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In partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology (ECE)

Session: 2012 13

Under the guidance: Mr. Deepak Kumar Submitted By: Rahul Sharma


First of all I would like to thank almighty God that he gave me such a wonderful chance of doing a summer project in such a good organization. Summer training is an important part of Btech schedule and I would like to express my heartiest gratitude towards Relcom for giving me this opportunity.I hereby take the opportunity to express my profound sense of reverence and gratitude to all of them who helped me in the successful completion of this project. I sincerely thank Mr. J.L Gupta (HOD HR) Relcom., under whose guidance and support this project was successfully completed .With the cooperation of the entire HR team at the Gajraula plant the work on the given project was made a remarkable learning experience. Now at last I would also like to thank my parents who were constant source of inspiration and support which lead to successful completion of this report.

INTRODUCTION Practical training in an industry is an essential part of an engineering curriculum towards making a successful engineer, as in an industry only a student can realize the theory thought in classroom and it also gives an exposure to modern technology. In the field of Electronics Computer engineering there has been rapid development to support the ever increasing volume information, so Electronics students has an opportunity during Training period to knowledge about the latest technologies. The training period of 28 days is not much sufficient to take complete knowledge of technology used but one is expected to identify components, the process flow in an industry for high efficiency and about the knowledge of product technology. Practical knowledge means the visualization of the knowledge, which we read in books. For this we perform experiments and get observations. Practical knowledge is very important in every field. One must be familiar with the problems related to that field so that we may solve them and became successful person. After achieving the proper goal of life an Engineer has to enter in professional life. According to this life he has to serve an industry, may be public or private sector or self-own. For the efficient work in the field he must be well aware of practical knowledge as well as theoretical knowledge. To be a good Engineer, one must be aware of the industrial environment & must know about management, working in industry, labor problems etc., so we can tackle them successfully. Due to all the above reasons & to bridge the gap between theory and practical, our engineering curriculum provides a practical training course of 28 days. During this period a student in industry and gets all type of experience and knowledge about the working and maintenance of various types of machinery. Since time immemorial, a man has tried hard to bring the world as close to himself as possible. His thirst for information is hard to quench so he has continuously tried to develop new technologies, which have helped to reach the objective.

The world we see today is a result of the continuous research in the field of communication, which started with the invention of telephone by Graham Bell to the current avatar as we see in the form INTERNET and mobile phones. All these technologies have come to existence because man continued its endeavor towards the objective.

This project report of mine, STUDY OF TRENDS TECHNOLOGIES IN COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING has been a small effort in reviewing the trends technologies prevailing. For this purpose, no organization other than BAHRAT RELCOM could have been a better choice.


DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TELECOM NETWORK Rural DELs Village Telephones Village Public Telephones (VPTs) & RCPs Public Telephones:-

NETWORK MANAGEMENT Setting up KU Band VSAT network Policy on transmission network maintenance Annual Maintenance contracts for switching system & WLL COMPUTERISATION OBLIGATIONS Towards customers and dealers

Towards employees Towards the Society Corporate Social Responsibilities






Introduction:Today, RELCOM is the No. 1 telecommunication company and the largest public sector undertaking of India and its responsibilities includes improvement of the already impeccable quality of telecom services, expansion of telecom services in all villages and instilling confidence among its customers. Apart from vast network expansions, especial emphasis has given for introducing latest technologies and new services like I-NET, INTERNET, ISDN (INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK), IN (INTELLIGENT NETWORK), CDMA, GSM and WLL (WIRELESS IN LOCAL LOOP), BROADBAND, 3G services etc. Now RELCOM has also entered in mobile communication. RELCOM has all the new services send technological advantages, which are available with any well, developed Telecom network anywhere else in the country. Full credit for all above achievement goes to the officers and staff of the RELCOM. The administration is fully aware of the challenges lying ahead and quite committed to provide the latest and best telecom services by their continued support and active co-operation.


Overview Relcom was incorporated in August 2000 under a young energetic Engineer and entrepreneur Dr. Ran Singh Birhman. Relcom started with a team of few technicians and two engineers (two engineers and few technicians) to take up the project of CDMA I&C for MOTOROLA (MTNL) Delhi and Fujitsu for MTNL Mumbai. It was Relcoms adaptability to technical knowledge and experience in Telecom sector which enabled Relcom to successfully undertake preventive maintenance of AIRTEL sites in Delhi. The efficient and technical capability of Relcoms staff further resulted in getting RF survey, LOS survey, New BTS and M/W radio I &C. Subsequently, the Launch of new circle for Airtel led us to introduce the project management, civil and electrical works on BTS/BSC /MSC sites. The continuous upgrading of knowledge and business acumen ship of its management brought Relcom out of its infancy in a short span in the form Relcom Group.

Relcom Group became a group of companies engaged in:

Relcom Project Management Consultancy, RF survey, Site Acquisition, Drive Test (2 G and 3G), Bench Marking and optimisation. Relcom Engineering Pvt. Ltd. (REPL) BTS, M/W (SDH/PDH) I&C, Switch up gradation (Software/hardware), Man power outsourcing, End to End Projects and TSP. Sai Enterprises Civil infra development, Electrical, Earthing and Lighting arrestors. Relcom Technology Training on GSM/CDMA, Computers, computers (software/hardware). Relcom Technology Pvt. Ltd. Manufacturing, Soon to be LAUNCHED.

It was sheer farsightedness which made a group to grow exponentially from a mere 200 BTS and M/W installation, commissioning and testing in 2000-2001 to the tune of 3000 BTS and M/W I&C, More than 5000 sites as PMC, and more than 1000 sites as TSP in 2009-2010. It was the quality of delivery in strict time line that made Relcom as a Preferred Engineering services provider for GSM/CDMA players like Airtel, Vodafone, Idea,

Reliance, TATA, Spice to name a few. Executing the quality work within the stipulated time made us the MAJOR ASP for OEM like Ericsson, NSN, ZTE, AlcatelLucent, Ceragon and ECI telecom. The mindset and think tank of Relcom always moves ahead with the changing times to make Relcom a perfect procedural and quality conscious, made Relcom as ISO 90012008 certified organisation.

Our Services include:

Project Management of NEW as well as INFIL sites Site acquisition, authority approval, RF Survey, for new as well in fills sites for infra development Installation, Commissioning, Testing and Integration of BTS/BSC/MSC Installation, Commissioning, testing and integration of Microwave HOPs (Inter & Intra City) and SDH and PDH backbone sites Updation of existing sites for increased tenacity including tower strengthening, DG and PIU upgradation, etc. Swapping of existing equipment with new (BTS, BSC) Upgradation of MSC (in Software upgradation) and hardware addition Installation, Testing & commissioning of FM Radio Station RF survey for Line of Sight and connectivity Supply, installation and commissioning of electrical system, earthing system, aviation light and lightening Arrestor System Warehouse Management and Kitting for GSM, CDMA, FM Station & Any other communication project in Delhi, Haryana, U.P., Rajasthan Punjab, and Himachal (we have sufficient infrastructure including covered sheds appx 25000 sq fts.) in Delhi and North India

Complete Technical Consultancy Services Supply, Design, Fabrication including Galvanizing and installation of GSM, Microwave mounts, Diversity fixtures and outdoor cable trays, towers etc. Project optimization of new and old GSM Network O&M activity of GSM network sites Training of B. E / Graduate Engineers/Diploma Holders on GSM/CDMA network services End to End projects including benchmarking for 2G and 3G network sites Providing Qualified trained manpower for GSM/CDMA Services on Man month basis

Present Engagements: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. TSP in Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Bihar for M/s WTTIL TSP in Delhi, Assam & North Eastern States for M/s Reliance TSP in Uttar Pradesh & Bihar for M/s Tower Vision Project Management Consultancy in Bihar, Jharkhand Project Management Consultancy in Delhi, Bihar, Haryana & Punjab for WTTIL & QTIL 6. Alcatel-Lucent BTS and M/W I&C and Swapping in ASSAM, West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chattis Garh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Hyderabad and Himachal Pradesh for M/s Reliance 7. BTS & MW I&C in Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, HP, Rajasthan, UP, Bihar, Assam, Mumbai & MP for M/s Ericsson India Pvt. Ltd. 8. BTS & MW I&C in MP, UP, Mumbai, Assam & North Eastern States and Kolkata for Nokia Siemens Networks Pvt. Ltd. 9. BTS and M/W I&C in Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Delhi, UP(E and W), HP, Haryana and Mumbai for M/s ZTE 10. E2E ASP for Ericsson / RELCOM in Rajasthan, Bihar 11. E2E ASP for ZTE / RELCOM in Gujrat, HP & HR 12. BTS Microwave I&C and swapping for ZTE (loop) in Mumbai


Switching network is provided in capacity stages SN: 63LTG to SN: 504LTG, i.e. up to 63 LTGs can be connected or, via other intermediate capacity stages, up to 504 LTGs can be connected. The modularly expandable SN has negligibly small internal blocking and can be used in EWSD exchanges of all types and sizes.

The self monitoring switching network uses a uniform through connection format. Octets (8 bit speech samples) from the incoming time slots are switched to the outgoing time slots leading to the desired destination fully transparently. This means that each bit of all octets is transmitted to the output of the switching network in the way that it appears at the input (bit integrity). For each connection made via the switching network, the octets have the same sequence at the output as at the input (digit sequence integrity). The switching networks full availability makes it possible for each incoming octet to be switched at any time to any outgoing highway at the output of the switching network. The time slots used in switching network for making through-connections make up a 64 Kbit/s connection path.

All of the switching networks internal highways have a bit rate of 8192 bits/s (Secondary Digital Carriers, SDCs). 128 time slots with a transmission capacity of 64 Kbits/s each (128x64 = 8192 Kbits/s) are available on each 8192 Kbits/s highway. Separate cables each containing several (eight or sixteen) such internal highways, are used for each transmission direction. All externally connected highways also have the same uniform bit rate.

The switching network combines the numerous switching network functions in a few module types. These modules work at very high through-connection bit rates; 8192 Kbits/s and some even at 32768 Kbit/s. For example 1024 connections can be switched simultaneously through a space stage with 16 inputs and 16 outputs. Although these highly integrated switching network modules switch a large number of connections with a high degree of reliability, the EWSD switching networks are always duplicated. The amount of space needed for the switching network in the EWSD exchange is still very low despite this duplication. Two different switching network versions have been supplied in India: * * Switching network [SN] supplied with first 110K order. supplied with subsequent orders.

Switching network B [SN (B)]

Position and Functional Structure

Switching network is connected to LTGs and CCNC for speech/data and to CP (through MB) for exchange of control information. Figure 1 shows the position of switching network in EWSD exchange with reference to other equipments. For security reasons, entire SN is duplicated. The two sides of SN (SN0 and SN1) are called planes. The external highways for both transmission directions i.e. between the switching network and one LTG or between the switching network and one Message Buffer Unit (MBU) are identified as follows as shown in figure 2. * SDC: LTG interface between SN and LTG: time slot 0 for message exchange between the LTG and coordination processor (CP) as well as between two LTGs, time slot 1 to 127 for subscriber connections. SDC: CCNC interface between the SN and the common channel signaling network (CCNC): for common channel signaling. SDC: TSG interface between SN and a message buffer unit assigned to CP (MBU: LTG) for message exchange between the CP and the LTGs as well as between the LTGs. SDC: SGC between the SN and an MBU: SGC of the CP for setting up and clearing connections.

Switching network in EWSD exchanges uses time and space switching and therefore it is functionally divided into Time Stage Group (TSG) and Space Stage Group (SSG). SN DE4 with capacity stage SN: 63LTG has a TST structure and TSG/SSG division is not applicable in this case.

TSGs and SSGs are interconnected through internal 8 Mb/s interfaces called SDC:SSG. TSGs of both planes are connected to SSGs of both planes, and thus these provide further security.

Each TSG and SSG have its own Switch Group Control(SGC) that is connected to CP via MB through interfaces SDC:SGC.

TABLE 1: SN Capacity Stages

Capacity stages of switching network Switchable traffic(E) Local Exchanges No. of lines Transit Exchanges

SN:63LTG (DE 4) 3150

SN:126LTG SN:252LTG SN:504LTG (DE 5.1) (DE 5.2) (DE 5.4) 6300 12600 25200

30000 7500

60000 15000

125000 30000

250000 60000

No. of trunks Structure Connectable no. of LTGs or LTG+CCNC TST 63 or 62+1 TSSST 126 or 125+1 TSSST 252 or 251+1 TSSST 504 or 503+1

Capacity Stages

The present version of SN is available in capacity stages SN:63LTG, SN:126LTG, SN:252LTG and SN:504LTG. Modular structure permits partially equipped SN. Up gradation from DE5.1 to DE5.2 and from DE5.2 to DE5.4 is possible with the help of supplier. SN DE4 is not upgradable to DE5.1 as TSG and SSG are not separately identified in SN DE4. The traffic handling capacity, connect ability for various capacity stages of SN are shown in Table 1.

Functional Units of SN

Switching path

The switching network is subdivided into time stage groups (TSG) and space stage groups (SSG). Due to its modular structure, the EWSD switching network can be partially equipped as needed and expanded step by step. The switching network uses the following switching stages:

one time stage incoming (TSI) three space stages (SS) and One time stage outgoing (TSO).

These time and space stages (functional units), shown in figure 3, are located in the following module types:

Link interface module between TSM and LTG (LIL) time stage module (TSM) link interface module between TSG and SSG (LIS) space stage module 8|15 (SSM8|15) space stage module 16|16 (SSM16|16)

The switching network capacity stage SN:63LTG, however has a TST structure with only one space stage as shown in figure 4. Module types LIS and SSM 8|15 are not there in SN:63 LTG. Further, the modules and the TSGs/SSGs are interconnected

A list of the various modules used in SN is given in Table 2.

7.1.1 LIL & LIS: The receiver components of the LIL and LIS compensate for differences in propagation times via connected highways. Thus, they produce phase synchronization between the incoming information on the highways. These differences in propagation times occur because an exchanges racks are set up at varying distances to each other. Module LIL is connected on the interface to LTGs and has 4 inputs and 4 outputs while module LIS is connected on the interface to SSG and has 8 inputs and 8 outputs.


The number of TSMs in a switching network is always equal to the number of LILs. Each TSM contains one time stage incoming (TSI) and one time stage outgoing (TSO) (Figure 5). The TSI and the TSO handle the incoming or outgoing information in the switching network. Between input and output, octets can change their time slot and highway via time Figure 5 : Time stage module (TSM) 0 3 LIL 0 SSM16|16 or LIS

3 0



TSI 0 SSM16|16 or LIS 3 Stages. Octets on four incoming highways are cyclically written into the speech memory of a TSI or TSO (4x128 = 512 locations corresponding to 512 different time slots). The speech memory areas 0 and 1 are used alternately in consecutive 125microseconds periods for writing the octets. The connections to be made determine the octet sequence during read-out. The stored octets are read-out to any one of 512 time slots and then transferred via four outgoing highways.

SSM8|15 and SSM 16|16:

The SSM 8|15 contains two space stages as shown in figure 6. One space stage is used for transmission direction LIS SSM 8|15 SSM 16|16 and has 8 inlets and 15 outlets while a second space stage is used for transmission direction SSM 16|16 SSM 8|15 LIS and has 15 inlets and 8 outlets. Via space stages, octets can change their highways between input and output, but they retain the same time slot. Space stages 8|15, 16|16 and 15|8 switch the received octets synchronously with the time slots and the 125-microsecond periods. The connections to be switched change in consecutive time slots. In this process, the octets arriving on incoming highways are spatially distributed to outgoing highways . In capacity stages with a TST structure, the SSM 16|16 Switches the octets received from the TSIs directly to the TSOs.

TABLE 2: List of Modules used in SN


No. of cards in SN:63 LTG

No. of cards in TSG of SN:DE5 16

No. of cards in SSG of SN:DE5 -




One LIL can connect up to 4 LTGs. The cards LIL and TSM are always used in pairs






This PCB has 8 inlets and 8 outlets. LIS and SSM8|15 are always used in pairs





Used to cross connect outlets of 16 SSM8/15 to inlets of SSM15/8


1 These two PCBs are used


in the SGC


Separate shelf is provided for the DCC(B)s in the rack

Control section:

Each TSG, each SSG, and with SN: 63LTG, each switching network side has its own control. These controls each consist of two modules viz. switch group control (SGC) and link interface module between SGC and MBU: SGC (LIM)

An SGC consists of a microprocessor with accompanying memory and peripheral components. The main tasks of an SGC are to handle CP commands (such as connection setup and clear down), message generation and routine test execution. Apart from the interface to the message buffer unit (MBU: SGC), an LIM has a hardware controller (HWC) and a clock generator for clock distribution.


The firmware for the switching network is permanently stored in the program memory of each SGC. For this reason, it does not have to be loaded or initialized by the coordination processor (CP). SN firmware is organized in the following manner:

executive control programs call processing programs maintenance programs startup and safeguarding programs Switching network (B)

Switching network (B) is a special compact version of switching network wherein a number of functional units are integrated over a single module. This arrangement has the following advantages:

* *

Reduction in shelf space Reduction in number of PCB types

Utilization of available space in SN rack for accommodating LTGs

Functionally SN(B) is entirely similar to SN. However, only the following five types of modules are used in SN(B) as shown in table 3.

TSMB: Two LILs and two time stage modules TSMs are combined to form one TSMB. LISB: This is formed by combining two LIS functional units in a TSG.

SSM8B: Two LIS and two SSM8|15 functional units in a SSG are combined to form one SSM8B. SSM16B: This is formed by combining eight SSM16|16 functional units. SGCB: Functional units LIM and SGC are combined to form one SGCB.


SN(B) Modules


No. of cards in SN(B) :63LTG

No. of cards in TSG of SN(B):DE5

No. of cards in SSG of SN(B):DE5

Equivalent modules in SN


2 X TSM + 2 X LIL


2 X LIS of TSG


2 X LIS of SSG + 2 X SSM8|15


8 X SSM16|16




Provided in same shelf containing SN/TSG/SSG

Rack Assignment

2450 mm Both planes of SN: 63LTG are accommodated in two frames of a single SN rack. In case of SN: 126 LTG, both planes of TSG or SSG occupy one rack each. Thus there are two racks for 2 TSGs and one rack for one SSG. SN: 252LTG and SN: 504LTG have rack assignment similar to SN: 126 LTG and occupy 6 and 12 racks respectively. Rack assignment for SN is shown in figure 7.

In case of SN (B) both planes of SN (B) of SN DE4 and both planes of TSG or SSG of SN DE5 are accommodated in two frames of a single SN rack. However since each such frame consists of one shelf only, the balance space in the rack is utilized for accommodating LTGs. The SSG shelf can accommodate two SSGs. The composite rack is called rack for SN (B)/LTG. Rack assignment for SN (B)/LTG is shown in figure 8.

Module Frame Layout


One plane of SN:63LTG is accommodated in one frame consisting of two shelves. The arrangement of modules in module frame for SN:63LTG is shown in figure 9.

SN:126LTG and higher capacity stages

One TSG or one SSG of SN: 126LTG or above occupies one frame consisting of two shelves. The arrangement of modules in module frame for SN: 126LTG or above is shown in figure 10 (a) and (b).

SN (B):126LTG and higher capacity stages

One TSG or two SSGs of SN(B):DE5 (126LTG or higher capacity) occupy one frame consisting of one shelf only. The arrangement of modules in module frame for SN:126LTG or above is shown in figure11 (a) and (b).

SN (B):63LTG: - One plane of SN(B):63LTG requires one frame consisting of only one shelf. The arrangement of modules in the module frame for SN(B):63LTG is shown in figure 12.

Fig. Time Stage group internal connections Fig. Time Stage Group Internal connections

Interconnection of Switching Modules

Switching modules in EWSD switching network are connected in a manner so as to ensure nearly full availability. One module LIL, which can handle highways coming from 4 LTGs is connected to 4 inlets of a module TSM on one-to-one basis. Thus these 4 highways coming from 4 LTGs undergo a T-switching function and are then connected to inlets of 4 different LIS modules. The 8 inlets of a LIS module are connected to outlets of 8 different TSMs. Two such groups form a Time Stage Group wherein 63 LTGs can be connected. The TSG has 64 outlets coming out of 8 LIS modules. The interconnection arrangement is shown in figure 13.

Eight outlets of LIS modules in TSG are connected to 8 inlets of LIS modules in SSG on one-to-one basis. One SSG consists of 16 LIS modules and therefore two TSGs can be connected to one SSG. There is again one-to-one connection between 8 outlets of LIS modules and 8 inlets of SSM8|15 modules. Fifteen outlets of SSM8|15 and 16 inlets of SSM16|16 are cross connected. Similarly 16 outlets of SSM16|16 and 15 inlets of SSM15|8 are cross connected. The interconnection arrangement within SSG is shown in figure 14.

All the TSGs of SN are connected to all the SSGs in such a manner as to ensure nearly full availability. The interconnection of TSGs with SSGs in case of SN:504 LTG is shown in figure 15, and that for SN:252 LTG and SN:126 LTG are shown in figure 16.

Interconnection of the modules in SN DE4 is simpler as there are no TSG or SSG. The TSMs are directly connected to SSM16|16 as shown in figure 17.


Three essential functions of switching network namely speech path switching, message path switching and changeover to standby are described below: Speech path switching

The switching network switches single channel and broadcast connections with a bit rate of 64 Kbit/s and multichannel connection with nx64 Kbits/s. Two connection paths are necessary per single channel connection (e.g. from calling to called party and from called to calling party). For a multichannel connection, nx2 connection paths are necessary. In broadcast connections, the information is passed from one signal source to a number of signal sinks (no opposing direction). The coordination processor (CP) searches for free paths through the switching network according to the busy status of connection paths stored at that moment in the switching networks memory. The path selection procedure is always the same and is independent of the capacity stage of the switching network. During path selection, the two connection paths of a call

are always chosen so that they will be switched via the same space stage section. A space stage section is a quarter of the space stage arrangement; with an SN: 252 LTG, for example, this corresponds to half a space stage group SSG. After path selection, the CP causes the same connection paths to be switched through in both switching network sides of an SN. The SGCs are responsible for switching the connection paths. In a capacity stage with 63 LTGs, one switch group control participates in switching a connection path; however in a capacity stage with 504, 252, or 126 LTGs, two or three switch group controls are involved. This depends on whether or not the subscribers are connected to the same TSG. The CP gives every involved switch group control setting instructions necessary for the through-connection. These setting instructions always have the same data format. An SGC receives the setting instruction from the CP via the message buffer unit MBU: SGC, the secondary digital carrier SDC: SGC, n an SGC and the CP are exchanged via an LIM. The SGC calculates the setting data using the call processing programs and service routines. The SGC loads the data into registers in the hardware controller (HWC) of the LIM and, via the HWC, controls the setting of desired connection paths in

Message path switching.

Apart from the connections determined by subscribers by inputting dialing information, the switching network also makes connections between the LTG and the CP. These connections are used to exchange control information; they are setup only once, and then they are always available. For this reason, they are called semi permanent connections. Via these same connections, the LTGs also interchange message without having to burden the CPs processing unit. In this manner, a separate line network for the exchange of messages within an exchange is not necessary. Nailed-up connections and connections for common channel signaling are made on a semi permanent basis as well.

Changeover to standby

All connection paths are duplicated, i.e. switched through in SN0 and SN1. This provides an alternative route for each connection in case of failure.

Figure 19 provides a simplified illustration of the various alternative routes possible in capacity stages with 504, 252, and 126 LTGs. The connection paths are switched in the same manner over both switching network sides (SN0 and SN1). The LTGs accept the incoming octets of the effective connections (subscriber/ subscriber connections) from only one switching network side. In figure 19, the effective connections lead over SN0. Of note is the duplicated routing between the time stage groups (TSG) and space stage group (SSG). This makes it possible for the TSGs and SSGs to be individually switched over to standby. Switching over to standby is implemented only if errors occur simultaneously in both switching network sides. The effective connections are then lead over routed TSGs and SSGs of both switching network sides 0 and 1. In the switching network capacity stage with 63 LTGs, it is only possible to route the connections over SN0 or SN1.

If an error occurs in the switching network, the CP initiates corresponding measures for switching over to standby and issues the corresponding messages. Changeover to standby do not interrupt existing connections. Thanks to this duplication principle, all operational measures are easily carried out without impairing traffic (e.g. adding new modules or replacing defective modules). O&M Aspects

The following MML commands are used during operation and maintenance of switching network. Display and Modification in number of TSMs. DISP TSG MOD TSG

Status display and Configuration commands STAT SN CONF SN CONF TSG CONF SSG

Diagnosis and Test commands - SN DE4 and DE5 DIAG SN TEST SN

Diagnosis and Test commands - SN DE5 only DIAG TSG TEST TSG DIAG SSG TEST SSG

Safeguarding Concept

The switching network (SN) is duplicated. Normally one SN side is active (the SSG and both TSGs in ACT), and the other SN side is standby (the SSG and the TSGs in STB).

In the event of a malfunction in a switch group (SSG or TSG) in the active SN, the affected switch group is configured to UNA and the other switch groups in the previously standby SN are configured to ACT.

N the event of a malfunction in a switch group in the standby SN, only the affected switch group is configured to UNA. None of these reconfigurations affect switching traffic.

Fault Printouts

An SN fault printout is the result report of the fault analysis program for the SN or for a switch group (SSG or TSG). It complements the more general alarm signaling with SYP etc. i.e. whenever the safeguarding system detects a malfunction in the SN, an appropriate fault printout is formulated, typically as follows: SN FAILURE WITH CONFIGURATION SGC DEFECT FAULT LOCATION : TSG-side-tsg CONFIGURATION : TSG-side-tsg SGC FROM : zzz TO : UNA MMN:SN0xx-000

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION : H zzzzzzzz zzzzzzzz zzzzzzzz zzzzzzzz H zzzzzzzz zzzzzzzz zzzzzzzz zzzzzzzz

Faults affecting the SN can be divided into two groups which are clearly distinguishable in terms of the system response: * Unconditional fault

These are serious faults. The switch group in which such a fault occurs is always reconfigured to UNA. With unconditional faults, the following codewords may be output : * SGC/SGC FAILURE SGC/HWC FAILURE PATH SET/HWC-FAILURE CYCLE DEFEKT NO CYCLE SGC CHANNEL ERROR

Conditional faults

These are not serious. If such a fault occurs in a switch group with no redundancy (i.e. where the partner switch group is in NAC, UNA or MBL), then the affected switch group is not configured to UNA. If the switch group is duplicated, then it is configured to UNA, even for a conditional fault. Codewords for conditional faults are : SGC/PLLU-FAILURE SN-PLL FAILURE PATH SET/TSM-FAILURE PATH SET/SSM8-FAILURE PATH SET/SSM16-FAILURE SGC-DEFECT All COC-FAILURE All MCH-FAILURE All MUX-FAILURE


DIAG TSG: SN=side, TSG=tsg,TA=area, SUBUNT= TSM/ SSM/ CSM - x;

DIAG SSG: SN=side, SSG=ssg,TA=area,SUBUNT= TSM/ SSM/ CSM - x;

Explanation: -


This command starts a test program, to be specified under parameter TA, for a time stage group (TSG).


This command starts a test program, to be specified under parameter TA, for a space stage group (SSG).


SN plane, either 0 or 1


Number of TSG, 0 to 7


(test area = test program)


The identifier entered for the parameter TA specifies the test program to be called up. The following test programs are possible: CHALL, ALL, HWC, TSM, SSM, CSM, PLL

In test program TSM, SSM and CSM, in the diagnostic command, a subunit must also be specified.

- CHALL (check all)

- For TSG,

tests central sections, CPU with program and data memory PLL supervision circuit hardware controller tests decentralize sections : control memory of TSM modules

- For SSG,

tests central sections : CPU with program and data memory PLL supervision circuit hardware controller tests decentralize sections : control memory of SSM16|16 and SSM8|15


(check all control memories)

- For TSG,

The control memories of modules TSM are tested. Each bit in a control memory is checked for 1 and 0. The addressing of each Ram chip in a control memory

is also checked.

- For SSG

The control memories of modules SSM16|16 and SSM8|15 are tested. Each bit in a control memory is checked for 1 and 0.

The addressing of each RAM chip in a control memory is also checked. Whereas modules SSM8|15 are only tested according to the SN capacity stage specified in the CP command, all 15 SSM16|16 modules are tested. - HWC (HWC test) - for TSG and SSG

The HWC registers are checked. A good or bad message gives the states of the HWC registers and the interface between SGC and HWC. The HWC interface to the switching modules is not tested.

- TSM (TSM test)

The addressing and functioning of each bit in the control memory of a TSM module are tested. - CSM (SSM16|16 test)

The addressing and functioning of each bit in the control memory of an SSM16|16 module are tested.

- SSM (SSM8|15 test)

The addressing and functioning of each bit in the control memory of an SSM8|15 are tested.

- PLL (PLL supervision circuit test)


For diagnostic identifiers TSM, CSM & SSM, the subunit must be specified.

Possible subunits are: TSM = SSM = CSM =

functional unit TSM/LIL functional unit LIS/SSM8|15 SSM16|16

TSM number (0 to 15) SSM8|15 number (0 to 15)

SSM16|16 number (0 to 14) Test

The SN speech path test makes a cross-office check per SN side, switch group or subunit, depending on the command.

This involves setting up connections via SN, which are then tested with a test pattern. If the SN speech path detects a COC error in such a connection path, the test is repeated with a new path setup attempt (with the same parameters). If the test again detects a COC error, it is terminated with FAILURE DETECTED. The MML command used is as follows, where symbols/parameters are same as in DIAG SN.

TEST TSG: SN=side, TSG=tsg, TA=area, SUBUNT= TSM/ SSM/ CSM - x;

TEST SSG: SN=side, SSG=ssg,TA=area,SUBUNT= TSM/ SSM/ CSM - x;



Interrogate and find out the capacity stage of SN in your exchange. Identify its racks, frames and modules.


Find out the number of LTGs and TSMs in your exchange and correlate. How many additional LTGs can be provided with the existing SN configuration?


Change status of both planes of SNs, one by one, using all possible combinations of OST and tabulate the results.


A fault in SN plane 0 has affected the third LTG connected to TSG1. What functional unit in SN could be faulty? Write MML commands to configure and diagnose the faulty unit.






INTERNET Introduction: The Internet is not a program, not software, not hardware or a big system. It is a group of various co-operating computers worldwide interconnected by computer based on TCP\IP communication protocols. People use it to get information over a standard communication link. The hundreds or thousands or millions of computer network are connected to each other for exchanging the information which is based on the unique identity and set of procedures. Internet is a series of interconnected networks providing global link to information. GIAS: RELCOM launched the Gateway Internet Access Service (GAIS) through dial up/leased/ISDN network. Users can access GAIS from 99 cities in India by this means.



The basic function of Internet can be summarized as underInterconnecting of computers to form a network. Interconnecting of computers to form a network of networks. To establish a communication link between two computers within as network. To provide alternate communication link among the networks, even if one network is not working. These are based on TCP/IP communications protocol.

Transfer of a file through Internet:-

Suppose a file is to be transmitted on Internet from one computer to other ones Break the file in to small packets Attached destination and source address in o packets Multiplexed and transmit these packets At destination de-multiplex the packets Remove address bits from the packets and assemble the data in to the original file Make source bits as destination address and send the acknowledgement in to the source Therefore, it is clear that network hardware sends the packets to specified destination and network software reassembles of communications, the computer network performs the following functionsAddressing and routing Fragmentation and error correction Data error checking Connectivity control Multiplexing and de-multiplexing

Data flow control End users interface etc. The data handling

A single module cannot handle the entire process. One that adopted as a standard is an open system interconnection (OSI) model.

COMMON TERMINOLOGY USED IN INTERNET: WWW: World Wide Web (WWW) is a wide area hypermedia information retrieval aiming to give universal access to a large universe of documents. HTTP: Hyper text transmission Protocol (HTTP) is the communication protocol used to transfer documents from the server to client over the WWW (http:// www). HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) is a system of marking or tagging the various parts of web documents to tell the browser software how to display the document text, link graphics and link media. ISDN: Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) is a digital phone connection technology that provides both voice and data services over the same connection. ISP: Internet Service Provider (ISP) is an agency that provides Internet access and other net related services.


Networking is a key component of any Internet Services Provider (ISP) operations. The networking equipments like access servers, routers and modems are critical to the successful functioning of ISP. An ISP node where subscribers enter internet, consists of a set of equipments as given below. Access server Router Modem bank LAN (Local Area Network) components Security server Rack, console & power supply Network management agent. Help desk

CELLULAR MOBILE SERVICES: Cellular is one of the fastest growing and most demanding telecommunication applications. Today, it represents a continuously increasing percentage of all new telephone subscriptions around the world. Currently there are more than 45 million subscribers in worldwide and nearly 50% of those subscribers are located in USA. It is forecasted that cellular system using a digital technology will become the universal method of telecommunications. By the year 2005, forecasters predict that there will be more than 100 million cellular subscribers worldwide.

WIRELESS IN LOCAL LOOP (WLL) MOBILE WLL is a communication system that connects customers to the Public Switch Telephone Network (PSTN) using radio frequency signals as substitutes of conventional wires for all part of connection between the subscribers and the telephone exchange. It works on CDMA technique. The local loop is access part of telecommunication network i.e. the part between PSTN switch and subscribers. WLL network application involves uses of radio to replace of the wire link between PSTN switch and subscriber. The radio technology is able to provide same quality of services as that provided by the wires line. Application of wireless loop technology has just been started in the worldwide. There is no standard for this so far. However, a number of national and international air interface standards for digital cellular mobile telephone system are available.

TECHNICAL ASPECTS: WLL is based on CDMA technique and is entirely different from GSM. The system for WLL services can be divided in two following parts:BSC (Base Switching Centre):- It provides links between BTS & BSM; it consists of different processors, in RELCOM it is of SUN Polaris of LG Company. In LG 1 BSC can have 48 BTS? In RELCOM we have two types of BSC:-


V-5.2:- This type of BSC cannot switch by itself so it is dependent on local

exchange / PSTN for switching and keeping records of billing etc. RELCOM uses this type of BSC for rural areas. ii. CCS-7 / R2:- These types of BSC are totally automatic it doesnt depend on local

exchange for its functions, it is complete in itself. RELCOM uses this type of BSC for urban areas.

BTS (Base Transreceiver System):- As it is clear from its name it transmits as well as receive signal, it works as an amplifier (router) to overcome the loss in signal in transmission. BSM (Base Station Management):- It controls and manages the WLL services. It can troubleshoot the problem; add new users as well as capable to block service given to user. It is basically a computer system, which manages the whole process of WLL service. In RELCOM BSM are two UNIX based computer system. ADVANTAGES OF WLL: Country wide induction of WLL underway of areas than are non-feasible for the normal network Helping relieves congestion of connections in the normal cable / wire based network in urban areas Limited the mobility without any airtime charges It has improved signal and reducing the interference Greater capacity than mobile Provides ease of operation, administration & maintenance at lower cost. The telecommunication is the biggest factor in influencing the speed of life in the modern age. Today we can get connection with any corner of world through the push button of computer; with the small mobile phone we can send not only the messages but also the secret document. As we know that there is positive view behind any mention that it should be helpful in the development of society. But humans have diverted mentality

some of them of positive view and some of them of negative view. Where use any invention for the welfare of society but some uses for the satisfaction their disturbed mentality and to earn more and more money whether it may be harmful for the society. They infringe the norms of society and their behavior is condemned as antisocial, immoral and sinful.

CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (CDMA): CONCEPT OF MULTIPLE ACCESSES: Multiple access system allows a large number of users to share a common pool of radio telephone circuits, like sharing of trunked radio facility. Multiple access radio has similarity to the LAN in which the common channel is available to all users. The circuits are demands assigned i.e. assigned on demand first-cum-first-served basis. The provision of access to the radio circuits methods of multiple accesses are: CDMA: - Where large number of transmission are combined on the same channel at the same time and separated by the codes. WHAT IS CDMA? CDMA, a cellular technology originally known as IS-95, competes with GSM technology for dominance in the cellular world. There are now different variations, but the original CDMA is known as CdmaOne. Latest CDMA global subscriber & operators numbers As of December 2002, there were 120 million users worldwide, with 55 million of these in the USA. See other cellular technology in the world. We now have CDMA2000 and its variant like 1X EV, 1XEV-DO and MC 3X. The refer of variant of usage of a 1.25 MHz channel. 3X uses a 5 MHz channel. Wide band CDMA forms that the basis of UMTS 3G networks, developed originally by Qualcomm, high

capacity and small cell radius, employing spread-spectrum technology and special coding scheme characterized by CDMA. The Telecommunication Industry Association (TIA) in 1993 adopted CDMA. May 2001 there were 35 million subscribers on cdmaOne system worldwide. Over 35 countries have either commercial or trial activity ongoing. There were already 43 WLL systems in 22 countries using cdmaOne technology. Enhancing todays data capabilities is the 1XRTT CDMA standard this next evolutionary step for cdmaOne operators will provide data rates up to 300 kbps, significant capacity increases as well as extended batteries life for handsets. Worldwide resources are being devoted to roll out third generation CDMA technology, including multi-carrier (cdmaOne2000 1xMC and HDR in 1.25 MHz bandwidth and 3xMC in 5 MHz bandwidth) and direct spread (WCDMA in 5 MHz bandwidth). This first phase of cdmaOne2000 variously called 1XRTT, 3G1X or just plain 1X is designed to double current voce capacity and support always on data transmission speed 10 times faster than typically available today, some 153.6 kbps on both the forward and reverse links.

GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION (GSM): The GSM Association is a unique organization, with a truly global reach, offering a full range of business and technical services to its members. Now as the wireless family unfolds the association is deriving forward its vision of seamless, limitless, world of wireless communication. Throughout the evolution of cellular telecommunications, various systems have been developed without the benefit of standardized specifications. This presented many problems directly related to compatibility, especially with the development of digital radio technology. The GSM standard is intended to address these problems. Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulae the

specifications for a pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz it is estimated that many countries outside of Europe will join the GSM partnership. OBJECTIVES OF GSM SYSTEM: One of the important objectives of GSM group is to evolve a unified standard to provide seamless roaming across Europe. Another landmark decision taken by the group is to standardize a digital radio interface for the communication between the mobile handset and the radio transmitter / receiver. The design objectives of the GSM system can be briefly states as below: Excellent speech quality High security and privacy Low module terminal cost Low service and facilities cost Design of sleek and handled mobile terminals International roaming Wide range of services and facilities Ability to adopt to new and innovative features Narrowband ISDN compatibility Digital Radio High Spectral efficiency

GSM NETWORK ELEMENTS AND ARCHITECTURE: Mobile Station (MS) Mobile Terminal or Equipment (MT) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Card Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Base transceiver Station (BTS) Base Station Controller (BSC) Main Station Controller (MSC) Transcoding and Rate Adoption Unit (XCDR/TRAU) Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) Registration Authentication and security Location updating Handovers and Routing to roaming subscribers Operation and Maintenance Subsystem (OMS) Operation and Maintenance Centre Switch Operation and Maintenance Centre Radio Enhanced Services Subsystem (ESS)

Billing and Customer Care System (B&CCS)

THIRD GENERATION 3G TECHNOLOGY : Introduction: Third generation (3G) networks were conceived from the Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) concept for high speed networks for enabling a variety of data intensive applications. 3G systems consist of the two main standards, CDMA2000 and W-CDMA, as well as other 3G variants such as NTT DoCoMo's

Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access (FOMA) and Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (TD-SCDMA) used primarily in China. Data Speed The data speed of 3G is determined based on a combination of factors including the chip rate, channel structure, power control, and synchronization. An example of calculating the theoretical 3G data speed is as follows: W-CDMA assigned code 400-500 Kbps/code. 6 codes X 400 > 2Mbps (UMTS target for 3G data speed in fixed location) Number of users in cell/sector Distance of user from cell User is moving or stationary Network operator capacity and network optimization requirements

Actual data speeds will vary in accordance with several factors including:

1xEV-DO is a data-only solution, supporting a theoretical data speed of up to 2.457 Mbps 1xEV-DV is a data and voice solution, supporting a theoretical data speed of up to 3.072 Mbps FOMA has two operational modes, supporting a dedicated 64 Kbps connection or a 384 Kbps downlink/64 Kbps uplink best-effort connection. TD-SCDMA can operate in 1.6 MHz or 5 MHz mode for 2 Mbps or 6 Mbps respectively

3G is the short form for third-generation technology. It is one of the popular mobile phone standards. The services utilizing 3G provide the ability to transmit both voice data such as calls and non-voice data such as instant messaging, email and video telephony at the same time. Japan was the first country to introduce 3G on a wide scale commercially. In 2005, almost 40 per cent of the subscribers in Japan used 3G services. On the technical front, 3G services are wide

area cellular telephone networks unlike IEEE 802.11 networks, which are short range networks meant for Internet access. Now, 3G is being used to provide various services. You have to plug in 3G Data Card into your laptop and can get the fastest available connection, with mobile broadband speeds of up to 1.8 Mbps. Its neat, compact design makes it easy to use; you can easily swap it between laptops for use at work, home or on the move. Laptops have a PC Card slot (also known as a PCMCIA slot), or an Express Card slot. There is PCMCIA to Express Card Converter for using 3G broadband; you need 3G Data card, network SIM card, software, user guide.

RELCOMs IPTV First started in Japan in 2002. Popular in France, South Korea, Germany, Hongkong etc. France is leading in IPTV having more than 1.7 million IPTV viewers

Global IPTV subscribers base will reach 14.5 million in 2007 and will be approximately 63 million by 2010.

CONCLUSION: Hence in the last I can say that taking training in such an organization proved to be very beneficial for me. I learnt quite a lot about electronic exchange, Internet, Land line, WLL, Mobile GSM & 3G, and the basis of processing Exchange. I also got firsthand knowledge of how a Telephone Exchange works. The first phase of training has proved to be quite fruitful. It provides an opportunity to encounter with such huge machines. The architecture of company has various units. They are linked and working of whole plant is controlled make the student realized that engineering is not just learning the structure description and working of various machines. But the greater part is planning proper management.

-------------GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ADM ANALOGUE Add/Drop Multiplexers An electrical signal which is analogous to changing physical quantity measured Base Station Controller Base Tran receiver Station Centre for Development of Telemetric Cable Distribution Cabinet Code Division Multiple Access Cable conductor kilometer cable sheath kilometers multiplied by the number of conductor pairs in each cable Calling Line Identification Processing A cable with a single wire in the centre of cylindrical conductor forming a pair of carrying electrical signals Cable Termination Boxes Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications Direct exchange lines, one each for every telephone connection The exchange having signals coded into binary pulses and having little or no moving parts DECT interface unit Digital Loop Carrier







Dense Wavelength Multiplexing Terminal Electronic Data Exchange Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange Electronic Trunk Relay Plates Electronic Wheeler System of Digital Trunk Automatic Exchange Giga Hertz Global System for Mobile Communications High density polyethylene High bit rate Digital Subscriber Line Frequency (cycles per second), named after Heinrich Hertz - usually in ranges of kilo 1000 - KHz, mega 1,000,000 MHz or giga 1,000,000,000 - GHz Intermediate Data Rate Integrated Services Digital Network Long Distance Satellite Telephone Letter of Intent Multi Access Rural Radio Multi Base Module Mega bits per second denoting digital frequency Multi Channel Per Carrier Main Distribution Frame Multiplex Notice Inviting Tender Non Exchange Lines Optical Fiber Cable Glass fibers using light waves for transmission of signals Optical Line Amplifiers Own your telephone Private Automatic Branch exchange Private branch exchange Pulse Code Modulation



Public Call Offices Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy Programmed Evaluation Review Technique Chart Polyethylene Insulated Jelly Filled Cable Packet Switch Public Data Network Progressive Stock Taking Public Switched Telephone Network Polyvinyl chloride Private Wires Remote Line Unit Remote Switching Unit Standing Advisory Committee on Radio Frequency Allocation Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Switch Mode Power Supply Subscriber Record Cards Secondary Switching Areas Subscriber trunk dialing Synchronous Transport Module Trunk automatic exchange Time Division Multiple Access A transmission technique used in digital radio transmission in which the use of a frequency is divided into time slots that are shared amongst several users. TelePrompTer exchange Triangular Tubular Hybrid Ultra high frequency (300 to 3000 MHz) Very high frequency Village Public Telephones Very small aperture terminal Wireless-in-Local Loop