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FY.Bsc.

Term I / Paper I

Zoology

Chapter 4: Study of Earthworms

M M Multiple choice questions

1)

Earthworm appears brown due to the presence of wa . !) "e anin B) #aemog obin $) Porphyrin %) Both &B) and &$) !nswer is 'C

pigment in its body

() )hat wi happen if strong a coho are poured o*er the body of a i*e earthworm+ !) B ood oo,es through dorsa pore and u timate y due to oss of b ood earthworm wi die. B) )hite coe omic f uid oo,es out to neutra i,e the effect of a coho . $) Earthworm wi become para ysed. %) -othing wi happen. 1 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I !nswer is 'B .) In Earthworm cocoons are found in !) 1/0 11 and 12th segment B) 110 120 and 13th segment $) (.0 (/0 and (1th segment. %) /0 10 and 2th segment !nswer is A /) Earthworm is p aced in a group !) 4 igochaeta B) Po ychaeta $) #irudinea %) $rustacea !nswer is A

Zoology

1) #ow many atera 4esophagea hearts are found in earthworm+ !) Two pairs0 one pair each in 1(th and 1.th segment. B) Two pairs one pair each in 3th and 5th segment. $) Four pairs0 one pair each in 3th 0 5th 0 1(th and 1.th segment. %) 6i7 pairs0 one pair each in 3th 0 8th 0 5th 0 11th 0 1(th 0 and 1.th segment. !nswer is B 2 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology 2) Photoreceptors in earthworm occur in !) Epidermis of 9entra body wa . B) 6:in of Peristomium $) 6:in of Prostomium %) Epidermis of dorsa body wa . !nswer is 'D

3) -ephridia of earthworm ana ogues to !) Trichocyst of Paramecium B) Trachea of an insect $) F ame ce s of Taenia %) ;i s of fish. !nswer is 'C 8) The b ood *esse s ca ed dorsa *esse s of earthworm is !) $o ecting B) %istributing $) $o ecting in first thirteen segments and distributing in the rest. %) %istributing in first thirteen segments and co ecting in rest. !nswer is D< 3 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology 5) In earthworm0 setae do not occur in the region of !) Prostomium and Peristomium B) !na segment $) $i ite um & 1/ = 12 ) segments. %) ! of the abo*e !nswer is D

1>) %orsa pores of earthworm are meant for passage of !) $oe omic F uid B) B ood $) )aste materia %) ;ametes !nswer is A

11) In earthworm0 the function of ch oragogen ce s is !) E7cretion. B) ?eproduction $) %igestion %) ?egeneration 4 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I !nswer is A 1() Peptonephridia of earthworm are !) E7onephric B) Pharyngea nephridia $) 6epta nephridia %) Integumentary nephridia !nswer is B

Zoology

1.) 6permathecae of earthworm ta:es part in !) $o ection of sperms of other anima s B) $o ection of sperms of some anima s $) 6perm maturation %) Ferti i,ation !nswer is A

1/) The fema e genita aperture in earthworm is present *entra y on the segment. !) 1>th B) 1(th $) 1/th 5 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I %) 18th !nswer is 'C

Zoology

11) In earthworm0 ferti i,ation occurs in !) 4*iduct B) $ ite um $) 6permathecae %) $ocoon !nswer is D

12) $ ite um of earthworm is connected with !) Formation of $ocoon B) $opu ation $) ?e ease of sperms %) 6torage of sperms !nswer is 'A 13) The segmentation in an earthworm inc udes interna seria repetition of !) The intestine B) "etanephridia $) "usc es 6 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I %) Both & B) and & $ ) !nswer is '%<

Zoology

18) @ocomotion organ of earthworm are !) Parapodia B) 6etae $) 6uc:ers %) Both &B) and &$) !nswer is B

15) !rrangement of setae in earthworm is !) 4 igochaetine B) Perichaetine $) @umbricine %) 4ctachaetine !nswer is 'B

Gffg

Answer the ollowin! "# Mar$s%

7 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I &'(' )hat is Earthworm* Ans:

Zoology

Earthworms are segmented worms. They be ong to the Phy um Annelida The common Indian earthworm is pheretima posthuma It i*es in damp soi and burrows in awns0 fie ds0 garden etc. ?ich in humus. The earthworms feeds on the organic matter0 sma insects 0 ar*ae in the soi . They are nocturna anima s

&'#' +i,e the systematic position of earthworm' Ans: 6ystematic position of earthworm is as fo owsA

P#E?ETI"! P46T#B"! &E!?T#)4?") 6Y6TE"TI$ P46ITI4CingdomA !nima Phy umA !nne ida $ assA 4 igochaeta 8 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I 4rderA 4pisthopora Fami yA @umbricidae ;enusA Pheretima 6peciesA posthuma

Zoology

&'-' +i,e the !eneral character tics of .in!dom Animalia Ans: Characteristics of $in!dom Animalia are ! anima s are mu tice u ar 0 eu:aryotic heterotrophs Dthey ha*e mu tip e ce s with mitochondria and they re y on other organisms for their nourishment. !du t anima s de*e op from embryos0 sma masses of unspecia i,ed ce s 6imp e anima s can regenerate or grow bac: missing parts "ost anima s ingest their food and then digest it in some :ind of interna ca*ity. 6omewhere around 5 or 1> mi ion species of anima s inhabit the earth. !bout 8>>0>>> species ha*e been identified.

&'4' what type of respiration is found in earthworms* Ans: Earthworms do not ha*e ungs. They breathe through their s:in by diffusionE this is :nown as cutaneous respiration. 9 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology 47ygen and carbon = dio7ide pass through the s:in by diffusion. The s:in is protected by a thin cutic e secreted by the epidermis and :ept moist by s ime mucus produced by the epiderma ce s. ! moist surface is necessary for o7ygen to be absorbed and carbon = dio7ide to be gi*en off.

Answer the followin! "/ Mar$s %

&'/' Discuss in short the ha0it and ha0itat of earthworm' Ans: 1a0itat: Earthworm is a terrestria anima i*ing in burrows. They are found in wet soi containing rich organic matter. %uring raining season0 they can be seen in awns0 fie ds0 and gardens. 1a0it: Earthworms are nocturna and omni*orous. They main y feed upon the decaying organic matter. 10 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology The undigested food matter a ong with the soi is passed out through the anus in the form of itt e heaps of pe ets :nown as 'worm castin!s. Earthworms are fossorial2and dig their burrows by inserting their anterior pointed end into sma ho es of the soi . The ocomotion is brought about by the circu ar and ongitudina musc es of the body wa 0 aided by the chitinous cur*ed setae embedded in the s:in. The earthworms are hermaphrodite or monoecoius. They are protandrous0 Thus se f ferti i,ation is not possib e0 hence cross ferti i,ation occurs. The ferti i,ation and de*e opment occurs inside a cocoon. Earthworms possess a great power of regeneration.

&'3' Discuss the 0ody wall of earthworm and its function Ans: Body )all: Body wa of earthworm comprises a thin cutic e0 an epidermis.0 a we Fde*e oped muscu ature and a coe omic epithe ium or parieta peritoneum. Cuticle: The body wa is co*ered e7terna y by a thin e astic cutic e. It is nonFce u ar and fine y striated0 irridescent0 doub eF ayered0 and is secreted by under ying epidermis. 11 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology It consists of co agenous protein and a po ysaccharide a ong with a itt e Guantity of ge atin. It bears many perforations0 through which open the epiderma mucous g ands. It protects the body from physica and chemica inHuries. Epidermis: It is sing eF ayered and ying Hust beneath the cutic e. $e s of epidermis are of *arious types0performing different functions. 6upporting ce s0 forming bu : of epidermis0 are of co umnar type. ; and ce s inc ude numerous mucous ce s and a few a bumen ce s pac:ed with secretory granu es. Basa ce s0 which are sma and rounded or conica 0 ie in spaces between inner ends of supporting ce s and g and ce s. ?eceptor ce s occur in groups with their outer ends gi*ing out fine hairF i:e processes. Epidermis rests on a thin basement membrane. Muscles: "uscu ature ies be ow epidermis. It consists of an outer thin ayer of circu ar musc e fibers running around the body0 and an inner thic: ayer of ongitudina musc e fibers running a ong the ength of body.

12 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology @ongitudina musc e fibers ie in para e bund es0 separated by connecti*e tissue and strengthened by co agen fibers. The musc e fibres are unstriped0 ong and spind eDshaped. )hen the circu ar musc e fibers contract0 the diameter of the body is narrowed and the worm e ongates. )hen the ongitudina musc e fibers contract0 the diameter of the body becomes greater and the worm shortens. The two :inds of musc e fibres are antagonistic0 because the contraction of one goes with the re a7ation of the other. Coelomic Epithelium: The innermost ayer of the bodyFwa is the somatic peritoneum or the parieta ayer of coe omic epithe ium0 which a so forms the outer ining of the body ca*ity. It consists of a sing e ayer of f at or pa*ement ce s which are recogni,ab e by their nuc ei on y.

13 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I

Zoology

Body wall of an Earthworm unctions of Body )all: 1. "aintains body form due to its e asticity. (. Protects against mechanica inHuries. .. The mucus secreted by the epiderma g ands :eeps the surface s imy0 c ean and free from harmfu organisms0 and a so he ps in p astering the interna wa s of the burrows. /. The a bumen ser*es as food for the de*e oping embryos in the cocoons. 1. 6ensory epiderma ce s ser*e for reception of e7terna stimu i. 2. The musc es he p in mo*ements. 3. @odges setae which he p in ocomotion.

14 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology 8. Body wa is moist0 thin. high y *ascu ar and permeab e to gases. Thus it ser*es as respiratory organ. 5. The parieta ayer of coe omic epithe ium secretes coe omic f uid.

&'4' E5plain the coelomic fluid and its functions in earthworm' Ans: Coelomic fluid: $oe om is fi ed with an a :a ine0 co our ess or mi :y coe omic f uid containing water0 sa ts0some proteins and at east four types of coe omic corpusc es as fo owsA 1. PhagocytesA argest and more numerous are the nuc eated amoeboid corpusc es or phagocytes. (. "ucocytesA These are e ongate ce s0 each ha*ing a broad0 fanF i:e process0 attached to a narrow nuc eated body. .. $ircu ar ce sA !bout 1> per cent of coe omic corpusc es are rounded0 nuc eated and b ood corpusc eF i:e ce s possessing c ear protop asm and characteristics mar:ings on surface. /. $h oragogen ce sA ! so :nown as ye ow ce s0 these are starFshaped0 sma F si,ed ce s. They are supposed to be e7cretory in function remo*ing e7cretory products from coe omic f uid. unctions of Coelomic luid 1. #e ps in ocomotion by turgescence. 15 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology (. Its circu ation from one chamber to another he ps in distribution of digested food. .. $oe omic f uid e7ceeding through dorsa pores0 :eeps the body surface moist0 thus he ping in respiration. /. It destroys harmfu bacteria and other parasites of soi . 1. Forms a protecti*e0 shoc:Fproof co*ering around Interna organs of body. 8. Its ch oragogen ce s he p in remo*ing e7cretory products out of body. 3. It causes uminescence in some earthworms.

&'6' E5plain the mode of feedin! in earthworm' Ans: ood and feedin! in earthworm: Earthworm feeds on dead organic matter0 particu ar y *egetation a ong with soi . It ingests food by the pumping action of its pharyn7. For feeding 0 it presses its mouth against soi and the contracti e suc:ing action of pharyngea wa draws fragments of soi into bucca chamber. 7hysiolo!y of Di!estion: Ingested food is pressed to mo*e posterior y. -o digestion ta:es p ace inside bucca chamber. )hi e passing through the *entra conducting chamber of pharyn70 it meets sa i*ary secretion. 16 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology It contains mucin0 which ubricates the food and an en,yme protease which digests the proteins. Food then passes into gi,,ard. The gi,,ard0 acting as a grinding machine0 pu *eri,es the food mass. This is faci itated by the contracti e mo*ements of its muscu ar wa which cause the food to ro about. In stomach0 a cha :y secretion of ca ciferous g ands ocated in stomach wa 0 neutra i,es the humic acids present in soi . Intestine is the principa site of digestion.

Intestina wa consists of g andu ar ce s which secrete digesti*e Huice containing pepsin0 trypsin0 amy ase0 ipase and ce u ase. %igestion is e7trace u ar in earthworm0 as in higher anima s.

Intestine a so functions for absorbing the digested nutrients. !fter being absorbed by the absorpti*e ce s of intestina epithe ium0 nutrients are passed to b ood capi aries in the intestina wa . Presence of typh oso e in greater part of intestine increases the surface both for digestion and absorption. Bndigested food and the soi are e iminated through anus to outside in the form of wormFcastings.

&'8' Discuss the Sense or!ans in Earthworms 17 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Ans:

Zoology

In Earthworms the we de*e oped sense organs are absent. #owe*er0 specia i,ed epiderma ce s are modified as sensory ce s. From the basa part of ce s sensory fibres arise and meet together to form ner*es which are connected with the centra ner*ous system. The different types of receptors found in earthworm areA Epiderma receptors0 Bucca rIceptors and PhotoFreceptors. Epidermal 9eceptors: They are distributed a o*er epidermis but are more abundant on the atera sides and *entra surface of body. Each receptor has an e e*ated cutic e co*ering a group of ta 0 s ender and co umnar receptor ce s0 bearing sma hairF i:e processes at their outer ends and connected with ner*e fibres at their inner ends. They are surrounded on a sides by ordinary supporting epiderma ce s0 are separated from each other by spaces0 ha*e nuc ei at different e*e s and possess interna y a few basa ce s. They are tacti e in function and according to some0 they a so respond to chemica stimu i and changes in temperature. Buccal 9eceptors: These are confined to the epithe ium of bucca chamber. They are simi ar to epiderma receptors e7cept that they possess broader outer ends0 better de*e oped sensory hairs and more deep y situated nuc ei. 18 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology They are gustatory and o factory and probab y a so respond to chemica stimu i. 7hoto:9eceptors: PhotoFsensiti*e organs0 restricted on y to dorsa surface0 are more numerous on prostomium and peristomium and gradua y reduce in number towards posterior end of body. They are tota y absent in c ite um. Each photoreceptor consists of a sing e o*oid ce 0 with a nuc eus and c ear cytop asm containing a networ: of neurofibri ae and a sma transparent @F shaped ens or optic organe e or phaosome0 made up of a hya ine substance. @ens focusses ight rays from a directions on neurofibri s. -eurofibri s con*erge to an afferent ner*e fibre which ea*es the ce at its base to Hoin the centra ner*ous system. Photoreceptors enab e worms to Hudge the intensity and duration of ight

&'(;' +i,e the economic importance of an earthworm' Ans: Economic Importance of earthworms are as fo owsA Earthworms are of great economic importance to man. They are direct y or indirect y usefu to us as fo owsA 19 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I 1) As 0ait and food:

Zoology

! o*er the wor d0 they are used as bait for fishing. They form the best food of fish in aGuaria. They are a so used as food by *arious unci*i i,ed peop e in many parts of wor d. They a so form food for certain birds0 frogs0 repti es0 centipedes and other predatory in*ertebrates. () <n A!ricultureA Earthworms are in genera beneficia to agricu ture by continous y p oughing and manuring the soi . Their habit of burrowing and swa owing earth increases ferti ity of soi . Their burrows permit penetration of air and moisture in porous soi 0 impro*e drainage and ma:e easier the downward growth of roots0 they add humus to the soi . E7ceratory wastes and other secretions of worms a so enrich soi by adding nitorgenous matter that form important p ant food. #ence they are ca ed as Friend of farmer and gardner. .) <n medicine A Earthworms are used *arious y as medicines0 such as used to cure stones in b adder 0 pyorrhea0 pi es0 rheumatism0se7ua impotency etc.

20 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology E*en to this day the $hinese 0 Japanese and Indians are said to use earthworms in *arious fancy medicines. 4'ln la0oratory: Earthworms are easi y a*ai ab e and are of con*enient si,e for dissections. They are 0therefore0 uni*ersa y emp oyed for c assFroom studies. /' 1armful worms: In some cases0 earthworms become harmfu . E7ceptiona y0 their burrows may cause oss of water by seepage from ditches in irrigated ands. Their castings on s oping ands tend to be washed away by rain and thus contribute to soi erosion.

Ans

Answer the followin! for "6 Mar$s%

&'((' Discuss the Morpholo!y of Earthworm' Ans: Shape and si=e: Earthworm is bisymmetrica anima . 21 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology Its body is cy indrica y e ongated0 pointed in front0 b unt behind and thic:est a itt e behind the anterior end. It is we Dadapted for burrowing. ! mature worm measures about 11> mm in ength and . to 1 mm in width. Colouration: Earthworm is of a g istening deepFbrown in co our. %orsa surface is dar:er than the *entra surface and carries a dar: co oured median ine due to dorsa b ood *esse which is seen through the integument. Brown co our of worm is due to the pigment porphyrin present in body wa and it protects the body against bright and u tra*io et radiation of sun ight. Se!mentation: 6oft and na:ed body of earthworm is di*ided into 1>> to 1(> simi ar segments0 ca ed metameres or somites. The body segmentation in earthworm is ca ed 'metameric segmentation &metamerism).K %ue to the presence of simi ar body segments a ong the ongitudina a7is of the body. The segments are without parapodia0 and segments are separated from each other by distinct ringF i:e groo*es. E7terna segmentation corresponds with the interna segmentation of body. 1ead: 22 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology The earthworm has no distinct head and no conspicuous sense organs on the head. The first segment at the anterior end of the body is ca ed 0uccal se!ment or peristomium bearing the termina crescentic mouth. It is pro onged anterior y into a f eshyF obe0 the prostomium which o*erhangs the mouth. 1ind end: The ast segment of the body is :nown as the ana segment and carries the termina anus. Clitellum: In mature worms0 a conspicuous e7terna feature is a gird eF i:e thic: band of g andu ar tissue0 the clitellum or cin!ulum0 which comp ete y surrounds segments 1/ to 18. %ue to its presence0 the body is distinguished into preFc ite ar0 c ite ar0 and postFc ite ar regions. The segments forming c ite um are not distinct. $ ite um is g andu ar organ which secretes mucus0 a bumen and an eggFcase or cocoon for eggs. Setae: !bout the midd e of each segment there is a ring of tiny cur*ed brist es0 ca ed setae or chaetae0 formed of a horny nitrogenous organic substance0 :nown as chitin. 23 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology !bout 8> to 1(> setae are present on each segment. Each seta is embedded in a sma pit in body wa 0 ca ed setigerous or seta sac. It is formed by a sing e formati*e ce present in the basa part of sac. It has a faint ye ow co our and is shaped i:e an e ongated '6K with a swo en midd e part0 ca ed nodu us. !bout oneFthird of its ength proHects abo*e the surface of s:in in a contracted segment. The setae are operated by specia musc es and he p the worm in ocomotion by securing a firm grasp of the soi on surface of the ground. They can be mo*ed in any direction and e7tended or withdrawn by the action of these musc es. )orn out setae fa out of the body wa and get renewed repeated y. There are no setae in the first and the ast segments and a so in the c ite um of a mature worm. The arrangement of numerous setae in a ring in each segment is :nown as perichaetine arrangement0 as found in Pheretima. E5ternal Apertures: The *arious apertures present on the body of earthworm are as fo ows A Mouth: The mouth is a crescentic aperture situated at the anterior end. 24 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology It is surrounded by the first segment of the body &i.e.0 peristomium). Anus : The ast segment of the body or the ana segment bears the termina anus0 which is a *ertica s itF i:e aperture. Dorsal pores: "inute openings0 the dorsa pores0 ie a ong the midFdorsa ine. one pore in each interFsegmenta groo*e behind the 1(th segment0 e7cept the ast. By means of these pores the coe om communicates with the e7terior.

)hen the worm is disturbed0 coe omic f uid may be eHected through these pores for defense0 to increase the surface moisture or to moisten and ubricate the wa s of the burrow. >ephridiopores: ! arge number of *ery minute nephridiopores or the openings of the integumentary nephridia are scattered a o*er the body e7cept the first two segments. Spermathecal pores: The spermathecae open to the e7terior through four pairs of sma e iptica apertures. the spermatheca pores 06ituated *entroF atera y in the interF segmenta groo*es 1/20 2/30 3/8 and 8/5 segments. Through these apertures spermato,oa are recei*ed from other worm during copu ation. 25 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I emale !enital pore:

Zoology

The o*iduca or fema e genita pore is a sing e median aperture opening on the *entra surface of the c ite um on 1/th segment. in a saucerFshaped depression.

Male !enital pore: ! pair of crescentic ma e genita pore0 or the opening of the common prostatic and spermatic ducts0 ie one on either side on the *entra surface of the 18th body segment +enital papillae: There are two pairs of conspicuous rounded e e*ations0 the copu atory genita papi ae 0one pair on the *entra surface of each of the 13th and 15th body segments and in ine with the ma e genita pores. Each papi a bears no aperture but a sha ow cupF i:e depression at the top. %uring copu ation0 the genita papi ae function as suc:ers. Body )all: Body wa of earthworm comprises a thin cutic e 0 an epidermis0 a we F de*e oped muscu ature and a coe omic epithe ium or parieta peritoneum. Cuticle: The body wa is co*ered e7terna y by a thin e astic cutic e.

26 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology It is nonFce u ar and fine y striated0 iridescent0 doub eF ayered 0and is secreted by under ying epidermis. It consists of co agenous protein and a po ysaccharide a ong with a itt e Guantity of ge atin. It bears many perforations0 through which open the epiderma mucous g ands. It protects the body from physica and chemica inHuries.

Epidermis: It is sing eF ayered and ying Hust beneath the cutic e. $e s of epidermis are of *arious types performing different functions. 6upporting ce s forming bu : of epidermis are of co umnar type. ; and ce s inF c ude numerous mucous ce s and a few a bumen ce s pac:ed with secretory granu es. Basa ce s0 which are sma and rounded or conica 0 ie in spaces between inner ends of supporting ce s and g and ce s . ?eceptor ce s occur in groups with their outer ends gi*ing out fine hairF i:e processes. Epidermis rests on a thin basement membrane.

Muscles: "uscu ature ies be ow epidermis. It consist of an outer thin ayer of circu ar musc e fibers running around the body0 and an inner thic: ayer of ongitudina musc e fibres running a ong the ength of body. 27 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology @ongitudina musc e fibers ie in para e bund es0 separated by connecti*e tissue and strengthened by co agen fibers. The musc e fibers are unstriped0 ong and spind eF shaped. when the circu ar musc e fibers contract 0 the diameter of the body is narrowed and the worm e ongates when the ongitudina musc e fibers contract0 the diameter of the body becomes greater and the worm shortens. The two :inds of musc e fibres are antagonistic0 because the contraction of one goes with the re a7ation of the other. Setal musculature: Two additiona types of musc e a so occur inserted at the base of each seta sac bearing a seta. These are a pair of protractor musc es passing outwards to Hoin the circu ar musc e ayer0 and a sing e retractor musc e0 passing inwards to Hoin another thin sheet of circu ar musc es forming a ring be ow the ongitudina musc es. ! the musc e fibres are unstriped.

Coelomic Epithelium: The innermost ayer of the bodyFwa is the somatic peritoneum or the parieta ayer of coe omic epithe ium0 which a so forms the outer ining of the body ca*ity.

28 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology It consists of a sing e ayer of f at pa*ement ce s which are recogni,ab e by their nuc ei on y. Coelom: Body ca*ity of earthworm is a true coe om which ies between body wa and a imentary cana . It is ined by coe omic epithe ium deri*ed from mesoderm. It communicates with the e7terior through reproducti*e0 nephridia and dorsa pores.

Morpholo!y of an earthworm

&'(#'Discuss the Di!esti,e system of earthworm !nsA %igesti*e 6ystemA 29 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology The digesti*e system inc udes the a imentary cana and the associated digesti*e g ands. Alimentary canal: ! imentary cana is a comp ete and straight tube running a ong the entire ength of body. "outh and anus constitute its anterior and posterior openings respecti*e y0 It is functiona y regionated into *arious parts which are bucca chamber0 pharyn70 oesophagus0 gi,,ard0 6tomach and intestine. Buccal cham0er: $rescentic mouth0 situated *entra to prostomium at the anterior end of peristomium0 eads into a short and narrow protrusib e bucca chamber0 e7tending upto midd e of third segment. Its ining epithe ium is thrown into ongitudina fo ds. 7haryn5: Bucca chamber eads into a spacious pearFshaped muscu ar pharyn70 which e7tends upto the fourth segment. Its anterior end is mar:ed by the ner*e ring p aced in a trans*erse groo*e between it and bucca chamber. Its ca*ity is somewhat dorsoF*entra y compressed due to the presence of arge g andu ar pharyngea mass producing a sa i*ary secretion. @atera wa s of pharyn7 are pushed inside0 thus di*ide the pharyngea ca*ity into a dorsa sa i*ary chamber and a *entra conducting chamber. 30 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology 6a i*ary secretions contain mucus and proteo ytic en,ymes which are poured into the sa i*ary chamber. ?esopha!us: Behind pharyn7 ies the oesophagus or gu et. It is a short0 narrow0 thinFwa ed tube. It e7tends up to the se*enth segment.

+i==ard: 4esophagus is modified into a prominent0 o*a 0 hard and thic:Fwa ed muscu ar organ0 the gi,,ard0 ying in ninth segment. Its muscu ar wa consists of circu ar musc e fibres. It is interna y ined by a tough cutic e. Stomach: ;i,,ard is fo owed by a short narrow tube0 the stomach0 which e7tends from segments 5 to 1/0with a sphincter at each end. Its wa s are high y *ascu ar and g andu ar and thrown into interna trans*erse fo ds. <ntestine: ?egion ne7t to stomach is the intestine0which is a ong0 wide and thinFwa ed tube e7tending from 11th segment to the ast. 31 Sharps Notes Its interna ining is ci iated0fo ded0 *ascu ar and g andu ar.

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology Intestine is di*isib e into three parts A (' 7re:typhlosolar re!ion: The anterior part of intestine ying between segments 11 to (2 is :nown as preF typh oso ar region. From (2th segment are gi*en out e7terna y a pair of forward yFdirected atera conica outgrowths0 the intestinal caeca' These are rich y *ascu arand interna y thrown into *i iF i:e processes. #' @yphlosolar re!ionA This region ies between (3th upto (.F(1 segments in front of anus. This is characteri,ed by the presence of a high y g andu ar and *ascu ar ongitudina ridge. This is ca ed the typh oso e.

-' 7ost:typhlosolar re!ion: The ast part0 a so :nown as rectum0 and is of (.F(1 segments. It opens outside through the termina anus.

32 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I

Zoology

Di!esti,e of an earthworm &'(-' Discuss the Circulatory system of an earthworm' Ans: Circulatory System: $ircu atory or b ood *ascu ar system of earthworm is a c osed system consisting of b ood *esse s and capi aries which ramify to a parts of the body. B ood is composed of f uid p asma and co our ess corpusc es. The red respiratory pigment0 haemog obin &or erythrocruorin) occurs disso *ed in p asma.

33 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology It gi*es a red co our to b ood and aids in the transportation of o7ygen for respiration'

Blood Aessels: B ood *esse s of Pheretima posthuma may be con*enient y grouped into three types0 i.e.0 ongitudina 0 atera and intestina p e7uses. Bon!itudinal 0lood ,essels: These are fi*e in number and run engthwise in the body. (' Dorsal ,esselsA It is the argest b ood *esse of body running midFdorsa y abo*e the a imentary cana . It has thic:0 muscu ar and rhythmica y contracti e wa and is pro*ided with a pair of *a *es in front of the septum in each segment. B ood f ows through it from bac:ward to forward. Behind 1.th segment0 dorsa *esse is a co ecting *esse 0 recei*ing b ood through two pairs of commissura *esse s from subFneura *esse in each segment. In each of .rd0 /th0 1th 02th and 8th segments0 a pair of stout pu sating branches send b ood to the pharyngea nephiridia0 oesophagus and gi,,ard. In front of 1.th segment &anterior y)0 it distributes b ood to the anterior regions of a imentary cana and through the soFca ed hearts to *entra *esse s. 34 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I #' Aentrel ,essel:

Zoology

It is a arge *esse 0 runs midF*entra y be ow a imentary cana . Its wa s are thin and nonFcontracti e and *a *es are a together absent. B ood f ows through it posterior y. 9entra *esse is principa y a distributing *esse . Besides in each segment behind 1.th0 *entra *esse gi*es off a median *entroF intestina *esse to intestine. -' Bateral oesopha!eal ,essels: These are two *esse s ying one on either *entroF atera side gut0 running from the anterior end of body up to 1.th segment. These recei*e a pair of *entroF tegumentary *esse s in each segment. F owing posterior y0 some of its b ood passes to the supraFoesophagea *esse

?est of b ood f ows bac:ward into subFneura *esse . 4' Su0:neural ,essel: It is a s ender *esse which runs immediate y beneath the ner*e cord in midF *entra position. It e7tends from 1/th segment upto the posterior end and is formed by the union of two atera oesophagea *esse s. F ow of b ood is from infront bac:wards. 35 Sharps Notes It is a co ecting *esse .

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology It pours b ood *ia a pair of commissura s in each segment0 into dorsa *esse . /' Supra :?esopha!eal 0lood Aessel: It is a short thinDwa ed co ecting *esse ying midFdorsa y abo*e stomach and confined to segments 5 to 1.. It is connected to atera oesophagea *esse through ( pairs of anterior oops and to *entra *esse through two pairs of ateroFoesophagea hearts. !t p aces it di*ides into separate *esse s which unite to form a sing e *esse . It co ects b ood from stomach0 gi,,ard and pumps it through atera oesophagea hearts into *entra *esse . Bateral or trans,erse 0lood ,essels: ! the ongitudina b ood *esse s are interconnected with one another0 direct y or indirect y0 through numerous segmenta y arranged trans*erse or atera b ood *esse s. @atera b ood *esse s of anterior region&first 1. segments) and those of posterior region &behind 1. segment) of body are described separate y. Bateral Blood Aessels of Anterior 9e!ion @atera B ood 9esse s of !nterior ?egion " irst (- se!ments% (' 1eartsA In each of the segments 30 50 1( and 1. is0 found a pair of arge0 thic:0 muscu ar and rhythmica y contracti e *ertica *esse s0 ca ed hearts. 36 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology They pump b ood from dorsa to *entra *esse 0 whi e f ow in opposite direction is pre*ented by interna *a *es. #earts of 3th and 5th segments connect dorsa and *entra *esse s on y0 are ca ed atera hearts. Those of 1(th and 1.th segments connect both dorsa and suproF oesophagea *esse s with *entra *esse 0 are designated as ateroFoesophagea hearts. #' Anterior loops: There is a pair of thinF wa ed 0nonDpu sati e0 nonFmuscu ar and oopF i:e broad *esse s0 without *a *es 0 in each of the 1>th and 11th segments. These *esse s0 :nown as anterior oops0 carry b ood from atera Foesophagea s into supraFoesophagea *esse . -' 9in! ,essels: These are characteristic circu ar *esse s of stomach situated within its muscu ar coat0 about 1( *esse s per segment. Through these *esse s0 b ood or atera oesophagea s reaches the supraF oesophagea . 4' Aentro:te!umentary ,essels: 9entra *esse gi*es off a pair of *entroF tegumentary *esse s in each segment to body wa 0 septa0 nephridia and reproducti*e organs of the same segment. Bateral Aessels of <ntestinal 9e!ion &behind 1.th segment) 37 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I (' Commissural ,essels:

Zoology

There is a pair of these *esse s in each segment. They co ect b ood from body wa and each gi*es off a sma septoFintestina branch to the intestine. #' Dorso: <ntestinals: Two pairs of them in each segment carry b ood of the intestine to the dorsa *esse . -' Aentro:<ntestinal: ! sing e0 median *entroFintestina in each segment carries b ood from the *entra *esse to the *entra gutFwa . 4' Aentro : te!umentaries: The *entra *esse gi*es off a pair of *entroFtegumentaries0 one on either side0 posterior y in each segment. lntestinal 7le5us: )a of intestine contains many b ood capi aries arranged in two networ:s0 the p e7us. 4ne0 the e7terna p e7us0 ies on the surface or gut. It recei*es b ood from *entra *esse through *entroF ntestina s and septoFintesF tina s0 and passes it on to the interna p e7us. The atter is situated between circu ar musc es and enteric epithe ium.

38 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology Interna p e7us passes on b ood a ong with absorbed nutrients0 to dorsa *esse through dorsoFintestina s. Blood +lands: In segments /0 1 and 20 ying abo*e pharyngea mass and connected with pharyngea of sa i*ary g ands0 are found sma 0 redFco oured0 fo icu ar bodies0 ca ed b ood g ands. Each g and consists of a mass of oose ce s surrounded by a capsu e with a syncytia wa . B ood g ands ser*e for the manufacture of b ood corpusc es and haemog obin.

Circulation of BloodA B ood f ows from behind to forward in dorsa *esse and from front to bac:wards in *entra 0 ateroFoesophagea 0 supraFoesophagea and subFneura *esse s. 9entra *esse is the main distributing *esse 0 supp ying b ood to a parts of body. In first 1. segments0 it supp ies b ood to body wa 0 septa0 nephridia and reproducti*e organs through *entroFtegumentaries. Behind 1.th segment0 it supp ies b ood to body wa and nephridia through *entroFtegumentaries and to gut wa through *entroFintestina s. 6ubFneura 0 atera oesophagea s and supraFoesophagea s are the main co ecting *esse s.

39 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology @atera oesophagea s co ect b ood in first 1. segments from a imentary cana 0 body wa 0 nephridia0 septa and reproducti*e organs0 and discharge into supraF oesophagea through anterior oops and ring *esse s. 6upraFoesophagea a so co ects b ood from gi,,ard and stomach0 and pours it into *entra *esse through ateroFoesophagea hearts. 6ubFneura co ects b ood in the intestina region from *entra body wa and sends into dorsa *esse through commissura s. %orsa *esse functions both as a co ecting and a distributing *esse . In the intestina region0 it co ects b ood through dorsoFintestina from gut wa and through commissura s from subFneura *esse 0 septa and nephridia. In first 1. segments0 it distributes some b ood through branches to a imentary cana and pours the remaining b ood through hearts into *entra *esse . %igested food absorbed through the intestina wa is distributed to different parts of body by the circu atory system.

40 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I

Zoology

Circulatory system of an earthworm

41 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I

Zoology

Circulation of 0lood in an earthworm

&'(4' Discuss the E5cretory system in earthworm' Ans: E5cretory or >ephridial System: In Pheretima0 e7cretion is effected by segmenta y arranged nephridia. These are typica y unbranched and their inner ends open into coe om by a ci iated funne 0ca ed nephrostome. 6uch a nephridium0 opening by a ci iated funne 0 is termed as metanephridium. In Pheretima0 nephridia occur in a body segments e7cept the first three. 42 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology !ccording to their ocation in body0 these are distinguished into . typesD Pharyngea 0 Integumentary and 6epta . 7haryn!eal >ephridia: These occur as paired tufts on side of pharyn7 and oesophagus in the /th0 1th and 2th segments. Each tuft consists of hundreds of coi ed branched tubu es without nephrostomes. In each tuft0 the termina ducts of a tubu es Hoin to form a sing e thic:Fwa ed common duct. Thus there are . pairs of common pharyngea nephridia ducts0 which run anterior y para e to the *entra ner*e cord. %ucts of /th and 1th segments open into pharyn70whi e that of 2th segment open into the bucca chamber. Pharyngea nephridia are thus enteronephric.

<nte!umentary >ephridia: These nephridia ie scattered on the entire inner or parieta surface of body wa in each segment0 e7cept the first two. There are (>>F(1> nephridia in each segment0but the segments of c ite um &segments 1/ to 12)0 their number increases to more than (>>>. Integumentary nephridia are 9Fshaped and ac: nephrostomes.

43 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology Their termina ducts open on body surface independent y through minute openings :nown as nephridiopores. Integumentary nephridia are thus e7onephric.

Septal >ephridia: These are the argest nephridia of Pheretima. They are attached to both the faces of each inter segmenta septum behind 11th segment. ! typica septa nephridium consists of three main partsD-ephrostome0 body and termina duct. -ephrostome is a ci iated funne communicating with the coe om. -ephrostome eads into the main body of nephridium through a short0 narrow and ci iated tubeD i:e nec:. Body consists of two parts0 a short straight obe and a ong twisted obe with a narrow apica part. The twisted obe consists of a pro7ima imb and a dista imb. Pro7ima imb is Hoined to the nec:. %ista imb of nephridium ends in termina duct.

Termina ducts open into a pair of septa e7cretory cana s. These cana s discharge their contents into a pair of supraFintestina e7cretory ducts. 44 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology These ducts open into intestine in each segment. 6epta nephridia are thus a so enteronephric. 7hysiolo!y of E5cretion: -ephridia are abundant y supp ied with b ood *esse s. Their g and ce s e7tract e7cess of water and nitrogenous wastes from b ood. 6epta nephridia a so e iminate e7cretory materia from coe omic f uid. ntegumentary nephridia being e7onephric0 discharge e7cretory materia to outer body surface through nephridiopores. Pharyngea and septa nephridia being enteronephric0 discharge e7cretory materia into umen of a imentary cana 0 from where the e7cretory wastes are e iminated with faeces. Terrestria earthworms e7crete urea &ureote ic). #owe*er earthworms are ess ureote ic than other terrestria anima s. $h oragogen ce s are a so said to be concerned with deamination of proteins0 formation of ammonia and synthesis of urea.

45 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I

Zoology

E5cretory System in earthworm

&'(/' Discuss the 9eproducti,e system of Earthworm' Ans: 9eproducti,e System: Earthworms do not reproduce ase7ua y. The earthworms are monoecious &hermaphrodite) but they cannot ferti i,e their own eggs because they are protandrous. !s a ru e0 crossFferti i,ation ta:es p ace. 46 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology It is preceded by copu ation and cocoon formation. Male 9eproducti,e ?r!ans: These inc ude testes0 testis sacs0 semina *esic es0 *asa deferentia0 prostate g ands and accessory gands. @estes: Two pairs of minute and obed testes are present0 one pair in 1>th and the other pair in 11th segments. They ie *enteroF atera y beneath the a imentary cana 0 c ose to midF*entra ine0 on either side of ner*e cord and attached to the anterior wa of their respecti*e testis sacs. Testes are we formed on y in young worms0 but become degenerated in adu ts. @estis sac: Both the testes of each segment are enc osed within a wide0 thinFwa ed testis sac. Thus0 there are two testis sacs situated in segments 1> and 11. Each testes sac enc oses a pair of testes and a pair of ci iated spermiduca funne s and a so communicates behind0 by a pair of tubu ar connections with two semina *es c es of succeeding segment. Testis sac of 11th segment is arge enough so as to enc ose a so the semina *esic es of that segment. Seminal ,esicles: 47 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology There are two pairs of arge0semina *esic es ying in segments 11 and 1( respecti*e y. They are a so referred to as septa pouches since they grow as outgrowths of the septa. Testis sac of 1>th segment communicates with semina *esic es of 11th segment and testis sec of 11th segment with semina *esic es of 1(th segment. 6emina *esic es of 11th segment ie enc osed within testis sac of the same segment0 whi e those of 1(th segment ie free. Spermiducal funnels: There are two pairs of ci iated spermiduca funne s &or spermosettes)0 one of them ying behind each testis in the same segment and enc osed within the same testis sac. Aasa deferentia: Each spermiduca funne eads behind into a s ender0 ci iated0 threadF i:e sperm duct or *as deferens. Two *asa deferentia of same side run c ose together posterior y a ong the *entra body wa up to 18th segment to Hoin the prostatic duct.

7rostate !land: Prostate g ands are a pair of f at 0so id0 irregu ar and obu ate masses0 ying one on either side of gut and e7tending from 12th or 13th segment up to (>th or (1st segment. 48 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology Immediate y on emergence of prostatic duct from the inner side of g and0 it is enc osed in a common muscu ar sheath0 a ong with the two *asaFdeferentia on its own side0 forming a common spermatic and prostatic duct0 within which the three tubes remain separate. Both common ducts cur*e inwards to open to the e7terior independent y by a pair of ma e genita pores *entra y on 18th segment. Prostate g ands manufacture a f uid0 the prostatic f uid0 of un:nown function. Accessory !lands: In each of the 13th and 15th segments0 is found a pair of rounded white f uffy masses0the accessory g ands0 on *entroF atera body wa 0 one on either side of ner*e cord. They open to the e7terior by a number of ducts on two pairs of genita papi ae0 situated e7terna y upon the 13th and 15th segments0 one on either side of midF *entra ine. Their secretion he ps probab y in uniting the two worms during copu ation. From testes0 spermatogonia or spermFmother ce s are shed into testis sacs. From here they enter semina *esic es to undergo maturation and de*e op into spermato,oa. "ature sperms mo*e bac: into testis sac 0 enter spermiduca funne s0 tra*e a ong *ase deferentia and fina y pass out through genita pores during copu ation. emale 9eproducti,e ?r!ans:

49 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology The fema e reproducti*e organs consist of o*aries0 o*iduca funne s0 o*iducts and spermathecae. ?,aries: ! pair of sma white digitate o*aries ies in 1.th segment attached to the posterior face of septum 1(/1. in form of it0 one on either side of *entra ner*e cord. Each o*ary is a white compact mass made of fingerF i:e processes in which o*a are arranged in a inear series in *arious stages of de*e opment. ?,iducal funnels: ! arge saucerFshaped o*iduca funne 0 with much fo ded and ci iated margins0 ies immediate y behind each o*ary in the 1.th segment. ?,iducts: Each 4*iduca funne eads behind into a short conica ci iated tube0 the o*iducts. The two o*iducts run bac:wards0 perforate septum 1./1/ and con*erge to meet in *entra body wa beneath ner*e cord0 forming a *ery short common o*iduct. It opens to the e7terior through the fema e genita aperture0 situated midF *entra y on 1/th segment.

Spermathecae: 50 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology There are / pairs of sma f as:Fshaped structures0 ca ed spermathecae or receptacu a semina is. These are present *entroF atera y0 one pair in each of the segments 20 30 8 and 5. Each spermatheca has a broad pearFshaped body0 the ampu a0 and a short narrow nec:0 which gi*es off a narrow e ongated b ind caecum or di*erticu um before opening to the e7terior. Thus / pairs of spermethecae open to outside by / pairs of separate spermatheca pores situated *enteroF atera y in the groo*es between 1/20 2/30 3/8 and 8/5 segments0 respecti*e y. 6permathecae recei*e sperms from another worm during copu ation0 and store them in their di*erticu a in Pheretima and in ampu ae in other earthworms. "ature o*a shed from o*aries are entang ed by o*iduca funne s0 tra*e a ong o*iducts0 and pass out to the e7terior through the fema e genita aperture0 to be aid inside the cocoon. Copulation and ertili=ation: Earthworms are bise7ua 0 sti se fFferti i,ation does not occur because they are protandrous. ! reciproca crossFferti i,ation of one worm are transferred to another during a process0 termed copu ation. %uring copu ation.two worms approach each other by their *entra surfaces with head endo pointing in opposite directions0 so that the ma e genita pores of each ie against a pair of spermatheca pores of other. 51 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology !reas surrounding the ma e genita apertures are raised into papi ae0 which are inserted successi*e y from behind to forward into the spermatheca pores of other worm and discharge spermato,oa0 which are stored in spermathecae. !fter this mutua interchange of sperms0 the two worms separate and ater ay their eggs in cocoons. Ferti i,ation is thus e7terna ta:ing p ace in the cocoons. Cocoon ormation: $ocoon is secreted as a *iscid and ge atinous substance by c ite ar g ands0 forming a broad membranous band or gird e around c ite um. It hardens gradua y on e7posure to air into a tough but e astic tube which becomes the cocoon or egg capsu e. ! s ime tube is a so secreted by epiderma mucous ce s of c ite um o*er cocoon. !s the worm wrigg es behind0 the s ime tube and cocoon are s ipped forward o*er the head. 4n its way the cocoon recei*es o*a from fema e genita pore and sperms of other worm from spermathecae 0 so that crossFferti i,ation is ensured and ,ygotes are formed. !n a buminous f uid is a so deposited inside cocoon by the g ands of anterior segments of body. Fina y0 when cocoon is thrown off the head0 its e astic ends c ose up and a ye owish rounded cocoon is formed. 52 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I ertili=ation:

Zoology

Ferti i,ation occurs after the cocoon has been deposited in a moist p ace. $ocoon of Pheretima is a sma spherica body. $ocoon formation ta:es p ace in Pheretima time in summer0 especia y during and after the monsoon. "any cocoons may be formed in succession after each mating0 so that a sperms stored in the spermathecae are not passed out at once.

53 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I

Zoology

9eproducti,e system of earthworm'

&'(3' Discuss the >er,ous system of earthworm' Ans: >er,ous System -er*ous system is we de*e oped and concentrated. 54 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology It consists of three partsF$entra 0 Periphera and 6ympathetic ner*ous systems. Central >er,ous System: It comprises an anterior ner*e ring and a posterior *entra ner*e cord. -er*e ring comprises paired cerebra gang ia0 circumpharyngea connecti*es and subpharyngea gang ia. ! pair of c ose y united white0 pearFshaped cerebra or supraFpharyngea gang ia0 forming the so ca ed brain0 ie dorsa y in the .rd segment. ! pair of thic: stout circumFor periFpharyngea connecti*es arise from them atera y and meeting *entra y in a pair of fused subFpharyngea gang ia beneath the pharyn7 in /th segment. In this way0 a comp ete ner*e ring is formed around pharyn7. 9entra ner*e cord arising from the subFpharyngea gang ia0 runs bac:wards in midF*entra ine to the posterior end of body. *entra ner*e cord appears to be sing e but it is doub e0 consisting of two compact y united right and eft cords. Each segmenta gang ion a so represents the fusion of a pair of gang ia0 one be onging to each cord of the doub e *entra ner*e cord. #isto ogica y0 the ner*e cord consists of ner*e fibres and ner*e ce s. E7terna y the ner*e cord is co*ered by a ayer of *iscera peritoneum0 beneath which ies a thin ayer of ongitudina musc e fibres0 surrounding a fibrous capsu e of epineurium. Fibres form the core of the cord. 55 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I Zoology In the regions of segmenta gang ia0 the two cores of ner*e fibres are comp ete y fused a ong the midd e ine. 4n the sides and be ow cores of ner*e fibres ie the ner*e ce s. These are of two typesDmotor neurons and association neurons. -er*e ce s occur more in the gang ia. -er*e ce s and ner*e fibres ie embeded in a mass of connecti*e tissue0 ca ed neuro!lia. 7eripheral >er,ous System: Each cerebra gang ion gi*es off atera y 8 to 1> ner*es which inner*ate the prostomium and bucca chamber. -er*es from peripharyngea connecti*es supp y the peristomium and bucca chamber0 whi e ner*es from subFpharyngea gang ia supp y structures in the (0 . and / segments. Each segmenta gang ion of *entra ner*e cord gi*es off . pairs of atera ner*es0 one pair in front and two pairs behind the row of setae0 which inner*ate the gut wa .0body wa and other interna organs of their segments. -er*es are of mi7ed type0 consisting both afferent and sensory fibres and efferent or motor fibres. Sympathetic >er,ous System: It consists of an e7tensi*e ner*e p e7us spread beneath epidermis0 within musc es of body wa and on a imentary cana . These p e7us are connected with the peripharyngea connecti*es. 56 Sharps Notes

FY.Bsc. Term I / Paper I

Zoology

57 Sharps Notes