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Certified Mail Article Number: (revised) STATUTES REPLACED W T!

NTERNAT "NAL LAW C RCA #$%% C&mm&'(La) Trust Public N&tice*Public Rec&rd Revisi&'((C&u'terfeit*T& C&u'terfeit*C&u'terfeit &f "bli+ati&'s &r securities &f U'ited States Curre't t,r&u+, Pub- L- ##%(%.- (See Public La)s f&r t,e curre't C&'+ress-) defi'ed December $t, #$/0 'ter'ati&'al "r+a'i1ati&' mmu'ities Act reli'2uis,ed ever3 4ublic &ffice &f t,e U'ited States t& t,e U'ited Nati&'s,tt4:**aval&'-la)-3ale-edu*56t,7ce'tur3*decad6%/-as4 ,tt4:**)))-la)-c&r'ell-edu*usc&de*,tml*usc&de55*usc7sec7557666665889(666('&tes-,tml :";ERNMENT A:ENT ACT N: AS AN <"==S!"RE> STATUTE MERC!ANT W,atever t,e f&rm i' ),ic, t,e :&ver'me't fu'cti&'s? a'3&'e e'teri'+ i't& a' arra'+eme't )it, t,e :&ver'me't ta@es t,e ris@ &f ,avi'+ accuratel3 ascertai'ed t,at ,e ),& 4ur4&rts t& act f&r t,e :&ver'me't sta3s )it,i' t,e b&u'ds &f ,is aut,&rit3- T,e sc&4e &f t,is aut,&rit3 ma3 be eA4licitl3 defi'ed b3 C&'+ress &r be limited b3 dele+ated le+islati&'? 4r&4erl3 eAercised t,r&u+, t,e rule(ma@i'+ 4&)er- A'd t,is is s& eve' t,&u+,? as ,ere? t,e a+e't ,imself ma3 ,ave bee' u'a)are &f t,e limitati&'s u4&' ,is aut,&rit3- See? e-+-? Uta, P&)er B Li+,t C&- v- U'ited States? 5/% U-S- %8$- /6$? %$#C U'ited States v- Ste)art? %## U-S.6? D6? #68? a'd see? +e'erall3? ' re =l&3d Acce4ta'ces? D Wall- ...)C NE T!ER T!E ="R PR"= T :";ERNMENT N"R T!E <="RE :N> STATUTE MERC!ANT*A:ENT !AS ACCESS T" S";ERE :N MMUN TE As a member &f a c&r4&rati&'? a +&ver'me't 'ever eAercises its s&verei+'t3- t acts merel3 as a c&r4&rat&r? a'd eAercises '& &t,er 4&)er i' t,e ma'a+eme't &f t,e affairs &f t,e c&r4&rati&'? t,a' are eA4ressl3 +ive' b3 t,e i'c&r4&rati'+ act- Suits br&u+,t b3 &r a+ai'st it are '&t u'derst&&d t& be br&u+,t b3 &r a+ai'st t,e U'ited States- T,e +&ver'me't? b3 bec&mi'+ a c&r4&rat&r? la3s d&)' its s&verei+'t3? s& far as res4ects t,e tra'sacti&' &f t,e c&r4&rati&'? a'd eAercises '& 4&)er &r 4rivile+e ),ic, is '&t derived fr&m t,e c,arter-)C U-S- v- :e&r+ia(Pacific C&-? /5# =-5d $5? #6# ($t, Cir- #$D6) (:&ver'me't ma3 als& be b&u'd b3 t,e d&ctri'e &f e2uitable est&44el if acti'+ i' 4r&4rietar3 <f&r 4r&fit 'ature> rat,er t,a' s&verei+' ca4acit3)C t,e FSavi'+s t& Suit&r ClauseG is als& available f&r addressi'+ merca'tile a'd admiralt3 matters a@a Fcivil 4r&cessG at t,e c&mm&' la) a'd )it,i' a state c&urtT!E REAS"N W!E T!E LAW "= NECESS TE AND =ULL D SCL"SURE :" N: T" SPEC = C TE C"MES NT" PLAE N C"MMERC AL PR"CEED N:S "NCE E"UHRE SUMM"NED NT" ANE "= T!ESE PR ;ATE MERCANT LE C"RP"RATE C"URTS Title 8? 55 B 58 USC W,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&: December 5.t, #$%% /$ Statute %6$D Treat3 Series 88# (C&'ve'ti&' &' Ri+,ts a'd Duties &f States) stated C"N:RESS re4laced STATUTES )it, i'ter'ati&'al la)? 4laci'+ all states u'der i'ter'ati&'al la)W,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&: December $t, #$/0 'ter'ati&'al "r+a'i1ati&' mmu'ities Act reli'2uis,ed ever3 4ublic &ffice &f t,e U'ited States t& t,e U'ited Nati&'sW,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&: 55 C=R $5-#5($5-%# =R !eadi'+ F=&rei+' Relati&'s,i4G states t,at a' &at, is re2uired t& ta@e &fficeW,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&: Title 8 USC #/8# stated &'ce a' &at, &f &ffice is ta@e' citi1e's,i4 is reli'2uis,ed? t,us 3&u bec&me a f&rei+' e'tit3? a+e'c3? &r state- T,at mea's ever3 4ublic &ffice is a f&rei+' state? i'cludi'+ all 4&litical subdivisi&'s- (i-e- ever3 si'+le c&urt a'd t,at c&urts 4ers&''el is c&'sidered a se4arate f&rei+' e'tit3) W,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&: Title 55 USC (=&rei+' Relati&'s a'd 'terc&urse) C,a4ter ## ide'tifies all

Certified Mail Article Number: 4ublic &fficials as f&rei+' a+e'tsW,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&: Title 58 USC %665 Secti&' #0A states t,at t,e U'ited States is a =ederal C&r4&rati&' a'd '&t a :&ver'me't? i'cludi'+ t,e Iudiciar3 Pr&cedural Secti&'W,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&: =ederal Rules &f Civil Pr&cedure (=RCP) /J states t,at t,e C&urt Jurisdicti&' a'd immu'it3 fall u'der a f&rei+' StateW,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&: T,e ##t, Ame'dme't states FT,e Iudicial 4&)er &f t,e U'ited States s,all '&t be c&'strued t& eAte'd t& a'3 suit i' la) &r e2uit3? c&mme'ced &r 4r&secuted a+ai'st &'e &f t,e U'ited States b3 Citi1e's &f a'&t,er State? &r b3 Citi1e's &r SubJects &f a' =&rei+' State-G (A f&rei+' e'tit3? a+e'c3? &r state ca''&t bri'+ a'3 suit a+ai'st a U'ited States citi1e' )it,&ut abidi'+ t,e f&ll&)i'+ 4r&cedure-) W,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&: Title 55 C=R $%-#($%-5 states t,at t,e De4artme't &f State ,as t& be '&tified &f a'3 suit? a'd i' tur' ,as t& '&tif3 t,e U'ited States citi1e' &f said suitW,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&: Title 58 USC #%%6 states t,at t,e U'ited States District C&urt ,as t& +ra't 4ermissi&' f&r t,e suit t& be 4ursued &'ce t,e c&urt ,as bee' su44lied sufficie't 4r&&f t,at t,e U'ited States citi1e' is actuall3 a c&r4&rate e'tit3W,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&: Title 58 USC #.68 ,ave Abs&lute mmu'it3 as a C&r4&rati&' W,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&: Title 58 USC #.65(#.## (=&rei+' S&verei+' mmu'ities Act) all&)s t,e Jurisdicti&' &f a c&urt t& be c,alle'+ed? a'd a dema'd &f 4r&4er Jurisdicti&' t& be stated,tt4:**)))-scribd-c&m*d&c*#8/8/.085*C&mm&'(La)(Trust(=&rei+'(S&verei+'( mmu'it3(Act(Defi'ed( Public(N&tice(Public(Rec&rd ="RE :N S";ERE :N MMUN TE ACT defi'ed: subJect t& eAisti'+ i'ter'ati&'al a+reeme'ts t& ),ic, t,e U-S- is a 4art3? a'd t& certai' statut&ril3 4rescribed eAce4ti&'s? a f&rei+' 'ati&' is immu'e fr&m t,e Jurisdicti&' &f federal a'd state c&urts- <58 U-S-C- Sec- #.6#(#.##> Klac@Ls La) Dicti&'ar3 SiAt, Editi&' (4a+e #%$.) W,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&C mmu'it3 &f a f&rei+' state fr&m Jurisdicti&': SubJect t& eAisti'+ i'ter'ati&'al a+reeme'ts t& ),ic, t,e U'ited States is a 4art3 at t,e time &f e'actme't &f t,is Act a f&rei+' state s,all be immu'e fr&m t,e Jurisdicti&' &f t,e c&urts &f t,e U'ited States a'd &f t,e States eAce4t as 4r&vided i' secti&'s #.60 t& #.6D &f t,is c,a4terW,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&: mmu'it3 fr&m attac,me't a'd eAecuti&' &f 4r&4ert3 &f a f&rei+' state: SubJect t& eAisti'+ i'ter'ati&'al a+reeme'ts t& ),ic, t,e U'ited States is a 4art3 at t,e time &f e'actme't &f t,is Act t,e 4r&4ert3 i' t,e U'ited States &f a f&rei+' state s,all be immu'e fr&m attac,me't arrest a'd eAecuti&' eAce4t as 4r&vided i' secti&'s #.#6 a'd #.## &f t,is c,a4terS";ERE :N PE"PLE defi'ed: t,e 4&litical b&d3? c&'sisti'+ &f t,e e'tire 'umber &f citi1e's a'd 2ualified elect&rs? ),&? i' t,eir c&llective ca4acit3? 4&ssess t,e 4&)ers &f s&verei+'t3 a'd eAercise t,em t,r&u+, t,eir c,&se' re4rese'tatives <see Sc&tt v- Sa'f&rd? #$ !&)- /6/? #0 L- Ed- .$#-> Klac@Ls La) Dicti&'ar3 SiAt, Editi&' (4a+e #%$.) SA; N:S T" SU T"RS CLAUSE defi'ed: T,at 4r&visi&' i' 58 U-S-C-A- M #%%%(#) ),ic, +ives t,e U-SDistrict C&urts &ri+i'al Jurisdicti&'? NeAclusive &f t,e c&urts &f t,e stateN &f a'3 civil case &f admiralt3 &r maritime Jurisdicti&'? Nsavi'+ t& suit&rs i' all cases all &t,er remedies t& ),ic, t,e3 are &t,er)ise e'titled-N T,e Nsavi'+ t& suit&rsN clause &f t,e secti&' &f t,e Iudiciar3 Act im4leme'ti'+ c&'stituti&'al 4r&visi&' eAte'di'+ federal Judicial 4&)ers t& cases &f admiralt3 a'd maritime Jurisdicti&' mea's t,at a suit&r asserti'+ a' i' 4ers&'am admiralt3 claim ma3 elect t& sue i' a Nc&mm&' la)N state c&urt t,r&u+, a' &rdi'ar3 civil acti&'? a'd i' suc, acti&'s? t,e state c&urts must a44l3 t,e same substa'tive la) as )&uld be a44lied ,ad t,e suit bee' i'stituted i' admiralt3 i' a federal c&urt- S,a''&' v- Cit3 &f A'c,&ra+e? Alas@a?

Certified Mail Article Number: /D8 P-5d 8#0? 8#8- Klac@Hs La) Dicti&'ar3 SiAt, Editi&' (4a+e #%/%) W,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&: Iul3 5Dt, #8.8 #0 Statutes at Lar+e C,a4ter 5/$ Secti&' # FActs C&'cer'i'+ America' Citi1e's i' a =&rei+' StateG? eA4atriati&'? is ),at is br&@e' ),e' Jurisdicti&' is dema'ded? a'd it is '&t met )it, a' a's)erW,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&: U'der t,e =ederal Rules &f Civil Pr&cedure #5b . t,e 4r&secuti&' ,as failed t& 4r&vide ade2uate 4r&&f t,at t,e 4arties i'v&lved i' t,is situati&' are actuall3 c&r4&rate e'tities- ,ave 4r&vided am4le 4r&&f t,at t,e 4r&secuti&' a'd &t,er a+e'ts are actuall3 c&r4&rati&'sC"RP"RAT"R defi'ed: "'e ),& is a member &f a c&r4&rati&'-5- ' +e'eral? a c&r4&rat&r is e'titled t& e'J&3 all t,e be'efits a'd ri+,ts? ),ic, bel&'+ t& a'3 &t,er member &f t,e c&r4&rati&' as suc,- Kut i' s&me c&r4&rati&'s? ),ere t,e ri+,ts are &f a 4ecu'iar3 'ature? eac, c&r4&rat&r is e'titles t& t,&se ri+,ts i' 4r&4&rti&' t& ,is i'terestC ,e )ill t,eref&re be e'titled t& v&te &'l3 i' 4r&4&rti&' t& t,e am&u't &f ,is st&c@? a'd be e'titled t& divide'ds i' t,e same 4r&4&rti&'- %- A c&r4&rat&r is '&t i' +e'eral liable 4ers&'all3 f&r a'3 act &f t,e c&r4&rati&'? u'less ,e ,as bee' made s& b3 t,e c,arter creati'+ t,e c&r4&rati&'- A La) Dicti&'ar3 Ada4ted T& T,e C&'stituti&' a'd La)s &f t,e U'ited States &f America a'd &f t,e Several States &f t,e America' U'i&' b3 I&,' K&uvier Revised SiAt, Editi&'? #80. KE(LAWS defi'ed: Rules a'd &rdi'a'ces made b3 a c&r4&rati&' f&r its &)' +&ver'me't- 5- T,e 4&)er t& ma@e b3(la)s is usuall3 c&'ferred b3 eA4ress terms &f t,e c,arter creati'+ t,e c&r4&rati&'? t,&u+,? ),e' '&t eA4ressl3 +ra'ted? it is +ive' b3 im4licati&'? a'd it is i'cide't t& t,e ver3 eAiste'ce &f a c&r4&rati&'W,e' t,ere is a' eA4ress +ra't? limited t& certai' cases a'd f&r certai' 4ur4&ses? t,e c&r4&rate 4&)er &f le+islati&' is c&'fi'ed t& t,e &bJects s4ecified? all &t,ers bei'+ eAcluded b3 im4licati&'- 5 O3d &' C&r4#65C 5 P- Wms- 56DC A'+- &' C&r4- #DD- T,e 4&)er &f ma@i'+ b3(la)s? is t& be eAercised b3 t,&se 4ers&'s i' ),&m it is vested b3 t,e c,arterC but if t,at i'strume't is sile't &' t,at subJect? it resides i' t,e members &f t,e c&r4&rati&' at lar+e- !arris B :illLs R- %5/C / Kurr- 50#0? 505#C . Kr&- P- C- 0#$- %- T,e c&'stituti&' &f t,e U'ited States? a'd acts &f c&'+ress made i' c&'f&rmit3 t& it t,e c&'stituti&' &f t,e state i' ),ic, a c&r4&rati&' is l&cated? a'd acts &f t,e le+islature? c&'stituti&'all3 made? t&+et,er )it, t,e c&mm&'(la) as t,ere acce4ted? are &f su4eri&r f&rce t& a'3 b3(la)C a'd suc, b3(la)? ),e' c&'trar3 t& eit,er &f t,em? is t,eref&re v&id? ),et,er t,e c,arter aut,&ri1es t,e ma@i'+ &f suc, b3(la) &r '&tC because '& le+islature ca' +ra't 4&)er lar+er t,a' t,e3 t,emselves 4&ssess- D C&)e'Ls R- 080C d- .6/ 0 C&)e'Ls R- 0%8- ;ide? +e'erall3? Au+- &' C&r4- c,- $C Willc- &' C&r4- c,- 5? s- %C Kac- Ab- ,- t-C / ;i'- Ab- %6# Da'eLs Ab- 'deA? ,- t-? C&m- Di+- ,- t-C a'd d- v&l- viii- ,- t- A La) Dicti&'ar3 Ada4ted T& T,e C&'stituti&' a'd La)s &f t,e U'ited States &f America a'd &f t,e Several States &f t,e America' U'i&' b3 I&,' K&uvier Revised SiAt, Editi&'? #80. K3(La)s? Re+ulati&'s? &rdi'a'ces? rules &r la)s ad&4ted b3 a' ass&ciati&' &r c&r4&rati&' &r t,e li@e f&r its i'ter'al +&ver'a'ce- K3la)s defi'e t,e ri+,ts a'd &bli+ati&'s &f vari&us &fficers? 4ers&'s &r +r&u4s )it,i' t,e c&r4&rate structure a'd 4r&vide rules f&r r&uti'e matters suc, as calli'+ meeti'+s a'd t,e li@e- M&st state c&r4&rati&' statutes c&'tem4late t,at ever3 c&r4&rati&' )ill ad&4t b3la)s- T,e )&rd is als& s&metimes used t& desi+'ate t,e l&cal la)s &r mu'ici4al statutes &f a cit3 &r t&)'? t,&u+,? m&re c&mm&'l3 t,e te'de'c3 is t& em4l&3 t,e )&rd N&rdi'a'ceN eAclusivel3 f&r t,is class &f e'actme'ts? reservi'+ Nb3(la)N f&r t,e rules ad&4ted b3 c&r4&rati&'sLAW "= NAT "NS defi'ed: T,e scie'ce? ),ic, teac,es t,e ri+,ts subsisti'+ bet)ee' 'ati&'s &r states? a'd t,e &bli+ati&'s c&rres4&'de't t& t,&se ri+,ts- ;attelLs La) &f Nat- Prelim- Sec- %- S&me c&m4lai'ts? 4er,a4s '&t u'f&u'ded? ,ave bee' made as t& t,e )a't &f eAact'ess i' t,e defi'iti&' &f t,is term- Ma''C&mm- #- T,e 4,rase Ni'ter'ati&'al la)N ,as bee' 4r&4&sed? i' its stead- # Ke't,- &' M&rals a'd Le+islati&'? 5.6? 5.5- t is a s3stem &f rules deducible b3 'atural reas&' fr&m t,e immutable 4ri'ci4les &f 'atural Justice? a'd establis,ed b3 u'iversal c&'se't am&'+ t,e civili1ed i',abita'ts &f t,e )&rldC 'st- lib#? t- 5? Sec- #C Di+- lib- #? t- #? l- $C i' &rder t& decide all dis4utes? a'd t& i'sure t,e &bserva'ce &f +&&d fait, a'd Justice i' t,at i'terc&urse ),ic, must fre2ue'tl3 &ccur bet)ee' t,em a'd t,e i'dividuals bel&'+i'+ t& eac, &r it de4e'ds u4&' mutual c&m4acts? treaties? lea+ues a'd a+reeme'ts bet)ee' t,e se4arate? free? a'd i'de4e'de't c&mmu'ities- 5- 'ter'ati&'al la) is +e'erall3 divided i't& t)& bra'c,esC #- T,e 'atural la) &f 'ati&'s? c&'sisti'+ &f t,e rules &f Justice a44licable t& t,e c&'duct &f states- 5- T,e 4&sitive la) &f 'ati&'s?

Certified Mail Article Number: ),ic, c&'sist &f? #- T,e v&lu'tar3 la) &f 'ati&'s? derived fr&m t,e 4resumed c&'se't &f 'ati&'s? arisi'+ &ut &f t,eir +e'eral usa+e- 5- T,e c&'ve'ti&'al la) &f 'ati&'s? derived fr&m t,e eA4ress c&'se't &f 'ati&'s? as evide'ced i' treaties a'd &t,er i'ter'ati&'al c&m4acts- %- T,e cust&mar3 la) &f 'ati&'s? derived fr&m t,e eA4ress c&'se't &f 'ati&'s? as evide'ced i' treaties a'd &t,er i'ter'ati&'al c&m4acts bet)ee' t,emselves;attel? La) &f Nat- Prel- %- T,e vari&us s&urces a'd evide'ce &f t,e la) &f 'ati&'s? are t,e f&ll&)i'+: #T,e rules &f c&'duct? deducible b3 reas&' fr&m t,e 'ature &f s&ciet3 eAisti'+ am&'+ i'de4e'de't states? ),ic, &u+,t t& be &bserved am&'+ 'ati&'s- 5- T,e adJudicati&' &f i'ter'ati&'al tribu'als? suc, as 4ri1e c&urts a'd b&ards &f arbitrati&'- %- TeAt )riters &f aut,&rit3- /- "rdi'a'ces &r la)s &f 4articular states? 4rescribi'+ rules f&r t,e c&'duct &f t,eir c&mmissi&'ed cruisers a'd 4ri1e tribu'alLs- 0- T,e ,ist&r3 &f t,e )ars? 'e+&tiati&'s? treaties &f 4eace? a'd &t,er matters relati'+ t& t,e 4ublic i'terc&urse &f 'ati&'s- .Treaties &f 4eace? allia'ce a'd c&mmerce? declari'+? m&dif3i'+? &r defi'i'+ t,e 4re(eAisti'+ i'ter'ati&'al la)- W,eat- 'ter'- La)? 4t- #? c- #? Sec- #/- /- T,e la) &f 'ati&'s ,as bee' divided b3 )riters i't& 'ecessar3 a'd v&lu'tar3C &r i't& abs&lute a'd arbitrar3C b3 &t,ers i't& 4rimar3 a'd sec&'dar3? ),ic, latter ,as bee' divided i't& cust&mar3 a'd c&'ve'ti&'al- A'&t,er divisi&'? ),ic, is t,e &'e m&re usuall3 em4l&3ed? is t,at &f t,e 'atural a'd 4&sitive la) &f 'ati&'Ls- T,e 'atural la) &f 'ati&'s c&'sists &f t,&se rules? ),ic,? bei'+ u'iversal? a44l3 t& all me' a'd t& all 'ati&'s? a'd ),ic, ma3 be deduced b3 t,e assista'ce &f revelati&' &r reas&'? as bei'+ &f utilit3 t& 'ati&'s? a'd i'se4arable fr&m t,eir eAiste'ce- T,e 4&sitive la) &f 'ati&'s c&'sists &f rules a'd &bli+ati&'s? ),ic, &)e t,eir &ri+i'? '&t t& t,e divi'e &r 'atural la)? but t& ,uma' c&m4acts &r a+reeme'ts? eit,er eA4ress &r im4liedC t,at is? t,e3 are de4e'de't &' cust&m &r c&'ve'ti&'- 0- Am&'+ t,e R&ma's? t,ere )ere t)& s&rts &f la)s &f 'ati&'s? 'amel3? t,e 4rimitive? called 4rimarium? a'd t,e &t,er @'&)' b3 t,e 'ame &f secu'darium- T,e 4rimarium? t,at is t& sa3? 4rimitive &r m&re a'cie't? is 4r&4erl3 t,e &'l3 la) &f 'ati&'s ),ic, ,uma' reas&' su++ests t& me'C as t,e )&rs,i4 &f :&d? t,e res4ect a'd submissi&' ),ic, c,ildre' ,ave f&r t,eir 4are'ts? t,e attac,me't ),ic, citi1e's ,ave f&r t,eir c&u'tr3? t,e +&&d fait, ),ic, &u+,t t& be t,e s&ul &f ever3 a+reeme't? a'd t,e li@e- T,e la) &f 'ati&'s called secu'darium? are certai' usa+es ),ic, ,ave bee' establis,ed am&'+ me'? fr&m time t& time? as t,e3 ,ave bee' felt t& be 'ecessar3- A3l- Pa'd- K- #? t- 5? 4- .- As t& t,e la) &f? 'ati&'s +e'erall3? see ;attelLs La) &f Nati&'sC W,eat- &' 'ter'- La)C Marte'Ls La) &f Nati&'sC C,itt3Ls La) &f Nati&'sC Puffe'd- La) &f Nature a'd &f Nati&'s? b&&@ %C Kurlama2uiLs Natural La)? 4art 5? c- .C Pri'ci4les &f Pe'al La)? c,- #%C Ma''- C&mm- &' t,e La) &f Nati&'sC Leib'it1? C&deA Iuris :e'tium Di4l&maticusC Ki'@ers,&e@? Puaesti&'is Iuris Publici? a tra'slati&' &f t,e first b&&@ &f ),ic,? made b3 Mr- Du4&'ceau? is 4ublis,ed i' t,e t,ird v&lume &f !allLs La) I&ur'alC Ouber? Dr&it des :e's M&deme de lLEur&4eC Dum&'t? C&r4s Di4l&mati2ueC Mabl3? Dr&it Public de lLEur&4eC Oe'tLs C&mm- Lecture #- A La) Dicti&'ar3 Ada4ted T& T,e C&'stituti&' a'd La)s &f t,e U'ited States &f America a'd &f t,e Several States &f t,e America' U'i&' b3 I&,' K&uvier Revised SiAt, Editi&'? #80. W,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&: T,e Alie' Re+istrati&' Act &f #$/6? usuall3 called t,e Smit, Act because t,e a'ti(sediti&' secti&' )as aut,&red b3 Re4rese'tative !&)ard W- Smit, &f ;ir+i'ia? )as ad&4ted at 0/ Statutes at Lar+e .D6(.D# (#$/6)- T,e Act ,as bee' ame'ded several times a'd ca' '&) be f&u'd at #8 U-S- C&de M 5%80 (5666)- M 5%80- Adv&cati'+ "vert,r&) &f :&ver'me'tC W,&ever @'&)i'+l3 &r )illfull3 adv&cates? abets? advises? &r teac,es t,e dut3? 'ecessit3? desirabilit3? &r 4r&4riet3 &f &vert,r&)i'+ &r destr&3i'+ t,e +&ver'me't &f t,e U'ited States &r t,e +&ver'me't &f a'3 State? Territ&r3? District &r P&ssessi&' t,ere&f? &r t,e +&ver'me't &f a'3 4&litical subdivisi&' t,erei'? b3 f&rce &r vi&le'ce? &r b3 t,e assassi'ati&' &f a'3 &fficer &f a'3 suc, +&ver'me'tC &r W,&ever? )it, i'te't t& cause t,e &vert,r&) &r destructi&' &f a'3 suc, +&ver'me't? 4ri'ts? 4ublis,es? edits? issues? circulates? sells? distributes? &r 4ublicl3 dis4la3s a'3 )ritte' &r 4ri'ted matter adv&cati'+? advisi'+? &r teac,i'+ t,e dut3? 'ecessit3? desirabilit3? &r 4r&4riet3 &f &vert,r&)i'+ &r destr&3i'+ a'3 +&ver'me't i' t,e U'ited States b3 f&rce &r vi&le'ce? &r attem4ts t& d& s&C &r W,&ever &r+a'i1es &r ,el4s &r attem4ts t& &r+a'i1e a'3 s&ciet3? +r&u4? &r assembl3 &f 4ers&'s ),& teac,? adv&cate? &r e'c&ura+e t,e &vert,r&) &r destructi&' &f a'3 suc, +&ver'me't b3 f&rce &r vi&le'ceC &r bec&mes &r is a member &f? &r affiliates )it,? a'3 suc, s&ciet3? +r&u4? &r assembl3 &f 4ers&'s? @'&)i'+ t,e 4ur4&ses t,ere&f(( S,all be fi'ed u'der t,is title &r im4ris&'ed '&t m&re t,a' t)e't3 3ears? &r b&t,? a'd s,all be i'eli+ible f&r em4l&3me't b3 t,e U'ited States &r a'3 de4artme't &r a+e'c3 t,ere&f? f&r t,e five 3ears 'eAt f&ll&)i'+ ,is c&'victi&'- f t)& &r m&re 4ers&'s c&'s4ire t& c&mmit a'3 &ffe'se 'amed i' t,is secti&'? eac, s,all be fi'ed u'der t,is title &r im4ris&'ed '&t m&re t,a' t)e't3 3ears? &r b&t,? a'd s,all be i'eli+ible f&r em4l&3me't b3 t,e U'ited States &r a'3 de4artme't &r a+e'c3 t,ere&f? f&r t,e five 3ears 'eAt f&ll&)i'+ ,is c&'victi&'- As used i' t,is secti&'? t,e

Certified Mail Article Number: terms N&r+a'i1esN a'd N&r+a'i1eN? )it, res4ect t& a'3 s&ciet3? +r&u4? &r assembl3 &f 4ers&'s? i'clude t,e recruiti'+ &f 'e) members? t,e f&rmi'+ &f 'e) u'its? a'd t,e re+r&u4i'+ &r eA4a'si&' &f eAisti'+ clubs? classes? a'd &t,er u'its &f suc, s&ciet3? +r&u4? &r assembl3 &f 4ers&'sW,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&: "fficers a'd em4l&3ees acti'+ as a+e'ts &f f&rei+' 4ri'ci4al #8 USC M 5#$ (a) W,&ever? bei'+ a 4ublic &fficial? is &r acts as a' a+e't &f a f&rei+' 4ri'ci4al re2uired t& re+ister u'der t,e =&rei+' A+e'ts Re+istrati&' Act &f #$%8? as ame'ded? s,all be fi'ed u'der t,is title &r im4ris&'ed f&r '&t m&re t,a' t)& 3ears? &r b&t,- (b) N&t,i'+ i' t,is secti&' s,all a44l3 t& t,e em4l&3me't &f a'3 a+e't &f a f&rei+' 4ri'ci4al as a s4ecial :&ver'me't em4l&3ee i' a'3 case i' ),ic, t,e ,ead &f t,e em4l&3i'+ a+e'c3 certifies t,at suc, em4l&3me't is re2uired i' t,e 'ati&'al i'terest- A c&43 &f a'3 certificati&' u'der t,is 4ara+ra4, s,all be f&r)arded b3 t,e ,ead &f suc, a+e'c3 t& t,e Att&r'e3 :e'eral ),& s,all cause t,e same t& be filed )it, t,e re+istrati&' stateme't a'd &t,er d&cume'ts filed b3 suc, a+e't? a'd made available f&r 4ublic i's4ecti&' i' acc&rda'ce )it, secti&' . &f t,e =&rei+' A+e'ts Re+istrati&' Act &f #$%8 (55 USCS M .#.>? as ame'ded- (c) =&r t,e 4ur4&se &f t,is secti&' N4ublic &fficialN mea's Member &f C&'+ress? Dele+ate? &r Reside't C&mmissi&'er? eit,er bef&re &r after ,e ,as 2ualified? &r a' &fficer &r em4l&3ee &r 4ers&' acti'+ f&r &r &' be,alf &f t,e U'ited States? &r a'3 de4artme't? a+e'c3? &r bra'c, &f :&ver'me't t,ere&f? i'cludi'+ t,e District &f C&lumbia? i' a'3 &fficial fu'cti&'? u'der &r b3 aut,&rit3 &f a'3 suc, de4artme't? a+e'c3? &r bra'c, &f :&ver'me't- (Added Iul3 /? #$..? P- L- 8$(/8.? M 8(b)? 86 Stat5/$C "ct- #5? #$8/? P- L- $8/D%? Title ? C, Q ? Part I? M ###.? $8 Stat- 5#/$C N&v- #6? #$8.? P- L- $$(./.? M %6? #66 Stat- %0$8C N&v- 5$? #$$6? P- L- #6#(./D? Title QQQ;? M %0##? #6/ Stat- /$55-) ! ST"REC ANC LLARE LAWS AND D RECT ;ES Refere'ces i' teAt: NT,e =&rei+' A+e'ts Re+istrati&' Act &f #$%$N? referred t& i' subsec- (a)? is Act Iu'e 8? #$%8? c, %5D? 05 Stat- .%#? ),ic, a44ears +e'erall3 as 55 USCS M .## et se2- =&r full classificati&' &f t,is Act? c&'sult USCS Tables v&lumes- EA4la'at&r3 '&tes: A 4ri&r M 5#$ )as redesi+'ated as #8 USCS M 5#/ b3 Act "ct- 5%? #$.5? P- L- 8D(8/$? M #(d)? D. Stat- ##50Effective date &f secti&': Act Iul3 /? #$..? P-L- 8$(/8.? M $? 86 Stat- 5/$? 4r&vides t,at t,is secti&' s,all bec&me effective $6 da3s after its e'actme't &' Iul3 /? #$..C see 55 USCS M .## '&te- Ame'dme'ts: #$8/Act "ct- #5? #$8/? i' t,e first u'desi+'ated 4ara-? substituted Na 4ublic &fficialN f&r Na' &fficer &r em4l&3eeNC a'd added t,e t,ird u'desi+'ated 4ara- #$8.- Act N&v- #6? #$8. desi+'ated t,e first u'desi+'ated 4ara- as subsec- (a)? a'd substituted suc, subsec- f&r &'e ),ic, read: NW,&ever? bei'+ a 4ublic &fficial &f t,e U'ited States i' t,e eAecutive? le+islative? &r Judicial bra'c, &f t,e :&ver'me't &r i' a'3 a+e'c3 &f t,e U'ited States? i'cludi'+ t,e District &f C&lumbia? is &r acts as a' a+e't &f a f&rei+' 4ri'ci4al re2uired t& re+ister u'der t,e =&rei+' A+e'ts Re+istrati&' Act &f #$%8? as ame'ded? s,all be fi'ed '&t m&re t,a' R#6?666 &r im4ris&'ed f&r '&t m&re t,a' t)& 3ears? &r b&t,-NC desi+'ated t,e sec&'d a'd t,ird u'desi+'ated 4aras- as subsecs- (b) a'd (c) res4ectivel3? a'd i' subsec- (c)? as s& desi+'ated? substituted NDele+ateN f&r Nt,e Dele+ate fr&m t,e District &f C&lumbia?N a'd deleted? N &r a Jur&rN 4recedi'+ t,e c&'cludi'+ 4eri&d- #$$6- Act N&v- 5$? #$$6? i' subsec- (c)? substituted N:&ver'me'tN f&r N:&ver'me'tsN 4recedi'+ Nt,ere&f? i'cludi'+-N W,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t& FU'ited StatesG mea's9 (a) a =ederal c&r4&rati&'C (b) a' a+e'c3? de4artme't? c&mmissi&'? b&ard? &r &t,er e'tit3 &f t,e U'ited StatesC &r (c) a' i'strume'talit3 &f t,e U'ited States<t&+et,er )it, all States? C&u'ties a'd Cities*Mu'ici4alities> T,e NAME I"!N D"E is a ficti&'- Please be a)are t,e NAME )as created b3 t,e STATE? 4e&4le are '&t t,e NAME? a'd t,e NAME is '&t 4e&4le? t,e NAME is t,e CESTU PUE TRUST created b3 t,e STATE f&r t,e Ke'eficiar3 (4e&4le)- T,e 4ublic rec&rd bei'+ t,e ,i+,est f&rm &f evide'ce? freeb&r' s4iritual bei'+ &' t,e la'd bei'+ &f s&u'd mi'd? c&m4ete't? &ver t,e a+e &f ei+,tee' d& ,ereb3 certif3? verif3? state? claim a'd declare f&rever )it,&ut aba'd&'me'tC Real Pr&4ert3 (&' Eart,)C Pers&'al Pr&4ert3 (b&d3)C a'd Ecclesiastical Pr&4ert3 (s&ul) t&+et,er )it, all trusts? 4r&bate? ri+,ts? titles? i'terests dr&it? dr&it b&t, abs&lute a'd c&'ti'+e't? as are due a'd as mi+,t bec&me due? '&) eAisti'+ a'd as mi+,t ,ereafter arise? a'd as mi+,t be suffered b3? im4&sed &'? a'd i'curred b3 Debt&r f&r a'3 a'd ever3 reas&'? 4ur4&se? a'd cause ),ats&everPR ;ATE defi'ed: Affecti'+ &r bel&'+i'+ t& 4rivate i'dividuals? as disti'ct fr&m t,e 4ublic +e'erall3- N&t &fficialC '&t cl&t,ed )it, &ffice- Pe&4le v- P&)ell? 586 Mic,- .$$? 5D/ N-W- %D5? %D%- Klac@Hs La) Dicti&'ar3 SiAt, Editi&' (4a+e ##$0)

Certified Mail Article Number:

T" C"UNTER=E T defi'ed: crimi'al la)- T& ma@e s&met,i'+ false? i' t,e sembla'ce &f t,at ),ic, is trueC it al)a3s im4lies a fraudule't i'te't- ;ide ;i'- Ab- ,-t- =&r+er3- A La) Dicti&'ar3 Ada4ted T& T,e C&'stituti&' a'd La)s &f t,e U'ited States &f America a'd &f t,e Several States &f t,e America' U'i&' b3 I&,' K&uvier Revised SiAt, Editi&'? #80. C"UNTER=E T defi'ed: T& f&r+eC t& c&43 &r imitate? )it,&ut aut,&rit3 &r ri+,t? a'd )it, a vie) t& deceive &r defraud? b3 4assi'+ t,e c&43 &r t,i'+ f&r+ed f&r t,at ),ic, is &ri+i'al &r +e'ui'e- M&st c&mm&'l3 a44lied t& t,e fraudule't a'd crimi'al imitati&' &f m&'e3 &r securities- #8 U-S-C-A- M /D# et se2- C&u'terfeit i' c&mm&' 4arla'ce si+'ifies fabricati&' &f false ima+e &r re4rese'tati&'C c&u'terfeiti'+ a' i'strume't mea's falsel3 ma@i'+ itC a'd i' its br&adest se'se mea's ma@i'+ &f c&43 )it,&ut aut,&rit3 &r ri+,t a'd )it, vie) t& deceive &r defraud b3 4assi'+ c&43 as &ri+i'al &r +e'ui'e- Smit, v- State? D Md-A44/0D? 50. A-5d %0D? %.6? %.#- See als& K&&tle++i'+C =alse ma@i'+C =alsif3C =&r+er3C :ra3 mar@et +&&dsC mitati&'- Klac@Hs La) Dicti&'ar3 SiAt, Editi&' (4a+e %/$) W,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&C "bli+ati&'s &r securities &f U'ited States Curre't t,r&u+, Pub- L- ##%(%.(See Public La)s f&r t,e curre't C&'+ress-) W,&ever? )it, i'te't t& defraud? falsel3 ma@es? f&r+es? c&u'terfeits? &r alters a'3 &bli+ati&' &r &t,er securit3 &f t,e U'ited States? s,all be fi'ed u'der t,is title &r im4ris&'ed '&t m&re t,a' 56 3ears? &r b&t,W,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&C Utteri'+ c&u'terfeit &bli+ati&'s &r securities Curre't t,r&u+, Pub- L- ##%(%.(See Public La)s f&r t,e curre't C&'+ress-) W,&ever? )it, i'te't t& defraud? 4asses? utters? 4ublis,es? &r sells? &r attem4ts t& 4ass? utter? 4ublis,? &r sell? &r )it, li@e i'te't bri'+s i't& t,e U'ited States &r @ee4s i' 4&ssessi&' &r c&'ceals a'3 falsel3 made? f&r+ed? c&u'terfeited? &r altered &bli+ati&' &r &t,er securit3 &f t,e U'ited States? s,all be fi'ed u'der t,is title &r im4ris&'ed '&t m&re t,a' 56 3ears? &r b&t,W,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&C Deali'+ i' c&u'terfeit &bli+ati&'s &r securities Curre't t,r&u+, Pub- L- ##%( %.- (See Public La)s f&r t,e curre't C&'+ress-) W,&ever bu3s? sells? eAc,a'+es? tra'sfers? receives? &r delivers a'3 false? f&r+ed? c&u'terfeited? &r altered &bli+ati&' &r &t,er securit3 &f t,e U'ited States? )it, t,e i'te't t,at t,e same be 4assed? 4ublis,ed? &r used as true a'd +e'ui'e? s,all be fi'ed u'der t,is title &r im4ris&'ed '&t m&re t,a' 56 3ears? &r b&t,W,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&C P&ssessi'+ c&u'terfeit f&rei+' &bli+ati&'s &r securities Curre't t,r&u+, PubL- ##%(%.- (See Public La)s f&r t,e curre't C&'+ress-) W,&ever? )it,i' t,e U'ited States? @'&)i'+l3 a'd )it, i'te't t& defraud? 4&ssesses &r delivers a'3 false? f&r+ed? &r c&u'terfeit b&'d? certificate? &bli+ati&'? securit3? treasur3 '&te? bill? 4r&mise t& 4a3? ba'@ '&te? &r bill issued b3 a ba'@ &r c&r4&rati&' &f a'3 f&rei+' c&u'tr3? s,all be fi'ed u'der t,is title &r im4ris&'ed '&t m&re t,a' 56 3ears? &r b&t,W,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t& titles ei+,tee' secti&'s ei+,t: T,e term N&bli+ati&' &r &t,er securit3 &f t,e U'ited StatesN i'cludes all b&'ds? certificates &f i'debted'ess? 'ati&'al ba'@ curre'c3? =ederal Reserve '&tes? =ederal Reserve ba'@ '&tes? c&u4&'s? U'ited States '&tes? Treasur3 '&tes? +&ld certificates? silver certificates? fracti&'al '&tes? certificates &f de4&sit? bills? c,ec@s? &r drafts f&r m&'e3? dra)' b3 &r u4&' aut,&ri1ed &fficers &f t,e U'ited States? stam4s a'd &t,er re4rese'tatives &f value? &f ),atever de'&mi'ati&'? issued u'der a'3 Act &f C&'+ress? a'd ca'celed U'ited States stam4sW,ereas defi'ed 4ursua't t&C article &'e secti&' te' ( P&)ers 4r&,ibited &f States N& State s,all e'ter i't& a'3 Treat3? Allia'ce? &r C&'federati&'C +ra't Letters &f Mar2ue a'd Re4risalC c&i' M&'e3C emit Kills &f CreditC ma@e a'3 T,i'+ but +&ld a'd silver C&i' a Te'der i' Pa3me't &f DebtsC 4ass a'3 Kill &f Attai'der? eA 4&st fact& La)? &r La) im4airi'+ t,e "bli+ati&' &f C&'tracts? &r +ra't a'3 Title &f N&bilit3Sui Iuris? @'&)' as: I&,'? &f t,e +e'eal&+3 &f D&e freeb&r' s4iritual bei'+ &' t,e la'd state t,e facts c&'tai'ed ,erei' are true? c&rrect? c&m4lete? a'd '&t misleadi'+? t& t,e best &f m3 4ers&'al first ,a'd @'&)led+e a'd belief- Kei'+ &f s&u'd mi'd? c&m4ete't? &ver t,e a+e &f #8- T,is m3 free )ill? v&lu'tar3 act a'd deed t& ma@e? eAecute? seal? ac@'&)led+e a'd deliver u'der m3 ,a'd a'd seal )it, eA4licit reservati&' &f all m3 u'alie'able ri+,ts a'd m3 s4ecific c&mm&' la) ri+,t '&t t& be b&u'd b3 a'3 c&'tract &r &bli+ati&' ),ic, ,ave '&t e'tered i't& @'&)i'+l3? )illi'+l3? v&lu'taril3? a'd )it,&ut misre4rese'tati&'?

Certified Mail Article Number: duress? &r c&erci&'? ),ereb3 did '&t si+' '&r c&'se't- am '&t '&) '&r ,ave ever bee' a U-S- Citi1e' &r a =&urtee't, Ame'dme't =ederal Citi1e' &r Em4l&3ee? am '&t b&u'd b3 s)&r' &at, &r &at, &f &fficeW,ereas ,ereb3 disclaim Clauses "'e a'd T)& &f Secti&' "'e t& t,e =&urtee't, Ame'dme't? t&+et,er )it, Article =&ur Secti&' T,ree Clause T)&- FWit,&ut t,e U-S-G S,&uld t,is '&t be true t,e' let t,e rec&rd be c&rrected &r it )ill sta'd as trut,- Time is &f t,e esse'ce;eracit3C ' m3 Private Ca4acit3 as :e'eral Admi'istrat&r &f said Cestui Pue Trust acc&u't Dr&it? Dr&it? T,is serves N&tice t,at 3&ur &ffer ,as bee' Acce4ted as ;aluable C&'siderati&' a'd Retur'ed f&r ;alueT,is 4r&4ert3 is EAem4t fr&m Lev3- Please AdJust t,is Acc&u't f&r t,e Pr&ceeds? Pr&ducts? Acc&u'ts a'd =iAtures a'd Release T,e "rder(s) &f T,e C&urt t& Me mmediatel3- Ma@e adJustme't a'd cl&se t,is acc&u't immediatel3? )it, 4reJudice- acce4t 3&ur "at,? "at, &f "ffice Securit3 A+reeme't? C&'stituti&'s as b3(la)s? a'd Malfeasa'ce K&'d a'd 4lace 3&u i' t,e Private c&mme'ci'+ t,is self(eAecuti'+ bi'di'+ c&'tract bet)ee' 3&u a'd - =urt,er? a44&i't 3&u trustee F=ull3 Pers&'all3 Liable N&)G &' 3&ur ,&'&r a'd s&lem' "at, t& 4erf&rm 3&ur &bli+ati&'s a'd duties t& Pr&tect M3 u'(a(lie'(able Ri+,ts i' 3&ur =iduciar3 Ca4acit3 a+ai'st a'3 a'd all claims? le+al acti&'s? &rders? )arra'ts? Jud+me'ts? dema'ds? liabilities? l&sses? f&recl&sure? de4&siti&'s? summ&'ses? la)suits? c&sts? fi'es? lie's? levies? 4e'alties? taAes? dama+es? i'terests? a'd eA4e'ses ),ats&ever? b&t, abs&lute a'd c&'ti'+e't? as are due a'd as mi+,t bec&me due? '&) eAisti'+ a'd as mi+,t ,ereafter arise? a'd as mi+,t be suffered b3? im4&sed &'? a'd i'curred b3 Debt&r f&r a'3 a'd ever3 reas&'? 4ur4&se? a'd cause ),ats&ever- Please ,&'&r "bli+ati&' &f :&&d =ait, i' Perf&rma'ce &f 3&ur Duties- Puid Pr& Pu&s? a' e2ual eAc,a'+e &r substituti&'T,is m3 free )ill? v&lu'tar3 act a'd deed true a'd la)ful att&r'e3(i'(fact t& ma@e? eAecute? seal? ac@'&)led+e a'd deliver u'der m3 ,a'd a'd seal? eA4licitl3 reservi'+ all ri+,ts )it,&ut 4reJudiceC K3:777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 Sui Iuris @'&)' asC I&,' &f t,e +e'eal&+3 &f D&e Kail&r f&r I"!N D"E Kailee 7 7777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 Ra'? R&e T,ird Part3 Wit'ess NSealed a'd delivered i' t,e 4rese'ce &f us-N 7777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 Iames? R&e T,ird Part3 Wit'ess NSealed a'd delivered i' t,e 4rese'ce &f us-N STATE "= LL N" S ) ) SS: C"UNTE "= C""O ) CERT = CATE "= ACON"WLED:MENT "' t,is date t,e i'dividual 'amed ab&ve? i' ,is*,er stated ca4acit3? 4ers&'all3 a44eared bef&re me t& eAecute t,is ac@'&)led+eme't t,at t,is i'strume't )as si+'ed? sealed? a'd delivered as t,eir free )ill? v&lu'tar3 act a'd deed t& ma@e? eAecute? seal? ac@'&)led+e a'd deliver u'der t,eir ,a'd a'd seal verified a'd aut,e'ticated f&r t,e uses a'd 4ur4&ses t,erei' me'ti&'ed777777777777777777777 DATE A== Q N"TARE SEAL = REPU RED 777777777777777777777777777777777 Si+'ature &f N"TARE PUKL C Date C&mmissi&' EA4ires 777777777777777777

N"T CE: Public acts defi'ed: are t,&se ),ic, ,ave a 4ublic aut,&rit3? a'd ),ic, ,ave bee' made bef&re 4ublic &fficers? are aut,&ri1ed b3 a 4ublic seal? ,ave bee' made 4ublic b3 t,e aut,&rit3 &f a ma+istrate? &r ),ic, ,ave bee' eAtracted a'd bee' 4r&4erl3 aut,e'ticated fr&m 4ublic rec&rds- Klac@Hs La) Dicti&'ar3 SiAt, Editi&' (4a+e 5.)