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Boston College,Gwalior

R.G.PV University, Bhopal

Pratima Kumari

Project coordinator project guide

Mr.Virendra Singh Dhakar Mr. Ram Krishan
Head Of the Department Principal System Analyst
S.O.S. in Computer Science NIC, CGO Complex
Boston College, Gwalior New Delhi - 110003

Undertaken At
National Informatics Center (N.I.C.), New Delhi.

S.O.S. in Computer
Science & Applications
Jiwaji University, Gwalior – 474011


Informatics Centre
This is to certify that Miss. Pratima Kumari D/o Mr. Yogendra Kumar
Singh Roll.N0 0906CA051006 a student of Master of Computer
Application from Boston college , Gwalior of RGPV University has
done her full-semester project training at Energy Informatics Division
(EID), NIC, New Delhi, from 21.01.2008 to 14.06.2008

The project work entitled “System Modules For Village Level

Monitoring And Milestone Monitoring Under Web Based MIS For
Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidutkaran Yojna” embodies the original work
done by her during her above full semester project training period.

(Head Training Division) (Project Guide/HOD)

I do, hereby, declare that the dissertation entitled “System Modules for Village Level
Monitoring and Milestone Monitoring under Web Based MIS for RGGVY” is an
authentic work developed by me at “National Informatics Center, New Delhi”, under the
guidance of Mr. Ram Krishan-Scientist D (Principal System Analyst) and Mr. Virendra Singh
Dhakar (HOD, SOS in Computer Science, Boston College) and submitted as a 6th semester
project work for the degree of Masters of Computer Application of Boston College, Gwalior.
I also declare that, any or all contents incorporated in this dissertation have not been
submitted in any form for the award of any degree or diploma of any other institution or

M.C.A,6th Semester
Boston College, Gwalior


This work was not only a mandatory exercise for my curriculum but also a very rare
opportunity to learn and be able to work in an extremely healthy and professional
environment. I would like to take the opportunity to express my heartiest gratitude towards
all those people who have, in various ways helped me to complete this project.
I am thankful to Dr. Jaggnath Dass (Technical Director and Head, Energy Informatics
Division) for taking interesting arrangements of the project and remaining interactive
throughout the project. His timely suggestions and guidance were instrumental in completing
this project.
I am highly indebted to my project guide Mr. Ram Krishan (Scientist D-Principal Systems
Analyst) for steering me through tough and easier phases of the project in an expert and
oriented manner. His valuable guidance was available to me as and when required.
I am further thankful to Mr. Virendre Singh Dhakar (HOD, SOS in Computer Science,
Boston College) for providing me various recourses and much-experienced lecturers for my
guidance. I would like to express my gratitude towards my teachers, for there
encouragement, valuable suggestion and tips he has provided time to time. This is an
appropriate opportunity to thanks all my colleagues and all faculty members, teachers for
their support.
Last but not least I am earnestly thankful to my parents who took great pains in getting my
entire education through, who get happier many-folds on many small successes that I get, but
prevent me from losing heart on the biggest failures.

(Pratima Kumari)


Project Title: System Modules for Village Level Monitoring and Milestone
Monitoring under Web Based MIS for RGGVY

Abstract: Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojna (RGGVY) is a nation wide

programme under Ministry of Power (MoP) has been launched with an objective to electrify
all villages and habitations, provide access to electricity to all rural household and give free
of cost electricity connection to Below Poverty Line(BPL) families within five years. Under
RGGVY, Electricity Distribution Infrastructure is envisaged to establish Rural Electricity
Distribution backbone (REDB) with at least a 33/11 KV sub-station, Village Electricity
Infrastructure (VEI) with at least one Distribution Transformer in a village or hamlet and
stand alone grids with generation where grid supply is not feasible. This programme has been
brought under the ambit of Bharat Nirman and Rural Electrification Corporation Ltd.
(RECL) is the nodal agency responsible for implementation of the programme.

In the proposed system, the data will be captured from remote locations over NICNET
through web interface and data will be stored in a database in Central server at NIC HQrs.
This database will be used to generate Queries/reports required by REC & Ministry of Power
to monitor Physical & Financial progress of the project.
The assigned project covers the design & development of Data Entry/Edit Report Generation
Module for the proposed MIS based on the requirements of REC & MOP .

Tools & Technologies used:

 JDK 1.5
 JSP 2.0
 Javascript
 Editor: Editpus

 Apache TOMCAT server 5.5
 Oracle 10g

Keywords: Java, Tomcat Server, Oracle 10g, JSP and online Database Synchronization.

NIC Division: Energy Informatics Division(EID)

Trainee Information:

Name : Pratima Kumari

Session: January 2008 to June 2008

ID : 10752


Contents Page No.

1.Organisational Profile………………………………………………………9
1.1 About NIC……………………………………………………………….10
1.2 NIC Services Profile……………………………………………………12
1.5 Functioning of NIC……………………………………………………..12

2. User Profile & Problem Definition……………………………………………….13

2.1 User Profile……………………………………………………………….13
2.1.1 Ministry of Power………………………………………….......14
2.1.2 Rural Electrification Corp. Ltd………………………………..16
2.2 Rajiv Gandhi Gramin Vidyutikaran Yojna- Introduction………….....16
2.3 Role of REC towards RGGVY……………………………………........17
2.4 Scope of the Project……………………………………………………..17
2.5 Problem Assigned………………………………………………………..18

3.System Study……………………………………………………………………….20
3.1 Defining a System………………………………………………………..20
3.2 System Life Cycle………………………………………………………..20
3.2.1 Problem definition………………………………………….......21
3.2.2 System Analysis………………………………………………..21 Study of Existing System……………………………22 Drawbacks of Existing System……………………..22 Proposed System…………………………………....23 System Requirement Study…………………………23 Functional Description………………………………25 System Flow Analysis……………………………….25 Feasibility Study……………………………………...27

4 . System Discription Techniques ……………………..………………………….29

4.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………29
4.2 Data Flow Diagrams ……………………………………………………29
4.3 Entity Relationship Diagrams…………………………………………. 38
4.4 System Flow Chart………………………………………………………41

5.System Design………………………………………………………………………43
5.1 System Design …………………………………………………………..43
5.2 Architecture Diagram……………………………………………………44
5.3 Input Design………………………………………………………………46
5.4 Output Design …………………………………………………………..61
5.5 Database Design…………………………………………………………77
5.6 Development Platform…………………………………………………..99
5.6.1 Hardware………………………………………………………..99

5.6.2 Software………………………………………………………....99 Database………………………………………………99 Application Development…………………………...101

6 .System Test and Implementation………………………..……………………...112

6.1 Testing …………………………………………………………………..112
6.1.1 Introduction……………………………………………………112
6.1.2 Test Case Design……………….……………………………113
6.1.3 Levels of Testings….…………………………………………114
6.2 Implementation………………………………………………………….117
6.3 Maintenance…………………………………………………………….117
6.4 Risk Analysis…………………..………………………………………..118
7. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………120
8. Bibiliographi………………………………………………………………………..121



National Informatics Centre (NIC) of the Department of Information Technology is
providing network backbone and e-Governance support to Central Government, State
Governments, UT Administrations, Districts and other Government bodies. It offers a wide
range of ICT services including Nationwide Communication Network for decentralized
planning, improvement in Government services and wider transparency of national and local
Governments. NIC assists in implementing Information Technology Projects, in close
collaboration with Central and State Governments, in the areas of (a) Centrally sponsored
schemes and Central sector schemes, (b) State sector and State sponsored projects, and (c)
District Administration sponsored projects. NIC endeavors to ensure that the latest
technology in all areas of IT is available to its users.
NIC Headquarters is based in New Delhi. At NIC Headquarters, a large number of
Application Divisions exist which provide total Informatics Support to the Ministries and
Departments of the Central Government. NIC computer cells are located in almost all the
Ministry Bhawans of the Central Government and Apex Offices including the Prime
Minister’s Office, the Rashtrapati Bhawan and the Parliament House. Apart from this, NIC
has various Resource Divisions at the Headquarters which specialize into different areas of
IT and facilitate the Application Divisions as well as other NIC Centers in providing state-of-
the-art services to the Govt.
At the State level, NICs State/UTs Units provide informatics support to their respective State
Government and at the District level lies the NIC District Informatics Offices.

NIC has conceptualized, developed and implemented a very large number of projects for
various Central and State Government Ministries, Departments and Organizations. Many of
these projects are continuing projects being carried out by various divisions of NIC at New
Delhi Headquarters and State/District centers throughout the country. Some of the most
important note worthy projects, which offer a glimpse of the multifaceted, diverse activities
of NIC, touching upon all spheres of e-governance and thereby influencing the lives of
millions of citizens of India are given below:
• Agricultural Marketing Information Network (AGMARKNET)
•Central Passport System
•Community Information Centers (CICs)
•Computerized Rural Information Systems Project (CRISP)
•Court Information System (COURTIS)
•Department of Agriculture Network (DACNET)
•Examination Results Portal
•India Image
•Land Records Information System (LRIS)
•National Hazardous Waste Information System (NHWIS)
•Public Grievance Redress and Monitoring System (PGRAMS)
•Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI)
•Video Conferencing

Web Site of NIC http://indiaimage.nic.in/


Broadly, the services offered by NIC fall under the following categories:

 Network services (WAN, MAN, LAN)

 Capacity Building through Human Resources Development of Government
 Data mining and data warehousing
 Total ICT Solutions including decision support MIS
 Video Conferencing & web services
 Certification Authority and PKI Services
 Domain (gov.in) Registrar
 Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) Services
 National Disaster Recovery Centre
 Geomatics & Informatics design and development for decision support
 Sectoral ICT Plan formulation
 ICT projects consultancy


DIVISION (EID):-Functioning of NIC has been divided into various groups/divisions
depending on the support services being undertaken. The ICT support to various
ministries/departments is being coordinated by various divisions looked after by a senior NIC
officer called Divisional Head. This project work has been carried out under Energy
Informatics Division (EID) which is responsible to cater necessary support to following
ministries/ depts. Of Government of India:

Ministry of Power

Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas

Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources

Deptt. Of Chemicals & Petro-chemicals

Deptt. Of Coal




Ministry of Power (MOP) and Rural Electrification Corporation (REC) Limited are the end
user of the project. As mentioned earlier, MOP – a core ministry of union government is
supported by Energy Information Systems (EIS) Division of NIC for all its Information &
Communication Technology (ICT) needs. The brief overview on role & responsibilities of
the Ministry and REC is mentioned in following sections:


The Ministry of Power started functioning independently with effect from 2nd July, 1992.
Earlier it was known as the Ministry of Energy Comprising the Departments of Power, Coal
and Non-Conventional Energy Sources. Electricity is a concurrent subject at Entry 38 in List
III if the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution of the India. The Ministry of Power is
primarily for the development of electrical energy in the country.
The Ministry is concerned with perspective planning, policy formulation, processing of
projects for investment decision, monitoring of the implementation of power projects,
training and manpower development and the administration and enactment of
legislation in regard to thermal, hydro power generation, transmission and distribution.
The Ministry of Power is responsible for the Administration of the Electricity Act, 2003, the
Energy Conservation Act , 2001 and to undertake such amendments to these Acts, as may be
necessary from time to time, in conformity with the Government's policy objectives.

The Ministry of Power is mainly responsible for evolving general policy in the field of
energy. The main items of work dealt with by the Ministry of Power are as below :

• General Policy in the electric power sector and issues relating to energy
policy and coordination thereof. (Details of short, medium and long-term
policies in terms of formulation, acceptance, implementation and review of
such policies, cutting across sectors, fuels, regions and intra country and
inter country flows);
• All matters relating to hydro-electric power (except small/mini/micro hydel
projects of and below 25 MW capacity) and thermal power and transmission
& distribution system network.

• Research, development and technical assistance relating to hydro-electric
and thermal power, transmission system network and distribution systems in
the States/UTs;
• Administration of the Electricity Act, 2003, (36 of 2003), the Energy
Conservation Act , 2001 (52 of 2001 ), the Damodar Valley Corporation
Act,1948 ( 14 of 1948) and Bhakra Beas Management Board as provided in
the Punjab Reorganization Act,1966 (31 of 1966 ).
• All matters relating to Central Electricity Authority, Central Electricity
Board and Central Electricity Regulatory Commission;
• (a) Rural Electrification;
(b) Power schemes and issues relating to power supply/development
schemes/ programs/decentralized and distributed generation in the States
and Union Territories;
• Matters relating to the following undertakings / Organizations:-

a. Damodar Valley Corporation

b. Bhakra Beas Management Board(except matters relating to
c. National Thermal Power Corporation Limited
d. National Hydro-electric Power Corporation Limited
e. Rural Electrification Corporation Limited
f. North Eastern Electric Power Corporation Limited
g. Power Grid Corporation of India Limited
h. Power Finance Corporation Limited
i. Tehri Hydro Development Corporation
j. Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Ltd.
k. Central Power Research Institute
l. National Power Training Institute
m. Bureau of Energy Efficiency
n. Power Trading Corporation of India Limited;
o. Narmada Hydro Development Corporation.


Rural Electrification Corporation (REC) was incorporated on July 25, 1969 under the
Companies Act 1956. REC is a wholly owned Government of India Public Sector Enterprise
with a net worth of Rs. 3779 Crore. Its main objective is to finance and promote rural
electrification projects all over the country. It provides financial assistance to State
Electricity Boards, State Government Departments and Rural Electric Cooperatives for rural
electrification projects as are sponsored by them.

REC provides loan assistance to SEBs/State Power Utilities for investments in rural
electrification schemes through its Corporate Office located at New Delhi and 17 field units
(Project Offices), which are located in most of the States.

The Project Offices in the States coordinate the program of REC’s financing with the
concerned SEBs/State Power Utilities and facilitate in formulation of schemes, loan sanction
and disbursement and implementation of schemes by the concerned SEBs/State Power



Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojna (RGGVY) is a nation wide programme

under Ministry of Power (MoP) has been launched with an objective to electrify all villages
and habitations, provide access to electricity to all rural household and give free of cost
electricity connection to Below Poverty Line(BPL) families within five years.

The Highlights of the scheme are as follows:

 Provision of ninety percent capital subsidy by the Central Government for overall
cost of the project.
 To create necessary infrastructure through :

(i) Rural Electricity Distribution Backbone (REDB) – provision of at least one
33/11 KV (or 66/11 KV) sub-station of adequate capacity in each block and
one distribution transformer in each village/ habitation.
(ii) Village Electrification Infrastructure (VEI) – electrification of every village
with a distribution in each habitation.
(iii) Decentralized Distributed Generation & Supply (DDG) System in villages
where grid connectivity is not feasible or cost effective.

 Provision of electricity connection to Below Poverty Line (BPL) households free of

 To ensure revenue sustainability of electricity supply through franchisees, who could
be NGOs, users associations, co-operatives or individual entrepreneurs with
association of Pancayati Raj institutions.
 No discrimination in hours of supply between rural and urban households.
 Availability of services of Central Public Sector Undertakings (CPSUs) to states
willing to utilize their services for implementation of the program.


REC has been designated as the nodal agency for implementation of the program. All funds
for the program would be channelised through REC, which apart from the capital subsidy
being provided by the Government, would give the remaining funds , as loan assistance , on
soft terms .
Besides financing the project, REC shall establish the framework for implementation
involving formulation of technical specifications, procurement and bidding conditions,
guidelines for project formulation, field appraisal & concurrent monitoring and evaluation to
ensure quality and timely implementation. REC would be responsible for complete oversight
on the program from concept to completion.


To monitor physical and financial progress of projects under RGGVY implementation, REC
has requested NIC to design, develop & implement a Web Based Management Information
System. The major objectives of the desired system are:

Design and development of a Web Based System to facilitate Data entry from remote
locations, generation of the desired queries/reports for monitoring purpose, depending on
various milestones related criteria. Provision of an Administration module to control user
authorization and role based user access to the system.
Implementation & Training to users of various categories at different locations.
Web Hosting and maintenance of the proposed system
The desired components of the proposed system are as follows:

Phase - I
 Creation of database to store static and dynamic information pertaining to various
schemes under the RGGVY program.
 Capturing of data and updation of database through web based interface.
 Development and implementation of Management Information System (MIS).
 Generation of Desired reports for monitoring the progress of the schemes.
 Management & Hosting of database in secured environment

Phase –II
 Link the project with a layered GIS interface for graphical representation of various
monitoring parameters of the scheme across the state/district/ block/village

boundaries .


Under the Phase-I of design, development & Implementation of web based MIS for Rajiv
Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY), two system modules has been assigned for
village level monitoring and milestone monitoring. These two modules having the following
sub modules -

Module – 1: Data Entry / Updation (Village Level Transaction Tables/ Milestone

Monitoring Tables)
Module – 2: Query Retrieval(Village Level Monitoring/ Milestone Monitoring)

Module – 3: Report Generation(Village Level Monitoring/ Milestone Monitoring)

The detailed problem discussion follows in subsequent chapters.




A collection of components which are interconnected and work together to realize some
objective form a system. There are three major components in every system, namely input,
processing and output.

Input Output



The sequencing of various activities required for developing and maintaining systems in an
ordered form is referred as Systems Life Cycle. It helps in establishing a system project plan
as it gives overall list of process and sub-processes required for developing any system.
Here, the systems life cycle will be discussed with reference to the development of Web
Based MIS for RGGVY.

Broadly, following are the different activities to be considered while defining the systems

development cycle for the said project:

 Problem Definition

 Systems analysis

Study of existing system

Drawbacks of the existing system

Proposed system

Systems Requirement study

Data flow analysis

Feasibility study

 Systems design

Input Design (Database & Forms)

Query /Report Design
 Testing

 Implementation

 Maintenance


The objective of the system development is to design, develop & Implement web based MIS
for Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY) Program of REC . However, this
assignment covers System Modules for Village Levels Monitoring and Milestone Monitoring
Under Web Based MIS for RGGVY.


Systems analysis is one of the important stages of System Development Life Cycle. It


 Analysis of the system with the potential goal of improving or modifying it.

 Detailed study of the existing system.

 Drawback of the existing system leading to specifications of a new system

preparation of User requirement specifications.

 Detailed study of various operations performed by a system and their
relationships within and outside the system.

 Data Flow Analysis

 Preparation of the feasibility report. STUDY OF EXISTING SYSTEM

In order to analyze the new system, it was necessary to study the existing procedures and
steps being followed for monitoring RGGVY program at REC. This study included:

Discussions with REC officials at various levels

Study of on going manual system

Study of existing manuals & documents

 RGGVY is a nation wide program of Ministry of Power, Govt. Of India (details of the
program already discussed in Section 2.2) being executed by REC.
 REC receives Detailed Project Reports (DPR) from the districts giving details on
various parameters for existing infrastructure and proposed electrification details
 REC examines the proposal and sanctions for implementation within the
administrative & financial guidelines laid by the Ministry. Proposal may also be
revised by REC depending on various constraints.
 Once the DPR is sanctioned, the designated implementing agency executes the
 REC monitors the Physical and Financial progress of the project with respect to
various defined milestones. DRAWBACKS OF THE EXISTING SYSTEM

The various activities mentioned above in executing and monitoring RGGVY program
require lot of analysis and information processing related to planning, execution and
monitoring aspects. A large volume of data is collected, compiled, processed and

presented manually for day to day operations. This conventional working procedure puts
certain obvious limitations in managing the information. These are:

 Storing and processing large volume of data

 Timely availability of information from remote locations
 Precision and accuracy of information
 Data consistency and integrity due to manual procedures
 Enforcing standards in the information layout
 Reporting procedures &Information dissemination
 Maintaining safety and security of information PROPOSED SYSTEM

To overcome above limitations, design and development of a WEB based MIS for RGGVY
has been assigned to NIC. The main considerations for proposed system are:

 Design & develop the web based system using latest ICT tools in order to make it
accessible from any location to avoid delays in information availability.
 Design of standardized input forms to collect the information in uniform pattern.
 Storing the information in a centralized database after proper validation checks.
 Fast and easy updation/ retrieval of the information from a centralized database .
 Generation of customized queries/ reports as desired by the monitoring agencies.
 Viewing of the reports on web browser.
 Restricting the authenticated user access of the information.
 Ensuring the secured storage of system in centralized database and web servers at

The Requirement Study for Input Module was conducted by NIC. As a part of this project ,
the user requirements with respect to the Reports to be generated from the proposed system

were studied . Presently, the broad category of Input Module and reports outlined are as
follows :

1. Weekly status of implementation of project

2. Construction activities for village electrification and release of HH services.
3. Details of work completed in each village.
4. Development of franchisee and deployment of franchisee in villages electrified.
5. Details of franchises established in villages electrified.
6. Fortnightly physical progress on execution of progress.
7. Fortnightly financial progress on execution of project.
8. Status of establishment of District Committee, notification of rural areas and
franchisee arrangement under electricity Act 2003.
9. Target and Achievement for electrification of villages for the last quarter of 2005-06.
10. Project-wise status of execution of agreement.
11. Allocation of district amongst various implementing agencies.
12. Allocation of district amongst CPSUs and state power utilities(SEBs/DISCOMs)/
State Govt.
13. Allocation of district amongst CPSUs and state power utilities(SEBs/DISCOMs)/
State Govt.
14. Master charter DPRs received during 2005-06.
15. Master charter DPRs received during 2005-06.
16. State-wise Abstract- Project sanctioned during 2004-05 & 2005-06.
17. State-wise Abstract- Project sanctioned during 2004-05 .
18. Details of projects sanctioned by REC for electrification of villages and rural
19. Status of formulation and appraisal of project.
20. State wise abstract of projects sanctioned by REC for electrification of villages and
rural household.
21. State-wise District-wise status of report.
22. Details of project sanctioned, NIT issued and award of construction.
23. State-wise abstract status of implementation of electrification of villages.
24. Details of award of contracts.

25. Status of allocation of district and projects amongst CPUs.
26. Abstract status of allocation of district &projects amongst CPSUs and state power
utilities(SEBs/DISCOMs)/ State Govt.
27. State wise/ implementation Agency-wise position of un-electrified villages to be
electrified during 2005-06.
28. List of villages electrified in Uttar Pradesh up to October, 2005 by DISCOMs. DESCRIPTION
The following main functions are performed for the application: -
1) The first function for the application is to create the transaction tables for the main
tables of the database in which change or some updation can be carried out.
2) Next, database Triggers are designed for each main table to capture the changes.
3) The environment is setup for building the application.
4) The database connectivity is done so that database can be accessed through the
5) A Dynamic Web Application is written that contain the functionality for
synchronization of databases located at both sites.
6) The application is then published as a Web Service & Deployed on the Apache

It is proposed to implement database and complete MIS at central server at NIC Hqrs. in
secured environment. REC HQ will have the permission to access the database for Master as
well as transaction data entry . Remote REC locations will be allowed to browse the web
based MIS for transaction data entry. The queries/ reports will be available to any user
through browser. The database will be maintained by REC from central location. The
following diagram shows the complete system flow for the project:


The main objective of the feasibility report is to ensure the feasibility of the following

 Whether the identified user needs may be fulfilled using the proposed systems
requirement study.
 availability of technology for implementing the proposed system
 Cost effectiveness of the proposed system

Based on the above systems requirement study, a feasibility report was prepared and
submitted to REC for their feedback. It was confirmed that the parameters identified for
above reports cover REC requirements. As the proposed system is being implemented at
central server at NIC headquarter using latest development tools, the technological
feasibility is also ensured. REC also confirmed the acceptance of the cost proposal for the
project as the implementation of the project is going to reduce lot of indirect financial
burdens involved in manual monitoring of the program.




Graphical representation of any process is always better and more meaningful than its
representation in words. Moreover, it is very difficult to arrange and organise the large
amount of data into meaningful interpretation of the whole. System Analysis and Design
makes use of the various tools for representing and facilitating comprehension of the
complex processes and procedure involved. In this lesson, we present some details about
Flowcharts, data flow diagram (DFD), Decision Tables and Decision Trees.

• Draw flowchart
• Represent any physical system through DFD
• Prepare decision table
• Display decision tree


This section describes in detail the data flow diagramming technique. It is intended to serve
as a handbook to guide the reader in developing data flow diagramming skills.

Data Flow Diagramming is a means of representing a system at any level of detail with a
graphic network of symbols showing data flows, data stores, data processes, and data

The purpose of data flow diagrams is to provide a semantic bridge between users and system

The diagrams are:

 Graphical, eliminating thousands of words;
 Logical representations, modeling WHAT a system does, rather than physical models
showing HOW it does it;

 Hierarchical, showing systems at any level of detail; and Jargon less, allowing user
understanding and reviewing.
The goal of data flow diagramming is to have a commonly understood model of a system.
The diagrams are the basis of structured systems analysis. Data flow diagrams are
supported by other techniques of structured systems analysis such as data structure
diagrams, data dictionaries, and procedure-representing techniques such as decision
tables, decision trees, and structured English.

The objective of Data flow diagrams is avoiding the cost of user/developer

misunderstanding of a system, resulting in a need to redo systems or in not using the

Having to start documentation from scratch when the physical system changes since the
logical system, WHAT gets done, often remains the same when technology changes.
It helps in removing inefficiencies of system because a system gets "computerized"
before it gets "systematized". Also helps enabling to evaluate system project boundaries
or degree of automation, resulting in a project of inappropriate scope.
DFD Symbols:

In the DFD, there are four symbols shown in figure below:

1) A Square defines a source (originator) or destination of data pipeline

through which information flows.

2) An Arrow identifies data flow data in motion. It is a pipeline through which

information flows.

3) A Circle or a "bubble" (some people use an oval bubble) represents a process that
transforms incoming data flow into outgoing data flow.

4) An Open rectangle is a data store - data at rest, or a temporary repository of data.

Basic Symbols and their Meaning

Process Notations

Data Store Notations

External Entity Notations

Data flow Notations


S.No. Category of Users Type of User Access rights

1 Implementing Agencies Senior officer of To Enter/Edit Progressive

Implementing Agency Achievement data against the
proposed DPR Coverage &
Milestones Achievement Details
2 Operator at REC Official identified by To enter, edit & delete master data
Corporate Office REC Corporate Office plus transaction data (excluding
progressive achievement)
3 System administrator at Official from IT wing Overall system maintenance and
Corporate office of REC Corporate administration, user creation and
(strictly single user) Office maintenance , freezing of data
entered on prescribed date
4 Executives identified by Senior officers of MoP To view MIS/ Milestones Exception
MoP/REC and REC Reports


Insert data Manage RGGVY Manage user Update Retrieve data

Information 34account Information
Insert View
information information


Milestone Accomplishment
LEVEL 1 DFD Accomplishment
Mile_basic Mile_basic

First Quarter

Second Quarter

Third Quarter

Fourth Quarter

Performance Reports
Fifth Quarter

Mid Quarter Mile_mid_qtr

Sixth Quarter mile_six_qtr

Performance Reports

Final Quarter

Village Covered plg_vill_details

Village Completed

Village level details

Enter UID and
Enter UID and
User Acc. Info.

User info Entry User

A m




3. Data Entry Screen


An entity relationship diagram is a graphical representation of an organization’s data storage

requirements. Entity relationship diagrams are abstractions of the real world, which simplify
the problem to be solved while retaining its essential features. Entity relationship diagrams
are used to identify the data that must be captured, stored and retrieved in order to support the
business activities performed by an organization; and identify the data required to derive and
report on the performance measures that an organization should be monitoring
Entity relationship diagrams have three different components:


An entity is an object that exists and is distinguishable from other objects. An entity may be
concrete (a person or a book, for example) or abstract (like a holiday or a concept). In short,
anything, which an organization needs to store data about Entities, represents collections of



Entities are further described by their attributes (sometimes called data elements). These are
the smallest units of data that can be described in a meaningful manner.



A relationship is an association between several entities. There are

potentially three types of relationship, which can exist between two different entities:


One-to-One Relationships

This type of relationship takes place when a single occurrence of an entity is related to
just one occurrence of a second entity.

One-to-Many Relationships

This type of relationship takes place when a single occurrence of an entity is related to
many occurrences of a second entity.

Many-to-Many Relationships

This type of relationship takes place when many occurrences of an entity are related to
many occurrences of a second entity.

Dependency of tables shown by Entity Relationship Diagram

userna State_i
me d STATE
First_nam NAME
HAS dpr_cd
1 1
M State_cd

DISTRICT distt_cd
HAS 1 distt_name
S state_cd

M BLOCK distt_cd

DPR Code
M 1 block_cd

Distt_cd M
Dpr_cd block_cd
VILLAGE state_cd

village_cd Village_nam


A system flow chart, or data flow chart, is used to describe the flow of data through a
complete data-processing system. Different graphic symbols represent the clerical operations
involved and the different input, storage, and output equipment required. Although the flow
chart may indicate the specific programs used, no details are given of how the programs
process the data.

A program flow chart is used to describe the flow of data through a particular computer
program, showing the exact sequence of operations performed by that program in order to
process the data. Different graphic symbols are used to represent data input and output,
decisions, branches, and subroutines.

System flowcharts are a way of displaying how data flows in a system, and how decisions
are made to control events. There are lots of symbols used. Basic ones include:

These - and other symbols - are used to show how data flows and how decisions are made.
They are connected together to show what happens to data and where it goes.

Note that system flow charts are very similar to data flow charts. Data flow charts do not
include decisions, they just show the path that data takes, where it is held, processed, and
then output.




Design is a meaningful engineering representation of something that is to be built. It can be

traced to a customer’s requirements and at the same time assessed for quality against a set of
predefined criteria for “good” design. Design focuses on four major areas of concern: data,
architecture, interfaces and component. At the data and architectural level, design focuses on
patterns as they apply to the application to be built. At the interface-level, human ergonomics
often dictate our design approach. At the component level, a “programming approach” leads
us to effective data and procedural designs.

Software design sits at the technical kernel of software engineering and is applied regardless
of the software process model that is used. Beginning once software requirements have been
analyzed and specified, software design is the first of three technical activities – design, code
generation, and test – that are required to build and verify the software. Each activity
transforms information in a manner that ultimately results in validated computer software.
The design will serve as a blueprint for the system and helps detect problems before these
errors or problems are built into the final system. IS professionals create the system design,
but must review their work with the users to ensure the design meets users’ needs.

System design is the process for planning a new business system or one to replace or
complement an existing system. But before this planning can be done, we must know how
computers can best be used (if at all) to make its operation more effective. System analysis
begins the design process by identifying report and other outputs, the systems will produce.
Then the specific data on each are

Pinpointed. Usually designers sketch the form or display as they expect it to appear when the
system is completed. This may be done on paper or on computer display, using one of the
automated system design tools available. The system design also describes the data to be
input, calculated, or stored. Individual data item and calculation procedure are written,
designers select tile structures and storage devices such as magnetic tape, or even paper files.
The procedures they write tell how to process the data and produce the output.


The architecture diagram of this module is shown below.




Single Point Information Gateway

Planning M/O Power REC



Web Business Logic Database


JSP Code
10 g



1) index.html:

This HTML file shows the home page o front page of RGGVY portal in which Village level
details and Milestone Accomplishment module of project web based MIS for RGGVY are

2) login.jsp:

This JSP file shows the login page which is used to authenticate the user by providing unique
user name and password to each user through they can login and use the system.

3) menu.jsp:

This JSP file shows the menue page which appear when authenticated user successfully
This page contain menu through which we can access data entry screen by clicking on right

4) plg_vill_details.jsp:

This JSP file shows the data entry screen used to insert,update,delete the data regarding
coverage of villages for electrification in database.

5) plg_vill_prog.jsp:

This JSP file shows the data entry screen used to insert,update,delete the data regarding
completion of villages for electrification in database.

6) plg_vill_ent.jsp:

This JSP file shows the data entry screen used for verification and updation of villages wise
DPR coverage details.

7) mile_basic.jsp:

This JSP file shows the data entry screen used to insert,update,delete the data regarding basic
details for Milestone Monitoring in database.

8) mile_qtr1.jsp:

This JSP file shows the data entry screen used to insert,update,delete the data regarding first
quarter development for Milestone Monitoring in database.

9) mile_qtr2.jsp:

This JSP file shows the data entry screen used to insert,update,delete the data regarding
second quarter development for Milestone Monitoring in database.

10) mile_qtr3.jsp:

This JSP file shows the data entry screen used to insert,update,delete the data regarding third
quarter development for Milestone Monitoring in database.

11) mile_qtr4.jsp:

This JSP file shows the data entry screen used to insert,update,delete the data regarding
fourth quarter development for Milestone Monitoring in database.

12) mile_qtr5.jsp:

This JSP file shows the data entry screen used to insert,update,delete the data regarding
fourth quarter development for Milestone Monitoring in database.

13) mile_mid_qtr.jsp:

This JSP file shows the data entry screen used to insert,update,delete the data regarding
fourth quarter development for Milestone Monitoring in database.

14) mile_ qtr6.jsp:

This JSP file shows the data entry screen used to insert,update,delete the data regarding
fourth quarter development for Milestone Monitoring in database.

15) mile_ upon_comp.jsp:

This JSP file shows the data entry screen used to insert,update,delete the data regarding
fourth quarter development for Milestone Monitoring in database.


1) index.html:

This HTML file shows the index page o front page of RGGVY portal in which Village level
details and Milestone Accomplishment module of project web based MIS for RGGVY are
integrated.We can view some report directly from this page just by clicking on required
And or viewing others we need login first.

By clicking on this option report regarding coverage of villages with respect to

State,District and Block and respectve villages details appear

By clicking on this option report regarding completion of villages with respect to

State,District and Block and respectve villages details appear

2) covered.jsp:

This JSP file shows the report regarding coverage of villages with respect to State.

3) dcovered.jsp:

This JSP file shows the report regarding coverage of villages with respect to District.

4) bcovered.jsp:

This JSP file shows the report regarding coverage of villages with respect to Block.

5) vcovered.jsp:

This JSP file shows the report the name of covered villages (Electrified or Unelectrified or
Deelctrified) for particular Block

6) villagecoverdetails.jsp:

This JSP file shows the report regarding details of villages which comes under covered

7) completed.jsp:

This JSP file shows the report regarding completion of villages with respect to State.

8) dcompleted.jsp:

This JSP file shows the report regarding completion of villages with respect to District.

9) bcompleted.jsp:

This JSP file shows the report regarding completion of villages with respect to Block.

10) vcompleted.jsp:

This JSP file shows the report the name of villages (Electrified or Unelectrified or
Deelctrified) for particular Block

11) villagecoverdetails.jsp:

This JSP file shows the report regarding details of villages which comes under covered

12) login.jsp:

This JSP file shows the report regarding details of villages which comes under covered
To view some report login is necessary.

13) menue.jsp:

This JSP file shows the menue page contaning options to view report regarding village wise
snap shot and data monitoring.

14) villsnapshot.jsp:

This JSP file shows the menue report village wise snap shot.This gives the details of
corresponding village for which State,District,Block and Village is selected.

15) plg_statewise.jsp:

This JSP file shows the report of all the state showing the statistics. of coverage and
completed and then calculating the balance of villages for that state.

16) plg_districtwise.jsp:

This JSP file shows the report of all the district showing the statistics. of coverage and
completed and then calculating the balance of villages for that district.


A database is a collection of related data. The definition of data includes the known facts that
can be recorded and that have implicit meaning. A database has the following implicit
A database represents some aspects of the real world, sometimes called the mini-world or the
Universe of discourse changes to the mini-world are reflected in the database. A database is
logically coherent collection of data with some Internet, design built and populated with data
for a specific purpose.
A random assortment of data cannot correctly be referred to as a database the objects, their
attributes and all the relationship between them are of interest to us are stored in the database
that is designed, built and populated with data for specific purpose.
To incorporate the input & output design considerations, the database for RGGVY MIS has
already been designed in following tables:

Administrative Table


Master tables







Transactions Table
















The Hardware to be used for development of the system are following:-

I. Intel P IV dual core 2.4 GHz

V. Monitor 17 “
VI. Keyboard
VII. Mouse

The MIS will be implemented at SAN machine in secured environment at NIC Hqrs. This
module has been developed on high end server and can be accessed through internet
browser from any window based client.


The Software to be used for development of the system is following:-

I Apache Tomcat 5.5
II jdk1.5.0_05 (JAVA)
The Language to be used for development of the system are following:-

I. Jsp(java server pages),java script for web application

II. Orachle 10g DATABASE:

Considering the requirements of the volume of data to be managed and processed and also
implement security features, it was decided to implement the database under ORACLE 10g.
The main features of the ORACLE 10g are as follows:

Database Application Development

SQL, XML, and procedural languages (e.g., PL/SQL, Java, C/C++) are the core technologies
used by application developers today. The table below summarizes the core strengths and
capabilities that each brings to the table. Any complete application solution must have
elements of all three. Oracle Database 10 g is a single integrated platform that supports all
three of these capability areas in a simple fashion with high performance and scalability.

Business Intelligence

Oracle provides the technology foundation needed to build a complete and integrated
solution for Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing. Oracle Database 10 g, Oracle
Application Server 10 g, and Oracle Developer Suite allow users to rapidly develop and
deploy data warehouses and data marts with a complete and integrated array of reporting,
querying, and analytic capabilities.

Grid Technology Center

Oracle 10 g allows companies to begin evolving their IT toward a grid computing model.
From storage, to databases, application servers, and applications, Oracle's new technology
addresses the requirements of grid computing.

Information Integration

Information integration is an important feature of Oracle Database. Oracle provides many

features that allow customers to synchronously and asynchronously integrate their data
including Oracle Streams, Oracle Advanced Queuing, replication, and distributed SQL.
Oracle also provides gateways to non-Oracle database servers, providing seamless
interoperation in heterogeneous environments.

Spatial & Oracle Locator: Location Features for Oracle Database 10g

The location features in Oracle Database 10 g provide a platform that supports a wide range
of applications-from automated mapping/facilities management and geographic information
systems (GIS), to wireless location services and location-enabled e-business.
Through Oracle Spatial and Oracle Locator, geographic and location data are managed in a
native type within Oracle Database 10 g.

Database Manageability

Oracle10g introduces a sophisticated database that automatically adapts, monitors, diagnoses

and fixes itself. The new self-managing database reduces the costs of managing the IT
environment with a simplified install, greatly reduced configuration and intuitive day-to-day

Platform Security

Oracle Platform Security is the set of security capabilities and services implemented in the
Oracle Database and Oracle Application Server. These consist of Database Security features,
Application Server Security features, and the Oracle Identity Management infrastructure. APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

The application has been developed using Java Server Pages (JSP) at front end. .Java
Server Pages (JSP) is a Sun Microsystems specification for combining Java with HTML
to provide dynamic content for Web pages. When you create dynamic content, JSPs are
more convenient to write than HTTP servlets because they allow you to embed Java code
directly into your HTML pages, in contrast with HTTP servlets, in which you embed
HTML inside Java code. JSP is part of the Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE).

Javascript has been used for scripting. JavaScript is a small, lightweight object-oriented,
cross-platform scripting language. JavaScript, while not useful as a standalone language, is
designed for easy embedding in other products and applications, such as web browsers.
Inside a host environment, JavaScript can be connected to the objects of that environment to
provide programmatic control over them.

Introduction to Java Server Pages

Java Server Pages (JSP) is a Java technology that allows software developers to dynamically generate
HTML, XML or other types of documents in response to a Web client request. The technology allows
Java code and certain pre-defined actions to be embedded into static content.

The JSP syntax adds additional XML-like tags, called JSP actions, to be used to invoke built-in
functionality. Additionally, the technology allows for the creation of JSP tag libraries that act as

extensions to the standard HTML or XML tags. Tag libraries provide a platform independent way of
extending the capabilities of a Web server.
JSP is a server-side technology for developing Web applications based on the Sun Framework. It is
known as server side technology because the Server is entirely responsible for processing the
dynamic portions of the page whereas the Client only sees the HTML, Java script, and CSS within the

JSPs are compiled into Java Servlets by a JSP compiler. A JSP compiler may generate a servlet in
Java code that is then compiled by the Java compiler, or it may generate byte code for the servlet
directly. JSPs can also be interpreted on-the-fly reducing the time taken to reload changes.
Architecture using JSP

Simple web pages

Browser Internet db.jsp JDBC
Container C DB

JSP Syntax

A Java Server Page may be broken down into the following pieces:

 static data such as HTML

 JSP directives such as the include directive
 JSP scripting elements and variables
 JSP actions
 custom tags with correct library

JSP Directives

JSP directives control how the JSP compiler generates the servlet. The following directives
are available:

 include
The include directive informs the JSP compiler to include a complete file into the
current file. It is as if the contents of the included file were pasted directly into the
original file. This functionality is similar to the one provided by the C preprocessor.
Included files generally have the extension "jspf" (for JSP Fragment).
 page
There are several options to the page directive.
 import: Results in a Java import statement being inserted into the resulting
 contentType: specifies the content that is generated. This should be used if
HTML is not used or if the character set is not the default character set.
 errorPage: Indicates the page that will be shown if an exception occurs while
processing the HTTP request.
 isErrorPage: If set to true, it indicates that this is the error page. Default
value is false.
 isThreadSafe: Indicates if the resulting servlet is thread safe.
 autoFlush: To autoflush the contents. A value of true, the default, indicates
that the buffer should be flushed when it is full. A value of false, rarely used,

indicates that an exception should be thrown when the buffer overflows. A
value of false is illegal when also using buffer="none".
 session: To maintain session. A value of true (the default) indicates that the
predefined variable session (of type HttpSession) should be bound to the
existing session if one exists, otherwise a new session should be created and
bound to it. A value of false indicates that no sessions will be used, and
attempts to access the variable session will result in errors at the time the JSP
page is translated into a servlet.
 buffer: To set Buffer Size. The default is 8k and it is advisable that you
increase it.
 isELIgnored: Defines whether EL expressions are ignored when the JSP is

 language: Defines the scripting language used in scriptlets, expressions and

declarations. Right now, the only possible value is "java".
 extends: Defines the superclass of the class this JSP will become. You won't
use this unless you REALLY know what you're doing - it overrides the class
hierarchy provided by the Container.
 info: Defines a String that gets put into the translated page, just so that you
can get it using the generated servlet's inherited getServletInfo() method.
 pageEncoding: Defines the character encoding for the JSP. The default is
"ISO-8859-1"(unless the contentType attribute already defines a character
encoding, or the page uses XML document syntax).
 taglib
The taglib directive indicates that a JSP tag library is to be used. The directive
requires that a prefix be specified (much like a namespace in C++) and the URI for
the tag library description.

JSP Implicit Objects

The following JSP implicit objects are exposed by the JSP container and can be referenced by
the programmer:

 out: The JSPWriter used to write the data to the response stream.
 page: The servlet itself.
 pageContext: PageContext instance that contains data associated with the whole
page. A given HTML page may be passed among multiple JSPs.
 request: The HttpServletRequest object that provides HTTP request information.
 response: The HTTP response object that can be used to send data back to the client.
 session: The HTTP session object that can be used to track information about a user
from one request to another.
 config: Provides servlet configuration data.
 application: Data shared by all JSPs and servlets in the application.
 exception: Exceptions not caught by application code

Scripting Elements

There are three basic kinds of scripting elements that allow java code to be inserted directly
into the servlet:

 A declaration tag places a variable definition inside the body of the java servlet class.
Static data members may be defined as well.
 A scriptlet tag places the contained statements inside the _jspService() method of the
java servlet class.
 An expression tag places an expression to be evaluated inside the java servlet class.
Expressions should not be terminated with a semi-colon.

JSP Actions

JSP actions are XML tags that invoke built-in web server functionality. They are executed at
runtime. Some are standard and some are custom (which are developed by Java developers).
The following list contains the standard ones:

 jsp:include: Similar to a subroutine, the Java servlet temporarily hands the request
and response off to the specified Java Server Page. Control will then return to the
current JSP, once the other JSP has finished. Using this, JSP code will be shared
between multiple other JSPs, rather than duplicated.
 jsp:param: Can be used inside a jsp:include, jsp:forward or jsp:param block.
Specifies a parameter that will be added to the request's current parameters.
 jsp:forward: Used to hand off the request and response to another JSP or servlet.
Control will never return to the current JSP.
 jsp:plugin: Older versions of Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer used
different tags to embed an applet. This action generates the browser specific tag
needed to include an applet.
 jsp:fallback: The content to show if the browser does not support applets.
 jsp:getProperty: Gets a property from the specified JavaBean.
 jsp:setProperty: Sets a property in the specified JavaBean.
 jsp:useBean: Creates or re-uses a JavaBean available to the JSP page.JSP Tag
In addition to the pre-defined JSP actions, developers may add their own custom actions
using the JSP Tag Extension API. Developers write a Java class that implements one of the
Tag interfaces and provide a tag library XML description file that specifies the tags and the
java classes that implement the tags.

Features of JSP

 Better language support.

 Programmable controls.

 Event-driven programming.

 XML-based components.

 User authentication, with accounts and roles.

 Higher scalability.

 Increased performance - Compiled code.

 Easier configuration and deployment.

Why this Technology (Java Server Pages)

A JSP page is a text document that contains two types of text: static data, which can be
expressed in any text-based format (such as HTML, SVG, WML, and XML) and JSP
elements, which construct dynamic content. The recommended file extension for the source
file of a JSP page is .jsp. The page can be composed of a top file that includes other files that
contain either a complete JSP page or a fragment of a JSP page.

The main features of JSP technology

 A language for developing JSP pages, which are text-based documents that describe
how to process a request and construct a response.
 An expression language for accessing server-side objects.
 Mechanisms for defining extensions to the JSP language.

The Life Cycle of a JSP Page

A JSP page services requests as a servlet. Thus, the life cycle and many of the capabilities of
JSP pages (in particular the dynamic aspects) are determined by Java Servlet technology.
When a request is mapped to a JSP page, the Web container first checks whether the JSP
page's servlet is older than the JSP page. If the servlet is older, the Web container translates
the JSP page into a servlet class and compiles the class.

 Translation and Compilation: During the translation phase each type of data in a
JSP page is treated differently. Static data is transformed into code that will emit the
data into the response stream. JSP elements are treated as follows:
 Directives are used to control how the Web container translates and executes the JSP
 Scripting elements are inserted into the JSP page's servlet class.
 Expression language expressions are passed as parameters to calls to the JSP
expression evaluator.

JSP allows separating the server-side code in your pages from the HTML layout. When
you’re working with a team composed of programmers and design specialist, this separation
is of great help, as it lets programmers modify the server-side code without stepping on he
designers’ carefully crafted HTML-and vice versa.
Apache Tomcat Server 6.0

Apache Tomcat is a web container, or application server developed at the Apache Software
Foundation (ASF). Tomcat implements the Java Servlet and the Java Server Pages (JSP)
specifications from Sun Microsystems, providing an environment for Java code to run in
cooperation with a web server. It adds tools for configuration and management but can also
be configured by editing configuration files that are normally XML-formatted. Tomcat
includes its own internal HTTP server.

Apache Tomcat is developed in an open and participatory environment and released under
the Apache Software License. Apache Tomcat is intended to be a collaboration of the best-of-
breed developers from around the world. Apache Tomcat powers numerous large-scale,
mission-critical web applications across a diverse range of industries and organizations.

Tomcat started off as a servlet reference implementation by James Duncan Davidson, a

software architect at Sun Microsystems. He later helped make the project open source and
played a key role in its donation by Sun to the Apache Software Foundation. The Apache Ant
software build automation tool was developed as a side-effect of the creation of Tomcat as an
open source project.

How to Configure Tomcat Server
Configuring Tomcat involves four main steps and five optional steps:

 Downloading the Tomcat software.

 Setting the JAVA_HOME variable.
 Telling Tomcat to reload servlets when they are modified.
 Enabling the invoker servlet.
 Turning on directory listings. (Optional; rarely used)
 Setting the CATALINA_HOME variable. (Optional; rarely used)
 Using a preconfigured version of Tomcat with these changes already made. (Optional;
widely used)
 Using the Windows .exe installer instead of the .zip file. (Not Recommended)

Test the Server

Testing the server involves three steps:

 Verifying that the server can even start.

 Checking that you can access your own HTML and JSP pages.
 Seeing if you can compile and run simple servlets.

Set Up the Development Environment

The server startup script startup.bat automatically sets the server's CLASSPATH to include
the standard servlet and JSP classes and the WEB-INF/classes directory (containing compiled
servlets and other .class files) of each Web application. But you need similar settings, or you
will be unable to compile servlets in the first place. Configuring your system for servlet
development involves the following four steps:
 Creating a development directory.
 Making shortcuts to the Tomcat startup and shutdown scripts.
 Setting your CLASSPATH.
 Bookmarking the servlet & JSP javadocs.

Deploy Using Custom Web Applications

For learning and practicing specific servlet and JSP techniques, it is simplest to use Tomcat's
default Web application (ROOT) and to use the "invoker servlet" that lets us run servlets by
putting /servlet/ServletName at the end of the URL. Custom Web applications involve the
following steps:

 Making a directory whose structure mirrors the structure of the default Web
 Updating your CLASSPATH.
 Using the directory name in the URL.
 Using web.xml to assign custom URLs.

Tomcat is a server container responsible for handling client request, passing the request on to
a servlet, and returning the request to a client. It includes many additional features that makes
it useful platform for developing and deploying web application and web services.

Tomcat Directory Structure

 bin: Contains start-up/shutdown Scripts.

 Config: Contains various configuration files including server.xml (Tomcat’s main
configuration file) and web.xml that sets the default values for the various web
application deployed Tomcat.
 doc: Contains miscellaneous documents regarding Tomcat.
 lib: Additional class libraries and support files required by the development tools.
 logs: This is where the Tomcat places its log and output files.
 src: The servlet APIs source files. These are only the empty interfaces and abstract
classes that should be implemented by any servlet container.
 webapps: Contains sample web application.




Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the
ultimate review of specification, design and coding. The purpose of product testing is to
verify and validate the various work viz. units integrated units, and final product to ensure
that they meet their respective requirements. This has two parts:
Planning: This involves writing and reviewing unit, integration, functional, validation and
acceptance test plans.
Execution: This involves executing these tests plans, measuring, collecting data and
verifying if it meets the quality criteria set in the quality plan. Data collected is used to make
appropriate changes in the plan related to development and testing.
Testing Objective
• Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error.
• A good test case is one that has a high probability of finding an as-yet undiscovered
• A successful test is one that uncovers an as –yet undiscovered error.
Test Plan
The quality of a product or item can be achieved by ensuring that the product meets
the requirements by planning and conducting the following tests at various stages
• Unit Tests at unit level, conducted by development team, to verify individual
standalone units.
• Integration Tests after two or more product units are integrated conducted by
development team to test the interface between the integrated units.
• Functional Test prior to the release to validation manager, designed and conducted
by the team independent of designers and coders, to ensure the functionality provided
against the customer requirement specifications.
• Acceptance Tests prior to the release to validation manger, conducted by the

development team, if any supplied by the customer.
• Validation Tests prior to customer, conducted by the validation team to validate the
product against the customer requirement specifications and the user documentation.

Test case design focuses on a set technique for the cases that meet overall testing
objectives. In test case design phase, the engineer creates a series of test cases that are,
intended to “demolish” the software that has been built.
Any software product can be tested in one of two ways:
1) Knowing the specific function that a product has been designed to perform, test
can be conducted that demonstrate each function is fully operational, at the same
time searching for errors in each function. This approach is known as black box

2) Knowing the internal working of a product, test can be conducted to ensure that
internal operation performs according to specification and all internal components
have been adequately exercised. This approach is know as white-box testing.

Black box testing is designed to uncover errors. They are used to demonstrate that
software function are operations; that input is properly accepted and output is correctly
produced; and that integrity of external information is maintained (e.g. data files.). A black
box examines some fundamental aspects of a system with little regard for the internal logical
structure of the software.

White box testing of software is predicated on close examination of procedural

details. Providing test cases that exercise specific set of conditions and loops test logical
paths through the software. The “state of the program” may be examined at various points to
determine if the expected or asserted status corresponds to the actual status.


In order to uncover the errors present in different phases, we have the concept of
levels of testing. The basic levels of testing are:

Client Needs Acceptance Testing

Requirements System Testing

Design Integration Testing

Code Unit Testing

Unit Testing

This focus on verification effort on smallest unit of software designed the software
component or module. In this we can take User Authentication module is considered to be as
unit testing part. Using component level design, description as a guide important control path
is tested to uncover errors. The module interface is tested to ensure that information properly
flows into and out of the program unit under test. Data structure is locally examined to ensure
that data stored temporarily maintains its integrity during all the steps in execution of
algorithm. Boundary conditions are tested to ensure that module is operating properly at
boundaries which are established to limit or restrict processing. All independent paths
through control structure are exercised to ensure that all statements in module is executed at
least once. Finally all error-handling paths are tested.
Test cases uncover errors like:
• Comparison of different data type.
• Incorrect logical operators or precedence.

• Expectation of equality when precision errors make equality unlikely.
• Incorrect comparisons of variables.
• Improper or non-existent loop termination.
• Failure to exit when divergent iteration is encountered.
• Improperly modified loop variables.
Integration Testing

In this process of testing it is incremented approach to construction of program

structure. Modules are integrated moving downward beginning with main control module.
Modules subordinate structure to main control module is incorporated into structure. This
form of testing is performed of software in five steps: -
 Main control module is used as test driver and stubs (modules) are substituted for
all components subordinate to main control.
 Depending on integration selected subordinate stubs are replaced one at a time.
 Tests are conducted as each component is integrated.
 On completing each set of tests another stub is replaced.
 It is also tested to ensure that new errors have not been introduced.
In well-factored program structure decision-making occurs at upper levels in
hierarchy and therefore encountered first. If major control problem do exist, early
recognition is essential. This is termed as top-down integration testing.
Bottom-up integration testing begins construction and testing with atomic modules
as the components are integrated from the bottom-up, processing required for components
subordinate to a given level is always available and the need for stubs is eliminated.
Low-level components are combined into clusters that perform a specific software function.
1. A driver (a control program for testing) is written to coordinate test case input and
2. The cluster is tested.
3. Drivers are removed and clusters are combined moving upward in the program

Each time a new module is added as part of integration testing, the software changes.
New data flow paths are established, new I/O can occur, and new control logic is invoked.
These changes cause problems with functions that previously worked flawlessly. In context
of integration test strategy, regression testing is the re-execution of some subsets of tests
already been conducted to ensure that changes are not propagated unintended side effects.

Successful tests result in discovery of errors and errors must be corrected. When
software is corrected some aspect of software configuration is changed.

Smoke testing is an integration testing that is commonly used when “shrink

wrapped” software products are being developed. It is designed as pacing mechanism for
time critical projects, allowing us to assess the project on frequent basis. This consists of
steps: -

1. Software components are translated into code are integrated into a “build”. A
build includes all data files, libraries, reusable modules and engineered
2. A series of tests is designed to expose errors that will keep the build from properly
performing its function.
3. The build is integrated with other builds and the entire product is smoke tested
4. Validation Testing

System Testing:
Here the entire software system is tested. The reference document for this process is
the requirements document, and the goal is to see if software meets its requirements. Here
entire ‘HRRP’ has been tested against requirements of project and it is checked whether all
requirements of project have been satisfied or not.

Acceptance Testing:
Acceptance Testing is performed with realistic data of the client to demonstrate that
the software is working satisfactorily. Testing here is focused on external behavior of the

system; the internal logic of program is not emphasized. Test cases should be selected so that
the largest number of attributes of an equivalence class is exercised at once. The testing
phase is an important part of software development. It is the process of finding errors and
missing operations and also a complete verification to determine whether the objectives are
met and the user requirements are satisfied.


Implementation is the process of having systems personnel check on output, new

equipment into use, train users, install the new equipment and construct any files of data
needed to use it. Depending on the size of the organization that will be involved in using the
application and the risk associated with its use, system developers may choose to pilot (test)
the operation in only one area of the firm, say in one department or with only one or two

Once installed application are often used for many years. However, both the organization
and users will change, and the environment will be different over weeks and months.
Therefore the application will undoubtedly have to be maintained; modification and
changes will be made to the software, files or producers to meet user requirements.

Implementation Steps

Please follow the following installation steps to install “Database for RGGVY”.

• Install Oracle 10g or higher.

• Restore the Oracle 10g backup of land records data base files
• Set the all the required jar files on the class path.


Standardized software and hardware platforms are used. The RGGVY software
design too follows the software development standards.
• The code/programs and routines must be well documented and self-explanatory
for any programmer to understand. Variable names must indicate their
functionality, logical constructs must be commented etc.
• Once the Design stage of Software development is over. Detailed documentation
should be available for easy comprehension of the software system. The
documents shall be as per IEEE standards with user requirements well defined.
• The software must try to achieve a balance of structured and object oriented
approach to maximize performance. Since the development tool is not fully object
oriented, the common and reusable functionality of the software can be separated
and maintained in modules to avoid duplication of code and functionality as well.
For e.g. Login function, functions dealing with codes’ population with code
category as a parameter, using stored procedures for common tasks, functions
used for common calculations and conversions.
• Optimum distribution of client based processing and the server based processing
so as to minimize network traffic, by utilizing database-coding facilities like
stored procedures and triggers.

Cost Estimates

It is very difficult to make an exact of estimate cost and effort for any project. Too
many variables-human, technical, environmental, and political - can affect the ultimate cost
of software and effort applied to develop it. This being an in-house project makes it difficult
to determine the costs.

Risk analysis and management are a series of steps that help a software team to
understand and manage uncertainty. Many problems can plague a software project. A risk to a
potential problem – it might happen, it might not. But , regardless of the outcomes, its really

good idea to identify it, assess its probability of occurrence, estimate its impact, and establish
a contingency plan should the problem occur.
Software is difficult undertaking. Lots of things can go wrong, many often do. Its for
this reason that being prepared – understanding the risks and talking proactive measures to
avoid or manage them – is a key element of good software project management. Different
steps in risk analysis and management are risk identification, risk analysis and risk planning
and management.

Risk Identification
Risk identification is the first stage of the risk management. It is concern with
discovering possible risks to the project. In principal, these should not be assessed or
prioritized at this stage, although I practice risks with very minor consequences or very low
probability risks are not usually considered.

Risk Analysis
During the risk analysis process, each identified risk is considered in turn and a
judgment made about the probability and seriousness of the risk. Once the risks have been
analyzed and ranked, a judgment must then made about which are the most important risks
which must be considered during the project.

Risk Planning and management

Risk planning process considers each of the key risks. Which have been identified
and identified strategies to manage the risk. Again there is no simple process which can be
followed to establish risk management plans. It relies on the judgment and experience of the
project manager.
For the above risk we have following strategies:
Schedule failure: We have divided wok in no of days so very less chances of failure
of schedule.
Project as per requirement: We have met each and every person related to our system
for getting the right requirement so in short we achieve almost all the requirement.
Quality of product: As we have gathered all requirements, we can produce the system
with a clear idea. There is no doubt regarding the requirements and the processes so quality
of product is a low risk factor.


The system modules Villages Level monitoring and Milestone Monitoring has been
implemented as a part of WEB based MIS for RGGVY. The implementation of the system
will strengthen REC, Ministry of Power and other apex organizations like Planning
Commission, Cabinet Secretariat, and PM office in following way:

 Capturing of validated data required for monitoring the RGGVY program from
remote locations
 Storing and processing large volume of data in a secured centralized server.
 Timely availability of information from remote locations
 Precision and accuracy of information
 Maintaining data consistency and integrity
 Enforcing standards in the information layout
 Increasing the efficiency of monitoring the RGGVY program

It has been linked to RGGVY portal of Govt. Of India which is maintained by Ministry
of Power ,REC and other apex organizations like Planning Commission, Cabinet
Secretariat, and PM office to monitor the progress of six critical programs of Govt. of India
including Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana.We can view System Modul for
Village Level Monitoring and Milestone Monitoring Under Web Based MIS of RGGVY by
visiting RGGVY Portal (available at website http://rggvy/gov.in) .

Future Enhancements

1. This application is designed in such a way that, any further modifications needed can
be done easily.
2. The user is provided with a friendly interface, any modification needed can be done

3. Manipulating the data can be done with ease for any problems arising with respect to
any department.
4. Link the project with a layered GIS interface for graphical representation of various
monitoring parameters of the scheme across the state/district/ block/village boundaries



 “Java TM 2: The Complete Reference” – 4th edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2001 [Schildt
 “The complete Reference” [Naughton Schildt]
 “Mastering Java 1.1” [Lawrence Vanhelswe]
 “Core Java (Vol I & II )” [Cay S Horstmann & Gary Cornell ]
 “Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach ” – 5th edition, McGraw-Hill,
[Pressman, Roger S]
 “Software Engineering” [Pankaj Jalote]
 “Systems Analysis and Design” – 2nd edition, Galgotia, 1991, [Awad Elias M.]


 www.java.sun.com
 www.exchangeportal.nic.in
 www.javaworld.com
 http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-07-2002/jw-0726-im.html
 http://lists.xml.org/archives/xml-dev/200006/msg00162.html
 http://java.sun.com/xml/jaxp/dist/1.1/docs/tutorial/TOC.html [XML tutorial with detailed
information on parsers for java]


 http://cad.nic.in
 http://cpt.cad.nic.in