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Jason Buckalew English 2010 Aviation Terms Accident: Occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes

place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and until such time as all such persons have disembarked, and in which any person suffers death or serious injury or in which the aircraft receives substantial damage. AD: Directive; Maintenance or modification ordered by FAA. Adverse Yaw: Generated when the ailerons are used. The lifting wing generates more drag, causing the plane to yaw toward it. Aileron: A control surface on fixed-wing aircraft, usually mounted on the aft edge of wings, that controls roll, and is controlled by the wheel. AIM (AIRMANS`INFORMATION MANUAL): A primary FAA publication whose purpose is to instruct airmen about operating in the US airspace system. Air Taxi: An aircraft operator who conducts operations for hire or compensation in accordance with FAR Part 135 in an aircraft with 30 or fewer passenger seats and a payload capacity of 7,500 pounds or less. An air taxi operates on an on demand basis and does not meet the "flight scheduled" qualifications of a commuter. Air Traffic: Means aircraft operating in the air or on an airport surface, exclusive of loading ramps and parking areas. Air Traffic Clearance: Means an authorization by air traffic control, for the purpose of preventing collision between known aircraft, for an aircraft to proceed under specified traffic conditions within controlled airspace. Air Traffic Control: A service operated by the appropriate authority to promote the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic. Aircraft: Means a device that is used or intended to be used for flight in the air. Airport Traffic Control Tower: A terminal facility that uses air/ground communications, visual signaling, and other devices to provide ATC services to aircraft operating in the vicinity of an airport or on the movement area. Authorizes aircraft to land or takeoff at the airport controlled by the tower or to transit the Class D airspace area regardless of flight plan or weather conditions (IFR or VFR). A tower may also provide approach control services (radar or non radar). Airspeed: The speed of an aircraft relative to its surrounding air mass. See: calibrated airspeed; indicated airspeed; true airspeed.

Airspeed Indicator: An onboard instrument which registers velocity through the air, in miles per hour or in knots. Alternate Airport: means an airport at which an aircraft may land if a landing at the intended airport becomes inadvisable. Altimeter: An onboard instrument which senses air pressure in order to gauge altitude. Altitude: Height, usually with respect to the terrain below (radar altitude, feet above closest dirt) or fixed earth reference (barometric altitude, feet above mean sea level). Angel Of Attack: The difference between pitch and the air-referenced flight path angle; the angle between the aircraft center line and the airspeed vector in the vertical plane, positive when the nose is up. Approach Speed: The recommended speed contained in aircraft manuals used by pilots when making an approach to landing. This speed will vary for different segments of an approach as well as for aircraft weight and configuration. AVGAS: Aviation Gasoline (piston aircraft fuel). Boeing: The Boeing Company, with headquarters in Seattle, Washington, U.S., one of the nation`s largest exporters. The company is a major U.S. government contractor, with capabilities in space systems, helicopters, military airplanes, missile systems, information and electronic systems and software products. Calibrated Airspeed: The indicated airspeed of an aircraft, corrected for position and instrument error. Calibrated airspeed is equal to true airspeed in standard atmosphere at sea level. Carburetor: The part of the engine, which controls the speed or throttle setting and lean/rich mixture via setting of the needle valve. CfII: Certified Flight Instructor IFR. Chandelle: A very steep climbing turn where the airplane makes a 180 change of direction. Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF): A frequency designed for the purpose of carrying out airport advisory practices while operating to or from an airport without an operating control tower. The CTAF may be a UNICOM, Multicom, FSS, or tower frequency and is identified in appropriate aeronautical publications. Control Surfaces: The moving, pilot-controllable parts of the air-frame, including flaps, ailerons, rudders and elevators. Dead Reckoning: A method of navigation based on basic information (barometric altitude, magnetic heading, airspeed, wind conditions) from best available source.

Departures: The number of aircraft take-offs actually performed in domestic and international scheduled and non-scheduled passenger/cargo and all-cargo revenue services. Dihedral: The V-shaped bend in the wing. The upward angle of the airplane`s wings with respect to the horizontal. Typically, more dihedral causes more aerodynamic stability in an airplane, and causes the rudder to control both the roll and yaw axis. Distance Measuring Equipment: Equipment for measuring distance, usually from an aircraft to a ground station; usually part of a Tactical Air Navigation system. Elevator: Pitch control. Causes the aircraft to raise or lower its nose, resulting in a climbing or diving response. Moving the elevator down causes the tail to rise, pushing the nose down and causing the aircraft to dive. Moving the elevator up causes the tail to drop, raising the nose in reference to the tail. En Route Air Traffic Control Services: Air traffic control services provided aircraft on IFR flight plans, generally by centers, when these aircraft are operating between departure and destination terminal areas. When equipment, capabilities, and controller workload permit, certain advisory/assistance services may be provided to VFR aircraft. Federal Aviation Administration: Is the national aviation authority of the United States of America. An agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation, it has authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of American civil aviation. General Aviation: That portion of civil aviation which encompasses all facets of aviation except air carriers holding a certificate of public convenience and necessity from the Civil Aeronautics Board and large aircraft commercial operators. IFR: Instrument Flight Rules. IFR Over The Top: With respect to the operation of aircraft, means the operation of an aircraft over-thetop on an IFR flight plan when cleared by air traffic control to maintain "VFR conditions" or "VFR conditions on top". Pax: Passenger. Second In Command: Pilot who is designated to be second in command of an aircraft during flight time. Slip: A maneuver where the airplane`s controls are used to make the fuselage fly at an angle to the line of flight. This causes a tremendous increase in drag, and allows an airplane without landing flaps to increase its angle of descent without picking up a lot of speed. It is a way to lose altitude in a hurry (on purpose), or slide into a final approach during a heavy wind. The technique is to put nearly full rudder in one direction, and then bank in the opposite. This keeps the plane almost level, except pointing to one side. VFR: Visual Flight Rules.