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Name: Stephen T. Adair Student ID Number: 2060329784 Email Address: adair.steve@gmail.

com Course Name: The Synoptic ospels Course Number: !T"#47"$S%303 Assignment Number: Assignment 2 Audio Number: !&A Project Number: !&A Date of seminar (if applicable): !&A Course instructor for seminar (if applicable): Location of seminar (if applicable): !&A !"e #odule Number$ Audio Number (if applicable)$ and Project Number (if applicable) must be accurate in order to process t"e lesson and record t"e grade% !"e correct information is stated in t"e Course Stud& 'uide% ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( Stud& 'uide Code)Date)*ersion found on t"e first page of t"e Stud& 'uide: 20''0726 Degree Program: (A in )i*lical St+dies Address: ,- )o. 2'32 Cit&: (ossel )ay State: /estern 0ape +ip: 6#00 Countr&: So+th A1rica !elep"one: 227 44 690 #'33 ((((((((((((((((((((End of Co,ers"eet(((((((((((((((((((( PLEASE !-PE !.E /E01I/E#EN!S 23/ !.IS LESS3N S14#ISSI3N AS !.E- APPEA/ IN -31/ S!1D- '1IDE .E/E

Read Stein, Studying the Synoptic Gospels (2001) and write a critical review of 2500 words in which you: 1 2 ' su!!ari"e the !ost i!portant data a#out the Synoptic agree!ents and disagree!ents (ca $50 words)% descri#e Stein&s solution to the pheno!ena, including his strongest argu!ents (ca $50 words)% and evaluate strengths and wea(nesses of Stein&s argu!ents, including his use of source criticis!, for! criticis! and redaction criticis! (ca 1000 words)

)or the last point, use an additional three (') secondary resources, located through the *+,* Religion data#ase availa#le through the -unter +heological ,i#rary

$!T%-340T$-! Stein5s 6Stud&ing t"e S&noptic 'ospels: 3rigin and Interpretation7 8 is a re,ised edition of a "ig"l& regarded boo9 originall& publis"ed in 8:;< under t"e title 6!"e S&noptic Problem7 =% !"e main focus of t"e boo9 to is to e>plain t"e ,er& significant similarit& t"at e>ists bet?een t"e gospels of #att"e?$ #ar9 and Lu9e as ?ell as t"eir differences@ an issue freAuentl& referred to as 6t"e S&noptic Problem7% Stein di,ides t"e boo9 into t"ree parts$ ?"ic" in turn discuss t"e literar& relations"ip of t"e S&noptic 'ospels$ t"eir preliterar& "istor& and t"e inscripturation of t"e gospel traditions% !"ese t"ree parts emplo& t"ree different academic e,aluation met"ods to e>plore t"e s&noptic gospels$ namel& literar& or source criticism$ form criticism and redaction criticism% !"is paper see9s to re,ie? t"e main concepts described b& t"e boo9 and to e,aluate t"e strengt"s and ?ea9nesses of its main t"esis%

Stein$ /% .%$ Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation $ Second Edition$ 4a9er Academic$ =BB8% = Stein$ /% .%$ The Synoptic Problem: An Introduction$ 4a9er Academic$ 8:;<%
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T56 S7!-,T$0 ,%-)86( Stein opens t"e first c"apter ?it" a summar& of t"e S&noptic problem$ noting t"at despite t"e differences in siCe bet?een #att"e? (8$B;D ,erses)$ #ar9 (DD8 ,erses)$ and Lu9e (8$8E: ,erses)$ t"ere is a remar9able similarit& t"at e>ists bet?een t"ese t"ree 'ospels F% Suc" similarities include:

Similarit& of ?ordingE$

!"e order of e,entsG$

Agreement of parent"etical material D (9l =E; to =DG) e%g% 6let t"e reader understand7 in #att H #ar9 (9l =G;)$

Literar& agreements (9l =D: to =;B) I noting t"at #att ==:F<$ #ar9 8=:FB H Lu9e 8B:=< agree ?it" eac" ot"er but none agree ?it" t"e #asoretic te>t or t"e !argums%

Similarity in Wording Stein ad,ocates s&stem of colour coding and underlining to compare t"e te>ts of t"e S&noptic 'ospels$ and notes t"at t"is s&stem re,eals t"e presence of numerous unbro9en lines of e>act agreements$ demonstrating t"e degree of e>act agreement in ?ording bet?een t?o and often all t"ree of t"e S&noptics<% Stein notes t"at t"is degree of agreement demands an e>planation$ noting t"at: It cannot be argued t"at t"e le,el of agreement is due to t"e fact t"at eac" aut"or independentl& used e>actl& t"e same ?ords as t"ere no need to anticipate t"at e>act

Stein$ /% .%$ Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation $ Second Edition$ 4a9er Academic$ Jindle$ Edition$ =BB8$ Jindle Location (9l) =BE% E Ibid$ 9l =BE to ==E% G Ibid$ 9l ==E to =E;% D Ibid $ 9l =E; to =DG% < Ibid$ 9l =8<%
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"istorical reproduction reAuires e>act ?ording% #oreo,er$ differences in ?ording also do not reflect ine>act "istorical reproduction% !"e agreement in ?ording e>tends to Auoted speec"$ ?"ic" is li9el& to "a,e been in Aramaic$ alt"oug" t"e 'ospel accounts are all ?orded in 'ree9% It is ,er& unli9el& t"at eac" aut"or ?ould translate t"e Aramaic in e>actl& t"e same ?a&% Stein concludes t"at t"ere is strong e,idence of a common ?ritten source rat"er t"an oral tradition (9l =;B to =:F)%

The Order of Events Stein "ig"lig"ts t"ree specific series ?"ere t"e s&noptic gospels s"o? agreement in t"e order of e,ents% Stein5s tables are reproduced in Appendi> A$ and co,er t"e follo?ing passages: #att% E:=F I 8=:8D@ #ar9 8:=8 I F:8:@ Lu9e E:F8 I D:8D

#att% 8D:8F I =B:FE@ ;:=< I 8B:G=@ Lu9e ::8; I 8;:EF

#att% ;:=F I 8F:G;@ #ar9 F:F8 I D:D@ Lu9e E:8D I 8F:=8

Noting t"at t"e order of e,ents is not al?a&s identical$ Stein argues t"at muc" of t"e material is organised in topical$ rat"er t"an c"ronological$ order to suit t"e preference of t"e indi,idual aut"or;% !"is not?it"standing$ Stein argues t"at t"e degree of agreement is sufficientl& impressi,e to suggest some form of common source:%

; :

Ibid$ 9l% =GB% Ibid%


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Agreement of Parenthetical Material Listing eig"t e>amples (reproduced in Appendi> 4)$ Stein suggests t"at one of t"e most persuasi,e arguments for t"e literar& interdependence of t"e s&noptic gospels is t"e use of similar parent"etic material8B% #oreo,er$ Stein combines t"is e,idence ?it" t"e reference to ?ritten source materials ?it"in t"e Lu9an prologue to le,erage "is ,ie? t"at t"ese similarities are due to t"e use of common$ ?ritten source material 88%

Literary Agreements Stein sites t?o instances of unusual Auotes from 3ld !estament scripture$ arguing t"at t"ese references pro,ide strong e,idence of a common ?ritten source 8=% !"e first occurs in #att"e? F:F$ #ar9 8:F and Lu9e F:E$ ?"ic" all use t"e same Auote from t"e 3ld !estament 6A ,oice of one calling in t"e desert$ KPrepare t"e ?a& for t"e Lord$ ma9e straig"t pat"s for "im%57% Stein notes t"at t"is Auotation is unusual because it does not conform to t"e ?ording used in eit"er t"e Septuagint or #asoretic !e>t% !"us$ t"e fact t"at all t"ree s&noptic gospels use e>actl& t"e same ?ords is strong e,idence of common source material% !"e second instance occurs in #att"e? ==:F<$ #ar9 8=:FB and Lu9e 8B:=<$ ?"ic" read: Love the Lord your God ith all your heart and ith all your soul and ith all your mind (#att"e? ==:F<) Love the Lord your God ith all your heart and ith all your soul and ith all your mind and ith all your strength (#ar9 8=:FB) Love the Lord your God ith all your heart and ith all your soul and ith all your strength and ith all your mind (Lu9e 8B:=<)

8B 88

Ibid$ 9l% =E;% Ibid$ 9l% =DG% 8= Ibid$ 9l% =D:%


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Stein notes t"at t"e ?ording of t"ese Auotations agrees neit"er ?it" t"e #asoretic !e>t nor t"e !argums$ neit"er of ?"ic" mentions 6mind7 8F$ and t"e use of bot" 6"eart7 and 6mind7 "as no 9no?n precedence in t"e Septuagint te>ts$ some of ?"ic" use t"e former and some of ?"ic" use t"e latter but none of ?"ic" use bot" terms8E%

Conclusions 2ollo?ing "is anal&ses of t"e similarities in t"e s&noptic gospels$ Stein argues in fa,our of a common ?ritten source utilised b& t"e t"ree gospel ?riters% !"is argument is predicated primaril& on t"e precision of t"e agreement in ?ording used b& t"e aut"ors 8G% Secondl&$ Stein asserts t"at t"e agreement in parent"etical material cannot be adeAuatel& e>plained b& means of oral tradition8D% !"irdl&$ Stein argues t"at t"e agreement in order of e,ents can onl& be e>plained in terms of a ?ritten tradition as it is unli9el& t"at an oral tradition$ ?"ic" ?ould rel& on memorisation of ,ast details$ could produce suc" le,el of agreement 8<%

ST6$!9S S-84T$-! T- T56 S7!-,T$0 ,%-)86( .a,ing concluded t"e e>istence of a literar& source t"at ?as a,ailable to eac" of t"e gospel aut"ors$ Stein in,estigates t"ree forms of "&pot"esis concerning t"e nature of t"is literar& interdependence$ including:

6The :ragmentary 5ypothesis7 ?"ic" assumes t"e e>istence of numerous fragments of ?ritten memorabilia recorded b& t"e disciples% Stein dismisses t"e credibilit& of t"is "&pot"esis as it is unable to e>plain t"e close agreement in t"e order of e,ents s"ared b& t"e s&noptic gospels8;%

8F 8E

Ibid$ 9l% =;B% Ibid% 8G Ibid$ 9l% =:F% 8D Ibid% 8< Ibid% 8; Ibid$ 9l% FBF%
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6The 4r" ospel 5ypothesis7 ?"ic" asserts t"e e>istence of an earlier$ independent gospel$ freAuentl& referred to as t"e 61r 'ospel7% !"is "&pot"esis assumes t"at se,eral different ,ersions of t"e 1r('ospel e>isted$ as it ?as redacted and e>tended ?it" time% !"is ,ariation in t"e original document is said to account for t"e ,ariations in t"e s&noptic gospels% Stein points out t"at no trace of t"is 1r('ospel "as e,er been found$ but also notes t"at no trace of 0 "as e,er been found eit"er% Stein notes t"at t"e most significant difficult& ?it" t"is "&pot"esis is t"at t"e reconstructed 1r('ospel began to loo9 increasingl& li9e #ar95s 'ospel$ ?"ic" t"en ob,iated t"e "&pot"esis as a simpler$ more plausible "&pot"esis ?ould be t"at #ar95s 'ospel ?as ?ritten first and ser,ed as a literar& source for bot" #att"e? and Lu9e 8:%

6The $nterdependence&4tilisation 5ypothesis7 ?"ic" asserts t"at t"ere is an interdependence bet?een t"e s&noptic gospels$ ?it" one being t"e first to be ?ritten and t"e ot"er t?o "a,ing access to at least one or e,en bot" of t"e ot"er t?o% Stein notes t"at t"ere are eig"teen different connotations to t"is t"eor&$ ?it" just t"ree finding support in t"e academic argument=B% !"ese t"ree possibilities are as follo?s: o Stein first e>amines t"e t"eor& t"at #att"e? ?rote first$ and ?as used b& #ar9$ and t"en in turn b& Lu9e@ a t"eor& ?"ic" dates bac9 to Augustine% o !"e second t"eor& e>amined is t"at #att"e? ?rote first$ ?as used b& Lu9e and t"en in turn b& #ar9% !"is t"eor& is commonl& 9no?n as t"e 'riesbac" .&pot"esis% o !"e t"ird "&pot"esis$ freAuentl& referred to as t"e .oltCman ) Streeter .&pot"esis$ "olds t"at #ar9 ?rote first and ?as independentl& used b& bot" #ar9 and Lu9e%

Stein argues in fa,our of t"e priorit& of #ar9 based on t"e fact t"e follo?ing factors:
8: =B

Ibid$ 9l% F8<% Ibid$ 9l% FBF(F8;%


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(ar;9s shortness: #ar95s 'ospel is considerabl& s"orter t"an t"ose of #att"e? or Lu9e ?"en considering eit"er t"e number of ,erses =8 or t"e number of ?ords==% It is unli9el& t"at #ar9 ?ould "a,e omitted so muc" of t"e material ?it"in #att"e? or Lu9e "ad eit"er of t"ese gospels been "is source =F% #oreo,er$ it is unli9el& t"at #ar9 consciousl& soug"t to pro,ide an abridged ,ersion of t"e ot"er 'ospels as in man& cases t"e indi,idual periscopes ?it"in #ar9 are freAuentl& longer t"an t"eir parallel periscopes in t"e ot"er 'ospels%

(ar;9s ,oorer /riting Style% #ar95s ?riting st&le$ in terms of grammar$ ,ocabular&$ st&le idiom and sentence$ is inferior to t"at of #att"e? or Lu9e% It is unli9el& t"at #ar9 ?ould c"ange good 'ree9 in "is source material and replace it ?it" inferior 'ree9@ it is far more logical t"at #att"e? and Lu9e ?ould impro,e on t"e ?riting st&le of t"eir source=E%Additionall& #ar9 is freAuentl& o,erl& ?ord&$ using unnecessar& material=G% Stein dismisses t"e notion t"at t"is could be a result of #ar95s conflation of #att"e? and Lu9e as t"is is onl& possible in 8< of t"e =8F cases of redundanc&$ in t"e gospel of #ar9=D%

(ar;9s 5arder %eadings% In a number of cases$ #ar95s 'ospel presents difficult passages ?"ic" ma& appear to ?ea9en Lesus5 po?er or influence =<$ present t"e disciples in a negati,e ?a&=;$ or present clums& t"eolog&=:% Stein argues t"at it is more

=8 ==

#ar9 contains DD8 ,erses$ #att"e? contains 8$BD; and Lu9e contains 8$8E:% #ar9 contains 88$B=G ?ords$ #att"e? contains 8;$=:F and Lu9e contains 8:$F<D% =F Stein$ /% .%$ Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation $ Second Edition$ 4a9er Academic$ Jindle$ Edition$ =BB8$ 9l% FFF% =E Ibid$ 9l% F<8% =G An e>ample is contained in #ar9 8:F=$ ?"ere #ar9 reads 6!"e e,ening at sundo?nM7$ ?"ereas t"e parallel in #att"e? ;:8D simpl& reads 6!"at e,ening7$ and t"at in Lu9e E:EB reads (No? ?"en t"e sun ?as settingM7 =D Stein$ /% .%$ Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation $ Second Edition$ 4a9er Academic$ Jindle$ Edition$ =BB8$ 9l% E=;% =< An e>ample is in #ar9 8:F=(EF$ ?"ere man& sic9 ?ere broug"t to Lesus$ #ar9 sa&s t"at Lesus "ealed 6man&7$ ?"ereas #att"e? and Lu9e sa& t"at Lesus "ealed 6all7% =; An e>ample is #ar9 E:8F$ ?"ic" reads 6!"en Lesus said to t"em$ KDonNt &ou understand t"is parableO .o? t"en ?ill &ou understand an& parableO57% In bot" #att"e? and Lu9e Lesus merel& e>plains t"e parable$ ?it"out Auestioning t"e disciples% =: An e>ample is #ar9 F:G ?"ere Lesus loo9ed around Pat t"ose Auestioning .is rig"t to "eal on t"e Sabbat"Q 6?it" anger7% !"e parallel passages in bot" #att"e? and Lu9e omit 6?it" anger7%
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credible t"at #att"e? and Lu9e ?ould tend to modif& suc" difficulties in t"e #ar9an te>t to a,oid suc" difficulties$ t"an for #ar9 to create suc" difficulties from a less contro,ersial source% 8ac; o1 (atthe<"8+;e Agreements against (ar; % !"ere are ,er& fe? instances ?"ere #att"e? and Lu9e agree against #ar9$ eit"er in t"e use of ?ords FB$ or in order of e,entsF8% 8iterary Agreements% T"e omission of specific ?ords in #att"e? and Lu9e are best e>plained in t"eir modification of t"e #ar9 account t"an ,ice ,ersa F=% The Arg+ment 1rom %edaction% Stein notes t"at redaction criticism fa,ours #att"ean and Lu9an redaction of #ar9 rat"er t"an #ar9an redaction of eit"er #att"e? or Lu9eFF% (ar;9s (ore ,rimitive Theology% Stein notes #ar95s more primiti,e t"eolog& is a good indicator of its priorit& in time$ ?it" later accounts e>"ibiting a more refined t"eolog&FE%

FB

3ccasions ?"en #att"e? and #ar9 agree against Lu9e in use of ?ords are best e>plained b& Lu9e "a,ing di,erged from t"e #ar9an account@ similarl&$ in instances ?"ere #ar9 and Lu9e agree against #att"e?$ it is most credible t"at #att"e? di,erged from t"e #ar9an account% !"ere are ,er& fe? instances ?"ere #att"e? and Lu9e agree against #ar9% See: Stein$ /% .%$ Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation$ Second Edition$ 4a9er Academic$ Jindle$ Edition$ =BB8$ 9l% E<= F8 Stein refers to Lac"mann5s obser,ation t"at t"ere are no occasions ?"ere #att"e? and Lu9e agree against #ar9 in order of e,ents% Stein$ /% .%$ Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation$ Second Edition$ 4a9er Academic$ Jindle$ Edition$ =BB8$ 9l% E<:% F= Stein$ /% .%$ Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation $ Second Edition$ 4a9er Academic$ Jindle$ Edition$ =BB8$ 9l% E:<(G=E% FF Stein$ /% .%$ Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation$ Second Edition$ 4a9er Academic$ Jindle$ Edition$ =BB8$ 9l% G=E(G:< FE 3ne e>ample is t"e limited use of t"e title 6Lord7 in #ar95s 'ospel (D times in t"e triple tradition) compared to eit"er #att"e? (8E times) or Lu9e (8E times)% See: Stein$ /% .%$ Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation$ Second Edition$ 4a9er Academic$ Jindle$ Edition$ =BB8$ 9l% DBG( D==%
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Stein also notes t"at #att"e? and Lu9e contain a significant amount of common material t"at is not found in #ar9% .o?e,er$ t"is 6double !radition7 material is arranged differentl& in #att"e?FGand Lu9e$ indicating t"at ?"ilst bot" relied on similar source material$ it is unli9el& t"at eit"er #att"e? or Lu9e used eac" ot"er as t"e source for t"is material$ and t"us t"ere must "a,e been additional source material a,ailable to bot" FD% !"is source material is commonl& referred to as 607% Noting difficulties in t"e 607 "&pot"esis$ Stein argues t"at alternati,e "&pot"eses "a,e e,en more difficultiesF<$ and "ence supports t"e priorit& of #ar9 and t"e e>istence of 607% #oreo,er$ Stein fa,ours t"e notion t"at 607 ?as a ?ritten source due to t"e e>actness of ?ording and agreements in t"e order of e,ents ?it"in t"e 607 material F;%

3$S04SS$-! !argeted at t"eological students$ rat"er t"an seasoned academics$ 6Stud&ing t"e S&noptic 'ospels: 3rigin and Interpretation7 pro,ides a ,er& useful introduction and met"odolog& for first "and stud& of t"e s&noptic gospels% Its contribution to t"e academic debate ma& be e,aluated under t"e follo?ing categories: Layout ! Structure !"e approac" ta9en is ,er& practical$ ?it" suggested colour coding of t"e s&noptic gospel accounts to identif& areas of agreement ?it"in t"e triple and t"e double traditions$ as ?ell as t"ose areas ?"ic" are uniAue to a specific aut"or%

FG FD

R"o arranges t"e material ,er& artisticall& into fi,e distinct 6boo9s7% Stein$ /% .%$ Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation $ Second Edition$ 4a9er Academic$ Jindle$ Edition$ =BB8$ 9l% <F;% F< Ibid$ 9l%;F8% F; Stein concedes t"at t"e nature of 607 is not conclusion$ noting: 6R"et"er 0 ?as a single ?ritten source$ a collection of se,eral different ?ritten fragments$ a combination of ?ritten and oral traditions$ ,arious oral traditions$ or e,en a single$ unified oral tradition are Auestions unli9el& to be resol,ed in t"e immediate future7$ Stein$ /% .%$ Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation $ Second Edition$ 4a9er Academic$ Jindle$ Edition$ =BB8$ 9l% ;F8%
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A major strengt" is t"e presentation in tabular form of material demonstrating t"e ,arious relations"ips bet?een t"e te>ts of eac" of t"e gospel accounts% Academic Approach 1se of Source Criticism 4& anal&sing t"e 'ospels of #att"e?$ #ar9 and Lu9e$ Source Criticism see9s to identif& t"e original source material emplo&ed b& eac" of t"e aut"ors% !"is form of anal&sis is necessar& to e>plain t"e stri9ing agreement ?it"in t"e s&noptic gospels$ as ?ell as t"eir distinct ,ariations% Source Criticism is a primar& tool emplo&ed b& Stein in "is e,aluation of t"e S&noptic 'ospelsF:$ and is used to demonstrate "is conclusions concerning #ar9an priorit& and t"e e>istence of 0% Stein notes t"at if Source Criticism can isolate a more primiti,e form of a te>t$ or e,en t"e ipissima verba of Lesus$ t"en it is possible to better understand "o? eac" e,angelist understood and interpreted eac" specific e,ent EB% #oreo,er$ b& comparing "o? eac" indi,idual aut"or interpreted ,arious te>ts pro,ides a better understanding of t"e true meaning and e>egetical limits of eac" te>tE8% 2orm Criticism R"ilst source criticism see9s to identif& t"e earliest ?ritten te>t$ 2orm Criticism see9s to reconstruct t"e preliterar& tradition b& anal&sing t"e 6form7 E= of t"e ,arious te>tual

F: EB

!"is is clearl& demonstrated in "is colour coding met"odolog&% Stein$ /% .%$ Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation$ Second Edition$ 4a9er Academic$ Jindle$ Edition$ =BB8$ 9l%8=E;% E8 Ibid$ 9l% 8=E;(8=D;% E= #artin Dibelius described fi,e distinct te>tual 62orms7 including: Paradigms$ !ales$ Legends$ #&t"s and E>"ortations% See: !ra,is$ S% .%$ 62orm Criticism7$ in: #ars"all$ .% I%$ "e Testament Interpretation: #ssays on Principles and $ethods$ Paternoster Press$ 8:<<$ pp8GGI8G<%
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components ?it"in eac" indi,idual gospel te>t and "o? t"e& emerged from t"e period of oral transmissionEF% Stein re,ie?s t"e de,elopment of 2orm Criticism$ pro,iding an anal&sis of its basic presuppositions$ strengt"s and ?ea9nesses in order to demonstrate t"e innate ,alue of t"e discipline% Noting negati,e ,ie?s from certain academic circles EE$ Stein concludes t"at 2orm Criticism is a neutral tool t"at ma& be used eit"er positi,el& or negati,el& EG% 1sing insig"ts gained t"roug" 2orm Criticism$ Stein concludes t"at t"e 'ospels are not c"orological biograp"iesED$ and t"at t"eir current form points to materials ?"ic" ?ere perse,ered for t"eir religious ,alue E< and circulated as independent$ self(contained entities during t"e oral periodE;% Straus notes t"at t"e most important function of t"e earl& C"urc" ?as to proclaim t"e good ne?s of t"e life$ deat" and resurrection of Lesus E:$ ?"ic" reAuires robust preser,ation of t"e oral tradition% 4etter understanding of t"e nature of t"e pre(e>isting oral tradition "elps to identif& t"e editorial ?or9 of eac" E,angelist ?it" greater precision GB$ and ma& be emplo&ed to identif& ?it" greater reliabilit& t"e ipsissima verba%& of LesusG=% !"ese outcomes allo? greater interpreti,e insig"ts to be deri,ed from t"e 'ospel accounts GF$ leading to useful "omiletical and didactic Insig"ts t"at en"ance t"e proclamation of t"e 'ospel message GE%

EF EE

4lac9 D% A%$ Doc9er& D% S%$ "e Testament 'riticism and Interpretation$ +onder,an$ 8::8$ p8<D% 2or instance: Collins$ L% L%$ 62orm Criticism and t"e S&noptic 'ospels7$ !"eogical Studies$ 8:E8$ ppF;;(EBB% EG Stein$ /% .%$ Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation $ Second Edition$ 4a9er Academic$ Jindle$ Edition$ =BB8$ 9l% =B=D% ED Ibid$ 9l% =BF8% E< Ibid 9l% =BD8% E; Ibid$ 9l% =BF:% E: Strauss$ #% L%$ 6 2our Portraits$ 3ne Lesus: A Sur,e& of Lesus and t"e 'ospels7$ +onder,an$ =BB<$ pG;% GB Ibid$ 9l% =8B8% G8 Actual ?ords of Lesus% G= Stein$ /% .%$ Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation$ Second Edition$ 4a9er Academic$ Jindle$ Edition$ =BB8$ 9l% =88<% GF Ibid$ 9l% =8=E% GE Ibid$ 9l% =8GG%
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/edaction Criticism /edaction Criticism see9s to e>amine t"e final stage in t"e composition of t"e 'ospels accountsGG% In ot"er ?ords$ it is t"e stud& of t"e process of 6inscripturation of t"e 'ospel !raditions7$ ?"ic" see9s to identif& t"e specific emp"asis and interpretation t"at eac" 'ospel aut"or placed on t"e e,ents recorded% Stein notes t"at /edaction Criticism "as limitation$ particularl& because it is more concerned ?it" t"e differences bet?een t"e S&noptic 'ospels t"an ?it" t"eir similaritiesGD% !"is not?it"standing$ Stein utilises /edaction Criticism in dra?ing "is conclusion of #ar9an priorit& as "e refers to t"e later aut"ors redacting factors suc" as #ar95s poorer 'ree9 and "is "arder sa&ings% 'oodacre G< and !"omasG; ma9e similar obser,ations$ ?"ilst Straus notes t"at /edaction Criticism confirms t"at t"e ?riters of t"e S&noptic 'ospels ?ere purposeful aut"ors and not mere compilers G:%

It ma& be concluded t"at Source$ 2orm and /edaction Criticism are necessar& in t"e Auest for sound e>egesis of t"e 'ospels as it is necessar& to trace t"e literar& "istor& of t"e traditions as far bac9 as possible before speculating about t"e oral period or dra?ing reliable conclusion regarding a specific aut"or5s editorial tendencies DB% Stein5s use of t"ese tec"niAues$ toget"er ?it" "is appraisal of t"eir relati,e strengt"s and ?ea9nesses is robust%

GG

Smalle&$ S% S%$ 6/edaction Criticism7$ in: #ars"all$ .% I%$ "e Testament Interpretation: #ssays on Principles and $ethods$ Paternoster Press$ 8:<<$ pp8<:I8;8% GD Stein$ /% .%$ Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation $ Second Edition$ 4a9er Academic$ Jindle$ Edition$ =BB8$ 9l =G;;% G< 'oodacre$ #%$ The Synoptic Problem: A (ay Through the $a)e$ ! H ! Clar9$ =BB8$ p;<% G; !"omas$ /% L%$ 6/edaction Criticism7 in: !"omas$ /% L%$ 2arnell$ 2% D%$ The *esus 'risis: The Inroads o+ ,istorical 'riticism Into #vangelical Scholarship$ Jregel Academic$ 8::;$ p=GE% G: Strauss$ #% L%$ 6 2our Portraits$ 3ne Lesus: A Sur,e& of Lesus and t"e 'ospels7$ +onder,an$ =BB<$ pD=% DB Ren"am$ D%$ 6Source Criticism7$ in: #ars"all$ .% I%$ 6 "e Testament Interpretation: #ssays on Principles and $ethods$ Paternoster press$ 8:<<$ pp8F<I8EB%
Page 13 of 25

$ar-an Priority Stein5s conclusion t"at #ar9an priorit& best e>plains t"e a,ailable e,idence is robust and follo?s t"e consensus ,ie?D8% !"is ,ie? assumes t"at #att"e? and Lu9e ?ere una?are if eac" ot"er5s ?or9$ and t"us necessitates t"e need for additional source material$ commonl& referred to as 607D=% Stein5s conclusion could "a,e been strengt"ened furt"er b& obser,ations suc" as ?"& #ar9$ ?"o emp"asised Lesus5 role as teac"er DF$ ?ould omit so muc" of t"e discourse material set out in #att"e?5s 'ospel "ad "e used t"is as a primar& source DE% 3ne ?ea9ness in Stein5s conclusion is "is discussion of t"e minor agreements of #att"e? and Lu9e against #ar9% Suc" agreements constitute an Ac"illes "eel for t"e t?o document "&pot"esis as t"e& could indicate t"at #att"e? and Lu9e 9ne? of eac" ot"er5s ?or9 and copied from one anot"er$ ob,iating t"e need for 0 DG% Stein ac9no?ledges t"e difficult& of suc" agreements$ but dismisses t"eir significance purel& because "e assumes t"at t"e ?eig"t of t"is e,idence is not sufficient to counter balance t"e remaining e,idence for #ar9an priorit&DD% Stein5s conclusion ?ould "a,e been better supported "ad "e engaged in t"e academic debate more full&$ e,aluating t"eories suc" as t"e use of a proto(#ar9$ suc" as 1r(#ar9us$ or e,en #att"e? and Lu9e5s use of different redacted ,ersions of #ar9D<%

D8

Strauss$ #% L%$ 6 2our Portraits$ 3ne Lesus: A Sur,e& of Lesus and t"e 'ospels7$ +onder,an$ =BB<$ pGE% D= !"e combination of #ar9an priorit& and t"e e>istence of 0 is commonl& referred to as t"e 6!?o Source .&pot"esis7% DF #ar9 uses t"e ?ord 6teac"er7 8= times in D<; ,erses in direct reference to Lesus@ #att"e? uses t"e term 8F times in 8B<8 ,erses$ but in onl& ; instances is t"e term used directl& of Lesus@ Lu9e uses t"e term 8G times in 88<8 ,erses$ 8= of ?"ic" are direct references to Lesus% DE Dunn$ L% D% '%$ 'hristianity in the $a-ing. /olume &: *esus 0emembered $ Rilliam 4$ Eerdmans Publis"ing Compan&$ =BBF$ p8EG% DG Ralters$ P%$ 6!"e S&noptic Problem7$ in: Aune$ D% E%$ The 1lac- ell 'ompanion to The "e Testament$ Lo"n Rile& H Sons$ =B8B% P=EE% DD Stein$ /% .%$ Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation $ Second Edition$ 4a9er Academic$ Jindle$ Edition$ =BB8$ 9l 8BF:% D< Ralters$ P%$ 6!"e S&noptic Problem7$ in: Aune$ D% E%$ The 1lac- ell 'ompanion to The "e Testament$ Lo"n Rile& H Sons$ =B8B% P=EG%
Page 14 of 25

2 $aterial Stein notes t"at t"e e>istence of 0 is not an isolated "&pot"esis but "as al?a&s been predicated upon #ar9an priorit& and t"e independence of #att"e? of Lu9e$ as ot"er "&pot"eses "a,e no need of 0D;% Stein also concedes t"at t"e e>istence of 0 is entirel& "&pot"etical as t"ere is no e>tant 0 material D:% Stein5s support of 0 and$ in particular$ "is conclusion t"at 0 ?as a ?ritten document rat"er t"an oral tradition is open to debate$ and it is disappointing t"at Stein did not defend "is conclusions rat"er more robustl&% Clearl& t"ere ?ere se,eral stages in t"e de,elopment of t"e 'ospel te>ts$ starting ?it" t"e life of Lesus and t"e actual e,ents t"at t"e 'ospels record$ ?"ic" ?ould be follo?ed b& a period of oral tradition ?"ere 9e& e,ents and specific ?ords of Lesus ?ould retained and passed on primaril& t"roug" t"e spo9en ?ord@ t"ese memories ?ould t"en be recorded in a ?ritten format$ most li9el& constituting se,eral indi,idual fragments ?"ic" ma& t"en "a,e been included in a number of literar& collections ?"ic" ser,ed as ?ritten sources for t"e 'ospel aut"ors <B% Indeed$ Lu9e clearl& states t"at man& ?ritten accounts of Lesus life ?ere e>tant at t"e time of "is ?riting <8% Dunn notes t"at t"e agreement in ?ording in t"e 0 material in #att"e? and Lu9e ,aries from 8BBS to around ;S$ and argues t"at t"is strongl& suggests t"at 0 ?as most li9el& to be a collection of oral tradition$ rat"er t"an ?ritten record <=% Lu9e5s reference to 6man&7 ?ritten accounts strongl& suggests t"at t"ere ?ere se,eral ?ritten sources a,ailable$ ?"ic" ?ould "a,e supplemented a strong oral tradition$ and so 0 is probabl& best regarded a general term referring to an& source material$ eit"er oral or ?ritten$ ?"ic" ?as a,ailable at t"e time t"e indi,idual 'ospels ?ere ?ritten% /ecognising t"at t"is material is not a distinct$ definable
D;

Stein$ /% .%$ Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation$ Second Edition$ 4a9er Academic$ Jindle$ Edition$ =BB8$ 9l% ;BG% D: Ibid% <B Strauss$ #% L%$ 63our portraits. one *esus: A Survey o+ *esus and the Gospels$ +onder,an$ =BB<$ pEE% <8 Lu9e 8:8(E% <= Dunn$ L% D% '%$ 'hristianity in the $a-ing. /olume &: *esus 0emembered $ Rilliam 4$ Eerdmans Publis"ing Compan&$ =BBF$ pp8E;(:%
Page 15 of 25

?or9 leads to t"e li9eli"ood t"at bot" #att"e? and Lu9e ?ould "a,e "ad a different collection of 0 material$ ?it" some o,erlaps and ot"er uniAue material and so some sc"olars "a,e referred to 0 (source material common to #att"e? and Lu9e)$ # (source material a,ailable onl& to #att"e?) and L (source material onl& a,ailable to Lu9e <F% !"us$ 0 remains a purel& "&pot"etical document$ ?it" no e>tant documentar& e,idence to support its e>istence% !"us some "old t"at 0 ?as a collection of bot" oral and ?ritten material t"at could e>plain bot" t"e close agreement and t"e ?ide di,ergence of t"e S&noptic 'ospels<E ?"ilst ot"ers "a,e cast doubt on t"e e>istence of 0 altoget"er$ preferring t"e argument t"at Lu9e 9ne? and utilised #att"e?5s 'ospel <G%

0-!084S$-! 6Stud&ing t"e S&noptic 'ospels: 3rigin and Interpretation7 pro,ides an e>cellent introduction to t"e stud& of t"e s&noptic gospels% !"e boo9 is ,er& practical$ describing a simple colour coding met"odolog& for t"e stud& of t"e S&noptic 'ospels and ,er& useful tabulated comparisons of t"e 'ospel te>ts% Stein emplo&s source$ form and redaction criticism discerningl& in "is Auest to na,igate t"roug" t"e 6S&noptic Problem7% 1sing t"ese tools$ Stein concludes t"at t"e majorit& of data supports #ar9an priorit& and t"e e>istence of 0 in ?ritten format% R"ilst Stein5s approac" is generall& robust$ "is e,aluation of t"e minor agreements bet?een #att"e? and Lu9e against #ar9 is rat"er too superficial$ and alternati,e t"eories suc" as t"e use of a proto(#ar9$ suc" as 1r(#ar9us$ or e,en #att"e? and Lu9e5s use of different redacted ,ersions of #ar9 are not adeAuatel& e>plored%
<F

Strauss$ #% L%$ 63our portraits. one *esus: A Survey o+ *esus and the Gospels$ +onder,an$ =BB<$ pG8% <E !"omas$ /%$ L%$ 6An In,estigation of t"e Agreements 4et?een #att"e? and Lu9e Against #ar97$ Lournal of E,angelical !"eolog&$ Spring 8:<D$ pp8BF(88=% <G 'oodacre$ #%$ The Synoptic Problem: A (ay Through the $a)e$ ! H ! Clar9$ =BB8$ pp8GD(8D8%
Page 16 of 25

)$)8$- %A,57
6!6%A8

%6:6%6!06S

!"e .ol& 4ible$ Ne? International *ersion$ +onder,an 4ible Publis"ers$ International 4ible Societ&$ 8:;E%

%6:6%6!06S Aune$ D% E%$ 6!"e 4lac9?ell Companion to !"e Ne? !estament7$ Lo"n Rile& H Sons$ =B8B% 4lac9 D% A%$ Doc9er& D% S%$ "e Testament 'riticism and Interpretation$ +onder,an$ 8::8% Collins$ L% L%$ 62orm Criticism and t"e S&noptic 'ospels7$ !"eological Studies$ 8:E8$ ppF;;(EBB% Dunn$ L% D% '%$ 'hristianity in the $a-ing. /olume &: *esus 0emembered$ Rilliam 4$ Eerdmans Publis"ing Compan&$ =BBF% 'oodacre$ #%$ The Synoptic Problem: A (ay Through the $a)e$ ! H ! Clar9$ =BB8% #ars"all$ .% I%$ "e Testament Interpretation: #ssays on Principles and $ethods$ Paternoster Press$ 8:<<% Stein$ /% .%$ Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation$ Second Edition$ 4a9er Academic$ =BB8% Stein$ /% .%$ The Synoptic Problem: An Introduction$ 4a9er Academic$ 8:;<% Strauss$ #% L%$ 3our Portraits. One *esus: A Survey o+ *esus and the Gospels$ +onder,an$ =BB<% !"omas$ /% L%$ 2arnell$ 2% D%$ The *esus 'risis: The Inroads o+ ,istorical 'riticism Into #vangelical Scholarship$ Jregel Academic$ 8::;% !"omas$ /%$ L%$ 6An In,estigation of t"e Agreements 4et?een #att"e? and Lu9e Against #ar97$ Lournal of E,angelical !"eolog&$ Spring 8:<D$ pp8BF(88=%

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Appendi> A: Agreements in t"e 3rder of E,ents


Ta*le A': 2irst Series of Agreements in 3rder of E,ents
Event a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) .esus& teaching in the synagogue in /apernau! .esus& healing of the de!oniac in /apernau! .esus& healing of 3eter&s !other0in0law .esus& healing in the evening .esus leaves /apernau! .esus& preaching in Galilee +he !iraculous catch of fish .esus heals a leper .esus heals a paralytic +he calling of ,evi /ontroversy over fasting /ontroversy over pluc(ing grain /ontroversy over healing on the Sa##ath -ealing #y the sea +he choosing of the twelve 2:101 4:102 4:401' 4:1101$ 12:102 12:4011 1:2025 12:15015 10:101 1:10015 1:10015 2:1012 2:1'01$ 2:2'022 ':105 ':$012 ':1'014 1:2' 2:11015 2:1501$ Matthe w Mark 1:21022 1:2'022 1:240'1 1:'20'1 1:'50'2 1:'4 Luke 1:'10'2 1:''0'$ 1:'20'4 1:10011 1:1201' 1:11 5:1011 5:12015 5:1$025 5:2$0'2 5:''0'4 5:105 5:5011 5:1$014 5:12015

/ed te>t denotes e,ents ,erses ?"ere agreement in order is not realised%

Page 18 of 25

Ta*le A2: Second Series of Agreements in 3rder of E,ents


Event a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) 3eter&s confession of /hrist )irst 3assion prediction +eaching on discipleship +he +ransfiguration /oncerning the return of 6li7ah .esus heals a de!on possessed #oy Second 3assion prediction +he te!ple ta8 +eaching on true greatness /oncerning the use of .esus& na!e +eaching on te!ptation 3ara#le of the lost sheep +eaching on reproving a #rother +eaching on the presence of .esus +eaching on reconciliation with a #rother 3ara#le of the unforgiving servant 9eparture to .udea +eaching on divorce 12:504 12:10011 12:15012 12:14020 12:21022 12:2'0'5 14:102 14:'012 10:1 10:2012 4:51: 1$:1 Matthe w 15:1'020 15:2102' 15:21022 1$:104 1$:1001' 1$:11021 1$:2202' 1$:2102$ 12:105 4:''0'$ 4:'2011 4:12050 4:15012 4:14050 1$:102 11:'10'5 15:'0$ Mark 2:2$0'0 2:'10'' 2:'104:1 4:2010 4:1101' 4:11024 4:'00'2 4:'$01'a 4:1'#015 Luke 4:12021 4:22 4:2'02$ 4:220'5

Page 19 of 25

Event s) t) u) v) w) x) y) .esus #lesses the children +he rich young !an +eaching on the danger of riches 3ara#le of the la#ourers in the vineyard +hird passion prediction +he re;uests of the sons of <e#edee +he healing of the #lind !an

Matthe w 14:1'015 14:15022 14:2'0'0 20:1015 20:1$024 20:20022 20:240'1

Mark 10:1'015 10:1$022 10:2'0'1

Luke 12:1501$ 12:1202' 12:210'0

10:'20'1 10:'5015 10:15052

12:'10'1

12:'501'

/ed te>t denotes e,ents ,erses ?"ere agreement in order is not realised% 4 3ollo ing this verse is the largest bloc- o+ uni5ue Lu-an material 67:%&8&9:&:;<

Page 20 of 25

Ta*le A3: !"ird Series of Agreements in 3rder of E,ents


Event a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p) q) r) +he !other and #rother of .esus 3ara#le of the sower =hy .esus taught in para#les +he interpretation of the para#le of the sower 3ara#les of la!p on a stand and >!easure upon !easure? 3ara#le of the growing seed 3ara#le of the weeds 3ara#le of the !ustard seed 3ara#le of the leaven .esus& use of para#les +he interpretation of the para#le of the weeds 3ara#les of hidden treasure and pearl 3ara#le of the net 3ara#le of the householder .esus cal!s the stor! .esus heals the Gerasene de!oniac .esus heals .airus& daughter .esus re7ected at @a"areth 1':210'0 1':'10'2 1':'' 1':'10'5 1':'501' 1':11015 1':1$050 1':51052 2:2'02$ 2:220'1 4:12025 1':5'052 1:'5011 5:1020 5:2101' 5:105a 2:22025 2:250'4 (1:150 '0) 1:''0'1 1:'00'2 1':12014 1':20021 Matthe w 12:15050 1':104 Mark ':'10'5 1:104 Luke 2:14021 2:102 2:4010 2:11015 2:15012

1'01001$ 1:10012 1':1202' 1:1'020 1:21025 1:25024

Page 21 of 25

/ed te>t denotes e,ents ,erses ?"ere agreement in order is not realised%

Page 22 of 25

Appendi> 4: Agreements in Parent"etical #aterial


Ta*le )': Agreements in Parent"etical #aterial
Matthe w !"#$%& $' Mark 1':110 15 Luke Parenthetical Material otes

Let the reader understand Then he said to the paralytic* He said to the paralysed man Stein i!plies that the parenthetical !aterial is si!ilar in all three synoptic gospels -owever, Aatthew does not include the parenthetical !aterial Aoreover, Aatthew records two de!oniacs, whilst the Aar( and ,u(e record 7ust one ,u(e has !uch !ore parenthetical !aterial than Aar( +his appears to #e very wea( evidence of any written for! of interdependence For he (ne' it 'as out of en y that they had handed Jesus o er to him# * (no'in& it 'as out of en y that the chief priests had handed Jesus o er to him#

(#$&'

2:1012

5:1$0 25

For Jesus had said to him, Come out of this man, you e il spirit!" For Jesus had commanded the e il spirit to come out of the man# $any times it had sei%ed him, and thou&h he 'as chained hand and foot and (ept under &uard, he had )ro(en his chains and had )een dri en )y the demon into solitary places#

5:102

2:250 24

!)#$%& $'

15:50 10

Page 23 of 25

Matthe w

Mark

Luke

Parenthetical Material *+ut not durin& the Feast,* they said, *or there may )e a riot amon& the people#* *

otes

!*#%

11:2

22:2

*+ut not durin& the Feast,* they said, *or the people may riot#* ,for they 'ere afraid of the people# Then one of the T'el e--the one called Judas .scariot--'ent to the chief priests * Bt is not clear that these sentences actually constitute parenthesis at all% in fact only Aatthew includes any for! of parenthesis% Bn Aar( and ,u(e the reference to .udas Bscariot is part of the !ain narrative

!*#$"

11:10

22:'

Then Judas .scariot, one of the T'el e, 'ent to the chief priests to )etray Jesus to them# *Then /atan entered Judas, called .scariot, one of the T'el e#*

!*#")

11:1'

22:1$

Judas, one of the t'el e /he said to herself, .f . only touch his cloa(, . 'ill )e healed#"** ,)ecause she thou&ht, *.f . 0ust touch his clothes, . 'ill )e healed#*

(#!$

5:22

* $atthe' $ar( Lu(e

Page 24 of 25

Appendi> C: /elations"ips 4et?een t"e S&noptic 'ospels

Page 25 of 25