizations specialized in agrarian reforms

3.3 Access to drinking water

3.3.1 Identify available water sources (rivers, ground water, existing wells)

3.3.2 Set up adequate water treatment systems (give priority to an ecological system with low energy requirements)

3.3.3 Set up adequate and accessible water collection systems (wells and water pipes)

3.3.4 Optimize existing facilities within close reach

3.3.5 Develop partnerships with organizations that specialize in irrigation and waste water treatment

3.4 Optimize the road network by planning for a strategic and controlled rural development

3.4.1 Classifying the road network based on the following criteria :

Land usage: Residential, commercial, industrial, etc.

Road function: circulation and access

Debit : high debits (inter-regional roads); low debits (secondary and minor roads);

Speed :

the speed progression from minor road to the

secondary roads

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Types of vehicles : Trucks, buses, cars…

Connection : will depend on the road classification

3.4.2 Categorizing the access roads by type of networks

The main road network must provide a connection between the neighboring villages and towns. It is recommended that they be built by circumventing the natural barriers, if necessary, and on the shortest line between two settlements. Their height and width clearance, as well as load capacity, must be suitable for heavyweight vehicle traffic.

Secondary roads can follow the natural outlines of the terrain and connect to main roads via traffic circles, close to commercial zones or public spaces.

Minor roads connect to residential neighborhoods and farmland. Depending on the population density of a quarter, the roads are classified by their clearance, such as to protect the aspect of privacy of residential neighborhoods.

Footpaths are set up around public spaces, meeting places, and tourist destinations. It is desirable to connect these footpaths to protected green space.

3.4.3 All housing developments next to road networks must respect their outlines and clearances, as prescribed by the development plan.

3.5

Organization

of

economic

activities

emphasizing

social

action

3.5.1 Set up training structures and community infrastructures for:

Farmers’ co-ops

 

Development of micro-enterprises

 

Recycling plants for raw materials(small and medium scale)

Organization

of

agricultural

food

markets

and

handicrafts

Barter system

3.5.2 Develop infrastructures that will help establish commercial connections with neighboring towns.

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3.5.3 Identify workable mining sites and evaluate how the development of infrastructure inherent to their exploitation would affect positively the local economy

3.5.4 Develop partnerships with organizations that specialize in training and setting up of cooperatives

3.6 Setting up essential services for the welfare of the local community

3.6.1

Develop adequate infrastructures for:

 

Health services (clinics and pharmacies) proportional to the size of population, which could complement those already available in a neighboring region within a distance of 350 km, to increase the service coverage

Traditional education services (Kindergarten, primary schools, secondary schools…)

Specialized education services (small trades, technical schools) that can fulfill the needs for local employment

Social services (dispensary, orphanage, food bank, church, community centers and recreation…)

Public

safety

services

(police,

fire

brigades,

waste

management)

3.7 Localization,

installations

recreational areas

and

set

up

services

for

the

3.7.1 Identifying the sectors of interest in order to develop the adequate structures for a potential tourism industry

Parkland and promenades around marinas

Special transportation to reach different tourist sites (forests, mountains, safari, beaches…)

Municipal signage

3.7.2 Support to all local initiatives that will significantly enhance the potential tourist industry of the village: cultural projects, crafts fair, sport tournament, etc…

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4

THE LAND PARTICULARITIES

The particularities may be related to the morphology of the land or to the socio-political profile of the communities who are sharing the territory. But specifically, the land particularities, if well managed, will be determinant to the social and economic dynamic of the population while highlighting the added-value of the quality of life in the village.

4.1 Specific regulations shall be applied on particular environment aspects, such as:

Historic sites and monuments

Religious sites and monuments

Aesthetic references in housing design inspired by the

community cultural traditions The wildlife and preservation of its natural environment

Control of polluting elements (related to extensive farming, mining activities and recreational activities near lake and river shores

4.2 Specific regulations on the

potential constraints of the land shall

be applied for the following themes:

Restricted lots for public uses (Governmental) Potential Flood plains Potential Earthquake zones Shoreline

4.3 Other regulations for:

Forest exploitations

Animal farms

Wells location and other irrigation systems (ex: earth basins)

Local material uses for house construction

Defining the boundaries of urban development wherever

suitable Specific sites for mobile houses

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GENERIC TEMPLATES

5.1 Housing (suggestion)

5 GENERIC TEMPLATES 5.1 Housing (suggestion) Fig. 5.1.1 ELEVATION VIEW 1 floor House for family of

Fig. 5.1.1 ELEVATION VIEW 1 floor House for family of 4

Recommendation: Rain water collected in gutters may be channeled to a water tank and later used for showers, laundry and watering the lawn.

and later used for showers, laundry and watering the lawn. Fig. 5.1.2. Plan view - One

Fig. 5.1.2. Plan view - One floor house – surface: 950 sq.ft.

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5.2

Access to water

5.2 Access to water Fig. 5.2.2 typical well system for drinking water 13 100% irrigable soils
5.2 Access to water Fig. 5.2.2 typical well system for drinking water 13 100% irrigable soils

Fig. 5.2.2 typical well system for drinking water

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100% irrigable soils can be irrigated by local source

Water available for more than 50% of irrigable soil

Water available for 10% to 50% of irrigable soil

soil Water available for 10% to 50% of irrigable soil Water available for less than 10%

Water available for less than 10% of irrigable soil

Insufficient water for irrigation

Fig 5.2.1

Water availability in Africa

5.3

Farming techniques in Darfour (Sudan) : example of efficient irrigation systems ( by Practical-Action technology)

In Darfour, an isolated north-western province of Sudan with very low rainfall but a dependence on rain-fed agriculture,

Low impact earth dams

a dependence on rain-fed agriculture, Low impact earth dams Constructed across gullies, earth dams ca n

Constructed across gullies, earth dams can save thousands of litres of rain water. Farm plots nearby are irrigated throughout the growing season. The dams take around three months of manual labour, often by the women who farm, to complete.

Crescent terraces

often by the women who farm, to complete. Crescent terraces These terraces are labour-intensive to construct,

These terraces are labour-intensive to construct, but are low-cost and are proven to work. Used for centuries, the terraces collect rainwater instead of letting it flow downhill. Crops like naturally drought-resistant millet can survive the who growing season. Water and nutrient-filled soil that would otherwise wash away is instead collected between raised earth strips, allowing plants to grow longer and healthier.

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Wadis

Wadis Wadis are earth basins that form a wa ter-saving bowl. Rainwater flows from the sides

Wadis are earth basins that form a water-saving bowl. Rainwater flows from the sides to the centre of each planting bed. Each basin is surrounded by a ridge of earth about 15cm high. In flat fields the basins are two metres square – they are smaller on sloping land. In fields with deep soil, farmers use a hoe to build up walls around each plot.

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6

REFERENCES AND STATISTICS

6.1 Measure units reference

1 acre =

43,560 sq. ft

 

1 m =

3.281

FT

 

1 m 2

=

10.76

Ft 2

 

1 m 3

=

35.31

Ft 3

 

1 mile =

1.6 km

 

1 sq. mile =

2.59 km 2

 

1 hectare =

107,639 sq. ft

2.471 acre

6.2 Water use

Description

Statistic

Units

Source

Sub-Saharan Africa

6,956.6

m 3 / person/year

World Resources Institute

South Africa

1,048.2

m 3 / person/year

World Resources Institute

North America

16,557.8

m 3 / person/year

World Resources Institute

United States

6,815.8

m 3 / person/year

World Resources Institute

Residential

30

to 80

Gal/capita/day

HLURB (1)

consumption

 

Commercial

60

to 120

Gal/capita/day

HLURB (1)

Hospitals

200 to 400

Gal/capita/day

HLURB (1)

Industrial

30

to 50

Gal/capita/day

HLURB (1)

Agricultural

5

m 3 / hectare/day

 

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6.3

School capacity

Description

Statistic

 

Unit

Source

Student-Teacher Ratio

16 : 1

students/teacher

Public School Review

Number of Students per class in Elementary School

30/35

Each

Mass dept. of Education

Number of Students per class in High School

25/30

Each

Mass dept. of Education

Elementary School Size

1,000 to

M

2

(Min. 6 – Max 18 classrooms)

2,000

 

High School Size

8,000

M

2

(Min. 12 classrooms)

6.4 Health services

Description

Statistic

Unit

Source

Doctor

1 per 1,000

population

HLURB (1)

Nurse

2 per 1,000

population

HLURB (1)

Emergency/Community

1 per 1,000

Within at least 35km

HLURB (1)

Hospital

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6.5

Municipality Functions

Description

 

Statistic

Unit

Source

Churches:

up to 400 members

0.40

Hectares

HLURB (1)

Churches 1200 + members

 

1.60

Hectares

HLURB (1)

Police Office

 

1 : 1,750

Office/ Population

HLURB (1)

Police Officer

 

1 : 1,000

Officer/ Population

HLURB (1)

Fire Dept. distance from residents/commercial zones

2.4

KM

HLURB (1)

Neighborhood Park

 

6

M 2 /person

HLURB (1)

District or Community Park

 

15 (2)

M 2 /person

HLURB (1)

Fire

Dept

distance

from

3.4

KM

HLURB (1)

industrial / agricultural zones

Fire Truck

 

1 : 20,000

Truck/Population

HLURB (1)

Fireman

 

1: 1,000

Fireman/Population

HLURB (1)

Cemeteries – grave burial

 

1.8 to 2.2

M 2

HLURB (1)

Cemeteries typical size

 

32

Hectares

HLURB (1)

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6.6

Public equipments list (% of occupancy)

1. Municipal equipments (1%)

1.1. Administration

1.1.1. Town hall

1.1.2. Police department

1.1.3. Post office

1.1.4. Fire dept

1.2. Wastes disposal site

1.3. Power central

2. Cultural equipments (2%)

2.1. Community center

2.2. Theater – Music hall

2.3. Historical building

2.4. Public library

3. Sports equipments (1%)

3.1. Arenas

3.2. Public pool

3.3. Sport fields (soccer, basket,,,)

4. Green spaces (5%)

4.1. Parks and play grounds

4.2. Preserved zones

5. Educative equipments (2%)

5.1. Public primary schools

5.2. Public secondary schools

5.3. Technical schools

6. Social equipments (5%)

6.1. Orphanages

6.2. Hospitals (equipped for minor surgeries)

6.3. Clinics ( with maternity centre)

6.4. Food banks

6.5. Temple / churches

6.6. Cemetery

7. Other equipments (5%)

7.1. Wells / water reservoirs

7.2. Bus / train stations and parking lots

7.3. Roads and electrical grids

7.4. Market places and unloading areas

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6.7

Road network standards

6.7 Road network standards Fig. 6.7.1 – Table of road classification and standards

Fig. 6.7.1 – Table of road classification and standards

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The Blueprint

(Refer to JPEG document)

PROPOSED URBAN DESIGN WITH ROAD NETWORK Generic blueprint Plan A
PROPOSED URBAN DESIGN WITH ROAD NETWORK
Generic
blueprint
Plan A